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					          Mikhail Gorbachev
• In March 1985 Gorbachev was
  chosen as leader of communist
  party
• Once he became leader he began
  to reform the Soviet economy.
  These reforms became known as
  perestroika (restructuring).
• Through perestroika he began to
  introduce elements of capitalism
  into the Soviet economy. For
  example, some citizens were
  allowed to own businesses while
  the government still operated
  most of them.
Easing Out of Communism

            • He also started a policy of
              sharing government
              information with the public.
              This was called glasnost.
            • At the Communist Party
              conference in 1988
              Gorbachev created a new
              Soviet parliament called the
              Congress of People’s
              Deputies.
            • This was the first democratic
              body of officials since 1918
            • In the early 1990’s he
              declared that non-
              communist political parties
              could form.
               The Cold War Ends
•   The Cold War unexpectedly ended when Mikhail Gorbachev came to
    power.
•   Gorbachev’s willingness to rethink the USSR’s foreign policy brought
    about amazing changes. In 1987 Gorbachev created an agreement with
    the United States called the INF treaty. This treaty eliminated
    intermediate- range nuclear weapons. It also cut military spending in
    both nations.
•   When the Soviets cut down on their military budget they stopped
    providing military support to communist governments in Eastern
    Europe. This led to the overthrow of these governments
• Throughout the Cold War, the Berlin
  Wall symbolized the division
  between eastern and western
  powers.
• When a peaceful revolutionary
  movement passed through Eastern
  Europe in 1989, it also occurred in
  East and West Germany.
• On November 9, 1989 the East
  German government allowed citizens
  to travel between east and west
  Berlin.
• On November 10, 1989 workers
  began to destroy the Berlin Wall
                       Rising Tensions
•   One of the many problems that
    Gorbachev had to deal with was the
    multi-ethnic nature of the USSR.
•   The Soviet Union contained 92
    nationalities and 112 different
    languages. Prior to Gorbachev’s new
    reforms the iron hand of the USSR
    had subdued the ethnic tensions
    between these nationalities.
•   With these new tensions and
    nationalism quickly spreading,
    nationalist movements emerged in the
    republics that made-up the Soviet
    Union. Soon the republics were
    arguing for independence.
•   Some of the first demands for
    independence came from Latvia,
    Estonia, Moldavia, Uzbekistan,
    Azerbaijan, and Lithuania.             Protest for independence in the Soviet Union
             Downfall of Gorbachev
•   With Gorbachev struggling to deal with these problems the Soviet secret police and
    army became worried that the Soviet Union would end along with their privileges.
•   On August 1991, Boris Yeltsin lead an unsuccessful coup’ de etat in an attempt to
    seize power from Gorbachev.
•   On December 1, 1991 Ukraine voted for independence and one week later Belarus
    announced that the Soviet Union had “ceased to exist”
•   On December 25, 1991 Gorbachev resigned, turning his responsibilities to Boris
    Yeltsin.
                                  




There were 15 countries formed as a result of the Soviet Union:
  Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia,
  Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan,
  Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Russia.
•   Yeltsin wanted to create a
    capitalistic economy in the new
    Russia. However economic
    hardship and social disorder were
    worsened by a rise in organized
    crime.
•   Yeltsin also tried to keep former
    Soviet states like Hungary, Poland,
    and the Czech Republic from
    joining NATO. However, in the
    1990’s these countries were able to
    join NATO.
•   Yeltsin resigned in 1999 and was
    succeeded by Vladimir Putin.
•   Putin was focussed on boosting
    growth and in budget revenues in
    order to keep Russia on a strong      Boris Yeltsin
    economic track. Because of this
    Russia has experienced a budget
    surplus and a growing economy.
              P.S.
Due to the disintegration of the
Soviet Union new countries were able
to thrive and produce intriguing
characters like...
Adriana Srsen

                             Tatiana Padovan


Oliver Hegge




                             Iva Masnov
Dylan Sohngen


                Very Nice!

				
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posted:8/23/2012
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