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…the individual internal process that
energizes, directs, and sustains
behavior; the personal ‘force’ that
causes you or me to behave in a
particular way.

Key elements: intensity, direction,
   Why Study Motivation?

 key to performance

 helps us to
  understand the
  nature of motivation
  in a work setting
Model of Motivation

• …an employee’s feelings about his or her
  job and superiors and about the firm itself.
        Scientific Management
…the application of scientific principles to management of
  work and workers.
• began w/n the manufacturing industries
• improving economic efficiency, especially labor
• From craft to
mass production
 Frederick W. Taylor

• “Soldiering”: productivity levels
• Jobs broken down into tasks
• Management should determine
   • Best way to perform tasks (i.e. break, time)
   • Job output to expect
• Management should also
   • Choose the best person
   • Train the best person
   • Cooperate with workers
            Frederick W. Taylor

“Now one of the very first requirements for a man who is fit to
 handle pig iron as a regular occupation is that he shall be so stupid
 and so phlegmatic that he more nearly resembles in his mental
 make-up the ox than any other type. The man who is mentally alert
 and intelligent is for this very reason entirely unsuited to what would,
 for him, be the grinding monotony of work of this character.
 Therefore the workman who is best suited to handling pig iron is
 unable to understand the real science of doing this class of work.”

                                    —Frederick Winslow Taylor, 1911
          Piece-Rate System

• F.W. Taylor
• People work only
  to earn money
• More output ->
Increased productivity
• Piece-rate = people paid a certain amount for
  each unit of output they produce
 Figure1: Taylor’s
Piece-Rate System
               Hawthorne Studies
                 by Elton Mayo
•   Western Electric: 1927, 1932
•   Determine effects of
    work environment on productivity
•   Relay assembly experiments and
•   Bank Wiring Room
•   Experiments
      • Varied light level
      • Pressure to produce higher output
•    Human factors (informal groups or cliques)
       •  Beginning of Human Relations movement (study the behavior of people in
                                                  groups, in particular workplace groups
Figure 2: Maslow’s Hierarchy of
Understanding Maslow’s
 • Physiological = survival
 • Safety = physical/emotional security
 • Social = love/affection and sense of
 • Esteem = respect/recognition;
   sense of accomplishment and worth
 • Self-actualization =
   growth/development to become all
   capable of being
           Frederick Herzberg
           Two-Factor Theory
• Attitude is determined on 2 sets of factors: hygiene
  and motivating factors

         Herzberg, American Psychologist
        Frederick Herzberg
      Two-Factor Theory (cont.)

• Motivation-hygiene theory: satisfaction
  and dissatisfaction are separate and
  distinct dimensions
     • Factors of motivation • Factors of hygiene /
       create satisfaction     maintenance reduce
  Figure 3: Herzberg’s
Motivation-Hygiene Theory
          Douglas McGregor
Theory X
 Assumes employees dislike
 work and will function only
 in a highly controlled work
 Theory Y
 Assumes employees accept
 responsibility and work toward
 organizational goals if they
 achieve personal rewards
     Theory X
1. People dislike work and try to
   avoid it.
2. Managers must coerce, control,
   and threaten employees to
   achieve organizational goals.
3. People must be led because they
   have little ambition and will not
   seek responsibility; they are
   concerned mainly with security.
       Theory Y

1. Work is important in peoples’ lives.
2. People will work toward goals to which
   they are committed.
3. People commit to goals when
   accomplishing them will bring personal
4. People seek out responsibility.
5. Employees have potential to accomplish
6. Organizations do not make full use of
   human resources.
         Reinforcement Theory
• BF Skinner
…based on premise that behavior that is rewarded is likely
  to be repeated, whereas behavior that is punished
  is less likely to recur
… the external environment of the organization must be
  designed effectively and positively so as to motivate the

• Action follows from particular behavior
• Positive: strengthen desired behavior
  by providing a reward
• Negative: strengthen desired behavior by eliminating
  undesirable situation
• Punishment: create undesired consequence of undesirable
• Extinction: eliminate undesirable behavior by not
    Contemporary Motivation
 Equity: people are motivated to obtain/preserve
  equitable treatment for themselves
   • Inputs
   • Outcomes
 Expectancy: motivation depends on how
  much we want something and how likely to get it
 Goal-Setting: employees motivated to
  achieve goals they and managers set
Figure 5: Expectancy Theory

• Victor Vroom, business school professor at the Yale School of Management
• based on estimates of how well the expected results
of a given behavior would lead to desired results
Motivational Force(MF)= Valence(V) X Expectancy(E) X Instrumentality
  Valence: It is the anticipated reward from an outcome (Promotion
  from performance)
  Expectancy: It is the perceived probability of performing sufficiently

  Expectancy is of two types:

  Expectancy of Effort leading to Performance (ie E  P)
  Expectancy that Performance leading to Outcome (ie P  O)

  Instrumentality- Perception that a person will receive a reward if the
                performance expectation is met
             Expectancy Theory

Effort            Performance   Outcome

         Expectancy    Expectancy    Expectancy
               Job Enrichment

Provides employee with more variety and
  responsibility in job (job rotation, combine jobs, etc)
• Job enlargement: expanding a worker’s
  assignments to include additional but
  similar tasks
• Job design: restructuring work to cultivate
  worker-job match
Equity Theory
       Adam’s Equity Theory

Decision Rule: We choose the behavior
which restores equity.
Equity theory is a social comparison theory.
To calculate equity we compute an
outcome/input ratio
for “self” and “other” and then compare the two

Equity exists when O/I (self) = O/I (other)
Equity Theory (cont.)
  Employee Choices if an Inequity
Change work habits

Change job benefits and income

Distort their perception of themselves

Distort their perception of others

Look at situation from different perspective

Leave the situation
   Work-Scheduling Options
 Compressed           Fitting 40 hours into a
  Workweek            shorter workweek

                  Employees decide what their
                  work hours will be

                   Employees work from home
                   via a linked computer

                Allows two individuals to split the
 Job Sharing
                tasks and hours of a workweek

•   Formal awards
•   Informal interaction
•   Monetary awards or time off
•   Congratulatory e-mails,
    notes, or “pat on the back”
Economic Incentives

 Piece-Rate Plans

 Profit Sharing

 Gain Sharing

 Stock Options


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Description: This is a powerpoint presentation for our Introduction to Managment Theory.