Motivation Motivation …the individual internal process that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior; the personal ‘force’ that causes you or me to behave in a particular way. Key elements: intensity, direction, persistence Why Study Motivation? key to performance improvement helps us to understand the nature of motivation in a work setting Model of Motivation Morale • …an employee’s feelings about his or her job and superiors and about the firm itself. Scientific Management (Taylorism) …the application of scientific principles to management of work and workers. • began w/n the manufacturing industries • improving economic efficiency, especially labor productivity • From craft to mass production Frederick W. Taylor • “Soldiering”: productivity levels • Jobs broken down into tasks • Management should determine • Best way to perform tasks (i.e. break, time) • Job output to expect • Management should also • Choose the best person • Train the best person • Cooperate with workers Frederick W. Taylor “Now one of the very first requirements for a man who is fit to handle pig iron as a regular occupation is that he shall be so stupid and so phlegmatic that he more nearly resembles in his mental make-up the ox than any other type. The man who is mentally alert and intelligent is for this very reason entirely unsuited to what would, for him, be the grinding monotony of work of this character. Therefore the workman who is best suited to handling pig iron is unable to understand the real science of doing this class of work.” —Frederick Winslow Taylor, 1911 Piece-Rate System • F.W. Taylor • People work only to earn money • More output -> Increased productivity • Piece-rate = people paid a certain amount for each unit of output they produce Figure1: Taylor’s Piece-Rate System Hawthorne Studies by Elton Mayo • Western Electric: 1927, 1932 • Determine effects of work environment on productivity • Relay assembly experiments and • Bank Wiring Room • Experiments • Varied light level • Pressure to produce higher output • Human factors (informal groups or cliques) • Beginning of Human Relations movement (study the behavior of people in groups, in particular workplace groups Figure 2: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Understanding Maslow’s Hierarchy • Physiological = survival • Safety = physical/emotional security • Social = love/affection and sense of belonging • Esteem = respect/recognition; sense of accomplishment and worth • Self-actualization = growth/development to become all capable of being Frederick Herzberg Two-Factor Theory • Attitude is determined on 2 sets of factors: hygiene and motivating factors Herzberg, American Psychologist Frederick Herzberg Two-Factor Theory (cont.) • Motivation-hygiene theory: satisfaction and dissatisfaction are separate and distinct dimensions • Factors of motivation • Factors of hygiene / create satisfaction maintenance reduce dissatisfaction Figure 3: Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Douglas McGregor Theory X Assumes employees dislike work and will function only in a highly controlled work environment Theory Y Assumes employees accept responsibility and work toward organizational goals if they achieve personal rewards Theory X 1. People dislike work and try to avoid it. 2. Managers must coerce, control, and threaten employees to achieve organizational goals. 3. People must be led because they have little ambition and will not seek responsibility; they are concerned mainly with security. Theory Y 1. Work is important in peoples’ lives. 2. People will work toward goals to which they are committed. 3. People commit to goals when accomplishing them will bring personal rewards. 4. People seek out responsibility. 5. Employees have potential to accomplish goals. 6. Organizations do not make full use of human resources. Reinforcement Theory • BF Skinner …based on premise that behavior that is rewarded is likely to be repeated, whereas behavior that is punished is less likely to recur … the external environment of the organization must be designed effectively and positively so as to motivate the employee Reinforcement • Action follows from particular behavior • Positive: strengthen desired behavior by providing a reward • Negative: strengthen desired behavior by eliminating undesirable situation • Punishment: create undesired consequence of undesirable behavior • Extinction: eliminate undesirable behavior by not responding Contemporary Motivation Theories Equity: people are motivated to obtain/preserve equitable treatment for themselves • Inputs • Outcomes Expectancy: motivation depends on how much we want something and how likely to get it Goal-Setting: employees motivated to achieve goals they and managers set Figure 5: Expectancy Theory • Victor Vroom, business school professor at the Yale School of Management • based on estimates of how well the expected results of a given behavior would lead to desired results VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY Motivational Force(MF)= Valence(V) X Expectancy(E) X Instrumentality Valence: It is the anticipated reward from an outcome (Promotion from performance) Expectancy: It is the perceived probability of performing sufficiently Expectancy is of two types: Expectancy of Effort leading to Performance (ie E P) Expectancy that Performance leading to Outcome (ie P O) Instrumentality- Perception that a person will receive a reward if the performance expectation is met Expectancy Theory Individual Effort Performance Outcome Needs Expectancy Expectancy Expectancy Job Enrichment Provides employee with more variety and responsibility in job (job rotation, combine jobs, etc) • Job enlargement: expanding a worker’s assignments to include additional but similar tasks • Job design: restructuring work to cultivate worker-job match Equity Theory Adam’s Equity Theory Decision Rule: We choose the behavior which restores equity. Equity theory is a social comparison theory. To calculate equity we compute an outcome/input ratio for “self” and “other” and then compare the two ratios. Equity exists when O/I (self) = O/I (other) Equity Theory (cont.) Employee Choices if an Inequity Exists Change work habits Change job benefits and income Distort their perception of themselves Distort their perception of others Look at situation from different perspective Leave the situation Work-Scheduling Options Compressed Fitting 40 hours into a Workweek shorter workweek Employees decide what their Flextime work hours will be Employees work from home Telecommuting via a linked computer Allows two individuals to split the Job Sharing tasks and hours of a workweek Recognition • Formal awards • Informal interaction • Monetary awards or time off • Congratulatory e-mails, notes, or “pat on the back” Economic Incentives Piece-Rate Plans Profit Sharing Gain Sharing Stock Options Bonuses THANK YOU!