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					        Diversity

         BIO 1113/1114
Oklahoma City Community College
        Dennis Anderson




                                  1
Virus
   • Virus invades a body
     cell
   • Virus forces body cell to
     make new viruses
   • Virus often kills body
     cell after it has made
     new viruses
HIV Virus




            3
4
5
            Viral Diseases
•   AIDS
•   Chickenpox
•   Measles
•   Rabies
•   Polio
•   Herpes
•   Cancer
•   Flu
•   Common cold
                             6
Viruses Mutates
           Antibody matches
           spike




           Antibody does not
           matches spike


                               7
1918 Flu Pandemic Killed
    50 Million People




                           8
Domain Bacteria
        • Prokaryotic cells
        • Cell wall
          – Peptidoglycan
        • Reproduce by
          binary fission



                              9
Lactobacillus acidophilus




                            10
Streptococcus pyogenes




                         11
Treponema pallidium




                      12
                               scalp

       nasal passages

            about 200
            species of
            resident
            bacteria in
            mouth                 skin



            few resident
digestive   bacteria in       armpit
tract       stomach
            because of
            its acidic pH
            500-1,000
            species of
            resident
            bacteria in
            large intestine
                rectum
                vagina




                                         Figure 21.8
           Bacterial Diseases
•   Strept throat
•   Tuberculosis
•   Diptheria
•   Pertussis
•   Tetanus
•   Syphilis
•   Plague
•   MRSA
                                14
Strept Throat
       • Steptococcus
       • Airborne & direct
         contact
       • Pharynx and
         tonsils infected
       • Sore throat
       • Fever

                             15
Tuberculosis
      •   Mycobacterium
      •   Airborne
      •   Cough
      •   Blood in sputum
      •   Weight loss
      •   Fever


                            16
Diphtheria
     • Corynebacterium
     • Airborne
     • Membrane grows
       over tonsils
       – Difficult to breathe
     • Toxin
       – Heart
       – Nervous system
                                17
Pertussis or Whooping Cough
              • Bordetella
              • Airborne
              • Coughing fits
                – Whoop sound




                                18
Tetanus
    • Clostridium
    • Puncture wound
    • Severe muscle
      spasms
      – Can’t breathe




                        19
Syphilis
    •   Treponema
    •   STD
    •   Lesions on genitals
    •   Spread to skin
    •   Damage almost
        any organ in the
        body

                          20
Plague
   • Yersinia
   • Bubos
   • Rat flea
   • 1357-1350 killed
     25,000,000 in Europe
   • 1900’s killed
     20,000,000 in India



                        21
Plague Survivor




                  22
                 MRSA
Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
                      • Super bug
                      • Resistant to
                        antibiotics
                      • Hospital acquired




                                            23
Bacterial Conjugation




                        24
               Antibiotics
• Prevent cell wall synthesis
• Prevent protein synthesis




                                25
Domain Archaea
       • Prokaryotic cells
       • Cell wall
         – Different from
           bacteria
       • Cell membrane
         – Different from
           bacteria
       • tRNA different
       • 56% of DNA new
                             26
27
                  Archaeons
• Found everywhere
  – Very acidic
  – Very hot
  – Very salty
• Soil
• Oceans
• Human body

                              28
Kingdom Protista
        •   Eukaryotic cells
        •   Unicellular
        •   Photosynthetic
        •   Heterotrophic




                               29
                 Algae
• Chloroplasts
• Volvox
  – Flagella
  – Colony




                         30
Photosynthesizing Protists:
         Algae
              • Phytoplankton:
                – float near the
                  surface of water.
                – they produce
                  most of earth’s
                  oxygen
                – form the base of
                  aquatic food
                  chains
                Protozoa
• Animal like
• Motile
• Reproduce
  – Sexual
  – Asexual




                           32
                        Giardia
• Giardiasis
      • Backpackers disease
      • Beaver fever
• Inhabits intestines of
  several animals and
  man
• Acquired by drinking
  water with cysts
• Cramping and
  diarrhea

                                  33
                 Plasmodium
• Malaria
• Most important parasitic
  disease of humans today
• WHO estimates that 270
  million new cases occur
  annually with 2 million
  annual deaths
• Transmitted by the bite of
  infected mosquitoes of
  genus Anopheles


                               34
Mosquito transmits Plasmodium
   when she sucks blood




                            35
 Plasmodium ruptures RBCs




Simultaneous lysing of RBCs causes the
sudden chills & fever typical of malaria   36
The End




          37

				
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