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					         Intersections
SOURCE Undergraduate Symposium and Poster Session
                                  April 16, 2010
                                  Adelbert Gym


Oral/Paper & Performance Presentations                                        10am-3pm
Kent Hale Smith Rooms 146 & 318

Poster Presentations                                           Session 1: Noon – 1:15pm
                                                               Session 2: 1:30-2:45pm

Second Annual Celebration of Student Writing                                   11am-3pm
Adelbert Gym
      Part of Writing Week
      Sponsored by the Center for the Study of Writing, the Department of English and the
      SAGES Department

Michelson-Morley Research Competition                                         10am-Noon
Clapp Hall Room 405
April 16, 2010


Thank you for attending our 6th annual Intersections: SOURCE Symposium and Poster Session.
Every year, undergraduates at Case Western Reserve University perform remarkable feats of
research and creative endeavor. This event simultaneously celebrates their accomplishments, and
also shares them with the broader community.

Our students bring immense enthusiasm and passion to their academic pursuits. At Case Western
Reserve, they work with faculty just as energized by the opportunity to guide and support their
work. We are proud of students’ many opportunities for hands-on learning, among them activities in
campus laboratories, area hospitals, or far-away villages where students build new water systems.
Other students have travelled to the United Kingdom to learn more about a Scottish theater
company, and stayed right here in Cleveland to help design park space.

Every one of these examples shares a common thread: an academic mentor who worked with the
student to develop and execute a project. As much as today’s event honors outstanding student
efforts, it also highlights the extraordinary influence of those who worked with them. On behalf of
all of us at Case Western Reserve, I extend my deepest gratitude to these exceptional faculty.

Finally, I also applaud our SOURCE office. In addition to sponsoring today’s activities, SOURCE
informs students of the many options for experiential learning that are available during the academic year
and in the summer. I encourage all of our students to become involved in research, creative projects,
service learning study abroad or any one of the countless other opportunities available to enhance their
education. As is evident today’s presentations and exhibits, the lessons are impressive indeed.

Congratulations to all participants.




Barbara R. Snyder
President
                        Participants
    Intersections: SOURCE Symposium and Poster Session

                                  April 16, 2010

                                  Adelbert Gym

Student             Project Title                                    Faculty                          Page
                                                                     Mentor/Endorser
Yassmin Aljaberi    Effect of Personal Characteristics and           Lawrence Greksa, Department       1
                    Demographics on Dental Health                    of Anthropology
                    Knowledge and Beliefs in College
                    Students
Cody Allen          Quantitative Metrics for Describing              Anthony Jack, Department of       1
                    Topographic Organization in Individuals          Cognitive Science
Trevor Allen        An Analysis of the Feasibility of Campus-        Peter McCall, Geological          2
                    Wide Composting                                  Sciences, Biology
Hanya Almudallal    Type II Diabetes and its Effect on Foot          Richard Drushel, Department       2
                    Health Care in the US                            of Biology
Maya Alunkal        Examination of Solar Power Potential             Lillian Kuri, The Cleveland       3
                    in Cleveland’s Greater University Circle         Foundation & Peter Whiting,
                                                                     Department of Geological
                                                                     Sciences
Joe Amick           Precipitation, pathogens and place:              David Burke, Department of        3
                    Microbial contaminants in the rooftop            Biology/The Holden
                    rainwater runoff of urban and rural              Arboretum
                    buildings
Si Young An         1, 3-Bis(benzoxazine) from Cashew Nut            Hatsuo Ishida, Department of      4
                    Shell Oil and Diaminodiphenyl Methane            Macromolecular Science and
                    and Its Composites with Wood Flour               Engineering
Laura Ansley        “Girls-in-Breeches:” The Gendering of            Renee Sentilles, Department of    4
                    Female Heroines in American Western              History
                    Dime Novels
Katayoun Ayasoufi   Tongue Flicking Behavior in Snakes: the          Roy Ritzmann, Department of       5
                    Maximum Angle of Tongue Flicking                 Biology and many thanks to Dr.
                    Varies Among Species and Depends on              Rosenberg
                    the Environmental Conditions
Joshua Barzilai     Flight Patterns of Large and Small Avian         Roy Ritzmann, Department of       5
Geoffrey Browning   Species                                          Biology
Mir Bear-Johnson    Increased Memory Formation by Stress in          James E. Zull, Department of      6
Yasmeen Shahin      Mice: a proposal                                 Biology




                                                 i
                              Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
Katelyn Begany       Two Domains of Human Higher                      Anthony Jack, Department of        6
                     Cognition: Distinct Brain Networks               Cognitive Science
                     Underlie Social and Mechanical
                     Reasoning
K. Grace Bell        A Catalyst for Change: Impact of                 JB Silvers, Weatherhead            7
                     Electronic Medical Records and                   School of Management:
                     Meaningful Use Policies on American              Departments of Health System
                     Health Systems                                   Management and Finance
Gary Bhagat          Is There Learning? A Comparison of               James E. Zull, Department of       7
Stacey Woodcraft     Neuronal Growth and Vascularization in           Biology
                     the Brains of Autistic Youths Due to
                     Behavioral Treatments
Himali Bhatt         Pregnancy: Pre- and Post-Partum Practices        Jill Korbin & Lawrence Greksa,     8
                     and Nutritional Beliefs in West India            Department of Anthropology
Lacy Blazetic        Parental Depression and its Interactions         Arin Connell, Department of        8
                     with in the Family                               Psychology
Neena Bolla          Clinical Applications of GATA3 in                Valerie Haywood, Department        9
                     Luminal Breast Cancer                            of Biology
Cory Breed           Sensory Recording and Feedback System            Roger Quinn, Department of         9
Bradley Hughes       for Cockroach Studies                            Mechanical and Aerospace
Brian Tietz                                                           Engineering and Roy
                                                                      Ritzmann, Department of
                                                                      Biology
Elle Brennan         Emotion Regulation and Physical Activity         Amy Przeworski, Department         10
                     in Response to Emotions in a College             of Psychology
                     Population
Kevin Brent          Determination of the Relative Response           Chih-Jen Sung, Dept. of            10
                     Factor of Methane in Gas                         Mechanical and Aerospace
                     Chromatography with Flame Ionization             Engineering
                     Detection
Andrea Briggs        The Effects of Play Intervention When            Sandra Russ, Department of         11
                     Conducted By The Primary Care Giver              Psychology
Michael Bryniarski   Coarse Graining Food Webs                        Robin Snyder, Department of        11
                                                                      Biology
Caitlin Burkman      Learning in Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera:          Mark Willis, Department of         12
                     Sphingidae): Adult exposure to the               Biology
                     tobacco plant (Nicotiana) leads to a
                     stronger oviposition response
Steven Burns         Local Projects, Global Impact: Engineers         James McGuffin-Cawley –            12
David Dashevsky      without Borders – Case’s Rainwater               Department of Materials
AJ Ferrick           Catchment Project at the Squire Valeevue         Science and Engineering
Colleen Konsavage    Farm, Water Conservation Project with
                     CWRU Facilities, and Research into
                     Water Treatment
Megan Carl           Galvanic Skin Response in Family                 Arin Connell, Department of        13
                     Interaction Tasks as a Predictor of              Psychology
                     Adolescent Depression
Rebecca Carter       Addiction and “Generation Me”:                   Maria E. Pagano, Department        13
                     Narcissistic and Prosocial Behaviors of          of Psychiatry, Division of Child
                     Youth with Substance Dependency                  Psychiatry
                     Disorder in Comparison to Normative
                     Youths
Amy Catalani         Are You Positive You Are Negative: HIV           Rita Sfiligoj, Department of       14
Emily Konen          Awareness in Parma, Ohio                         Nursing

                                                  ii
                               Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
Benjamin Chandhok       Correspondence vs. Compensation                  Julie Exline, Department of      14
                        Hypothesis: How People View Their                Psychology
                        Relationships with Their Parents and with
                        God
Li Chen                 Cheating in American and Asian                   Jessica E Gerard, Department     15
                        Universities                                     of English
Patrick Chirdon         The Role of Thyrotropin Releasing                Mark A. Smith: Department of     15
                        Hormone and Orexin in the Pathogenesis           Pathology
                        of Alzheimer’s Disease
Kathryn Clusman         The Relation Between Divergent Thinking          Sandra Russ, Department of       16
                        and Novel Events in Play                         Psychology
Rachael D. Cooper       Impact of Linguistic Skills on Play              Elizabeth Short, Department of   16
                        Performance of Preschoolers with                 Psychology
                        Developmental Disabilities
Rachel Craft            The Effect of Heat Treatments on the             David Schwam, Dept. of           17
                        Microstructure and Mechanical Properties         Materials Science &
                        of Ti-6Al-4V (a Sensitivity Study)               Engineering
John Christian Dalton   Improved Methods for Copper-Steel                David Schwam, Department of      17
                        Bonding of Electrical Connectors in              Material Science and
                        Railway Applications                             Engineering
Yardena Daon            The Cognitive Semiotics of Poetry and            Per Aage Brandt, Department      18
                        Dance: Emotive Embodiment of Ecstatic            of Cognitive Science
                        Sensorial Cognition in Modern
                        Representations
Frederick Davey         Time Dependence of Liquid Crystal                Charles Rosenblatt, Department   18
                        Orientational Memory Effect at a Polymer         of Physics
                        Surface
Michael Ding            Energies of Nematic Liquid Crystals in 2D        Timothy Atherton, Department     19
                        Polygonal Cavities                               of Physics
Leah G. Dodson          On the Interaction of the Pharmaceutical         Carlos E. Crespo-Hernández,      19
                        Salbutamol with Light in Water Solutions         Department of Chemistry
Xi Du                   A Novel Mechanism of Action for an               Isabelle Deschênes, Department   20
                        SCN5A Brugada Syndrome Mutation                  of Medicine
Jaquetta Duncan         Women Experiencing Domestic Violence             Jill Korbin, Department of       20
                        in Three Ethnic Groups                           Anthropology
Daniel Engel            Chemical Vapor Deposition of Tungsten            Heidi Martin, Department of      21
                        onto the Inside of a Quartz Capillary for        Chemical Engineering
                        the Creation of a New In Vitro Biosensor
Elizabeth Ennis         Site Selective Modifications of Peptides         Viswanathan, Department of       21
                        and Proteins Using Bioorthogonal N-              Chemistry
                        Terminal-Glutathione Scaffold
Drew C. Enns            Breaching Martian Craters                        Ralph P Harvey, Department of    22
                                                                         Geology
                                            2+
Steven Ewart            Role of Cellular Mg in Modulating                Andrea Romani, Department of     22
                        Collagen Deposition and Enzyme                   Physiology and Biophysics
                        Efficiency in Hepatic and Kupffer Cells
Andromeda Fair          The Roles of Guilt and Self-blame in             Norah Feeny, Department of       23
                        PTSD for CSA Survivors and non-CSA               Psychology
                        Trauma Survivors




                                                     iii
                                  Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
Alexis Ferrera            The Association between Periodontitis and         Valerie Haywood, Biology;        23
                          Prostatitis through Cytokine Assays               Richard Jurevic, School of
                                                                            Dental Medicine Department of
                                                                            Biological Sciences; Jyotsna
                                                                            Chandra, Center for Medical
                                                                            Mycology Department of
                                                                            Dermatology
Beatrice Floyd            Bio-Inspired Polyelectrolytes: Next               Alexis Abramson, Department      24
                          Generation Thermoelectric Materials               of Mechanical Engineering
William Fox               Analysis of Heterogeneously Vancomycin            James Bader, Department of       24
                          Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Drug           Biology; Geraldine Hall,
                          Susceptibility and Resistance                     Department of Clinical
                                                                            Microbiology at the Cleveland
                                                                            Clinic Foundation
Alex Galante              IN SILICO MODELING OF THE WNT                     Mehmet Koyuturk, Department      25
Ted Roman                 SIGNALING NETWORK                                 of Electrical Engineering and
                                                                            Computer Science; Rob Ewing,
                                                                            Center for Proteomics and
                                                                            Bioinformatics
Ashley Gan                Chemical Bath Deposition of CdS and               Mark DeGuire, Department of      25
                          TiO2 Semiconductor Sensitized Solar               Materials Science and
                          Cells                                             Engineering
Rebecca Gans              Empathy, Rationality and Legal Judgment           Anthony Jack, Department of      26
                                                                            Cognitive Science
Samuel Geiger             Synthesis and Properties of                       Hatsuo Ishida, Department of     26
                          Polyetheramine-Based Main Chain                   Macromolecular Science and
                          Benzoxazine                                       Engineering
Julia German              Smart Metering for Monitoring Energy              David Schwam, Department of      26
                          Consumption                                       Materials Science and
                                                                            Engineering
Alexander Graber-Tilton   Mimicking Cockroach Behavior with a               Roger Quinn, Department of       27
Kevin McDonald            Small Robot                                       Mechanical and Aerospace
Chad Rockey                                                                 Engineering
J.P. Graulty              Obesity and the Minimum Wage: Using               David Clingingsmith,             27
                          State-Level Data                                  Department of Economics
Canting Guo               The Role of Cockroach Brain Circuits in           Roy Ritzmann, Department of      28
Brittany Rogers           Visual Guided Turning                             Biology
Yashi Gupta               Intracellular Accumulation of Ribosomal           A. Smith, Department of          28
                          Protein S6 is Increased in Alzheimer’s            Pathology
                          Disease
Matthew Hakes             Computer Simulations of Nonimaging                Covault, Department of Physics   29
                          Concentrators
Anne Hall                 Knockdown of an Ephrin Receptor                   Brian M. McDermott, Jr.          29
                          inhibits proper lateral line development in       Departments of
                          zebrafish                                         Otolaryngology, Biology and
                                                                            Neurosciences
Colleen Heffernan         Interfering With Emotional and Sensory            James E. Zull, Department of     30
Brian Weeks               Brain Function Offers New Potential               Biology
                          Treatments for PTSD
Tiffany Henkel            Women and Depression in the United                Atwood D. Gaines, Department     30
                          States: A Review of the Literature                of Anthropology
Lauren Hennen             Targeted Disruption of CCR5 Functioning           Richard Drushel, Department      31
                          to Treat HIV-1 Infection                          of Biology


                                                        iv
                                     Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
Sean M. Hobson      Giving a Pathogen New Legs: Enabling              Lynn Bry M.D. Ph.D Clara         31
                    Motility in the Attaching and Effacing            Belzer Ph.D, Brigham and
                    Pathogen Citrobacter rodentium                    Women’s Hospital, Harvard
                                                                      School of Medicine,
                                                                      Department of Pathology
Erin Hollinger      Benzoxazine-functionalized Chitosan:              Hatsuo Ishida, Department of     32
                    A New Class of Green Polymers of Many             Macromolecular and Polymer
                    Potential Applications                            Science
Clay Hurley         Research Comparisons between Schizoid             Amy Przeworski, Department       32
                    Personality Disorder and Social Phobia            of Psychology
Ken Hwang           Spatial Influences on Arithmetic in               Lee Thompson, Department of      33
                    College Students                                  Psychology
Kara Imbrogno       Removal of sensory feedback effects on            Mark Willis, Biology             33
Kayla Imbrogno      flight muscle activation and wing                 Department
                    movement in tethered flying moths
Kenji Ishida        Identification of a Heat Shock                    Emmitt R. Jolly, Department of   34
                    Transcription Factor in Schistosoma               Biology
                    mansoni
Christine Jackson   Model Platinum Nanoparticle                       Robert Savinell, Department of   34
Kaitlyn Zolton      Electrocatalyst Supported on Graphene             Chemical Engineering
Andrew Jenkins      Cardiac Imaging with an Optical Mapping           Andrew Rollins, Department of    35
                    and Optical Coherence Tomography                  Biomedical Engineering
                    System
Gareth Kafka        Imaging by Magnetic Particles with a              Robert Brown, Department of      35
                    Nonlinear Field Response                          Physics
Akash Kataruka      Adenovirus RID-α induces an autophagy-            Nicholas Cianciola and           36
                    like pathway to restore cholesterol               Cathleen Carlin, Department of
                    trafficking                                       Molecular Biology and
                                                                      Microbiology
Rebecca Keating     Experiences in self-development: A                Kimberly Emmons, Department      36
                    critical reflection and partial Spanish-to-       of English & Mauricio Duarte,
                    English translation of Armando Nougués            Department of Modern
                    Fernández’s “El despertar de la oruga”            Languages and Literature
Varandt Y.          Decreased α-hemolysin production                  Menachem Shoham,                 37
Khodaverdian        through inhibition of AgrA in methicillin-        Department of Biochemistry
                    resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Tanvi Khot          MKK6/SEK-1 is a Substrate of                      John Feng, Department of         37
                    LRRK2/LRK-1 Kinase in Pakinson’s                  Pharmacology
                    Disease Pathogenesis
Rebecca Kopplin     The development of a single-use                   Chung-Chiun Liu, Department      38
                    amperometric biosensor for the detection          of Chemical Engineering
                    of lactic acid
Ji-Eun Lee          Mindfulness: A Literature Review                  Mary Quinn Griffin,              38
                                                                      Department of Nursing
Mee Jee Lee         Cultural Difference in Ideal Weight and           Jessica Gerard, English          39
                    Body Shape for Women                              Department
Rebecca Levinson    The identification of cochlin isoforms in         Mark Chance, Department of       39
                    deafness using 2D DIGE and 1D Gel                 Proteomics
                    fractionation approaches
Shen Li             Establishing a Caenorhabditis elegans             Shu G Chen, Department of        40
                    model of LRRK2-linked Parkinson’s                 Pathology
                    disease
Guozhi Liang        Prototype Cherenkov Detector and its              Corbin Covault, Department of    40
                    Application in Cosmic Ray Experiments             Physics

                                                  v
                               Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
Kirtishri Mishra       Testing the Efficacy of the Tamoxifen             Craig Hodges, Department of      41
                       Inducible Expression System with                  Pediatrics
                       Conditional Cftr
Christa Modery         Platelet-targeted liposomes for site-             Anirban Sen Gupta,               41
                       specific drug delivery in vascular disease        Department of Biomedical
                                                                         Engineering
Heather Morgan         Development of a new telescope for                Corbin Covault, Department of    42
                       detecting Ultra-Rapid Optical Flashes             Physics
Seraina Murphy         Going Beyond Protons in MR Study                  Robert Brown, Department of      42
                                                                         Physics; and Fraser Robb, GE
                                                                         Healthcare Coils
Kogulan                Multiplex assay development for species           Peter A. Zimmerman, Global       43
Nadesakumaran          identification and monitoring of knock            Health and Disease
                       down resistance in Anopheles mosquito
                       vector populations of Papua New Guinea
Paul Niebrzydowski     Project Retrospect: Historicizing the             Peter A. Shulman, Department     43
                       Rhetoric of Energy Independence                   of History
Megan Norr             Culture, Mind, and Morality Project: Yoga         Anthony Jack, Department of      44
                       and Emotional Response                            Cognitive Science
Jenna Novak            Diamond Microelectrodes for In Vitro              Heidi Martin, Department of      44
Samantha Reed          Adenosine and Dopamine Detection                  Chemical Engineering
Julia Obejero-Paz      The Presence of an Emotional Attention-           Arin Connell, Department of      45
                       Bias in Adolescents with Depression               Psychology
Susan Orra             The Fronto-pariatal fasciculus is essential       James Zull, Department of        45
Kelly Rogers           for memory recall in Multiple Sclerosis           Biology
                       patients
Harry Owusu-Dapaah     Linking Parkinson's Disease Symptom               Amy Wilson-Delfosse,             46
                       Type and Severity with LRRK2                      Department of Pharmacology
                       Pathogenic Mutation Status
Neel Pancholi          Reduction in Mitochondrial Superoxide             Hyoung-gon Lee, Department       46
                       Dismutase Accelerates the Onset of                of Pathology
                       Oxidative Damage in J20 Young Human
                       Amyloid Precursor Protein Transgenic
                       Mice
Sarah Park             Diminished early visual sensitivity for           Arin Connell, Department of      47
                       affective stimuli in depressed versus             Psychology
                       nondepressed individuals
Mayank Patel           An Examination of Autonomic                       Arin Connell, Department of      47
                       Functioning in Adolescents with Type 1            Psychology
                       Diabetes at Risk for Depression

Christine Petzold      Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay occurs               Jeff Coller, Department of       48
                       on polyribosomes                                  Biochemistry
Funita P. Phan         Molecular Recognition of Histone                  Steven Sanders, Department of    48
                       Modifications by a DNA Damage                     Biochemistry
                       Response Factor
Nicole Pilasky         The Depositional Flux of Phosphorus in            Gerald Matisoff, Department of   49
                       Lake Erie                                         Geological Sciences
Mariya Pogrebetskaya   Seasonal modulation of a sensory                  Debra Wood, Department of        49
                       feedback system by the neuropeptide               Biology
                       proctolin
Kathleen Puttmann      Use of Main Chain Benzoxazine Polymer             Hatsuo Ishida, Department of     50
                       Chemistry for Aerogel Synthesis                   Macromolecular Science and
                                                                         Engineering

                                                     vi
                                  Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
Ramya Raman          Patient’s Attitude and Knowledge                 Vicken Totten, Department of     50
                     Concerning the Efficacy and Usage of             Emergency Medicine
                     Face Masks
Roshni Rao           Child PTSD and the Influence of Social           Norah Feeny, Department of       51
                     Support                                          Psychology
Mary Beth Ray        Health Care for Latinos in the United            Jacqueline Nanfito and Antonio   51
                     States- Discrepancies, Obstacles, and            Candau, Department of Modern
                     Solutions                                        Languages and Literature
Abigail Reed         The Reality of Uncertainty: A Novel              Amy Przeworski, Department       52
                     Manipulation                                     of Psychology
Nicholas Reinsvold   Surface Orientation of Chiral Liquid             Charles Rosenblatt, Department   52
                     Crystals                                         of Physics
Megan Ritchey        Creativity in a Pediatric Bipolar                Sandra Russ, Department of       53
                     Population                                       Psychology
Sarah Robinson       Health as a Human Right: Multi-level             Charlotte Ikels, Department of   53
                     Influences on Undocumented Migrant               Anthropology
                     Health in Thailand
Raymond Rodgers      Shape-controlled Pt nanoparticles for            Mohan Sankaran, Department       54
                     carbon nanotube growth                           of Chemical Engineering
Andrew Rosenberger   STM Study of Hexagonal Nano-Lattices             Kathleen Kash, Department of     54
                                                                      Physics
Joshua Rubin         Projection of New Solar Electric Process         Justin Sydnor, Economics         55
                     Technologies as Compared to Traditional
                     Photovoltaic Cells
Zachary Rubin        Mini Medical Experience                          Elizabeth Banks, Center for      55
                                                                      Civic Engagement and
                                                                      Learning
Paul Salamon         University Lofts: An Innovative Student          Jennifer Johnson, Department     56
                     Housing Complex in University Circle             of Marketing and Policy
                                                                      Studies
Anshul Saurastri     Age Related Loss of the DNA Mismatch             Stanton Gerson, Department of    56
                     Repair Pathway in Human Hematopoietic            Hematology/Oncology
                     Stem Cells
Tina Saw             A Comparison of Periodontal Referral             Leena Palomo , Department of     57
                     Patterns: Trends Toward Urgent Care              Periodontics
Vivek Sengupta       Gait Patterns in The Domestic House Cat          Roy Ritzmann, Department of      57
                     Chase Behavior                                   Biology
Andrew Shaver        Physical Aging of Layered Glassy                 Anne Hiltner, Macromolecular     58
                     Polymers                                         Science and Engineering
Elaine Simpson       Muscle Activity and Function in the Front        Roy Ritzmann, Department of      58
                     Legs of Walking Cockroaches                      Biology
Michelle Sing        Reinforcement of Clay Aerogels Via               David Schiraldi and Jack         59
                     Incorporation of a Polymer Derived from          Johnson III, Department of
                     Chitin                                           Macromolecular Science and
                                                                      Engineering
Eduardo A Somoza     Molecular Imaging of Myelination in the          Yanming Wang, Department of      59
                     Peripheral Nervous System                        Radiology, Chemistry, and
                                                                      Biomedical Engineering
Connie Stamoolis     Aging and Ethnicity: Historical and              Charlotte Ikels, Department of   60
                     Cultural Limitations of Cumulative               Anthropology
                     Disadvantage and Ethnic Compensation to
                     the Study of Ethnic Elderly in America

Lily Stanley         Nanowire Biosensors                              Xuan Gao, Physics Department     60
                                                 vii
                               Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
Michael Steward        Statistical Methods for Malaria Allele            Peter Thomas, Departments of     61
                       Calling                                           Mathematics, Biology, and
                                                                         Cognitive Science
Kyle Strodtbeck        Measuring the Density of Bone                     David Farrell, PhD, Department   61
                                                                         of Physics
David Johannes Stute   Multiplying Interaction                           Laura Hengehold, Philosophy      62
                       On a notion of perception and                     Department
                       understanding in the age of interrelation
Mariya Topolyanskaya   Sustainable Eating in Cleveland                   Peter McCall, Geological         62
                                                                         Sciences; John Ruhl, Physics
                                                                         and Astronomy; Mano
                                                                         Singham, University Center for
                                                                         Innovation in Teaching and
                                                                         Education
Colleen Vadia          Development of a Protocol to Establish            Debra Wood, Department of        63
                       Whether Crayfish Develop Preference for           Biology
                       Ethanol Consumption and Addiction
Stephanie Velloze      The effects of HIF and Notch signaling            Diana Ramirez-Bergeron,          63
                       during vascular development                       Cardiovascular Research
                                                                         Institute
Kevin Vietmeier        Synthesis and Properties of Benzoxazine           Tarek Agag, Department of        64
                       Functional Cellulose via Click Chemistry          Macromolecular Science and
                                                                         Engineering
B. Corbett Walsh       Conduit of ATP release in Astrocytes              George Dubyak, Department of     64
                                                                         Physiology and Biophysics
John Weaver            Human Somatic Cell Gene Knockout of               Guangbin Lou, Department of      65
                       Rpb1                                              Genetics
Brandon Wenning        Nanocomposites of Healable                        Stuart Rowan, Department of      65
                       Supramolecular Systems                            Macromolecular Science and
                                                                         Engineering
Anthony White          Creating a hybrid wheel to wheel-leg              Richard Bachmann,                66
                       system for use in search and rescue               Department of Mechanical
                       missions                                          Engineering
Erica Wieser           Surface Modification of Diamond Films to          Heidi Martin, Department of      66
                       Develop Selective Biosensors                      Chemical Engineering
Alexander Wijangco     Constraining Inelastic Dark Matter with           Glenn Starkman, Department of    67
                       X-Rays                                            Physics
Robin Wilson           Effect of Pluronic Copolymers on Lipid            Agata Exner, Department of       67
                       Bubble Size and Stability                         Radiology
Kathryn Woeste         The Effect of Smoking on Corneal                  Radhika Atit, Department of      67
                       Inflammatory Event Development in                 Biology
                       Continuous Wear Silicone Hydrogel
                       Contact Lens Wearers
Andrea A. Wojtowicz    The Association of Self-Esteem,                   Amy Przeworski, Department       68
                       Depression, Stress, Personality, and              of Psychology
                       Academic Achievement on Division-III
                       Student-Athletes
Timothy Wong           Hemostatically Active Liposomes as                Anirban Sen Gupta, Biomedical    68
                       Synthetic Platelet Substitutes                    Engineering
Yuren Xie              Study of the effect of organic cationic           Hatsuo Ishida, Department of     69
                       salts on the polymerization of benzoxazine        Macromolecular Science and
                       monomer and properties of their                   Engineering
                       polybenzoxazines


                                                    viii
                                  Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
Alexander J. Zaddach       Modeling the Tensile Fracture Behavior of        John J. Lewandowski,           69
                           Metallic Glasses                                 Department of Materials
                                                                            Science and Engineering
Sander Zandbergen          Reflectivity Measurements of Critical            Thomas Shutt, Department of    70
                           Materials for the LUX Dark Matter                Physics
                           Experiment
Syed Zulqadar              A Novel Method To Facilitate the                 Tarek Agag, Department of      70
                           Polymerization of Polybenzoxazine                Macromolecular Science and
                                                                            Engineering


         Second Annual Celebration of Student
                      Writing
Sponsored by the Center for the Study of Writing, SAGES and the Department of English

Course/Organization Faculty/Staff/                           Student Participants                          Page
Title               Representative
Between Doctors and        Anne Ryan                         Nirmal Bhakta, Tim Darlington, Lediana        72
Patients: Literature and                                     Goduni, Chelsea Lasky, Kara Monnin,
Medicine                                                     Amanda Robinson
Case Reserve Review        John Rooney                                                                     72
Chance Poetics             Sarah Gridley & Annie                                                           73
                           Pécastaings
Colors, Capes and          Brad Ricca                        Shannon Harkin, Elizabeth Johnston, Tesia     73
Characters                                                   Meade, Matthew Napfel, Tracy O’Brien,
                                                             Johnny Wright
Common Reading             Mayo Bulloch                                                                    74
Selection Committee
Crime and Punishment in    Mary Beth Wetli                   Megan Witzke, Sage Schaff, Brittany           74
German Literature and                                        Lavanty, and Dan Levine
Film
Cross-Cultural Research    Jessica Gerard                    Gongxia Chen, Yi (Tracy) Chen, Xuejing        75
and Cross-Cultural                                           (Jenny) Wang, Xuhui (Terry) Chen,
Composing: Bilingual                                         Shanshuai Sun, Ding Wang, Tianxin Luo,
Writers at Case Western                                      Anni Li, Wenyu Chen, and Kan Jia
Reserve
The Future of Food         Mary Holmes                       Scott Becka, Sammy Sarett, Faezeh             75
                                                             Ghassemi, Phil Young, Rachel Wagner,
                                                             Mark Ilhan
Heroes and Hustlers in     Timothy Wutrich                   C.J. Dunlap, Allison Early, Ryan Hohman,      75
Latin Literature                                             Adam Kozak, John Rooney, Peter Schiraldi,
                                                             Eritt Sinkko
Immigrant Entrepreneurs:   Jessica Gerard                    Buxbaum, Andrew; Galiano, Josette; Gilbert,   76
Can They Drive                                               Kelsey; Kang, Chang Won; Koepka, Ryan;
Cleveland’s Economy                                          Kwass, Daniel; Li, Zhipeng ;Luong, Quyen;
Once Again?                                                  Mhanna, Christiane; Nardone, Samantha ;
                                                             Nassif, Alexander; Okoye, Chimadika ;
                                                             Pearlman, Isaac; Pentz, Andrew; Pomerantz,
                                                             Jeremy ; Shivers, Luke
                                                        ix
                                     Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
Introduction to Chemistry    Mike Kenney                                                                        76
Island Science               Mark Bassett                         Nik Bauer, Amy Cai, Roy Chiou, Matt           76
                                                                  DelBrocco, Wes Farra, Ali Hollingshead,
                                                                  Brandon Lavery, Matt Loosli, Ray Moore,
                                                                  Yue Qi, Matt Richards, Joe Sewell, Jonathan
                                                                  Stone, Tiarra Thomas, Tony Vicini, Alex
                                                                  Warofka, and Alex Weldon
Life of the Mind             Jennifer Butler, Mark                                                              77
                             Bassett, Suraj Shetty
Life of the Mind             Judit Simó                           Xin Chen, Zhengyu Chen, Cheng Cheng, Lin      77
                                                                  Cheng, Minghao Du, Kaiwen Gao, Jing Hu,
                                                                  Xian Huang, Wooyoung Jung, Weiying
                                                                  Kang, Yiqing Tong, Hanwen Zhang, Zeyin
                                                                  Zhang, Yingren Zhao, Hao Zhou, and
                                                                  Zhaozhong Zhu
Management of Chronic        Tracey Hallman                       Morgan Redenshek                              77
Illness in a Cultural
Context
Metaphors of Sports and      Judit Simó                           Yi Cai, Quinn Gleisner, Samantha Lewis,       78
Games                                                             Brandon Rolle, Arjun Sharma, and Yang Ye

One World Many Cultures      Susan Dominguez & Cara               FSCS 150-104: Wendi Cai, Jun Choi, Il         78
                             Byrne                                Kwon Lee, Mi Ri Lee, Tony Li, Emma Lu,
                                                                  Ted Park, Fez Yang, Zhong Zheng
                                                                  FSCS 150-105: Linneker Carvajal, Alex
                                                                  Chen, Ang Duan, Mimi Guo, Tianyu Han,
                                                                  Reechal Jiang, Yoon Kim, Kaola Li,
                                                                  Christina Min, Chris Zhang, Haidee Zhang78
Poetry Wall                  Jessica Gerard                                                                     78
                             Sean Thomas Dougherty
Political Hype vs.           Susan Dominguez & Trudy                                                            79
Scientific Fact: Evidence,   E. Bell
Risk, Preferences, Values
and “Spin”
Professional                 Eve McPherson                       Solomon Alkhasov, Keith Angelino, Jane         79
Communication for                                                Backus, Johnathan Barrett, Austin Bishop,
Engineers                                                        Cory Breed, Jenna Caputo,
                                                                 Stephen Johnson, Alex Jordan, Ben
                                                                 Kaufman, Daniel Levy, Michael Lyrenmann,
                                                                 David McCauley, Ryan Miller, Geoff
                                                                 Peyton, Vikram Ramanujam, Michael
                                                                 Slattery, Kumiko Sano, Andy Sekely, Drew
                                                                 Swartz, Jordan Welch, Diane Wisinski, Josh
                                                                 Wunder
SHAKESPLOITATION:            Barbara Burgess-Van Aken            Corey Bowen, Doug Brubaker, Nora Evett,        79
The Making of a Cultural                                         Emily Griffin, Andrew Hale, James Hale,
Icon                                                             Candace Martin, Gabi Matthews, Even
                                                                 McDowell, Julie Qiu, Michael Sayler, Ethan
                                                                 Smith, Ryan Stroud, Christine Yeh
Sigma Tau Delta              John Rooney                                                                        80


                                                             x
                                          Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
Spies                      Katherine Clark                   Stefan Blagojevic, Kevin Brayer, Sean Carr,    80
                                                             David Jannotta, Alex Kloss, Robert Lapadot,
                                                             Ren Li, Tim Maleski, Jessica Parker, Jessica
                                                             Robinson, Mark Schultz, Zach Scott, Devon
                                                             Smith, Jacob Snyder, Jaanki Thakkar
Travel Literature in the   Annie Pécastaings                 Jake Bell, Nicholas Couturier, William Lang,   80
Age of Discovery                                             Eric McCray, Jessica McRitchie, Simone
                                                             Michaels, Laura Palmer, Stephen Sreshta,
                                                             Kristen Zozulin
Travel Literature in the   Annie Pécastaings                 Stephen Sreshta (Oral Presentation)            81
Age of Discovery
Voices of Musical          Sean Dougherty                    Christopher Carlson, Amy Christianson,         81
Resistance: Spoken Word                                      Anna Czekaj, Ian Dimayuga, Thomas
                                                             Dooner, London Holt, Jenna Pansky, Lillian
                                                             Perez, Matthew Rucker, Raheem Stanfield,
                                                             Latia White, Lydia Whittington, Melinda
                                                             Wolboldt




                                                        xi
                                     Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
Celebration of Student Writing                                            71

2009 Common Reading Essay Winners                                         82

Awards                                                                    89

Senior Capstone Students                                                  90

2009 SOURCE Award Winners                                                 91

SOURCE Summer Program                                                     93

2009 Summer Program Participants                                          93

2009 Summer SURES Program                                                 95

Case School of Engineering – Alcoa Campus Partnership 2010 Participants   96

CWRU – Formal Summer Programs                                             97

Acknowledgements                                                          98




                                              xii
                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                   Effect of Personal Characteristics and Demographics on
                                  Dental Health Knowledge and Beliefs in College Students

            Yassmin Aljaberi, Department of Anthropology

                       All around the world and within the U.S. people view their oral health in different ways.
              Research indicates that these different views are largely determined by a person’s background, primarily
their socioeconomic status and parents’ attitudes. These beliefs about oral health in turn influence the way in which
personal oral hygiene and dental services are utilized. This research describes the relationship between personal
characteristics (gender, race, family size, and dental insurance status) and oral health knowledge, dental service
utilization, and views on oral health in college students. CWRU students were informed about a survey in several
large lecture classes. A total of 215 students responded (117 females, 98 males). Women were found to place more
importance on oral hygiene than males and students with dental insurance were found to visit the dentist more
frequently than those without insurance.

Project Mentor: Dr. Lawrence Greksa, Department of Anthropology




                       Quantitative Metrics for Describing Topographic Organization in Individuals

            Cody Allen, Department of Physics; and Anthony Jack, Department of Cognitive Science

             Visual areas in the brain of both monkey and man contain organized maps of the visual field. These
             maps can be measured using fMRI while participants view visual stimuli presented at different locations
relative to a fixation point. However, current methods for topographic mapping are purely qualitative in nature, and
involve using visual inspection to search for consistent patterns in pseudo-colored figures. We seek to develop a
method of quantitatively describing topographic organization on the cortical surface, allowing us to describe
differences between individuals, and between distinct visual areas in occipital, parietal, and frontal cortex. In
addition to developing quantitative metrics, more meaningful color-coded topographic maps will be created with the
use of overlaid gradient fields. A goal of this research is to identify the neural basis for individual differences in
visuo-spatial ability. The techniques developed in this research might one day be used to predict how well a person
can perform word searches, play baseball, or even solve physics problems.

Project Mentor: Professor Anthony Jack, Department of Cognitive Science

                                                              1
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                           An Analysis of the Feasibility of Campus-Wide Composting

Trevor Allen, Department of Physics

Composting is the collection of organic materials, such as food scraps and plant debris, for the purpose of
facilitating the natural biodegradation process, resulting in a nutrient-rich soil called humus. As of 2007, the EPA
estimates Americans dispose of 25% of all food; at 96 billion pounds annually, this comprises the single largest
component of the U.S. solid waste stream. In the anaerobic conditions of a landfill, the break-down of biodegradable
materials is slower and constitutes the largest anthropogenic source of methane. This project is examining the
feasibility of and steps involved in a campus-wide composting program. Ideally, all pre- and post-consumer food
waste would be collected separate from trash and composted. Such a program relies heavily on customer
participation. Difficulty arises in altering the habitual behaviors of these customers, as well as those of irregular and
visiting customers. The project specifically includes gathering customer attitudes towards and knowledge of
composting, as well as estimating the amount of organic wastes that can potentially be collected. Together these
factors can provide a strong indication of the potentiality of campus-wide composting. In general, provided certain
requirements are met—adequate informational displays, clear bin labeling, and conveniently locating disposal
areas—many institutions across the country have shown that a full-scale composting program can be successful.

Project Mentor: Dr. Peter McCall, Geological Science, Biology




                                 Type II Diabetes and its Effect on Foot Health Care in the US

             Hanya Almudallal, Department of Biology

             Diabetes is a disease that affects the body’s ability to metabolize glucose properly due to the absence of
             insulin or the reduced sensitivity of insulin receptors. There are two types of diabetes: Type I and type
             II. Diabetes is common in the US and affects almost 8% of the population in various ethnic categories.
While some of the complications associated with disease have become common knowledge, the field of podiatry has
opened up a very specialized avenue of research and health care for patients with diabetic complications affecting
foot health. This research aims to explore the biological concepts of the disease and explain how type II diabetes
can affect the nervous system and consequently, foot health in patients across the US.

Project Mentor: Professor Richard Drushel, Department of Biology

                                                               2
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                             Examination of Solar Power Potential
                                            in Cleveland’s Greater University Circle

            Maya Alunkal, Department of Geological Sciences

             Ohio’s current electric load supplied by solar is less than 0.01 percent. An increase in the state’s solar
projects is needed to decrease reliance on non-renewable energy. This research will explore and examine the
magnitude of opportunity for solar energy production in the Cleveland’s Greater University Circle region in order to
determine the most attractive photovoltaic project possibilities. This investigation will direct installations for the
Cleveland Foundation’s Ohio Cooperative Solar project. The rooftops of several public institutions, such as the Case
Western Reserve University, The Cleveland Clinic, University Hospitals, and City of Cleveland buildings are found
to be the most suitable for solar installation.

Project Mentors: Lillian Kuri, The Cleveland Foundation
                Dr. Peter Whiting, Department of Geological Sciences




                                    Precipitation, pathogens and place:
             Microbial contaminants in the rooftop rainwater runoff of urban and rural buildings

Joe Amick, Department of Biology

Factories and farms aren’t the only sources of water pollution. Rainwater draining off of impermeable surfaces, like
roofs, parking lots and roads, also contribute to the microbial and chemical contamination of water supplies. One
way to alleviate the infrastructure strain and environmental damage caused by contaminated stormwater runoff is the
collection of rooftop rainwater runoff in catchments. Urban rain gardens have been proposed as one way to treat
contaminated rainwater prior to discharge into catchments or waterways. In this study, we examined how a
building’s surroundings affect the microbial contamination in rooftop rainwater and the factors that lead to a higher
risk of rainwater contamination. Samples of rooftop rainwater were collected from five buildings in urban Cleveland
and five buildings in exurban Kirtland, Ohio once a week for four weeks. Escherichia coli, total coliform and total
heterotrophic bacteria counts were made using selective media. Water chemistry, including conductivity and pH of
the rainwater water samples were also measured. Our study will help us better understand the extent of
contamination of rooftop runoff and the factors that contribute to the contamination.

Project Mentor: Dr. David Burke, Department of Biology/The Holden Arboretum

                                                              3
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
             1, 3-Bis(benzoxazine) from Cashew Nut Shell Oil and Diaminodiphenyl Methane and
                                       Its Composites with Wood Flour

Si Young An, Department of Biomedical Engineering; Tarek Agag, Department of Macromolecular Science and
Engineering; Hatsuo Ishida, Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering


          As part of the major effort in developing useful, green materials from renewable resources in our group,
cashew nut shell oil-based benzoxazine monomers have been synthesized applying solvent-less method. These
monomers have been synthesized by a Mannich-condensation reaction of the different phenols in the cashew nut
shell oil with paraformaldehyde in the presence of diaminodiphenyl methane (DDM) as a primary amine. Fourier
transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) are
employed to characterize the structure of the monomers. Wood flour is mixed with these novel monomers to prepare
composites in different ratios. The sample preparation and properties of the composites containing different content
of wood flour will be discussed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) are
used to study the composites’ crosslinking behavior and thermal properties.

Project Mentor: Professor Hatsuo Ishida, Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering




              “Girls-in-Breeches:” The Gendering of Female Heroines in American Western Dime Novels

          Laura Ansley, Department of History

          A common character in nineteenth-century Western dime novels, the “bad-good woman” is essentially a
          masculinized female, who rides, shoots, and drinks as well as any of the male heroes. This paper
examines this stock character, her purpose in these novels, and how she compares to real women of the American
West in the nineteenth century.

Project Mentor: Renee Sentilles, Department of History

                                                             4
                                          Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
               Tongue Flicking Behavior in Snakes: the Maximum Angle of Tongue Flicking Varies Among
                                Species and Depends on the Environmental Conditions

            Katayoun Ayasoufi, Department of Biology

                      Snakes’ lack of keen visual abilities forces them to rely on other organs to enhance their
             sensing; one of which is the Jacobson’s organ. 1 When a snake is busy investigating its environment, the
tongue flicks in and out via a notch in its upper jaw known as the lingual fossa(1). The twin tips of the tongue pick
up molecules from air then insert themselves into the Jacobson’s organ where these molecules are identified1. I used
high-speed video (300 fps) to compare the angle of tongue flicking of a pine snake when there was a mouse present
in the study arena to flicking that occurred when there was no prey. The angle fluctuated between 52-86 degrees in
the absence of prey and between 28-114 degrees in the presence of prey. Observations on two other species of
snakes (python and a black rat snake), revealed that the amount of time spent on a tongue movement and the angle
varies from species to species. The highest angle for the black rat snake was 163 degrees and for the python it was
238 degrees. Based on these observations, I hypothesize that each species has a mechanical maximum angle of
tongue fluctuation and that the behavior of flicking changes when the snake detects the presence of prey with other
senses.1

     (1)-Mattison, C., The Encyclopedia of Snakes, Blandford an imprint of Cassell plc, London, UK, 1995.

Project Mentor: Dr. Roy Ritzmann, Department of Biology and many thanks to Dr. Rosenberg




                                       Flight Patterns of Large and Small Avian Species

            Joshua Barzilai, Department of Biology; Geoffrey Browning, Department of Biology

                       Flight is an essential behavior in most species of birds. There are two types of flight that birds’
             exhibit: continuous flapping and intermittent flight, in which flapping and non-flapping phases alternate.
In the non-flapping phases, wings can be flexed resulting in a flight pattern called bounding, or they can be extended
to generate gliding (Tobalske and Dial, 1996). We are testing the hypothesis that body size influences the choice of
flight strategy (flapping, bounding, and/or gliding) in take-off, flight, and landing. Our preliminary observations
suggest that larger birds exhibit a combination of gliding and continuous flapping flight propulsion, while smaller
birds exhibit a combination of continuous flapping with intermittent bounding phases. We used high-speed video
(300 fps) of large birds in flight, including Canada geese (Branta canadensis), vultures (Coragyps atratus), and
mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and of smaller birds, including parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus) and chipping
sparrows (Spizella passerina). These video records are being analyzed and compared using motion analysis software
in order to quantify the time spent flapping, gliding, and bounding among the different-sized birds. This will provide
insight into the question of how physical size affects flight behavior of these birds.

 Tobalske, B. W. and K. P. Dial. (1996) Flight Kinematics of black-billed magpies and pigeons over a wide range of
speeds. J. Exp. Biol. 199, 263-280.

Project Mentor: Professor Roy Ritzmann, Department of Biology



                                                               5
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                  Increased Memory Formation by Stress in Mice: a proposal

                      Mir Bear-Johnson, Department of Biology; Yasmeen Shahin, Department of Biology

                       Stress, which everyone experiences, can affect learning in either positive or negative ways.
             Stress is shown to enhance memory retrieval, yet, research has not explored the ways in which we can
             use the chemical and biological pathways involved in stress to improve memory. We propose that stress
can increase formation of long term memories by alterations in brain chemistry. One such alteration may be brain
norepinephrine (nor) or nor-receptors. We will test this by examining memory formation in mice. Three groups of
thirty mice will be timed while running a maze. The first group will be the control (no stressor). The second group
will be exposed to a strong stressor fifteen minutes before running the maze. The final group will run the maze while
a stressor remains in their environment. One, five and ten days following their first exposure to the maze ten
members of each of the three groups will be timed while running the maze again without any stressors. Shortened
run times will indicate learning. To examine chemical changes, in vitro LTP will be measured with control mice and
mice that have shown stress-induced memory before and immediately after each run. In addition, following the final
run for each mouse, a slice of brain will be removed and its response to norepinephrine will be tested. We expect
that the third, stressed, group will retain the information for longer, be able to run the subsequent mazes quicker,
have higher LTP levels and a higher response to norepinephrine.

Project Mentor: Dr. James E. Zull, Department of Biology




                                         Two Domains of Human Higher Cognition:
                             Distinct Brain Networks Underlie Social and Mechanical Reasoning

            Katelyn Begany, Department of Cognitive Science & Department of Philosophy; Regina Cesaro,
            Department of Cognitive Science; Kevin Barry, Department of Cognitive Science & Department of
            Mathematics; Abigail Dawson, Department of Cognitive Science; Angela Ciccia, Department of
            Communication Sciences; Anthony Jack, Department of Cognitive Science

Folk psychology (i.e. 'common sense') has long held a distinction between social reasoning (e.g. the ability to
discern the beliefs, intentions and emotions of others) and mechanical reasoning (e.g. the ability to understand
physical principles and predict the operation of mechanical objects). In contrast, psychologists have often speculated
that these domains rely on the same underlying processes. To shed further light on this issue, we set out to examine
the degree to which these two domains of human higher reasoning recruit distinct or overlapping brain areas. We
used a two factor crossed design to examine the brain areas recruited during social and mechanical reasoning, using
problems presented in two different modalities: text and videos. On each trial, participants had 20 secs to either read
a passage or watch a video depicting either a social interaction or a physical/mechanical principle. After each text or
video, a short textual comprehension question was presented and participants were given 7 seconds to respond yes
or no. Participants (N=20) were scanned using a 4T Bruker-Siemens MR scanner. Each participant experienced 5
BOLD scans of 10 mins duration. Each scan consisted of 4 presentations of each of the 4 stimuli, resulting in 16
questions and 4 rest periods of 27 seconds in length. Brief fixation periods of variable duration separated each
question/rest period. Stimuli and rest periods were randomly interleaved. There were marked differences in the brain
areas recruited. Social reasoning conditions, regardless of presentation modality, recruited inferior medial parietal
cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and the right temporoparietal junction. Mechanical reasoning conditions, regardless
of presentation modality, recruited inferior parietal sulcus, frontal eye fields, and the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex.
 These findings support a view of social and mechanical reasoning as largely distinct cognitive domains.

Project Mentor: Professor Anthony Jack, Department of Cognitive Science

                                                                6
                                             Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                               A Catalyst for Change: Impact of Electronic Medical Records
                                 and Meaningful Use Policies on American Health Systems

           Grace Bell, Weatherhead School of Management: Health Care Finance Concentration

                     Electronic Medical Records (EMR) are on the forefront of the American healthcare system. In
            2009, the government stated that $20billion would be given as grants to hospitals who adopted EMR by
the goal date of 2014. After announcing these large grants, the United States government wanted to ensure that their
money would work to benefit the healthcare of the patients. In 2010, “meaningful use” policies, rules dictating the
benefits and stipulations of a government approved EMR, were drafted for review, a review that will continue into
Summer 2010.
          This project focuses on a the current state of the Meaningful Use stipulations and expert feedback on the
draft policies from the American Medical Association, the federal Health Information Technology committee, and
health care administrators. The Meaningful Use policies have the opportunity to change the role of EMR from just
an electronic platform of the current patient care method to a tool utilized for quality and cost improvements for the
best patient care. This project will project where EMR will be going in 10years and why each health system should
invest now in a quality EMR platform as well as proper implementation and training.

Project Mentor: JB Silvers, Weatherhead School of Management: Departments of Health System Management and
Finance




               Is There Learning? A Comparison of Neuronal Growth and Vascularization in the Brains of
                                    Autistic Youths Due to Behavioral Treatments

            Gary Bhagat, Department of Biology and Department of Psychology; Stacey Woodcraft, Department
            of Biology; and James E. Zull, Department of Biology.

                      Autism is a highly common developmental disability and affects over 400,000 people in the
U.S. The core symptoms of autism are social disinterest, repetitive and overly focused behavior, and problems in
communication. These symptoms can emerge as early as infancy. Autism is a complex condition and the exact
cause(s) are unknown. The traditional educational route is not adequate to teach those with autism. Thus, many
various methodologies for educating these individuals exist.
         Research has indicated that increased neuronal growth and vascularization of the brain due to
environmental stimulation is associated with learning. Therefore measurements of these factors will indicate the
progress of learning. The aim of this experiment is to see if constant stimulation that occurs on several sensory
levels simultaneously (i.e. tactile, auditory, visual) will lead to the greatest amount of vascularization and neuronal
growth in normal and autistic children.
            Several behavioral therapies used on autistic individuals will be examined for this purpose. The therapies
being examined are Applied Behavioral Analysis of Autism (ABA), Picture Exchange Communication System
(PECS), and the Rapid Prompting Method (RPM). The proposed plan encompasses a six year span of scans
comparing the brains of approximately 60 children with mild autism: 15 who have had no exposure to behavioral
treatment, and 15 from each of the therapies listed, and an additional 15 children with no cognitive defects will serve
as a control. DTI scans will show cortex brain density; Xenon blood-flow radionuclide scans will show
vascularization; and EEGs will illustrate topographical brain activity. We predict that RPM will generate the greatest
amount of neuronal growth and vascularization because it provides constant sensory stimulation.

Professor Mentor: Dr. James E. Zull, Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University


                                                              7
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                     Pregnancy: Pre- and Post-Partum Practices and Nutritional Beliefs in West India

           Himali Bhatt, Department of Anthropology (CI); Dr. Jill Korbin, Department of Anthropology (RI)

            There is strong evidence that the poor, particularly in developing nations, frequently have diets that are
            low in energy and essential nutrients. The poor nutritional status of women during pregnancy can have
            both short- and long-term negative consequences for both the mother and the fetus. For this reason
programs that once focused on children after birth are now beginning to focus on mothers during pregnancy.
Although poverty is certainly the most dominant factor affecting dietary choices among the poor, diet is also
influenced by local traditions, beliefs, and customs, which must be taken into account in the formulation of any
effective public health program. The purpose of this project was to examine local pre- and post-partum practices
and nutritional beliefs and to understand why women in the Western part of India ate as they did, followed specific
practices, and observed certain rules. Twenty five participants were interviewed: n = 21 pregnant women were
interviewed about their beliefs and behaviors during pregnancy, including their nutritional beliefs and practices; n =
2 OB/GYNs and n = 2 Ayurvedic Practitioners were interviewed regarding their recommendations to pregnant
patients. Ayurveda is an Indian form of professional medicine. The conclusion was that all of the different customs,
nutritional beliefs, and practices that these women observe have a central focus: to maintain personal health, have a
healthy child, and to protect the infant and self.

Project Mentors: Dr. Jill Korbin, Department of Anthropology; Dr. Lawrence Greksa, Department of Anthropology




                                Parental Depression and its Interactions with in the Family

           Lacy Blazetic, Department of Psychology

           This study looked at the relationship between adolescents age 11-17 and one of their parents; focusing on
           parental depression and how it affects adolescents. Past research has found that parental depression has
           many negative consequences in an adolescent’s life. The study used questionnaire data from 54 families
to analyze family interactions and depression. The results show a positive correlation between parental depression
and adolescent depression, along with a correlation between depression and family interactions.

Project Mentor: Professor Arin Connell, Department of Psychology


                                                              8
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                 Clinical Applications of GATA3 in Luminal Breast Cancer

           Neena Bolla, Department of Accountancy

                      Evidence has suggested that various mechanisms involved in cell differentiation during
            development may also play a role in tumorigenesis. In addition to their role in tumorigenesis,
            differentiation markers have been linked to the metastatic potential of tumors. In general, there is an
inverse relationship between the level of differentiation and prognosis of a tumor. For example, tumors that are
poorly differentiated tend to be characterized as aggressive and the patient’s prognosis is worse than tumors that are
highly differentiated. The GATA family of transcription factors is integral in specification and maintenance and
GATA3 is the most highly expressed transcription factor in the mammary luminal epithelium. GATA3 has been
used as a predictor for tumor differentiation and clinical outcome. The aim of this review is to evaluate GATA3 in
determining metastatic potential of tumors as well as a possible treatment agent in luminal breast cancer. The paper
will explore the current use of GATA3 in determining and decreasing metastatic potential of luminal breast cancer
as well as the affects of GATA3 mutations.

Project Mentor: Dr. Valerie Haywood, Department of Biology




                         Sensory Recording and Feedback System for Cockroach Studies

Cory Breed, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Bradley Hughes, Department of
Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Brian Tietz, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

          Our goal is to develop tools to help biologists build and validate models of specific animal behaviors and
control systems. Brain lesion research in cockroaches conducted in the Ritzmann Lab has yielded hypotheses
regarding the role of the central body complex, a central part of insect brains. Behavioral responses have been
shown to be strongly dependent on the location of the lesions. In our project, two tools have been developed in
order to measure possible behavioral deficits of brain lesions. The first tool is an optical light-gate that detects the
motion of a cockroach antenna past a plane in space. A laser diode, lens, aperture, and linear diode array have been
interfaced with a National Instruments' CompactRIO computer platform for prototyping purposes. Real time data
collection and analysis software written in National Instruments LabVIEW analyzes the linear image and provides
triggers for cameras, monitors, and other controlled tools that can be used to record or stimulate the cockroach's
behavior. The final designed sensor will consist of an Atmel ARM7 series microprocessor that will handle the
acquisition and processing of the optical light-gate sensor data. The second tool, interfaced with the designed
sensor, is a T-shaped track that acts as a controlled environment for data collection. One specific behavior that is
under analysis is the cockroach's reaction to a stripe generator. A computer monitor, interfaced with the maze,
displays variable width and variable speed moving stripes. In preliminary results, the cockroach's movement
appeared to be correlated to stripe generation, but the biologists needed to compare the influence of the visual
stimulus of stripes with the tactile stimulus of its antenna.

Project Mentor: Professor Roger Quinn, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Professor Roy
Ritzmann, Department of Biology
                                                               9
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
               Emotion Regulation and Physical Activity in Response to Emotions in a College Population

           Elle Brennan, Psychology; Sarah Mason, MA, Psychology; Amy Przeworski, PhD, Psychology

                      Emotion regulation, or the ability to regulate one’s emotions appropriately or inappropriately, is
            an important aspect of human emotional understanding and interaction. Difficulties with emotion
            regulation underlie various forms of psychopathology including anxiety, mood disorders, and eating
disorders. To our knowledge, there is little to no literature examining physical activity in reaction to experiencing
various emotions. A developing literature has examined eating in response to feeling emotions, called emotional
eating, which has been related to depression, anxiety disorders, poor emotion regulation, and other psychopathology.
The emotional Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPAQ) was designed to investigate the relationship between
emotional responses and physical activity. The EPAQ will be integrated into an ongoing study that is investigating
emotional eating in a college population. The measure will examine four specific emotional constructs: happiness,
sadness, anger, and anxiousness. We predict that angry emotions will correlate with an increase in physical activity
while sad and anxious emotions will correlate with a decrease in physical activity. We also predict that happy
emotions will show little change in amount and frequency of exercise, and will be more highly correlated with
stretching exercises than other emotions. Lastly, we predict that high levels of emotional exercise will be positively
correlated with poor emotion regulation, as well as with emotional eating. We believe that an improved
understanding of the relationship between emotion regulation and physical activity may potentially provide further
insight into the etiology of eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorders, and other health problems such as obesity.
Results will be discussed.

Project Mentor:Professor Amy Przeworski, PhD, Department of Psychology




 Determination of the Relative Response Factor of Methane in Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization
                                                Detection

Kevin Brent, Aerospace Engineering; Bryan Weber, Aerospace Engineering

          Flame ionization detection (FID) is in widespread use in gas chromatographic analysis because of its
effectiveness in accurately determining the number of moles of specific hydrocarbons in a gaseous mixture.
However, in order to accurately use the flame ionization detector, current systems require empirically determined
calibration curves for every compound analyzed and for every chromatographic method used. In an effort to be able
to predict the response of the flame ionization detector to various compounds, a system of determining relative
response factors has developed. For propane and heavier alkanes, the response per mole of carbon is constant. The
relative response for methane, however, depends on the chromatographic method in use. Experiments were
conducted to obtain a reproducible value for the relative response factor of methane using a Shimadzu GC-2014
with a Restek RTX-5 Capillary Column, 15m long, 0.53in. inner diameter, 0.20μm stationary phase of 5% diphenyl/
95% dimethyl polysiloxane. Butane was used to find the equal-per-carbon response of 6109.8μV/ppm-C. Testing
methane then gave 5577.6μV/ppm, implying a relative response factor of 0.913. This value was lower than
expected. It was suspected that some of the responses for butane were actually beyond the range of linear response
for the FID in use, skewing the equal-per-carbon response.

Project Mentor: Professor Chih-Jen Sung, Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
                                                             10
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                      The Effects of Play Intervention When Conducted By The Primary Care Giver

           Andrea Briggs, Department of Psychology; Sandra Russ, Department of Psychology

                      Pretend play helps children develop skills necessary for interpersonal communication and
            creativity. A recent trend in childhood studies involves creating a program that will show children how to
            play better and therefore maximize their development of these skills. Because of the strong influence of
the child’s primary care giver (PCG) on the child’s development, an interesting new direction in the field of play
intervention would be to teach the PCG how to help improve their child’s play abilities. In this study we will
specifically exam the effects of play intervention on children’s play quality, divergent thinking ability, and
storytelling organization and determine whether the facilitation of the play intervention by the child’s PCG has any
influence on the child’s improvement. We hypothesize that participation in an intervention will improve skills and
that the participation of the PCG will improve skills further. We will compare 4 groups of 20 children. Two groups
will participate in an intervention. Two will act as controls. One intervention group and one control group will
include PCG participation. We will analyze the effects of the variables by using paired t-testing. This study will
have a limited sample size and it is likely that if PCGs have any influence it will be a result of their positive
relationship with the child and not their role as PCG. Future studies may want to gather a more diverse sample size
and look at how results might change if the child and PCG do not have a good relationship. If the hypothesis is true,
researchers, educators, and community leaders will be able to plan more efficient programs to get PCGs involved
with their kids and help children develop better abilities.

Project Mentor: Professor Sandra Russ, Department of Psychology




                                           Coarse Graining Food Webs

Michael Bryniarski, Department of Systems Biology

         Food webs are directed networks that capture the “whom eats whom?” relationships between organisms in
an ecosystem. Ecological flow networks are an extension of food webs that quantify the carbon moving between
compartments. For large ecosystems, these networks become difficult to analyze in terms of individual
compartments; to simplify these networks, compartments can be aggregated to form a coarse grained network.
Spectral Coarse Graining (SCG) is a recently developed method that allows nodes in a network to be combined in a
way that preserves the behavior of a random walk on the network. We have applied SCG to flow networks
representing ecosystems in the Florida everglades. We believe this approach has advantages over the ad hoc coarse
graining often applied to food web models.

Project Mentor: Professor Robin Snyder, Department of Biology
                                                             11
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
               Learning in Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae): Adult exposure to the tobacco plant
                                 (Nicotiana) leads to a stronger oviposition response

           Caitlin Burkman, Department of Biology

                      The Hopkins’ Host-Selection Principle states that female insects are more likely to oviposit on a
            host plant they have had previous exposure to over another host plant species. There are contentious
findings in the literature over when such a critical exposure period can occur, but a previous study (Yamamoto et al.,
1969) suggests that larval feeding in Manduca sexta influenced subsequent adult preference. However, post-
imaginal experience has been shown to influence other insect and moth species, but has not been studied in M. sexta.
Therefore, this study aims to compare ovipositional preference of M. sexta when previously exposed to either
tobacco (Nicotiana) or jimson weed (Datura) plants as early adults. Females were placed with either tobacco or
jimson weed leaves overnight as a 1-day old adult. After mating, 3-day old females were flown in a wind tunnel for
5 minutes. Each moth was allowed to oviposit on freshly cut tobacco and jimson weed leaves, and most moths
oriented initially to and spent more time on tobacco. All exposure groups demonstrated a preference for tobacco
leaves, but females pre-exposed to tobacco leaves demonstrated a slightly stronger preference for tobacco by laying
a higher number and proportion of their eggs on these leaves. These findings suggest that M. sexta adult females
either demonstrate associate learning of host plants or can become sensitized to them. Future experiments should
aim to determine how visual, olfactory, and tactile cues influence preferences.

Project Mentor: Professor Mark Willis, Department of Biology

This is a Michelson Morley Presentation




  Local Projects, Global Impact: Engineers without Borders – Case’s Rainwater Catchment Project at the
   Squire Valeevue Farm, Water Conservation Project with CWRU Facilities, and Research into Water
                                               Treatment

Steven Burns, Biomedical Engineering; AJ Ferrick, Systems and Control Engineering; Colleen Konsavage,
Systems and Control Engineering and Biomedical Engineering; David Dashevsky, Engineering Physics and
Biomedical Engineering; and Jesse Lee, Mechanical Engineering

Case Western Reserve University’s chapter of Engineers Without Borders has integrated research initiatives and
local projects to complement its international efforts. A significant portion of the research is dedicated to water
treatment, where techniques such as chlorination and ultraviolet light filtration are being developed and adapted for
the international projects. Additionally, a group was formed to execute local projects in tandem with international
efforts. Some of the projects include developing water catchment systems and working with the CWRU facilities on
water conservation projects. Knowledge and skills gained through these endeavors are not only beneficial to EWB-
Case’s international projects but also to the students involved in them. Students learn practical engineering skills
that benefit the university and the community.

At the Squire Valleevue farm, students are in the process of completing a rain water catchment system. When
completed, the system will pump water collected from the roof of the chicken coop to the gardens using wind power.
In the CWRU Facilities project, students have designed a system to divert waste condensation from air conditioning
units to cooling towers. This will result in significant water savings for the university and a payback period of under
a year.

EWB-Case’s water treatment research group has done significant research into water treatment option in EWB-
Case’s international partner communities. Research has included personal slow sand water filtration, individual-
and community- scale water chlorination, and ultraviolet sanitization.

Project Mentor: James McGuffin-Cawley – Department of Materials Science and Engineering
                                                             12
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
              Galvanic Skin Response in Family Interaction Tasks as a Predictor of Adolescent Depression

           Megan Carl, Department of Psychology

                      Adolescents are commonly thought to be prone to Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). One
            primary component of risk for MDD is theorized to be family functioning, specifically relationships and
            interactions between adolescents and their parents. The more stressful these relationships are the more
likely an adolescent is to display depressive symptoms or have a diagnosis of MDD. This study will utilize Galvanic
Skin Response (GSR) data during two five-minute interaction tasks in order to gauge stress in parent-adolescent
relationships. The first interaction task is designed to elicit negative emotions and the second interaction task is
designed to elicit positive emotions. It is theorized that if the mean GSR responses of both parent and adolescent are
highly correlated the family relationships are more adaptive and less likely to produce depressive symptoms in the
adolescent. GSR data should have better predictive power during the first task because prior research has
demonstrated that familial physiological responses are better synchronized during stressful contexts. It is expected
that adolescents that have a diagnosis of MDD or have sub-clinical symptoms will be more dysregulated during the
second task because of a decreased ability to respond to positive stimulation. These hypotheses will be tested
through general linear mixed modeling of GSR responses and depressive symptomatology measures in adolescents.

Faculty Mentor: Arin Connell Ph.D., Department of Psychology




              Addiction and “Generation Me”: Narcissistic and Prosocial Behaviors of Youth with Substance
                              Dependency Disorder in Comparison to Normative Youths

            Rebecca Carter, Department of Psychology; Dr. Julie Exline, Department of Psychology; Shannon
            Johnson, Department of Psychiatry, Division of Child Psychiatry

                      Alcoholics Anonymous theorizes narcissistic behaviors to be a root cause of addiction. To
date, no study has provided empirical support for this theory. This is partly due to the inability to randomly assign
subjects to disease vs. no disease conditions and prospectively compare their reports of narcissistic behaviors or, at
the opposite end of the spectrum, other-oriented behaviors. Using a quasi-experimental design, this study compares
narcissistic and prosocial behaviors of 133 adolescents with substance dependency disorder (SDD) to 133 normative
controls matched by age and gender. Using fixed effect random regression analysis, Narcissistic Personality
Inventory (NPI) scores and General Social Survey (GSS) items reported by youths in the 21st century were
compared between matched pairs. Findings support narcissistic and prosocial behaviors as multi-faceted constructs,
certain facets of which appear related to addiction. In the current study, higher overt narcissistic behaviors and less
monetary giving to charity and the homeless strongly distinguished adolescents with SDD. This study is the first to
provide empirical support of AA’s theorized root cause of addiction, which points to self-absorption as fundamental
to the disease.

Project Mentor: Dr. Maria E. Pagano, Department of Psychiatry, Division of Child Psychiatry
                                                             13
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                           Are You Positive You Are Negative: HIV Awareness in Parma, Ohio

           Amy Catalani, Department of Nursing; Emily Konen, Department of Nursing, Blaze Hirsch,
           Department of Nursing; Alyssa Messina, Department of Nursing

                     The purpose of this project is to introduce, describe, and evaluate our public health/senior
            capstone engagement experience. Our capstone site was located at the Cuyahoga County Board of
Health (CCBH) in Parma, Ohio, a suburban city in the southwest part of Cuyahoga County. In this project, we share
much about this community where we immersed ourselves and details about the campaign that we created. The
main focus of our project was working with CCBH and their free HIV testing grant to create an HIV awareness and
testing campaign for the community. Our strategies provided the public with accurate sexual health information to
increase their knowledge and interest in HIV testing. Our outcomes in outreach and testing numbers reflect success
and hope for a future increase in testing numbers. Our project also includes suggestions for CCBH for additional
interventions based upon our own personal findings as well as current academic research. In conclusion, we are
hoping our project and results prove to be a valuable tool for future use.

Project Mentor: Rita Sfiligoj, Department of Nursing




            Correspondence vs. Compensation Hypothesis: How People View Their Relationships with Their
                                             Parents and with God

           Benjamin Chandhok, Department of Psychology

                      This research compares the correspondence and compensation hypotheses for attachment to
             parents and God. The correspondence hypothesis states that people’s relationships with their caregivers
should be similar to their perceived relationships with God. The compensation hypothesis states that people should
have opposing relationships with their caregivers and God; in other words, people might turn to God to compensate
for a poor relationship with their parents. These two hypotheses were tested using a sample of 163 CWRU
undergraduates (56 men, 107 women) who took a survey concerning God’s perceived role in suffering. Correlational
analyses revealed that students with positive relationships with their caregivers had more positive perceived
relationships with God. Student’s positive relationships with caregivers were also negatively correlated with a
perceived distant relationship with God. These data support the correspondence hypothesis rather than the
compensation hypothesis.

Project Mentor: Professor Julie Exline, Department of Psychology
                                                            14
                                          Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                   Cheating in American and Asian Universities

Li Chen, Department of Management

 Cultural differences in educational systems have an unexpected influence when international students with different
cultural backgrounds happen to study in an American university. In particular, one significant area of differences
involves diversity in higher education. Many issues can be caused by different understandings of cheating when
students with different cultural backgrounds take tests together in one classroom. In order to find out the differences,
a small, interview-based pilot study on how students with different cultural backgrounds define cheating is
conducted. Problems might occur for new Asian international students who want to obtain a degree in American
universities. The research aims to find those problems by comparing different understanding of cheating in Asian
and American universities from several aspects, such as grading and honor system, cultural value, teaching service
and economy. The research results not only enable new Asian international students to prepare themselves better for
their academic life abroad in American universities, but also give suggestions for institutions about setting up special
policies that benefit international students.

Project Mentor: Jessica E Gerard, Department of English




     The Role of Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone and Orexin in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease

Patrick Chirdon1 (Cognitive Science/Biology), Wataru Kudo1 and Mark A. Smith1
1
 Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio

The pathological markers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) include neurofibrillary tangles, accumulation of amyloid-β
plaques, neuronal loss, and inflammation. Recent research suggests that two neuropeptides, orexin and thyrotropin
releasing hormone (TRH), colocalize in the hypothalamus and have opposing effects on the buildup of
neurofibrillary tangles. Indeed, in the mouse brain, there are close appositions between TRH-immunoreactive nerve
terminals and orexin-A-immunoreactive cell bodies. The effects of central orexins on TRH release in the
hypothalamus could be significant because researchers have found that TRH has a protective effect against synaptic
loss and neuronal apoptosis of neurons in the hippocampus of AD patients. In one study, depletion of TRH in cell
cultures with TRH-anti serum caused an upregulation in phosphorylation that was observed to initiate axonal
retraction in cultured neurons. Also, recent research suggests that thyrotropin releasing hormone is significantly
lower in the hippocampus of AD patients compared with controls and that TRH may have a neuroprotective effect
on neurons in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of AD patients. However, these neuroprotective effects may be
suppressed by orexin. In the hippocampus of mice genetically altered to have higher levels of amyloid-β in the
hippocampus, hippocampal orexin levels were significantly higher. Moreover, infusion of orexin into the
hippocampus increased amyloid-β levels. To date, the effects of central orexins on TRH levels in the hippocampus
and hypothalamus of AD patients have not been investigated in detail. Based on the aforementioned, we hypothesize
that lower levels of TRH and subsequent buildup of neurofibrillary tangles in the hippocampus of AD brain tissue
sections may be partially due to higher levels of orexin in the hypothalamus inhibiting the release of TRH.

Project Mentor: Dr. Mark A. Smith, Department of Pathology
                                                             15
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                            The Relation Between Divergent Thinking and Novel Events in Play

           Kathryn Clusman, Department of Psychology

             Playing is something every child does daily, each in their own way. It has been shown through the years
             that play significantly promotes positive development in social skills, self esteem, problem solving,
             abstract thinking, creativity, empathy, storytelling skills, self helping and perspective taking. When
children develop these skills through play they build a foundation for continuing development through life. Studies
have concluded that when children are asked to solve a problem using divergent thinking, they use the skills they
have created through their years of playing. While previous studies have connected the fluency and creativity of
divergent thinking to play they have not examined the divergent thinking in direct relationship to novel events in
play. In this study we investigated children’s responses to questions in a divergent thinking task and compared the
number of fluent and original responses with whether novel events were present in a five minute pretend play task.
Participants were fourteen children age’s four to six. The pretend play task was conducted with a constant set of toys
and a set script as a part of the Affect in Play School – Preschool (Russ, 1993). Goodwin and Morin’s (1990)
Multidimensional Fluency Task was used for the divergent thinking questions, and consisted of six scripted
questions. The results will be analyzed to assess divergent thinking in the pretend play task. In addition, the results
will also be analyzed to assess which items on the Multidimensional Fluency Task are most related to each other in
relation to evaluating play.

Project Mentor: Professor Sandra Russ, Department of Psychology




       Impact of Linguistic Skills on Play Performance of Preschoolers with Developmental Disabilities

Rachael D. Cooper, Department of Psychology; Andrea Wojtowicz, Department of Psychology; Elizabeth J. Short,
Department of Psychology; Maia M. Noeder, Department of Psychology; Barbara Lewis, Department of
Communication Science; Michael Manos, Cleveland Clinic Foundation; Sandra Russ, Department of Psychology

Play provides a unique and nonthreatening window into the cognitive world of young children. A crucial and largely
ignored question is whether play differences in children diagnosed with developmental disabilities stem from a
generalized symbolic deficit or a more narrowly defined language deficit. Play performance of children was
compared in a sound versus no sound condition. When play was evaluated without the augmentative assistance of
language (NO Sound Condition), fewer differences between the groups were noted. Play performance was assessed
using the Affect in Play Scale Preschool Version (APS–P) with 63 children aged 4-7 diagnosed with Autism
Spectrum Disorder (ASD; n=10), Speech Language Impairment (SLI; n=13), Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity
Disorder (ADHD; n=18), combined SLI and ADHD (n=8), and Typicals (n=14). Performance in the sound condition
revealed that typically developing children and children diagnosed with ADHD scored higher on the APS–P (i.e.,
imagination, organization, comfort, complexity), had greater verbal fluency, and displayed more affect in their play
than children with SLI and ASD. Examination of the NO Sound condition revealed that the depressed play scores of
the SLI group were in large part due to their delayed language skills. That is, the play of SLI group was comparable
to the ADHD and Typical group under conditions of no sound, lending credence to the idea of a more narrowly
defined language deficit. This was in stark contrast to the ASD children, who seem to have a generalized symbolic
deficit, as their play did not show significant differences between the two conditions.

Project Mentor: Professor Elizabeth Short, Department of Psychology
                                                             16
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
        The Effect of Heat Treatments on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V
                                            (a Sensitivity Study)

Rachel Craft, Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering; Dr. David Schwam, Dept. of Materials Science &
Engineering; Dr. Xuejun Zhu, Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering

           The Ti-6Al-4V alloy, or Ti-6-4, has found many applications in both the aerospace and automotive
industries. There are some well-established correlations between its mechanical properties and its microstructure,
which is to a large extent determined by its thermo-mechanical processing history. The aim of the project is to
identify an optimal heat treatment cycle that will provide adequate tensile strength over a range of forged part sizes.
It is also of interest to determine the sensitivity of the microstructure and mechanical properties to slight variations
in the heat treating conditions, i.e., time and temperature of the heat treatment.
           Forged parts for the study have been provided by DropDies, a Whyman-Gordon/PCC forging plant in
Cleveland. These parts’ as-forged macro- and microstructures were characterized by cutting and polishing the
samples, then performing optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy to examine the microstructure.
The various heat treatment parameters under scrutiny (forging temperature, cooling practice, aging time, aging
temperature, heat chemistry, and elemental limits) will be analyzed in relation to resulting mechanical properties.
This will require a variety of heat treatment procedures to be carried out in the Case Metal Processing Laboratory.
Emphasis will be placed on varying the heat treatment temperature in order to understand microstructural and
mechanical responses to slight temperature changes (less than 50oC). Data from DropDies regarding the mechanical
characteristics of treated samples will be compared to the mechanical properties and the microstructural features
measured at Case to determine how sensitive the properties and microstructure are to slight variations in heat
treating temperature.

Project mentor: Professor David Schwam, Department of Materials Science & Engineering




        Improved Methods for Copper-Steel Bonding of Electrical Connectors in Railway Applications

John Christian Dalton, Department of Material Science and Engineering

Demands for faster and more efficient means of transportation have driven the global railway industry to produce
safe and reliable tracks. Copper electrical connectors play an important role in modern day railway systems for
grounding and communication purposes. Exothermic welding, or cad-welding, is currently the most popular bonding
method to permanently fix copper to the steel to create an electric connection between discontinuous rails. A series
of bonding methods including brazing, tinning, epoxies, and plate geometry were explored to meet the strength
requirements of the bond while minimizing the HAZ. Fatigue testing was also performed on traditionally welded,
plated, and regular steel to determine the HAZ effect on the bond’s life cycle. Microstructural analysis was then
conducted to determine any differences in failure modes.

Project Mentor: Dr. David Schwam, Department of Material Science and Engineering
                                                              17
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
    The Cognitive Semiotics of Poetry and Dance: Emotive Embodiment of Ecstatic Sensorial Cognition in
                                          Modern Representations

Yardena Daon, Department of Cognitive Science

This thesis studies cognitive semiotics of poetry and dance by examining emotive embodiment of ecstatic sensorial
cognition in modern representations. The research investigates the existence, cause and process of ‘bursting
emotions’ leading to an ecstatic sensorial emotive state, through the singing and dancing elements of the
choreography ‘Minus 17’ of the Hebrew liturgical poem Echad Mi Yodea performed by Batsheva Dance Company.
The writer attended a rehearsal and performance of ‘Minus 17,’ and conducted personal discussions with the
Company. For the advancement of this research the writer participated in an individual workshop with the founder
of Cognitive Poetics, Professor Reuven Tsur in Jerusalem, Israel. The thesis concludes that both song and dance
create an emotive sensorial cognitive level, a form of energy, which generates a wild though controlled sense of
pleasure, ending the performance, for both the performers and audience, in the most ecstatic state of emotion.

Advisor: Per Aage Brandt, Department of Cognitive Science




                  Time Dependence of Liquid Crystal Orientational Memory Effect at a Polymer Surface

           Frederick Davey, Department of Physics; Joel Pendery, Department of Physics; Sameh Ferjani,
           Department of Physics

                       The surface interaction behavior of liquid crystals is fundamental to our ability to exploit liquid
             crystals for technological purposes. The rendering of an otherwise orientationally-degenerate surface to
be anisotropic upon exposure to an orientationally ordered liquid crystal has been observed previously, although
little has been reported on the dynamics of this effect. In this experiment a cell, wherein one surface is treated for
strong alignment and the other is coated with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) for planar degenerate alignment,
was filled with a liquid crystal in the isotropic phase. On cooling into the nematic phase, the liquid crystal induced
an orientational memory in the adjacent PMMA layer. The growth of the strength of anchoring as a function of time
was monitored by a periodic application of an electric field that perturbed the liquid crystal orientation; this was
monitored optically such that a larger rotation of the liquid crystals from their unperturbed state would correspond to
a increased intensity of light transmitted. A trend of decreasing intensity transmitted over time, stabilizing after a
period of several minutes, was found, indicating that the liquid crystal at the PMMA surface was becoming more
rigidly anchored with time. More work is currently underway to generate quantitative values for the anchoring
strength coefficient of the PMMA surface based on the observed intensities.

Project Mentor: Professor Charles Rosenblatt, Department of Physics
                                                              18
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                               Energies of Nematic Liquid Crystals in 2D Polygonal Cavities

           Michael Ding, Department of Physics

                      Nematic liquid crystals are cylindrically shaped rod-like molecules, which may be aligned by a
            specific boundary treatment in a cavity. We consider 2 dimensional geometries, in which the distribution
            of the liquid crystal may be obtained by conformal mapping. For cylindrical geometries, two
configurations are known to be stable, referred to as planar radial and planar polar respectively. We use the
Schwarz-Christoffel transform to map these solutions to a polygonal boundary. The Frank free energy can then be
calculated. Our research has so far produced analytical expressions for the general free energy integral, total energy
of nematic liquid crystals in a circular boundary, and conformal maps for the N-sided regular convex polygon. The
main goal is to achieve a formula for the total free energy of nematic liquid crystals for any N-sided regular convex
polygon. Our work will be generalized to describe non-convex polygonal cavities."

Project Mentor: Dr. Timothy Atherton, Department of Physics




              On the Interaction of the Pharmaceutical Salbutamol with Light in Water Solutions

Leah G. Dodson, Department of Chemistry; R. Aaron Vogt, Department of Chemistry; Joyann Marks, Department
of Chemistry; Christian Reichardt, Department of Chemistry

Recent concerns over the presence of pharmaceuticals in drinking water and natural water sources have prompted
evaluations of not only the potential health risks associated to the constant intake of minute amounts of these
compounds by living organisms, but also concerning the fate of these pharmaceuticals in the environment.
Degradation of salbutamol by sunlight may be responsible for contributing new products to the already polluted
waters. In this work we used analytical and spectroscopic techniques to show that light-induced degradation of
salbutamol forms at least seven primary products, some of which absorb at longer wavelengths than the parent
compound. Experiments at different pH conditions further show that salbutamol is sensitive to light absorption in all
pH conditions studied. However, the degradation rate is faster in pH 12, suggesting that the anionic species should
be the most reactive to sunlight. The formation of dissimilar products at pH 3 indicates that the cation also reacts to
light. Quantum yields of degradation were determined for the cationic and anionic species in the presence of oxygen
and in an oxygen-free environment. The quantum yields of degradation at pH 3 and 12 confirm that the anionic
species of salbutamol is one order of magnitude more reactive to near visible (UVB-UVA) light than the cationic
species. Quantum yields of fluorescence for the cation and anion were determined showing that the fluorescence
yield for the cation species is more than one order of magnitude higher than that for the anion. Time-resolved
experiments were performed to obtain direct information about the high-energy states and the reactive species
formed in salbutamol after light absorption leading to products formation. The implications of this study to the
environmental pollution of the natural water sources will be discussed.

Project Mentor: Professor Carlos E. Crespo-Hernández, Department of Chemistry
                                                             19
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                   A Novel Mechanism of Action for an SCN5A Brugada Syndrome Mutation

Xi Du, Department of Biomedical Engineering; Haiyan Liu, Heart & Vascular Research Center; and Isabelle
Deschênes, Department of Medicine

Brugada Syndrome (BrS) can be caused by mutations in the SCN5A gene that encodes for cardiac sodium channels.
The disorder displays variable penetrance and is associated with high risks of cardiac death and increased risk of
ventricular arrhythmias. Cardiac sodium channels are composed of a pore-forming α-subunit and increasing
evidence suggest that there could be an α-α interaction between channels. Since some BrS mutations display only
small biophysical changes that are insufficient to produce the clinical phenotype of BrS, we aimed to see if an α-α
interaction could help explain this phenomenon. Using the patch clamp technique in the whole cell configuration, a
BrS mutation, SCN5A-L567Q, that displays minimal biophysical alterations was expressed and co-expressed with
wild-type channels and channels containing the SCN5A-H558R polymorphism in HEK293 cells. Channels
containing the mutation alone did not display significant biophysical changes nor a reduction in current density as
compared with the wild-type channels. However, interestingly, when both the mutation and wild-type channels were
co-expressed together, there was a significant reduction in sodium current density. This reduction in sodium current
is similar to what is usually observed for typical BrS mutations and could therefore explain the clinical manifestation
of the disorder for patients carrying this SCN5A-L567Q mutation. In addition, since our data suggest a dominant-
negative effect of the mutation on the wild-type channel, these results also contribute to the growing bodies of
evidence suggesting an α-α interaction between sodium channels.

Project Mentor: Professor Isabelle Deschênes, Department of Medicine




                              Women Experiencing Domestic Violence in Three Ethnic Groups

            Jaquetta Duncan, Department of Anthropology

                      Approximately 5.9 million women in the United States have encountered some form of
             domestic violence (Tjaden and Thoennes, 1998), and between 25% and 30% of women who visit
             emergency rooms are there as a result of domestic violence (Centers for Disease Control, 2006).
Domestic violence occurs when one or both partners in an intimate relationship such as marriage, dating, family,
friendship, or cohabitation engage in altercations that result in some form of aggression against one or both partners
(Jackson, 2007). Domestic violence has many different facets, which include physical, emotional, psychological and
sexual abuse as well as stalking. This literature review will examine how experiences of domestic violence vary
among African-American, Caucasian and Hispanic women and how members of these groups respond to these
experiences. The main issues at hand are the prevalence of domestic violence, the rates at which domestic violence
is reported, the severity of the abuse, the victims’ experiences in battered women’s shelters, and the incidence of
depression among the three ethnic groups.

Key words:
Domestic Violence, Intimate Partner Violence, Gender-Based Violence, Ethnicity, African American women,
Caucasian women, Hispanic women

Project Mentor: Dr. Jill Korbin, Department of Anthropology
                                                             20
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
 Chemical Vapor Deposition of Tungsten onto the Inside of a Quartz Capillary for the Creation of a New In
                                            Vitro Biosensor

Daniel Engel, Department of Chemical Engineering; Jeffrey Halpern, Department of Chemical Engineering;
Clifford Hayman Department of Chemical Engineering, Heidi Martin, Department of Chemical Engineering

           Currently, there is a need for an electrode small enough (1-4 μm inner diameter, ID) to measure
intracellular voltages. Electrodes fabricated from electrically conductive, boron-doped diamond have proven
properties of biocompatibility, electrochemical sensitivity and mechanical durability. Conventional fabrication
methods of diamond electrodes are vapor deposition of diamond directly onto the tip of a tapered quartz capillary, or
onto a tungsten wire protruding slightly from the quartz tip, neither of which is appropriate for the desired size. The
latter is extremely difficult to fabricate, and the former provides no electrical connection to the diamond. In order to
make this electrical connection, four methods have been previously attempted: filling the capillary with a conductive
solution, filling the capillary with a metal ink with solvent vaporization, electroless plating, and tungsten
sublimation. The most successful method has been lining the inside of a pre-pulled capillary with tungsten using
MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition), and then growing diamond on the tungsten annulus, sealing
the tip. In order to do this, tungsten hexacarbonyl (W(CO)6) in a carrier gas (H2) is passed through the ID to the
capillary tip, where it is deposited as tungsten metal onto the quartz.

          Results: Tungsten was successfully deposited on the inside of the quartz capillary. The electrical resistivity
is low, probably on the order of bulk tungsten. It is as yet unknown whether it is conductive for the entire length of
the capillary. Diamond has also been successfully grown on the tungsten.

          Future goals: More diamond growth, Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry to determine properties of the
electrical connection of the deposited tungsten, and some modifications to the reactor, which will help to improve
the process.

Advisor: Dr. Heidi Martin, Department of Chemical Engineering



                                     Site Selective Modifications of Peptides and Proteins
                                    Using Bioorthogonal N-Terminal-Glutathione Scaffold

            Elizabeth Ennis, Department of Chemistry; Alden Voelker, Department of Chemistry

                       The overarching aim is to develop a novel strategy for the site specific labeling and tethering of
proteins in their native fold. Glutathione is a polypeptide composed of γ-glutamine, cysteine, and glycine. Syntheses
for glutathione are known but it is more commonly found in vivo. In vivo, glutathione S-transferase (GST) is
involved in detoxification of endogenous and exogenous compounds which include drug metabolism. A useful
precursor to GSH is composed of glutamine and cysteine. Our envisioned entry toward accessing γ-glutathionyl
peptides variable at the glycyl termini, is through the synthesis of a thioester of appropriately protected  -glutamic
acid. Evidently, a direct modification of the γ-position of glutamic acid of the corresponding activated thioesters has
not been reported. The approach used to access the activated thioesters was initially based on the pyroglutamate ring
opening reaction with thiol containing nucleophiles. However, the thiol nucleophiles proved to be too unreactive
either requiring lengthy durations even for trace conversions despite several modifications to the procedure. The
alternative approach involved the use of a bis-protected version of glutamate which has a methyl ester protection at
the alpha-carboxylic acid portion of the molecule along with a Boc protected amino functionality. The alternative
approach was studied through the native chemical ligation reactions of cysteine and thiol nucleophiles.
          This proposed strategy will be used to fabricate protein microarrays that may exceed the performance of
those commonly used. This novel strategy is based on Glutathione S- transferase (GSTase) ability to perform the site
specific modification to the cysteine of GSH. Currently an elaborate list of substrate analogs of GSTase are
synthesized through an optimized strategy. Incorporation of a glutamyl scaffold onto peptides and proteins through
the thiol exchange-mediated ligation of glutamate derivatives is the current focus in the development of the project.

Project Mentor: Dr. Rajesh Viswanathan, Department of Chemistry
                                                              21
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                                    Breaching Martian Craters

            Drew C. Enns, Department of Geology, CWRU; Ralph P. Harvey, Department of Geology, CWRU;
            and Alan D. Howard, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia

                      Valley networks, channels and deltas carved into the Martian surface record a wet climate in
            the distant past of Mars. In many cases the geomorphologies associated with these fluvial systems are
analogous to those found on Earth; however, some commonly observed Martian features present enigmatic
problems. One such feature occurs when a crater rim has been breached by a fluvial system. Examples of crater rims
that have been breached by a river channel are not uncommon on Mars. Typically they consist of a single channel
breaching a crater rim with little or no deviation of flow where the channel and the crater rim intersect. On Earth,
imposition of a significant barrier to pre-existing flow typically leads to diversion around the obstacle, something
documented for martian craters only on the small scale. Breaching a significant barrier on Earth, such as a mountain
ridge, typically invokes downcutting through extensive lateral strata or simultaneous tectonic uplift within a mature
drainage system, neither of which are considered common on Mars. Furthermore, fluvial and precipitation systems
superimposed on pre-existing craters should show radial development patterns, rather than linear breaches. In an
effort to examine these paradoxical breaches and better understand potential interactions between martian impact
craters and fluvial systems, we have conducted a number of geomorphological simulations. These models help
identify the limiting conditions necessary for producing crater breaches and can be used to interpret the history of
individual crater/fluvial systems on Mars.

Project Mentor: Professor Ralph P Harvey, Department of Geology




             Role of Cellular Mg2+ in Modulating Collagen Deposition and Enzyme Efficiency in Hepatic and
                                                     Kupffer Cells

            Steven Ewart, Department of Physics; Andrea Romani, Department of Physiology and Biophysics

                   Acute and chronic ethanol administration reduces total Mg2+ content in liver tissue. A decrease in
              cellular Mg2+ content has been associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines release and altered
collagen deposition. Increased collagen deposition can lead to liver fibrosis, while increased inflammation caused
by overproduction of Il-2 and Il-6 can lead to hepatitis. The two conditions combined can lead to cirrhosis and liver
function failure, which can be fatal. The goal of this study is to test the hypothesis that a reduced cellular Mg2+
content within Kupffer cells and hepatocytes is sufficient to generate an increased production of interleukin-2 (Il-2),
interleukin-6 (Il-6), and NFk-B and an increased collagen deposition, respectively, mimicking the effect of alcohol
exposure. Alternatively, it can be expected that a low cellular Mg2+ concentration will enhance the effect of ethanol
in eliciting the changes.

Project Advisor: Andrea Romani, Department of Physiology and Biophysics
                                                             22
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
             The Roles of Guilt and Self-blame in PTSD for CSA Survivors and non-CSA Trauma Survivors

            Andromeda Fair, Department of Psychology and Norah Feeny, Department of Psychology

                      Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder associated with experiencing a
             traumatic event that has an estimated lifetime prevalence in the general population of 7.8% (Kessler et
             al., 1995). Many people experience traumatic events and do not develop PTSD, but it is not well
understood why some individuals develop this disorder and others do not. One of the factors thought to play a major
role in development of PTSD is the experience of negative cognitions during and after the event (Ehlers & Clark,
1999). Of these negative cognitions, guilt and self-blame have been less studied than others such as shame (Lee,
2001; Wilson, 2006; Amstadter, 2008) and anger (Taft, 2007; Amstadter, 2008). Previous studies have found that
different levels of guilt (Amstadter, 2008) and different types of guilt (Kubany, 1995) occur after different types of
traumatic events, but one type of traumatic event that has been understudied in terms of guilt is child sexual abuse
(CSA). In general, CSA survivors have been shown to experience more severe symptoms of PTSD (Rodriguez et
al., 1997) and poorer mental and physical health (Ullman & Brecklin, 2003; Campbell et al., 2008; Lang et al.,
2008) than controls. Because of increased self-attribution in survivors of CSA (Wenninger & Ehlers, 1998; Owens
& Chard, 2001), guilt and self-blame may be particularly important in the development of PTSD in this population.
Considering the differences in levels of guilt across other traumatic events found in previous studies (Amstadter,
2008), it is hypothesized that CSA survivors will show differences in levels of guilt and self-blame than those with
PTSD who do not report a history of CSA.

Project Mentor: Professor Norah Feeny, Department of Psychology




                The Association between Periodontitis and Prostatitis through Cytokine Assays

Alexis Ferrera, Department of Biology

Levels of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) are normally tested to determine if a patient has prostate disease.
Elevated levels of PSA in the blood stream can be suggestive of prostate diseases such as cancer of the prostate,
benign enlargement of the prostate tissues, urinary retention, or prostatitis. In a recent study by Joshi et al. (2009),
PSA levels were tested in patients with periodontitis and chronic prostatitis, both inflammatory-mediated diseases,
to determine if there is an association between the two. Data from this study showed that PSA levels are high in
patients with moderate or severe prostatitis and periodontitis. The purpose of this study is to determine if there is an
association between prostatitis and periodontitis through the use of cytokine assays. We hypothesize that pro-
inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), will be expressed on
the cytokine profiles of patients with periodontitis and prostatitis. Previous studies have found that levels of these
cytokines are elevated in the serum of patients with periodontitis alone (D’Aiuto et al., 2004) and prostatitis alone
(Alexander et al., 1998). If these results occur, it could signify that there is a causal relationship between the
cytokines released from periodontitis triggering a greater inflammation in a prostate gland that is already inflamed
from prostatitis.

Project Mentors: Dr. Valerie Haywood, Case Western Reserve University Department of Biology
                  Dr. Richard Jurevic, Case Western Reserve University School of Dental Medicine Department of
Biological Sciences
                 Dr. Jyotsna Chandra, Case Western Reserve University Center for Medical Mycology Department
of Dermatology


                                                             23
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                   Bio-Inspired Polyelectrolytes: Next Generation Thermoelectric Materials

Beatrice Floyd, Department of Mechanical Engineering; Alexis Abramson, Department of Mechanical Engineering

A gel-like substance found in the pores of sharks is used by the animal to sense temperature gradients in the water in
order to find prey and mates. The gel contains a high content of salt water and long glycoproteins, and exhibits a
high Seebeck coefficient, which is a measure of the voltage response of a material due to the presence of a
temperature gradient. The goal of our work is to develop similar bio-inspired materials for thermoelectric
applications that exhibit high Seebeck coefficients. Thermoelectric materials have great potential in transforming
waste heat into usable energy, but because of low efficiencies, have not been put to use. Nonetheless, these high
Seebeck coefficient liquids/gels o have the added benefit of being comparably inexpensive compared to more
conventional solids since their main ingredients are salt and water. Additionally, liquids/gels may be used in flexible
thermoelectrics and may be more suitable for biocompatible applications such as to power a pacemaker, by way of
the temperature difference between the body and the outside air. In this project, we have synthesized a bio-inspired
synthetic liquid, which also contains salt water but instead of glycoproteins, we are using polystyrene doped with
negatively charge sulfate groups. Experimental results of Seebeck coefficient as a function of concentration will be
presented.

Project Mentor: Alexis Abramson, Department of Mechanical Engineering




            Analysis of Heterogeneously Vancomycin Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Drug Susceptibility
                                                  and Resistance

           William Fox, Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University; Amy Miskov, Department of
           Clinical Microbiology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation; and Geraldine Hall, Department of Clinical
           Microbiology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation.

         The advent of vancomycin intermediate strains of Staphylococcus aureus is of particular interest to the
medical community. Certain strains of S. aureus are displaying a unique and variable pattern of
susceptibility/intermediate resistance to the drug vancomycin. The organisms in question possess a parental
phenotype that is susceptible to the drug, whereas the daughter cells from the same strain are observed to possess a
phenotype with intermediate resistance to the drug. The goal of this project is to examine aspects of this selective
behavior by examining the true response of the organism to the drug in question via the use of Minimum Inhibitory
Concentration (MIC) susceptibility plates (Magellan Biosciences, Chelmsford, MA, USA) and vancomycin Etest
strips (AB bioMérieux, Solna, Sweden). Additionally, any daughter cells potentially possessing intermediate
resistance will be isolated and examined for viability and further resistance studies. Isolates were collected from the
stock organism collection in the Department of Clinical Microbiology at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation
(Cleveland, OH, USA) and selected based on their potential to possess intermediate resistance, as demonstrated by
an MIC equal to 2 μg/mL vancomycin as determined by the Clinic’s Vitek 2 AES System (bioM          érieux, Durham,
NC, USA). Special attention will be paid to the site of collection of each stock sample, as certain sites within the
body offer reduced effectiveness for the drug and thus can potentially create a more hospitable environment for the
intermediate strain of S. aureus.

Project Mentor, Case Western Reserve University: Mr. James Bader, Department of Biology
Project Mentor, Cleveland Clinic Foundation: Dr. Geraldine Hall, Department of Clinical Microbiology
                                                             24
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                             IN SILICO MODELING OF THE WNT SIGNALING NETWORK

           Ted Roman, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics,
           Computer Science and Mathematics Major; Alex Galante, Department of Biology, Biology Major;
           Sudipto Saha, Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics; Mehmet Koyuturk, Department of Electrical
           Engineering and Computer Science, Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics; Rob Ewing, Center for
           Proteomics and Bioinformatics

The Wnt signaling network plays important roles in multi-cellular development and human cancers. A better
understanding of interactions of this network enables better modeling of processes, also potentially resulting in the
development of novel therapy strategies. While some of the key members of the network and their interactions are
well-characterized, knowledge of others is limited. Building on existing knowledge, we construct a comprehensive
model of the network in order to illuminate novel regulators.

Published protein-protein interaction (PPI) data has provided us with a list of well-known Wnt network interactors.
We call these proteins in the WNT core. We developed an in silico model based on this core to enrich our
understanding of the WNT signaling network. This model consists of three layers: the core of seed proteins; all
interactors that interact with an least one core protein--second-level proteins; and all indirect interactors of the core.
 We scored the non-core nodes of the network based on degree of connectivity to the core and the random walk
model for scoring proximity and closeness to the core. To ensure our scoring did not occur simply due to chance, we
compared the model to a collection of random networks, generated by preserving the topology of the original
network. Using a combination of metrics enables the algorithm to identify locally and globally important nodes. A
high score for a node indicates that the protein is highly connected to the known proteins, and may play a role in
signaling. This new in silico method of building a set of candidate proteins to investigate in the wet lab will result in
a more focused, efficient investigation of potential players in the WNT network.

Funding provided by the Case Alumni Association through the office of SOURCE at Case Western Reserve
University and NSF Grants DUE-0634612 and CCF-0953195.

Project Mentors: Mehmet Koyuturk, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Rob Ewing,
Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics




               Chemical Bath Deposition of CdS and TiO2 Semiconductor Sensitized Solar Cells

Ashley Gan, Department of Materials Science and Engineering

          CdS and TiO2 composite films for use in semiconductor sensitized solar cells (SSSCs) were formed on tin-
doped oxide (FTO) glass substrates via chemical bath deposition (CBD) with subsequent heat treatment. In a SSSC
a transparent conductive oxide such as FTO is coupled with a large band gap semiconductor such as TiO2 (Eg= 3.2
eV) and a semiconductor sensitizer such as CdS that has a smaller band gap (Eg= 2.42 eV). The sensitizer delays
recombination of electron-hole pairs as well as increasing the range of wavelengths that can be absorbed by the
semiconductor. CBD is a relatively cheap method of simultaneously depositing oxides and sulfides onto a
conductive glass substrate such as FTO. Previous undergraduate researchers discovered deposition parameters that
deposited both CdS and TiO2, the first time that both constituents have been formed from a single aqueous solution.
Three deposition parameters were further tested: solution pH, temperature, and deposition time. Solution pH ranged
from 3.7 to 3.9, temperature ranged from 50 ˚C to 70 ˚C, and 100-minute and 18-hour deposition times were tested.
The films were then heated at 400 ˚C for 2 hours to further crystallize the CdS and TiO 2. Glancing incident x-ray
diffraction (GIXRD) showed evidence of anatase TiO2 as well as cubic and hexagonal CdS. Photovoltaic testing of
the films, conducted by Professor Gary Hodes at the Weizmann Institute in Rehovot, Israel, yielded photocurrents
up to ~1.2 mA (~2 cm2 specimen area) and voltages up to 0.35 V. Films deposited with solution pH of 2.8,
deposition temperature of 50 ˚C, and 18-hour deposition times yielded the strongest photovoltaic response.

Project Mentor: Professor Mark DeGuire, Department of Materials Science and Engineering
                                                              25
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                    Empathy, Rationality and Legal Judgment

Rebecca Gans, Department of Cognitive Science; and Anthony Jack, Department of Cognitive Science

          Jurors across the United States are instructed to base their legal judgments on rational judgment only. Laws
in the United States assume that empathy and emotion are inherently biasing and should not be possible sources of
insight. However, in the field of psychology, there has been conflicting evidence about the positive and negative
aspects of rational vs. empathic approaches to judgment. Two possible reasons for this conflict include that
psychological research in general tends not to compare rational to empathic styles of judgment and that research on
empathy tends not to compare different styles of empathizing. Specifically, there may be a difference between
people that empathize with others broadly and automatically and people that empathize only if doing so fits with
their notions about morality. The current study is a survey designed to examine whether scores on psychological
evaluations of rationality, empathy and philosophical beliefs are associated with different types of legal judgment
errors, such as failing to factor out racial bias and irrelevant, but emotionally salient, information.

Project Mentor: Professor Anthony Jack, Department of Cognitive Science




            Synthesis and Properties of Polyetheramine-Based Main Chain Benzoxazine Polymers

Samuel Geiger, Department of Chemical Engineering; Syed Qutubuddin, Department of Chemical Engineering;
and Tarek Agag, Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering

Polybenzoxazines are a developing class of thermosetting resins characterized by cost effective synthesis, attractive
performance properties, and molecular design flexibility. The goal of this research project is to synthesize an
elastomeric polymer with crosslinkable benzoxazine moieties in the main chain. The incorporation of a
polyetherdiamine as a reagent for synthesis benzoxazine will produce a flexible polymer in a class of typically brittle
resins. The polymer will be characterized using proton nuclear magnetic spectroscopy and Fourier-transform
infrared spectroscopy; curing behavior will be investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. Furthermore,
thermal properties of the crosslinked material will be investigated using thermogravimetric analysis and dynamic
mechanical analysis.

Project Mentor: Professor Hatsuo Ishida, Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering




                              Smart Metering for Monitoring Energy Consumption

Julia German, Materials Science and Engineering

          A Smart Meter is used to track electricity, gas, and water consumption. However, unlike traditional meters,
these are two way communication devices. This means both the utility and the consumer are able to monitor and
control real-time data regarding energy use, cost, emissions, etc. There are many disadvantages with the current
metering system: billing is inefficient and typically inaccurate, customers are generally unaware of their daily
energy use and the implications of it, slow response to outages, and high demand during peak hours, making prices
skyrocket. The goal of my research is to gain expertise on what has been done with Smart Meters in the US and
locally, determine the benefits of Smart Metering for the consumers and utilities, and educate others on the
importance of energy monitoring by exposure to available resources.

Advisor: Dr. David Schwam, Department of Materials Science and Engineering
                                                             26
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                               Mimicking Cockroach Behavior with a Small Robot

Chad Rockey, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Alexander Graber-Tilton,
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; and Kevin McDonald, Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering

Biologists in the Ritzmann Lab are performing animal behavioral experiments for the purpose of understanding how
the brain interacts with its local control system. Cockroach behavior is studied by observing the animal's reactions
to stimuli such as moving, high contrast video and antennal contact in a constrained environment. These
observations in tandem with neurobiological studies are then used to theorize how the insect’s brain may make
decisions in the context of changing situations. Once a theory of how an insect’s brain may work is concluded, the
theory is then applied to a robot and tuned to so that the robot repeats the behavior. The theory is tested when the
stimuli are changed in both the cockroach and the robot experiments and the new results are compared. This requires
the robot to have similar locomotion and sensing capabilities and operate in a similar environment. The robot was
designed to replicate the behavior of a Cockroach in a T-shaped track. The design of the robot incorporated both
turning and obstacle traversal capabilities, as well as two tactile antennae sensors and a 1.3 megapixel color camera
to model the robot’s vision system. These sensors allow the robot to detect physical barriers and motion patterns and
react accordingly.

Project Mentor: Professor Roger Quinn, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering




                                   Obesity and the Minimum Wage: Using State-Level Data

            J.P. Graulty, Department of Economics

             Increasing consumption of fast food is thought to be a significant cause of the increasing rate of obesity.
             Meltzer and Chen (2009) use changes in the real minimum wage to test the hypothesis that the increase
             in fast food consumption is a significant cause of rising obesity rates in the United States. Meltzer and
Chen hypothesized that decreases in the real minimum wage would result in increases in Body Mass Index (BMI).
Meltzer and Chen found that the decline in real minimum wage rates explain 10% of the change in BMI since 1970.
However, Meltzer and Chen use national minimum wage and obesity data in their analysis. During this period, the
real minimum wage has fallen for the United States as a whole. However, some specific states have had increasing,
or stable real minimum wage rates. I use this state-level variation to answer the same question with a more robust
methodology, allowing me to establish a stronger line of causality between the real minimum wage and obesity. To
do this, I use data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 1984-2008, and state-level minimum
wage data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Because the real minimum wage has fallen from 1984-2008, and
minimum wage labor is a major cost of fast food restaurants, the decline in the real minimum wage probably
explains some of the increase in BMI. However, I hypothesize that the effect when looking at state-level variation is
smaller than the 10% Meltzer and Chen found.

Project Mentor: Professor David Clingingsmith, Department of Economics
                                                             27
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                             The Role of Cockroach Brain Circuits in Visual Guided Turning

           Brittany Rogers, Biology (BA); Canting Guo, Biology (BS); Amy Brown, Department of Biology;
           Roger Quinn, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Roy Ritzmann, Department of
           Biology

                      Cockroaches use both visual and tactile stimuli to maneuver through their environment. When a
cockroach approaches a corner, its antenna(e) touches the opposing wall and its eyes see the corner. Using this
information, the cockroach turns. Other observations indicate that a field of moving stripes can also evoke turning
movements. Neurons within the central complex of the brain respond to both antennal contact and visual
information (Harley and Ritzmann 2010, Ritzmann et al., 2008, Barth and Heisenberg 1997). Brain lesions of the
central complex inhibit the ability of cockroaches to successfully turn when they encounter a corner (Harley and
Ritzmann 2010). How do visual and mechanical stimuli interact to guide turning? More precisely, how do
moving stripes influence antennal evoked turns? To study this, we observed cockroaches walking in a T-maze
placed in front of a computer monitor that displayed moving stripes. We then asked whether the direction of the
moving stripes affects the direction the cockroach turns. We examined the effect of stripes on turning mechanics
such as body angle and turning rate both before and after antennal contact. We plan to lesion the central complex to
examine its role in guiding stripe generated turns. We are also working with our engineering partners on
development of a system that will activate the stripe generator in response to movements of the cockroach within the
maze.

Project Mentor: Roy Ritzmann, Department of Biology




                 Intracellular Accumulation of Ribosomal Protein S6 is Increased in Alzheimer’s Disease

           Yashi Gupta1 (biochemistry), Sandra L. Siedlak1, Peggy L.R. Harris1, Jeff M. Coller2, Rudy Castellani3,
           and Mark A. Smith1
           1
             Department of Pathology and 2Center for RNA Molecular Biology, Case Western Reserve University,
           Cleveland, Ohio, 3Department of Pathology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland

The phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 is associated with stress granules, more specifically the 40S ribosomal
subunit in eukaryotes, which play a role in RNA storage, degradation, and re-entry into translation. In this study we
found that S6 protein accumulated in structures resembling granulovacuolar degeneration within pyramidal neurons.
Immunohistochemical analysis of hippocampus tissue showed nearly 20 fold more neurons contained S6 positive
granules in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) compared with control. Further, more than half of the neurons containing
ribosomal protein S6 postive granules did not contain neurofibrillary tangles, none were associated with
extracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and S6 positive cells contained less RNA than neighboring pyramidal neurons
that did not contain ribosomal protein S6. S6, in other model systems, is considered a specific marker for stress
granules which are transient intracellular dense aggregations of proteins and RNAs that accumulate when a cell is
under stress. Chronic oxidative stress is central to the pathogenesis of AD and in neurons RNA is a target for
oxidative damage in AD, specifically accumulating 8-hydroxyguanosine. While granulovacuolar degeneration is
often considered part of the autophagic pathway, the current study linking these intracellular inclusions to stress
granules suggests that RNA modulators and RNA protection mechanisms may serve vital roles in neuronal viability.

Project Mentor: Dr. Mark A. Smith, Department of Pathology
                                                             28
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                   Computer Simulations of Nonimaging Concentrators

           Matthew Hakes, Engineering Physics

            A new type of detector has been proposed for inclusion in the Pierre Auger Observatory to study the
            origins of ultra high energy cosmic rays by measuring the Cherenkov radiation they emit when they enter
            the atmosphere. This detector requires a concentrator to focus the Cherenkov radiation into a
photomultiplier tube. Simulations of concentrators consisting of two cone segments sitting on top of each other
were carried out do determine if they would be a suitable compromise between highly efficient but expensive
compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs) and simple but inefficient conical concentrators. The simulations
calculated the path of photons as they reflected inside the concentrators and calculated the angular acceptance for
each configuration. By varying the location at which the two sections come together and the angle of the bottom
section it was determined that certain combinations of these parameters will result in better optical performance and
a shorter height than a simple cone. This demonstrates that a concentrator consisting of two cone segments sitting
on top of each other is a viable alternative to the more common but ill suited CPCs and conical concentrators.

Project Mentor: Dr. Corbin Covault, Department of Physics




           Knockdown of an Ephrin Receptor inhibits proper lateral line development in zebrafish

Anne Hall, Department of Biology; Brian M. McDermott, Jr. Departments of Otolaryngology, Biology and
Neurosciences

          A zebrafish sensory organ system known as the lateral line follows a highly conserved pattern during
embryonic development. It is characterized by the appearance of mature neuromasts at expected spatial and
temporal intervals. Because of this high degree of regularity, the zebrafish is an excellent model organism for in
vivo studies of developmental genetics. Though many genes likely play a role in the organization of the lateral line,
this study focuses on Eph Receptor a4b (epha4b) which is thought to be involved in axon guidance and cell
movement. Using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides targeted to block translation of epha4b mRNA, a morphant
phenotype was obtained in which the lateral line lacks most or all mature neuromasts expected at 4 days
postfertilization. This establishes a role for epha4b in lateral line development; however the exact mechanism by
which it acts remains to be elucidated.

Project Mentor: Brian M. McDermott, Jr. Departments of Otolaryngology, Biology and Neurosciences

This is a Michelson Morley Presentation
                                                            29
                                          Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
              Interfering With Emotional and Sensory Brain Function Offers New Potential Treatments for
                                                       PTSD

           Colleen Heffernan and Brian Weeks, Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University

                   Fear memories resulting from a traumatic event can produce Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
           (PTSD), resulting in recurring memories that trigger hyper-arousal of the sympathetic nervous system.

          A consolidated fear memory retains both sensory and emotional aspects. We hope to isolate and treat these
two aspects via approaches directed toward the sensory system and the amygdala. The emotional aspect will be
studied by pharmacological inhibition of the anxiety neurocircuitry using three types of drugs: (1) a serotonin-
norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (venlafaxine), (2) a D2 dopaminergic and serotonin type 2 antagonist
(risperidone), (3) a β1 and β2-adrenergic antagonist (propranolol). Others have reported success with the latter, so the
first experiments are aimed at reproducing those results. Each treatment will be performed in a double-blind study,
in which post-combat DSM-IV diagnosed PTSD soldiers are exposed to sensory cues specific to their traumatic
memory. Subjects will undergo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine the effectiveness of the
treatment in reducing activity in the amygdala.

          Study of the sensory aspect of the memories will be done with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
(rTMS) of the visual and auditory sensory cortex. The experimental group will be exposed to cues suggested by their
original traumatic event, whereas the control group will be exposed to neutral cues. In using rTMS we will attempt
to prevent initiation of the PTSD response.

         Our work may lead to new strategies for the erasure or reduction of fear memories.

Project Mentor: Dr. James E. Zull, Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University




                          Women and Depression in the United States: A Review of the Literature

           Tiffany Henkel, Department of Anthropology

                 Women experience depression more than men. This project explores the divergent etiologies of
            women’s depression and the various biological and social explanations for the heightened prevalence.
            Biomedicine, for example, emphasizes the somatic aspect of a woman—namely a woman’s present
reproductive stage and its relation to hormonal fluctuation. Social discourse, on the other hand, emphasizes the
social aspect of a woman—namely her role in society. Biomedicine likewise emphasizes the permanence of the
depression symptom criteria, whereas social discourse emphasizes the variability of depression across culture,
gender, and history. The main goal is to evaluate both discourses as a product of United States culture to help
determine why depression rates for women are higher than their male counterparts. Other factors of United States
specifications for women’s depression are reviewed, including the prevalence of pharmaceutical direct-to-consumer
advertisements and standardized symptom inventories in diagnosis. All of this coalesces into a broad scope analysis
of women’s depression as a product of the distinct culture of the United States.

Project Mentor: Professor Atwood D. Gaines, Department of Anthropology
                                                             30
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                      Targeted Disruption of CCR5 Functioning to Treat HIV-1 Infection

Lauren Hennen, Department of Biology

The entry of HIV into target cells is facilitated by the virus binding to CD4 receptors, causing a conformational
change which allows binding to co-receptors CCR5 or CXCR4, through which HIV is able to enter and infect cells.
Because of its involvement in HIV cell entry, the CCR5 co-receptor is being focused on as a potential area of
interest in the study of HIV treatment and prevention due to the effects of mutations in the co-receptor. Individuals
who are homozygous for a CCR5 mutation that deletes 32 amino acids from the CCR5 gene sequence are much
more resistant to HIV infection than those who carry the wild-type allele, and infected individuals who are
heterozygotes often display a slower disease progression. Whereas downregulation of CD4 or CXCR4 has proven to
be harmful to the immune system, there seem to be no such harmful effects in downregulating CCR5. This has
generated interest in treatments that cause the CCR5 co-receptor to mutate or otherwise disrupt its activity. This
research will focus on current strategies to disrupt CCR5 functioning by blocking cell surface expression of the
receptor or by decreasing the production of CCR5 proteins. RNA- and protein-based agents such as small interfering
RNA, ribozymes, intrabodies, and zinc finger nucleases are being developed and tested for use in HIV treatment and
represent potential strategies for the prevention of HIV progression.

Project Mentor: Professor Richard Drushel, Department of Biology




     Giving a Pathogen New Legs: Enabling Motility in the Attaching and Effacing Pathogen Citrobacter
                                              rodentium

Sean M. Hobson, Philosophy & Biochemistry

Citrobacter rodentium (CR) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), and Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are
attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens. These pathogens are similar in that each colonizes the gastrointestinal tract
of their host’s intestine. CR affects mice and EPEC and EHEC are restricted to humans. Prior analysis of the
genomes of CR, EPEC, and EHEC revealed that each possess the genes fliA, fliB, fliC and fliD necessary for
expressing flagella. Yet, of these three A/E pathogens CR alone lacks motility. Motility is an important asset to
pathogens because it heightens their virulence and enables travel to more favorable environments. In analyzing the
genome sequence of CR, we found that a bacteriophage had inserted in the main fli operon between the fliB and fliC
genes. This insertion appears to prevent the expression of genes necessary for structural flagella. We hypothesize
that removal of this phage will re-construct the operon, (1) enabling motility in the organism and (2) possibly
affecting the sites in the gut where it can cause an infection. Our chief aim was reconstructing the fli operon so as to
‘loop out’ the bacteriophage from the genome. We then through the use of specific antibiotics and excision enzymes
created a novel plasmid that would, upon being taken up by CR, be expressed in the genome prior to the portion
containing the bacterial phage. We expected that upon removal of the bacteriophage, CR would express flagella and
exhibit motility. As only the isolation of our novel plasmids were accomplished, we cannot conclusively assert that
expression of the fliABCD genes gives CR motility. In the future, we hope to confirm motility through use of a
‘sloppy agar,’ followed by close study of the pathogenicity of this new novel CR strain in-vivo.

Project Mentors: Lynn Bry M.D. Ph.D Clara Belzer Ph.D, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard School of
Medicine, Department of Pathology
                                                              31
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                         Benzoxazine-functionalized Chitosan:
                             A New Class of Green Polymers of Many Potential Applications

Erin Hollinger, Department of Macromolecular and Polymer Science; Professor Tarek Agag, Department of
Macromolecular and Polymer Science

         Growing emphasis on the environment with the rising prices of oil has increased interest in the
development of a “green” polymer. The use of inexpensive, naturally abundant, and environmentally friendly
reagents is becoming an important and urgent need as alternative resources to produce starting materials for
polymers to replace the use of petrochemical-based materials as common resources. Chitosan, made from de-
acetylated chitin found in the shells of crustaceans, is the second most abundant biopolymer in nature after cellulose.
The presence of free amino groups in its structure gives a tremendous possibility to more easily produce a lot of
functional materials using its high reactivity. In addition, the successful derivation of usable polymers with chitosan
would be important to begin the use of biodegradable polymers. Polybenzoxazine is a relatively new class of
thermosetting polymers which exhibits excellent thermal and mechanical properties including low water absorption
and good dimensional stability. The benzoxazine monomers are typically synthesized using a primary amine and
phenols, allowing for flexibility in molecular design and properties of the desired product. The absence of harsh
acid and bases catalysts and hazardous gases adds to its environmental advantages. By reacting benzoxazine and
chitosan, a “green” polymer can be created. This study explores the derivation of environmentally-friendly
benzoxazine-functionalized chitosan for potential use in coatings and fibers.

Project Mentor: Professor Hatsuo Ishida, Department of Macromolecular and Polymer Science




               Research Comparisons between Schizoid Personality Disorder and Social Phobia

Clay Hurley, Department of Psychology

Schizoid personality disorder and social phobia exhibit many similar characteristics and symptoms. This is difficult
for clinicians and researchers alike, as it is often difficult to distinguish schizoid personality disorder from social
phobia. Comorbidity is the presence of two or more disorders, or a general association between two or more
disorders, in one person. This topic is of particular importance to the field of psychology and the diagnostic criteria
for anxiety disorders and personality disorders. In the case of anxiety disorders (such as social phobia), clients often
meet the diagnostic criteria for more than one disorder. In fact, in 2001, Brown et al. found that over half of all
people with one anxiety disorder were diagnosed with at least one other anxiety or mood disorder. The DSM
personality disorder diagnoses (such as schizoid personality disorder) have also historically shown relatively high
comorbidity (Ottoson, Grann, & Kullgren, 2000; Schopp & Trull, 1993). The goal of my research was to identify
literature similarities and differences between schizoid personality disorder and social phobia. More specifically, I
studied the similarities and differences in emotion regulation, defense mechanisms, and genetics between the two
disorders.

Project Mentor: Professor Amy Przeworski, Department of Psychology
                                                              32
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                     Spatial Influences on Arithmetic in College Students

           Ken Hwang, Biology and Psychology

                      The exploration of visuo-spatial connections in the brain has received a lot of attention,
            especially in regard to number recognition. A theory that proposes a mental number line has been
            supported by previous research. This experiment is designed to expand on the mental number line theory
by investigating the visuo-spatial connection between spatial fields and arithmetic processing. Participants were
asked to perform an experiment involving simple addition and subtraction. It was hypothesized that the mental link
between space and numbers will influence a participant to be more facile adding in the right direction and
subtracting in the left direction reflected in faster reaction times when addition is performed towards the right spatial
field compared to the left, and vice versa for subtraction. Findings from this study may lead to a greater
understanding of the spatial connection the mind makes in order to store, process, and utilize numerical information.

Project Mentor: Professor Lee Thompson, Department of Psychology




             Removal of sensory feedback effects on flight muscle activation and wing movement in tethered
                                                      flying moths

           Kara Imbrogno, Biology; Kayla Imbrogno, Biology; Mark Willis, Biology Department; Jennifer
           Avondet, Biology Department

                     Substantial research has been conducted on how an insect’s nervous system controls flight. One
goal of this research has been to understand the role of touch sensors, which report wing movements to the central
nervous system. Most of these studies have focused on locusts, but recently, limited research has been done on
moths. Moths fly with more maneuverability and have much different wings than locusts. Our research aims to
understand the tethered flight of Manduca sexta moths before and after removal of the tegulae, the mechanosensory
organs at the base of the insect’s wings. Flight is being studied using synchronized high speed video of wing
movements and electrophysiological recordings of the flight muscle activation patterns. Electrodes are inserted into
each moth’s thorax to record from the left and right dorsal longitudinal muscles (DLMs) and the left and right
dorsoventral muscles (DVMs). The DLMs are the insect’s depressor muscles, controlling the downstroke of each
wingbeat. The DVMs are the elevator muscles, controlling the upstroke of each wing beat. The electrodes record the
activation of the muscles by the central nervous system. While the electrodes record the muscle activation patterns,
the high speed video camera allows us to measure the associated wing motion. By taking these recordings before
and after tegulae removal, the role of the tegulae in flight control may be revealed. This research is a starting point
for more advanced research on moth flight mechanisms, which may prove useful for gyroscopic technology in man-
made flight machines.

Project Mentor: Mark Willis, Biology Department
                                                              33
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                  Identification of a Heat Shock Transcription Factor in Schistosoma mansoni

Kenji Ishida, Department of Biology

         Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by the parasitic worm, Schistosoma mansoni, affects over 200 million
people and ranks second only to malaria in terms of its impact on quality of life. Little is known about the specific
regulators of gene transcription in S. mansoni or about many of the biological pathways in which they participate. In
this study, we identified a schistosome gene that encodes for a transcriptional activator. We designed fusion proteins
consisting of the yeast Gal4p DNA binding domain (DBD) and a putative schistosome transcriptional activator and
asked whether these fusion proteins could drive expression of several reporter genes in a modified yeast one-hybrid
system. The genes coding for the putative transcriptional activators were found through predicted protein homology
BLAST comparison between confirmed activator-coding genes in yeast and uncharacterized genes in S. mansoni.
We describe in this paper the cloning and analysis of a schistosome homolog of the yeast gene HSF1 (Heat Shock
Factor 1), a gene involved in activating heat shock response genes. The identification of this schistosome
transcriptional activator will provide a strong foundation from which we can build a better understanding of the
biological pathways involved in gene activation, expression, and development in response to stress.

Project Mentor: Professor Emmitt R. Jolly, Department of Biology

This is a Michelson Morley Presentation




                     Model Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalyst Supported on Graphene

Christine Jackson, Department of Chemical Engineering; Kaitlyn Zolton, Department of Chemical Engineering;
and Robert Savinell, Department of Chemical Engineering

This research is concerned with developing high surface area platinum nanoparticles supported by graphene in an
attempt to create electrocatalysts with high electrochemically active surface area and high stability, but with minimal
amounts of platinum. Graphene is a two-dimensional crystalline structure made up of a single layer of carbon atoms.
This structure results in high electron mobility and high mechanical strength, making graphene a possibly useful
support for platinum electrocatalysts. Graphene supported platinum will also serve as a model for understanding
support stability especially at elevated temperatures and high potentials.

Project Mentor: Dr. Robert Savinell, Department of Chemical Engineering
                                                             34
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                  Cardiac Imaging with an Optical Mapping and Optical Coherence Tomography System

             Andrew Jenkins, Biomedical Engineering; Christine Fleming, Department of Biomedical Engineering;
             Andrew Rollins, PhD, Department of Biomedical Engineering

              Radio frequency ablation procedures are used as a treatment for cardiac arrhythmias. Lesions are
              created in the heart tissue with the hope of interrupting conductive activity. Due to the use of ablation in
a clinical setting, various imaging and ablation protocols are being developed to reduce procedural time and increase
the safety and efficacy of cardiac ablation therapy. Currently, the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) is
being used to study tissue structure during ablation procedures due to its high spatial resolution properties. Optical
mapping is also currently used to visualize conduction propagation across the heart tissue. When used together,
optical mapping and OCT will help us study the relationship between cardiac tissue structure and function. For this
reason, an optical mapping system has been built for use alongside an OCT imaging system. The system has been
built with shared optics between both imaging systems and the ability to control image acquisition alongside of
arrhythmia pacing protocols. Information gained from experiments using our new imaging system will help better
understand ablation therapy.

Project Mentor: Dr. Andrew Rollins, Department of Biomedical Engineering




                               Imaging by Magnetic Particles with a Nonlinear Field Response

           Gareth Kafka, Department of Physics; Lisa Bauer, Department of Physics; Yong Wu, Department of
           Physics; Zhen Yao, Department of Physics; Dr. Mark Griswold, UH Department of Radiology, Matthew
           Riffe, UH Department of Radiology

            Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new tomographic method which is based on the nonlinear response
of superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs) to magnetic fields. Various simulations of this technique have
been conducted which investigated the effect of particle size on the spatial resolution of the reconstructed image;
however, these simulations assumed the particle magnetization responded immediately to applied fields. This project
involved both the investigation of particle relaxation in simulations and the construction of an MPI spectrometer.
The relaxation simulation results show that larger particles have longer relaxation times leading to blurred images.
Coupled with previous simulation results, it is shown that there should be an optimal particle size. The MPI
spectrometer currently being built involves the application of an oscillating, homogenous field to a sample of SPIOs.
The applied field is to be purely of one frequency so that any harmonics detected come from the SPIO sample. The
goal of this spectrometer is to compare the frequency response of the SPIOs to that assumed in the simulations.

Faculty Mentor: Dr. Robert Brown, Department of Physics
                                                              35
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                  Adenovirus RID-α induces an autophagy-like pathway to restore cholesterol trafficking

           Akash Kataruka, Department of Chemistry, Dr. Nicholas Cianciola and Dr. Cathleen Carlin,
           Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology

             Autophagy (or self-eating) is a degradative process by which portions of the cytosol, obsolete organelles,
             and protein aggregates are captured inside unique vesicular compartments, termed called autophagic
vescicles, and targeted for lysosomal degradation. Autophagy occurs regularly to maintain intracellular homeostasis
by ensuring the removal of damaged and aged cellular components, and to promote survival during cellular stress.
The deleterious consequences of improper vesicular trafficking manifests itself in Niemann-Pick type C disease
(NPC), a genetic disorder resulting in the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in late endosomes and lysosomes.
NPC disease is also accompanied by increased autophagic flux, which has been linked to neuronal cell death.
Previous findings have demonstrated that RID-α, a protein encoded by the early region of human type C adenovirus,
restores lipid trafficking in NPC cells and averts the pathophysiological consequences of cholesterol accumulation.
In this study, we report that RID-α accomplishes its cellular function through induction of an autophagy-like
pathway. This is evidenced by elevated levels of LC3-II, a common marker for autophagy, in cells expressing RID-
a. We also observed an increase in the number of LC3 positive autophagic vesicles, along with enhanced
degradation of the long-lived protein p62 in RID- α expressing cells. Furthermore, fluorescent staining revealed
RID-α to colocalize with known markers of autophagasomes, such as LC3-II, MDC, and Beclin-1. Further
characterization of the RID- α autophagy-like pathway will provide insight into the mechanism of RID α -mediated
NPC correction, and may present a cure for this fatal disease.

Project Mentor: Dr. Nicholas Cianciola and Dr. Cathleen Carlin, Department of Molecular Biology and
Microbiology




             Experiences in self-development: A critical reflection and partial Spanish-to-English translation
                                                             of
                                Armando Nougués Fernández’s “El despertar de la oruga”

            Rebecca Keating, Department of English and Department of Modern Languages and Literature

             Doctor Armando Nougués Fernández is a Naturist, Homeopath, Sophrologist and Professor of Chi
Kung. He practices medicine in Málaga, Spain, is the creator of a self-improvement training method known as
Sofrodynamia, and has published multiple books in his native country. He is very well respected among the Spanish
health community but, to date, none of his works have been translated for an English-speaking audience. I had the
pleasure of meeting Dr. Fernández, visiting his office, and spending extensive amounts of time with one of his
students during my stay in Málaga this past summer. After learning about the classes he offers and having the
opportunity to see how he inspires his students and contemporaries, I became interested in learning more about his
methods. As a parting gift, Dr. Fernández gave me his most recent book, “El despertar de la oruga”. In order to
commit myself fully to understanding what he had written I decided to translate the work in to English. This
translation-in-progress and essay represent an analysis of my experience translating the work and the culmination of
my SAGES Senior Capstone project, but also the beginning of what I hope will be a complete English translation
that I can send to Dr. Fernández in return for his gift to me.

Project Mentor: Professor Kimberly Emmons, Department of English
Project Consultant: Mauricio Duarte, Department of Modern Languages and Literature
                                                             36
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
Decreased α-hemolysin production through inhibition of AgrA in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Varandt Y. Khodaverdian, Department of Biochemistry, Michelle M. Pesho, Department of Biochemistry, and
Menachem Shoham, Department of Biochemistry

Infecting an estimated 94,360 and killing 18,650 people per year, methicillin-resitant Staphylococcus aureus
(MRSA) is the most common cause of bacterial infections infecting individuals in the community and patients in
hospitals. As an alternative treatment to traditional antibiotics, we have targeted specific transcription factors that
control the production of virulence factors. Extensive studies have shown that the major regulatory pathway for
virulence in MRSA is the agr (accessory gene regulator) system. A traditional two-component signal transduction
system, agr codes for a transcription factor AgrA. Once phosphorylated, AgrA becomes activated and up regulates
production of virulence factors such as α-hemolysin (hla), δ-hemolysin (hld), phenol-soluble modulins α and β
(psmα, psmβ), and many more. By preventing the activation of AgrA we expected a decrease in the production of
such toxins as those listed above. Through homologous model building we generated a model of the N-terminus of
AgrA. Using this model, we conducted virtual screenings to determine the most probable compounds that would
bind to the activation site of AgrA and prevent phosphorylation. With an ELISA, we found that several of the
compounds decreased the overall production of α-hemolysin. Furthermore, qRT-PCR was conducted to measure
relative changes in the transcription of α-hemolysin. The decreased transcription of α-hemolysin suggests that we
are likely inhibiting AgrA in the manner we have proposed.

Project Mentor: Professor Menachem Shoham, Department of Biochemistry




          MKK6/SEK-1 is a Substrate of LRRK2/LRK-1 Kinase in Pakinson’s Disease Pathogenesis

Tanvi Khot, Department of Biology

Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a major neurodegenerative disease that impairs motor skills. Leucine Repeat Rich
Kinase 2 (LRRK2), an autosomal-dominant gene associated PD is the leading genetic cause of PD, but the causative
pathological mechanisms remains undefined. The project that I am involved in the Feng lab aims to dissect the
molecular mechanism of LRRK2 in maintaining dopaminergic neuron integrity and establish its pathogenic
connection by using Caenorhabditis elegans, a genetic model organism, human neuroblastoma cells and substantia
nigra cells from PD patients. In a pilot study, the Feng lab has identified that LRRK2 may function upstream of
Mitogen-activated Kinase Kinase 6 (MKK6)/p38 to defend C.elegans dopaminergic neuron degeneration induced by
the PD mimetic, 6-hydrooxydopamine (6-OHDA). As a part of the whole project, I together with a postdoctoral
fellow in the Feng lab, tested whether LRRK2 functions as a MAPKKK and signals through the MKK6/p38
pathway. To do so, we used methods of molecular biology and biochemistry, and human neuroblastoma cells. We
found that 6-OHDA promoted association between LRRK2 and MKK6, and a LRRK2-dependent p38 activation.
Together with a previous finding that LRRK2 processes MAPKK phosphorylation activity in an in vitro kinase
assay, we conclude that LRRK2 is a MAPKKK. We are now testing the role of this novel signaling pathway in
dopaminergic neuron degeneration and its PD relevance with C.elegans, human neuroblastoma cells and samples
from PD patients.

Project Mentor: Dr. John Feng, Department of Pharmacology
                                                              37
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
            The development of a single-use amperometric biosensor for the detection of lactic acid

Rebecca Kopplin, Department of Chemical Engineering; Brandon Bartling, Department of Chemical Engineering;
and Chung-Chiun Liu, Department of Chemical Engineering

Lactic acid in human saliva is an important biomarker for oral health and the presence of mutans streptococci. This
research investigated the feasibility of detecting lactic acid in saliva using a disposable, screen-printed biosensor.
These small electrochemical biosensors are inexpensive to manufacture, yield results quickly, and require a sample
volume of only 2 microliters. The biosensor contains immobilized lactate oxidase enzyme that catalyzes the
production of hydrogen peroxide from the lactic acid in the sample. The hydrogen peroxide is oxidized on the
working electrode of the sensor, yielding an electrical current proportional to the concentration of lactic acid in the
sample. The current response of the biosensor in the presence of lactic acid and enzyme was investigated, as was
temperature dependence. Different methods of electropolymerization to immobilize the enzyme onto the electrode
surface were also investigated, as was the effect of changing the buffer solution to mimic human saliva. The results
suggested that such a measurement of oral lactic acid levels would be feasible.

Project Mentor: Professor Chung-Chiun Liu, Department of Chemical Engineering




                                         Mindfulness: A Literature Review

Ji-Eun Lee, Department of Nursing

Background: Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is an intervention to promote individuals’ coping skills
and emotional well-being with interventions such as yoga or meditation.
Aim: To identify the use and effectiveness of MBSR methods among workers and nurses.
Methods: A literature search was conducted from January 2000 to March 2010, using keywords mindfulness, stress
reduction, nurses, and workers. Search engines Pubmed and CINAHL were used.
Findings: Mindfulness interventions included 4 to 8 weeks of MBSR program. Each program varied slightly but
generally had a weekly class, a daily mindfulness exercise and a one day retreat. Studies were conducted using pre
and post test designs. Data were collected using self-report surveys and interviews.
Use of the mindfulness intervention showed significant reductions of stress levels and increased general well-being
including life satisfaction. There were reductions in exhaustion, stability in depersonalization, and increased job
related personal accomplishment.
Participants provided positive comments about MBSR when interviewed at the end of the studies. Also they
intended to continue practicing mindfulness after the studies were complete. One limitation of mindfulness-based
stress reduction is the time commitment as the program involves a high commitment from participants. One
researcher has developed a low dose mindfulness-based stress reduction program lasting 6 weeks with reductions in
the time commitment for the retreat and daily mindfulness exercise. Future studies need to focus on the feasibility of
this low dose mindfulness with particular attention to effect of the intervention when participants do not attend all
the classes during the program.

Project Mentor: Mary Quinn Griffin, PhD., RN. Department of Nursing
                                                              38
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                    Cultural Difference in Ideal Weight and Body Shape for Women

Mee Jee Lee, Department of Biology

        Although it is believed that there is a universally held value of beauty in women, people have
different criteria and definitions of ideal body weight based on their cultural backgrounds. This study
aims to explore the general relationship between self-esteem and body weight for women, focusing
specifically on the differences in Korean and American females’ perception of beauty. One-on-one
interviews and picture-rating-tasks indicated that Asian female beauty is primarily judged upon their
slender body shape while Americans tend to prefer a more voluptuous and curvaceous figure. It was
found that Asians are more concerned with the idea of thinness and have a much stronger aversion to
obesity as well. These results have implications for counseling services and residential life, and further
improvements can be made in mutual understanding of cultural differences.

Project Mentor: Dr. Jessica Gerard, English Department




   The identification of cochlin isoforms in deafness using 2D DIGE and 1D Gel fractionation approaches

Rebecca Levinson, Department of Biology; Parminder Kaur , Department of Proteomics; Giridharan Gokulrangan,
Department of Proteomics; Kumar Alagramam Department of Otolaryngology, UH; Mark Chance, Department of
Proteomics

         Usher syndrome is a degenerative disease characterized by blindness and deafness in humans. The cochlea
(inner ear) encompasses hair cells, the loss of which causes deafness. Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive
degenerative disease of which there are three types, 1, 2 and 3 classified according to severity. Usher syndrome type
1F (USH1F) is reproducible in the Ames Waltzer (av) mouse which has a mutation in protocadherin15 (PCDH15
gene). The use of wildtype mice in comparison with av mice will allow a look at the changes in the proteome
(protein profile) during the disease progression, with a concentration on the changes of cochlin, the most abundant
protein in the inner ear. Protein profiling, using gel-based approaches like 2D differential expression analysis (2D
DIGE), has shed light on the possible roles of cochlin. That data has suggested that Cochlin and its isoforms are very
much involved in the mechanism of hearing loss. A 1D gel based protein fractionation approach provides a different
perspective on the same protein. Together these two approaches are capable of identifying modifications of cochlin,
changes that may be essential to its structure and function. While the importance of the various isoforms has yet to
be determined, their identification provides clues about how to proceed in the study of USH1F.

Project Mentor: Mark Chance, Department of Proteomics

                                                             39
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
              Establishing a Caenorhabditis elegans model of LRRK2-linked Parkinson’s disease

Shen Li, Biology; Shu G. Chen PhD, Pathology; Yao Chen, Pathology; Wen Wang, Pathology; Yue Gao, Pathology

The human LRRK2 is a large of protein of 2527 amino acids. LRRK2 contains several functionally important
domains with multiple scaffold protein modules and signaling domains, including Ras-related GTPase and
MAPKKK (mitogen activating protein kinase). LRRK2 is likely to regulate functions that help maintain homeostasis
of neuronal functions. Mutations in LRRK2 have been linked to the late-onset Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s
disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects motor functions. It has already been determined that over
expression of LRRK2 mutants lead to neurotoxicity in cultured neurons in vitro. In order to understand the LRRK2-
linked pathogenesis, our group’s goal is to establish a transgenic model of LRRK2-associated neurodegeneration in
the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, which is commonly used in neurobiological studies. MoscI mediated
single copy insertion designed by Jorgensen’s lab will be applied to insert Prab3-LRRK2 for the pan-neuronal
expression of LRRK2, in the genome of C. elegans. Using the technique micro-injection, our gene mixture which
includes, our specific gene LRRK2 with the pan-neuron promoter, two negative selection markers and a mcherry
fluorescent marker used to verify whether or not the injection was successful will be injected into 10-15 young adult
C. elegans. Pan-neuron expression ensures that LRRK2 is expressed in all neurons of the body rather than simply
dopamine neurons. A specific protocol called selection based insertion of single copy gene was applied for
establishing the transgenic expression of Prab3-LRRK2 in the neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. The over arching
goal of this experiment is to establish a useful model for the study of the expression of LRRK2 and its role in the
pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease.

Project mentor: Professor Shu G Chen, Department of Pathology




                      Prototype Cherenkov Detector and its Application in Cosmic Ray Experiments

            Guozhi Liang, Department of Physics

                       Cosmic rays, that reach and interact in the Earth's atmosphere, create high energy charged
             particles which often produce Cherenkov radiation. Cherenkov radiation is the light analog of a sonic
             boom. When charged particles travel at speeds greater than the speed of light in a certain medium, they
produce radiation which can be detected in the sky. Over the past few years, the High Energy Astrophysics lab have
worked on making a Cherenkov detector which would measure this radiation in the night sky as a method of
detecting cosmic ray air showers. The primary focus of my research involves the renovation or replacement of some
of the detector's aging components, and the testing of the detector's functionality. Work is currently underway to
reconstruct key components in the detector as well as to find the proper detection triggering. Ultimately such a
detector would be deployed as a detector array to get better sky coverage. One of the prime candidates for large
scale deployment of this detector is the Pierre Auger Observatory.

Project Mentor: Professor Corbin Covault, Department of Physics
                                                            40
                                          Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
          Testing the Efficacy of the Tamoxifen Inducible Expression System with Conditional Cftr

Kirtishri Mishra, Department of Biology

          Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening disorder that causes severe lung damage and nutritional
deficiencies. An inherited condition, cystic fibrosis causes an organism wide defect in epithelial tissue function.
This ubiquitous affect poses a challenge for researchers studying the disorder, because it is difficult to distinguish
which affects are primary results of the mutation in the CFTR protein, and which are manifested due to the lack of
proper function by other systems. Knock-out mouse models have provided a way for researchers to knock out
CFTR functions from specific tissues, and to determine how this affects the function in other tissues or organ
systems and the mouse over all. Through selective breeding mice are born with inactivated CFTR function in
specific tissues; however, in order to fully understand a disease and its development it must be studied in a temporal
context as well. A tamoxifen inducible gene expression system allows researchers to inactivate CFTR function from
desired tissues at specific time periods of the organism’s life cycle. In current work, we have generated a mouse
model that permits us to cause tissue mediated recombination, stimulated by an estrogen like drug called Tamoxifen
(TM). The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the optimum concentration of TM, and the time span of
treatment that would yield the highest rate of Cftr inactivation.

Project Mentor: Dr. Craig Hodges, Department of Pediatrics

This is a Michelson Morley Presentation




                  Platelet-targeted liposomes for site-specific drug delivery in vascular disease

Christa Modery, Department of Biomedical Engineering; Madhumitha Ravikumar, Department of Biomedical
Engineering; Anirban Sen Gupta, PhD, Department of Biomedical Engineering

Arterial thrombo-occlusions are a major cause of vascular disease-related morbidity and mortality. Current treatment
modalities include a combination of endovascular angioplasty/stenting or bypass grafting along with oral/systemic
pharmacotherapy. Invasive methods like angioplasty, stenting, and bypass grafting are associated with restenosis,
graft failure, and secondary thrombotic events. Additionally, current pharmacotherapy strategies have issues of short
plasma half-life of drugs, insufficient drug concentration at the thrombus site, and harmful side-effects like
hemorrhage due to non-specific drug action. These issues with existing pharmacotherapy can be resolved by
designing a delivery platform that can encapsulate the drug, protecting it from plasma, and ensure thrombus site-
selective delivery, reducing systemic side-effects while enhancing therapeutic potential. With this rationale, we
created a liposomal drug delivery platform which can selectively target activated platelets at the thrombus site by
virtue of two simultaneous ligand-receptor mechanisms. We hypothesize that this platform will provide synergistic
pathways of site-selectivity and ensure stable attachment under a dynamic flow environment. A fibrinogen-mimetic
RGD peptide, having specificity to activated platelet integrin GPIIb-IIIa, and an EWVDV peptide, having specificity
to platelet surface P-selectin, were developed using solid-phase chemistry and conjugated to lipids via amide
linkage. The lipid-peptide conjugates were incorporated into fluorescently labeled liposomes, approximately 150nm
in diameter. In-vitro binding studies were performed using activated platelets under static and dynamic flow
conditions and analyzed using fluorescence microscopy. Results show statistically significant binding of our
targeted liposomes to activated platelets compared to untargeted liposomes. We envision that these bioengineered
liposomes can facilitate targeted treatment of arterial thrombo-occlusions.

Project Mentor: Professor Anirban Sen Gupta, Department of Biomedical Engineering
                                                             41
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                   Development of a new telescope for detecting Ultra-Rapid Optical Flashes

Heather Morgan, Department of Physics

OSETI is a field of research that focuses on the search for extraterrestrial life by locating light pulses. This is a
variation on traditional SETI research, which searches for radio signals rather than light pulses. The assumption is
that light-based extraterrestrial communication will have a duration of only a few nanoseconds. Space is vast and
the origin of these light pulses would be a long distance away. In order to have a chance of locating these light
pulses we would have to search a large portion of the sky in order to locate them and isolate them from the
background of other visible light “noise” in the sky. In order to pursue this goal Professor Corbin Covault has
designed a prototype observatory to find such signals. The project is called “Double Twin Mirror Optical SETI
Observatory”, or “DTMOSO”. The proposed observatory would be comprised of an array of sensitive light
detectors that scan the sky for light flashes. If a flash is detected, a signal will be sent to the detector. One of the
most important components of this design is an analog fan-in/out device. The signals sent through the device would
be very small and short. It is not certain if the current commercial models meet our performance requirements for
speed and sensitivity. If a suitable model cannot be found, the design cannot be implemented. A potential model
produced by LeCroy, the 428F, was finally located and tested. I found it to be slightly lacking according to the tests
I performed. More revealing tests are planned in the future using better testing equipment.

Project Mentor: Professor Corbin Covault, Department of Physics




                                              Going Beyond Protons in MR Study

            Seraina Murphy, Department of Physics

                      In the current market for magnetic resonance imaging technology, the coils used for imaging
            are singly tuned to resonate at the precession frequency of hydrogen nuclei; however, recent research has
proven that the use of dual-tuned coils is favorable for imaging hydrogen-poor areas of the body, such as the lungs.
These ‘dual-tuned’ coils resonate with both hydrogen nuclei and the nuclei of a locally injected hyperpolarized
element such as carbon-13 or helium-3. This research investigates the feasibility of an innovative dual-tuned coil
design that involves two concentric birdcage resonators, each tuned to a single frequency—in this case, one is tuned
to the precession frequency of hydrogen and the other to that of carbon-13. This particular design integrates two
birdcages that have each proven highly effective as separate, single-tuned devices: a “low-pass” birdcage, which is
very effective for resonating with low-frequency elements like carbon-13, and an “inductive resonator,” which is
easy to tune to high-frequencies like that of hydrogen, but also has greater stability than other high-frequency
resonators. Ultimately this design has proven successful, as the two concentric coils have simultaneously displayed
resonance behaviors at their respective frequencies. Compared to previous designs, this dual-tuned coil has
equivalent output and has the advantage of greater uniformity and easier tuning capability.

Project Mentors: Dr. Robert Brown, Department of Physics; and Dr. Fraser Robb, GE Healthcare Coils
                                                              42
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
Multiplex assay development for species identification and monitoring of knock down resistance in Anopheles
                           mosquito vector populations of Papua New Guinea

Kogulan Nadesakumaran, Department of Biology; Cara N. Henry-Halldin, Center for Global Health and Diseases
CWRU; John Bosco Keven, Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Goroka, Papua New Guinea; Allison
Zimmerman, Department of Anthropology; Lisa Reimer, Center for Global Health and Diseases CWRU; Peter A.
Zimmerman, Center for Global Health and Diseases CWRU

          Extensive distribution of indoor residual spraying of insecticides and long lasting insecticide treated
bednets for prevention of malaria have created selective pressures resulting in the development of insecticide
resistant mosquitoes in malaria-endemic regions of the world. A point mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel
gene (VGSC), kdr, is the most common variation associated with resistance to DDT and pyrethroid insecticides used
in vector control. In the Papua New Guinean Anopheles punctulatus (Ap) species complex (>10 species), species-
specific insecticide resistance has not been characterized. As morphological species identification has proved
challenging within the Ap complex, we undertook DNA sequence-based strategies to evaluate species-specific
differences and kdr associated polymorphisms. We observed consistent differentiation among Ap, A. koliensis, A.
farauti 1 &4, revealing species-specific ITS2 and VGSC polymorphisms from DNA sequences of 90 mosquitoes in
7 provinces of Papua New Guinea. To determine if VGSC sequence polymorphisms distinguish Ap sibling species
consistent with ITS2 variation, VGSC and ITS2 sequence specific probes were designed and 237 mosquitoes were
evaluated. Results showed that all samples were homozygous wild type at the kdr mutation site. Results comparing
species-specific polymorphisms were 100% (237/237) concordant between the traditional ITS2 marker and the
VGSC sequence variants. Together, VGSC and rDNA molecular methods consistently showed that morphological
factors are less reliable in identifying species than DNA based analyses due to the cryptic nature of the Ap complex.
In addition to monitoring for common insecticide resistant mutations like kdr, effective vector control programs
must have reliable methods of species identification. Our results suggest that the VGSC gene-based assay allows for
the simultaneous evaluation of the kdr associated genotype and molecular species identification following a single
PCR.

Faculty Advisor: Peter A. Zimmerman




                          Project Retrospect: Historicizing the Rhetoric of Energy Independence

           Paul Niebrzydowski, History

            What does energy independence mean? Although our nation's dependence on imported energy
            dominates current political discourse, it is not a recent issue; ideas of energy independence have
            influenced political discourse since the early 1970s. In November of 1974, following the implementation
of the OPEC oil embargo, President Nixon launched 'Project Independence.' Evoking analogies of the Manhattan
Project and the Apollo program, President Nixon called on American science and technology to archive energy
independence by 1980. However, was Project Independence an earnest and feasible goal, or rather an attempt to
regain the trust of a post-Watergate Nation? Furthermore, did President Ford's continuing interest in energy
independence serve to ultimately achieve self-sufficiency or rather to reestablish the legitimacy o the American
Presidency? Did the Nixon and Ford administrations deem it reasonable to expect technology to solve political and
social problems, or were notions of energy independence molded to appeal to the political culture and allay short
term pressure on the administrations during the energy crisis of the 1970s? Placing the language of energy
independence proposals of the early 1970s in a historical context will entail an examination of how and why
expectations of domestic energy production came to be tied to concepts of independence, and how these ideas fit
into the broader American political vocabulary.

Project Mentor: Professor Peter A. Shulman, Department of History
                                                             43
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                            Culture, Mind, and Morality Project: Yoga and Emotional Response

           Megan Norr, Department of Cognitive Science

             The networks the brain utilizes for emotional processing and other aspects of social cognition,
             particularly regions of the prefrontal cortex, have been shown to be highly activated when making
emotional moral judgments. It has also been shown that meditation affects activation in some of the same areas. In
this study, three types of tasks were studied to determine whether they had an effect on three aspects of emotional
processing: making moral decisions, emotional intelligence, and likelihood of attributing higher order cognitive
processes (e.g. self-reflection) to non-human beings. Yoga practitioners, Case undergraduate students of various
disciplines, and video game players at Local Area Network (LAN) parties were given paper and pencil surveys
before and after their respective tasks. We hypothesized that performing tasks that required mindful awareness of
one’s breath and body posture would facilitate greater emotional awareness, thereby increasing emotional response
in moral judgments, emotional intelligence, and the likelihood of assigning mindedness to non-humans. We
predicted that attending lectures/taking notes and playing video games (particularly violent killing games), both
tasks which utilize visuo-spatial processing and analytical networks, would lead to utilitarian morality, decreased
emotional intelligence, and decreased mindedness attribution. In all three tasks, we were also interested in the degree
to which participants’ engagement in the activity (as measured by the Flow State Scale-2) mediated the effect of
their particular task. We found that yoga increased emotional intelligence in recognition of subtle facial emotions,
and increased emotional moral judgments.

Project Mentor: Dr. Anthony Jack, Department of Cognitive Science




                   Diamond Microelectrodes for In Vitro Adenosine and Dopamine Detection

Jenna Novak and Samantha Reed, Department of Chemical Engineering; Heidi Martin, Department of Chemical
Engineering; Christopher Wilson, Deptartment of Pediatrics UH

Diamond microelectrodes have high sensitivity for neurotransmitters and low bio-reactivity, which makes them
ideal for in vitro testing of neurotransmitters relevant in respiratory rhythm modulation. Experiments show that
30µm disk electrodes can be produced and are capable of detecting dopamine and adenosine while any drugs, which
are applied for in vitro applications, will not interfere with these detections. Careful control of the procedure for
creating disk electrodes is necessary to create usable electrodes with a pure disk geometry and no overgrowth. The
best electrodes have been created through hot filament chemical vapor deposition with a methane percentage of 0.9
at a distance of eight mm from 2000°C filaments. Before growth the electrodes are seeded through beveling on a
diamond pad and then cleaned with water and a Kimwipe. After growth, flow cell testing allows calibration of the
electrodes for their sensitivity to various neurotransmitters, including dopamine and adenosine. Flow cell tests can
also be used to assess the possibility of broken electrodes or incomplete diamond coverage of the tungsten substrate.
Fast scan cyclic voltammetry is used to detect neurotransmitters both in flow cell and in in vitro experiments.
Voltammetry with slower scan rates is used when an electrode is suspected to have exposed tungsten. As the
reproducibility of the electrodes is improved, their in vitro use will be expanded and testing for neurotransmitters
will be completed.

Project Mentor: Heidi Martin, Department of Chemical Engineering
                                                             44
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                       The Presence of an Emotional Attention-Bias in Adolescents with Depression

           Julia Obejero-Paz, Department of Psychology

             Depressed individuals as well as individuals at high-risk of developing depression have been
             hypothesized to selectively attend to negative information. The presence of an attention-bias to negative
             emotional stimuli has been proposed to be a cognitive vulnerability factor for the development of
depression. In the present study, the author investigated whether or not adolescents with depression show an
attention-bias to positive versus negative emotional stimuli. The research focused on depressive symptomatology of
adolescents and their parent. Parents completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)
and adolescents completed the Child Depression Inventory (CDI). During a lab visit, adolescent participants also
completed an emotional dot-probe task to measure attention-bias to emotional faces. Parent and adolescent
depressive symptoms interacted to predict attentional bias to negative but not positive facial-expression stimuli. The
results indicate that when an adolescent is depressed and their parent is not depressed, adolescents display a bias
away from sad faces, demonstrating an emotional avoidance. When an adolescent and their parent are both
depressed, however, adolescents display a strong bias toward sad faces. These results indicate that the presence of an
emotional attention-bias is related to both adolescent and parent symptoms of depression.

Project Mentor: Professor Arin Connell, Department of Psychology




                The Fronto-pariatal fasciculus is essential for memory recall in Multiple Sclerosis patients

           Susan Orra, Department of Biology; Kelly Rogers, Department of Biology and Department of Spanish

                       Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune neurodegenerative disease characterized by
             demyelination, axonal damage, and progressive neurologic disability. MS can be diagnosed by the
             detection of lesions on MRI images that show areas of prominent demyelination. Research indicates that
lesions in the brain may cause cognitive dysfunction in 40-65% of MS patients and that 10-15% of MS patients have
deficiencies in long-term memory recall.
          Research on Left Unilateral Neglect Syndrome has indicated that the connection between the front and the
back cortex through the myelinated axons of the occipitofrontal fasciculus (OPF) is essential to spatial processing,
recognition of symmetrical objects, and is linked to an inability to recall left hemisphere visual memories. We
propose that the OPF is important in visual long-term memory recall, and that the function of these myelinated
axons is inhibited in MS patients due to lesions on the OPF.
          We will employ Nexstim eXimia Navigated Brain Stimulation (NBS), a new system that allows for more
accurate interpretation and use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) than previous technologies. TMS is
gentle and non-invasive excitation of the cortex by exposure to a specifically applied, rapidly changing, magnetic
field that gives rise to excitation of conducting neurons in the cortex. Nexstim NBS generates real time 3-D
images that enable the precise reproduction of particular TMS stimuli at specific locations with measured strengths.
With the use of NBS in conjunction with Electroencephalography (EEG) we will be able to stimulate precise brain
areas and measure the excitation of other brain areas in response to the stiumuls, thus measuring cortical
connectivity. We will use NBS to compare the conduction of neuronal signals along the OPF in the brains of
healthy individuals and the brains of MS patients experiencing deficiencies in long-term memory recall. The
research may indicate the involvement of this pathway in long-term memory recall as well as indicate the possibility
that lesions in the OPF may be causing the inability of MS patients to recall long-term memories efficiently.

Project Mentor: Dr. James Zull, Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University
                                                             45
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
               Linking Parkinson's Disease Symptom Type and Severity with LRRK2 Pathogenic Mutation
                                                      Status

           Harry Owusu-Dapaah, Department of Chemistry; Yanina Natanzon, Department of Pharmacology;
           Teresa Rice, Department of Pharmacology; Shu Chen, Department of Pathology; David Riley and
           Stephen Gunzler; Neurological Institute of University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Amy Wilson-
           Delfosse, Department of Pharmacology

         Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects the central nervous
system. The disease is clinically characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons and the deposition of
abnormal protein aggregates in the substantia nigra, termed Lewy bodies. Mutations in the PD-associated gene,
leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), are the most common cause of autosomal dominantly inherited PD and
idiopathic PD. A number of pathogenic mutations have been found throughout LRRK2, with the kinase domain
G2019S mutation being the most prevalent. We seek to determine whether PD patients who express the G2019S
mutation exhibit unique phenotypic attributes in comparison to PD patients who do not express this mutation. In
order to correlate symptom type and severity with LRRK2 mutation status, approximately 300 patients are being
recruited into this study from the Movement Disorders Center of the Neurological Institute of University Hospitals
Case Medical Center. These subjects are being genotyped for LRRK2 mutation status and are being extensively
phenotyped utilizing established physical examination techniques such as the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, the
Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score, and
the Hoehn & Yahr scale. Phenotypic and genotypic data are being collected and organized in an electronic REDCap
database. Revealing the phenotypic-genotypic correlations in Parkinson’s Disease has numerous important potential
implications for improvements in treatment paradigms. Developing a characteristic clinical profile could lead to
enhanced yield in screening for mutations. Clinicians could provide more individualized prognostic information to
affected patients. The utility of genetic counseling could be enhanced. Ultimately, more rapid identification of
mutation carriers might permit earlier introduction of targeted neuroprotective therapy.

Project Mentor: Professor Amy Wilson-Delfosse, Department of Pharmacology




Reduction in Mitochondrial Superoxide Dismutase Accelerates the Onset of Oxidative Damage in J20 Young
                          Human Amyloid Precursor Protein Transgenic Mice

Neel Pancholi, Department of Economics; Hyoung-gon Lee, Department of Pathology; Mark Smith, Department of
Pathology

While oxidative stress has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease the underlying pathophysiological relationship is
unclear. In this study, oxidative stress was simulated via the ablation of a superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2) allele in
human mutant amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) transgenic mice. Young mice (5-7 months) and old mice (25-30
months) with the four genotypes, hAPP-/Sod2+/+, hAPP-/Sod2+/-, hAPP+/Sod2+/+, and hAPP+/Sod2+/- were
examined using immunohistochemistry for the levels of oxidative stress markers 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and heme-
oxygenase-1. Sod2 reduction in young hAPP mice, prior to the formation of amyloid plaques, resulted in
significantly increased oxidative stress in the hippocampus region of the brain, while no difference was found
between the old mouse groups. The results suggest that the reduction of Sod2 increases the level of oxidative stress
and works synergistically with hAPP in the induction of neuronal oxidative damage.

Project Mentor: Instructor Hyoung-gon Lee, Department of Pathology
                                                             46
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                 Diminished early visual sensitivity for affective stimuli in depressed versus nondepressed
                                                         individuals.

           Sarah Park, Department of Psychology, psychology major; Arin Connell, Department of Psychology;
           Susan Klostermann, Department of Psychology

             Previous studies have been done to evaluate the relationship between emotion regulating skills, brain
responses to emotion evoking pictures, and indications of emotional distress, including depression. These
questionnaire studies indicate that there is an association between emotional regulating skills and emotional distress;
those who possess inadequate emotional regulating skills score higher levels of emotional distress. The purpose of
this study, however, is to investigate the neurological component to understand emotional dysregualtion and its
relation to depression. The technique used for this study is called Event Related Potential (ERP), a non-invasive
approach of assessing brain activity during cognitive processing. ERPs are very reliable because of the ability to
look at the electric shifts (or ERP components) that is time locked to a stimulus (emotional picture) on a millisecond
level, providing the capability to look at cognitive processes that reflects emotional regulation with high temporal
resolution. In the current study, visual ERPs to neutral, negative, and positive affective pictures were compared in a
sample of young adults reporting clinically-significant depressive symptoms, and a demographically-matched
control sample. Affective picture processing ERP components were examined, using a sample of 25 participants.
Significant differences between depressed and non-depressed participants were found for component p1, an early
visual component reflecting initial screening of visual information. Differences between depressed and
nondepressed individuals were found for negative and positive affective pictures, with non-depressed participants
showing greater frontal negativity for negative pictures relative to depressed individuals, but greater parietal
positivity for positive pictures. Results are consistent with Emotion Context Insensitivity theory, highlighting that
depressed individuals fail to show the early visual processing sensitivity to emotions evidenced by healthy
individuals.

Faculty Sponsor: Professor Arin Connell, Department of Psychology




                An Examination of Autonomic Functioning in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes at Risk for
                                                    Depression

           Mayank Patel, Department of Biology, Samantha Huestis, Department of Psychology

             Management of Type 1 diabetes is a complex and arduous task which requires the long term
             maintenance of a regiment involving frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels, implementation of a
diabetes-specific diet to monitor daily carbohydrate intake, and daily insulin treatment. Overall, the diabetic
lifestyle can lead to high levels of stress and anxiety, especially in adolescents. Given this increased likelihood of
stress, research has shown that adolescents with Type 1 diabetes who are forced to incorporate this lifestyle are at
high risk for developing depression due to the inability to effectively regulate the negative emotions associated with
this stress. This research is concerned with evaluating the level of depression in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes at
risk for depression by examining their autonomic responses to three mood-induction tasks. Specifically, we will
analyze the level and fluctuation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and skin conductance level across the three tasks to
search for differences in emotion regulation ability which may be associated with a higher risk for depression in
adolescents with Type 1 diabetes.

Project Mentor: Dr. Arin Connell, Department of Psychology
                                                             47
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                 Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay occurs on polyribosomes

           Christine Petzold, Department of Biochemistry; Wenqian Hu, Department of Biochemistry; Kristian
           Baker, Department of Biochemistry; and Jeff Coller, Department of Biochemistry

                      Messenger RNA (mRNA) relay the genetic code from DNA to protein. This information can
             occasionally be made incorrectly which has detrimental effects for the cell. To prevent this unfavorable
result, cells have created several methods to get rid of these “bad messages”, one such being nonsense-mediated
decay (NMD). NMD triggers the destruction of an mRNA that contains a nonsense mutation that prematurely stops
the synthesis of an essential protein. If not destroyed, the mRNA could continue to promote the generation of
truncated non-functioning proteins. It was previously thought that NMD occurred away from polyribosomes (the
cell’s machinery for translating mRNA into proteins) and in regions of the cell termed processing bodies (P bodies).
But in our studies we show that this popular model is incorrect. Our experiments have led us to develop a new
model for NMD where the decay occurs on polyribosomes. Our studies alter a well accepted dogma in gene
expression. In addition, our results are significant because of the medical relevance of NMD. Nonsense mutations
are at the root of 25% of genetic disorders including a form of cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy. More
information on how the NMD process works can unlock tools for novel therapeutics to help treat numerous human
genetic disorders.

Project Mentor: Professor Jeff Coller, Department of Biochemistry




                   Molecular Recognition of Histone Modifications by a DNA Damage Response Factor

           Funita P. Phan, Biochemistry (BS) and Music Performance (BA) Major; and Steven L. Sanders,
           Department of Biochemistry, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University

             DNA damage response functions as an essential cellular defense that ensures the integrity and stability of
             genetic material. After genomic insult, the rapid accumulation of DNA damage factors at lesion sites
triggers cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the checkpoint protein
Crb2 is one such factor that is essential for genome integrity. Crb2 is a member of a conserved family of checkpoint
mediators that also include the human p53 binding protein 53BP1. Crb2 targeting to sites of DNA damage relies on
two distinct modules: a Tudor domain, which binds preferentially to di-methylated histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20),
and a pair of BRCT repeats, which mediate phospho-recognition and dimerization of Crb2. Although published data
has shown that all three motifs (tudor domain binding, phospho-recognition, and dimerization) are necessary for
Crb2 recruitment at DNA damage sites, the interplay between these three factors is poorly understood. Here we have
used a combination of genetic and biochemical studies to dissect this molecular interplay and investigate the
mechanisms that control targeting of Crb2 to sites of DNA damage.

Project Mentor: Dr. Steven Sanders, Department of Biochemistry
                                                             48
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                       The Depositional Flux of Phosphorus in Lake Erie

            Nicole Pilasky, Department of Geological Sciences

            In the last century, high amounts of phosphorus have been input into Lake Erie due to an increase in
            population growth and a demand for lake services. Large contributors to the loading of phosphorus in the
            lake include agriculture, and water treatment plants. The excess amount of phosphorus has a negative
effect on the lake, causing an over abundant growth of cyanobacteria and phytoplankton, which consume high
amounts of oxygen. The lack of oxygen in the water creates dead zones, areas of non-growth. The Great Lakes
Water Quality Agreement of 1978 was implemented in hopes of reversing the dead zones by reducing the amount of
phosphorus that facilities could dump into the lake. The reduction of phosphorus dumping was successful until
research in the mid 1990’s showed increased amounts of phytoplankton biomass and a recurrence of wide-spread
cyanobacterial blooms in the western basin and in the near-shore areas of the central and eastern basins. Despite the
increase in phytoplankton and cyanobacteria, phosphorous input levels have not risen, which poses the question,
what is changing the state of the lake this time? The invasion of dreissenid mussels to the near-shore environment is
one proposed hypothesis. The dreissenid mussels have essentially changed the cycling of phosphorus by trapping it
in the near-shore, changing the whole dynamic of the lake. This research aims to obtain an estimate of the
phosphorus depositional fluxes at select locations within each of the three basins, and to observe how they have
varied with time, while also observing how the fluxes differ from near-shore, where the mussels have colonized, to
off-shore.

Project Mentor: Professor Gerald Matisoff, Department of Geological Sciences




                                       Seasonal modulation of a sensory feedback system
                                                by the neuropeptide proctolin.

            Mariya Pogrebetskaya, Biology, and Debra Wood, Department of Biology CWRU

             Neuromodulators released as hormones have wide access to both the central nervous system and
             peripheral neurons. These neuroactive substances exert long-lasting effects that underlie adaptive
behavioral changes. Neuromodulators can act upon peripheral sensory receptors, some of which provide feedback
to motor control centers. Invertebrate model systems, such as the crayfish, are useful because their neurons can be
identified, and are accessible for physiological measurements. The neurohormone, proctolin, is known to modulate
sensory receptors; for example, sensitivity of peripheral sensory receptor in lobsters is altered in the presence of
proctolin. We are interested in how proctolin modifies performance of an abdominal stretch receptor in the tail of the
crayfish, stretch receptor 1 (SR1). The SR1 neuron senses tail stretch and regulates abdominal posture. Prior work
showed that proctolin modulates central motor neurons that control tail posture but the effect is seasonal. Using a
reduced crayfish tail preparation, we previously showed that proctolin alters SR1 activity: it increases SR1 action
potential firing frequency, slows adaptation rate of action potential firing, and increases sensitivity to tail stretch. My
hypothesis is that proctolin effects on SR1 are also seasonal. We found that in winter it has no effect on the
measured SR1 activity parameters, while in warmer months the effects are significant. Crayfish often hibernate by
burrowing during winter and the seasonal effects of proctolin are likely adaptive for reduced winter activity.

Project Mentor: Dr. Debra Wood, Department of Biology
                                                               49
                                             Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                    Use of Main Chain Benzoxazine Polymer
                                        Chemistry for Aerogel Synthesis

Kathleen Puttmann, Department of Chemical Engineering; Saeed Alhassan, Department of Macromolecular
Science and Engineering; Tarek Agag, , Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering; David Schiraldi, ,
Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering; Hatsuo Ishida, , Department of Macromolecular Science
and Engineering

Various main chain type benzoxazine polymers have been synthesized applying various approaches. These
approaches include a bisphenol A based benzoxazine. Synthesis of this monomer will be discussed. The polymers
formed tough, stable sol-gels in DMSO. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 1H and 13C nuclear
magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) are used to characterize the structure of the polymers. Multiple
concentrations of the polymer were freeze-dried to form main chain type benzoxazine polymers in the form of
Aerogel. Aerogel samples were gradually thermally treated to form crosslinking polybenzoxazine Aerogel. These
aerogels exhibit much lower density than any previously synthesized benzoxazine based aerogels. The morphology
and properties of polybenzoxazine Aerogel will be discussed. Advanced mechanical analysis was conducted on the
completed aerogels and the results will be discussed.

Project Mentor: Professor Hatsuo Ishida, Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering




                   Patient’s Attitude and Knowledge Concerning the Efficacy and Usage of Face Masks

           Ramya Raman, Department of Biochemistry; Vicken Totten, Department of Emergency Medicine

                     With the increasing threat of H1N1 flu, and the limited supplies of flu shots, preventative
             measures are necessary and need to be further investigated. Masks are devices meant to be worn over the
             nose and mouth to prevent communicable diseases. Research has shown that unless a national or local
health crisis has occurred, the use of masks among medical students, nurses, residents and physicians is low. In
some foreign countries, it is socially acceptable to wear a mask in public; masks are felt to significantly lower the
transmission of disease in these countries. The primary object of this study is to understand patient’s reactions to
face mask use, their attitudes and knowledge. (1) Are patients comfortable with health care workers wearing masks?
(2) Do patients approve of masks being worn in public? (3) Do patients understand what protection masks offer?
This is a prospective, observational survey study of a convenience sample of persons in the Emergency Department
and its waiting room. All willing adult ED patients and visitors, waiting for care, of ages 18-64, will be approached
by a Research Assistant and asked if they would answer a brief survey about wearing masks. Data will be collected
for 370 patients, and the analysis done through: simple summary statistics, categorical representation of comments,
and correlations between patient demographics and their responses.

Project Mentor: Vicken Totten, Department of Emergency Medicine
                                                            50
                                          Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                        Child PTSD and the Influence of Social Support

            Roshni Rao, Department of Psychology

                     The study examined the relationship between the perception of social support in children as
            investigated through the social support survey (Harter, 1985) and severity of post traumatic stress
            disorder (PTSD) or post traumatic stress symptoms in these children. PTSD can be characterized as a
disorder that occurs in children when a child experiences or witnesses a traumatic event. Social Support has been
more and more frequently associated as a protective factor from PTSD and post traumatic stress symptoms. After
assessing a community-based sample of 38 American children (ages 6-17) from low income families of varying
racial background who qualified for inclusion to be considered for this research, these children were surveyed again
on perception of social support and family, cohesion and adaptability (FACES II, Olsen et al., 1982) and were
assessed for severity of PTSD. The findings of this study revealed that no correlation could be found between PTSD
severity and social support with this data. This study further attempted to find a relationship between type of trauma,
either sexual or nonsexual abuse, and family cohesion and adaptability. No difference was found in reporting on
family cohesion and adaptability between children who had experienced sexual abuse and those that had
experienced nonsexual abuse. It was found that children who reported a higher family cohesion also reported a
higher perception of social support. These results have implications for children living in urban areas who come
from low-income families, experience many traumatic events, and do not receive the proper amount of support. This
emphasizes the need for further research in the area of social support in children at risk of developing PTSD and the
potential need for social support programs as a protective factor against the development of PTSD.

Project Mentor: Dr. Norah Feeny, CWRU Department of Psychology




                   Health Care for Latinos in the United States- Discrepancies, Obstacles, and Solutions

            Mary Beth Ray, Department of Modern Languages and Literature, Department of Psychology

                     Individuals of Hispanic origin are at a statistical disadvantage in the obtaining of health insurance
             and quality health care. As Latinos currently comprise 15.1% of the United States population and are
             predicted to account for almost one quarter of the population by 2050, these inequalities must be
investigated and remedied. The research presented here examines the accessibility of quality health care to Latinos;
their level of satisfaction with the care they receive; and the number of uninsured individuals amongst their
population as compared with other cultural groups (which is currently at 30.7%, twice the rate of White non-
Hispanic individuals.) This project also investigates the cultural, sociological, and economic reasons these
discrepancies exist, (such as language barriers, doctor-patient expectations, or poverty-related obstacles.) After a
thorough review of the research on these topics, the current and proposed solutions to these obstacles (such as CHIP
and its Reauthorization Act) are presented, along with their success rate thus far and possible options for the future.
This thesis seeks to illustrate that by identifying the problem and understanding its roots, the United States can close
the gap that exists in the realm of health and medicine.

Project Mentors: Professor Jacqueline Nanfito and Professor Antonio Candau, Department of Modern Languages
and Literature
                                                              51
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                       The Reality of Uncertainty: A Novel Manipulation

            Abigail Reed, Department of Psychology; Nicole Pucci, Department of Psychology

                Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been defined as the tendency to react negatively on an emotional,
             cognitive, and behavioral level to uncertain situations and events (Dugas, Buhr, & Ladouceur, 2004).
Individuals who are intolerant of uncertainty find uncertainty stressful and upsetting, believe uncertainty is
unpleasant and should be avoided, and have difficulty functioning in uncertain situations (Buhr & Dugas, 2002). IU
has been theorized as one of the main components of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Previous studies that
have investigated this relationship have used simulations such as intelligence tests, computerized gambling games,
and recall tasks to replicate feelings of intolerance of uncertainty. However, the ecological validity of these methods
is not ideal. A more ecologically valid way of manipulating and evaluating uncertainty may be through ambiguous
scenarios that an individual is likely to experience in their life. The goal of the current study is to create three unique
scenarios that will more realistically induce IU. This study consisted of three scenarios, which focused on facets of
interpersonal relationships, job interviews, and personal well-being. The level of uncertainty was manipulated (low,
moderate, or high uncertainty) based on information that was provided to the participant following the scenario.
Participants indicated level of uncertainty after each scenario. In addition, participants completed the Intolerance of
Uncertainty Scale. Results. and their implications will be discussed.

Project Mentor: Professor Amy Przeworski, Department of Psychology




                                          Surface Orientation of Chiral Liquid Crystals

            Nicholas Reinsvold, Department of Physics

                     Previous experiments have demonstrated that placing a planar-aligned achiral liquid crystal on a
            chiral substrate results in an azimuthal rotation of the director from the expected angle due to the rubbing
            direction at the surface. In this project I explored the reverse, i.e., the surface orientation of a pitch-
compensated (infinite pitch at one temperature) chiral liquid crystal mixture on an achiral alignment layer. Although
attempts to observe and measure the expected rotation failed due to difficulties arising from the internal alignment
and possibly phase separation of the liquid crystal, the experimental setup was sound. Given more time to sort out
this problem should result in a measurement of the rotation angle, or at least a determination of its lower limit.

Project Mentor: Professor Charles Rosenblatt, Department of Physics
                                                               52
                                             Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                         Creativity in a Pediatric Bipolar Population

           Megan Ritchey, Department of Biology and Psychology; Sandra Russ, Department of Psychology;
           Denise Bedoya, University Hospitals Department of Psychiatry; Robert Findling, University Hospitals
           Department of Psychiatry

          Studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder in adult
individuals, however there is little information relating creative process to a pediatric bipolar population. The
manifestation of child-onset bipolar disorder is beginning to become more understood in children, and is often
characterized by rapid cycling and decreased executive functioning. This study utilized the figural and verbal
components of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, Guldford’s Alternative Uses Task, and the Affect in Play
Scale, to objectively measure creativity in children ages 6-11 with a KSADS diagnosis of bipolar disorder. The
Stroop Color-Word Test and Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence were also used to measure executive
functioning and intelligence, respectively. This study was one of the first to measure the relationship between
childhood-onset bipolar disorder and creativity, which may prove to be a compensatory advantage.

Project Mentor: Professor Sandra Russ, Department of Psychology




             Health as a Human Right: Multi-level Influences on Undocumented Migrant Health in Thailand

           Sarah Robinson, Anthropology, Environmental Studies

             The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and its related conventions endeavor to create “a common
             standard of achievement for all peoples and nations.” Health is outlined as an inherent human right
             regardless of locality, country of origin, race, class, political or other opinion, language, ethnicity,
culture, religion, birth or other status. Yet millions of people migrate across borders every year, many
undocumented (“illegal”), in search of work, asylum, or other means, and face health risks and barriers often
unshared by other “legal” peoples. Such risks include occupational and environmental hazards, gender inequity and
violence, and human trafficking. Language differences, discrimination, cost of treatment, physical barriers to
access, and cultural differences in concepts of health, medicine, and care-seeking behaviors all contribute to health
outcomes. This research attempts to examine the complexities in achieving the right to health for the more than 2
million undocumented migrant workers residing in Thailand. In many ways Thailand has implemented policies and
practices congruent with protecting the right to health, yet many citizens and migrants alike remain without the basic
physical and mental health to which they are entitled by international law. Through the examination of Thai history,
culture, and politics, we can begin to understand the challenges and successes of health policy versus local
implementation, the roles of Non-Governmental Organizations, pressures on the government’s and society’s ability
to include migrants, and barriers influencing migrant ability to be included in government and society, and thus fully
actualize their right to health.

Project Mentor: Professor Charlotte Ikels, Department of Anthropology
                                                             53
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                          Shape-controlled Pt nanoparticles for carbon nanotube growth

Raymond Rodgers, Departments of Chemical Engineering and Physics

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are novel nanoscale materials that have attracted attention for potential
electronic, optical, energy, and medical applications. A major obstacle for these technologies is the inhomogeniety
of the material that is grown by most chemical processes. Nanotubes are usually grown by a catalytic process
involving metal nanoparticles and reaction with a carbon feedstock such as acetylene gas. In this project, we are
interested in studying the role of the metal catalyst particle and controlling its properties to produce well-defined and
homogeneous nanotubes. We have recently developed a technique to control the size and shape of metal
nanoparticles by reducing metal salts in the presence of surfactants. The as-grown metal nanoparticles have been
characterized by TEM and XRD to confirm their size and shape. In this presentation, we will discuss the properties
of the metal nanoparticles and plans to use them for CNT growth.

Project Mentor: Professor Mohan Sankaran, Department of Chemical Engineering




                                            STM Study of Hexagonal Nano-Lattices

            Andrew Rosenberger, Physics Department; Casey Check, Department of Macromolecular Science and
            Engineering

                Hexagonal lattices of Benzene rings doped with sulfonic acid groups attached to substituted biphenyl
            units are promising new structures being produced by Professor Morton Litt and his Ph.D. student Casey
Check in the Department of Macromolecular Sciences and Engineering. When deposited on surfaces, these
molecules should form stacked hexagonal arrays with a hole size of 20 to 500 nm. These structures could have
applications in fuel cells, water desalinization, and as thermoelectric materials. In order to ascertain the usefulness of
these materials and the effectiveness of the current synthesis techniques, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) was
used to determine the molecular and aggregate shapes of a layer of particles deposited on a HOPG substrate. The use
of noise reduction and optimization techniques yielded information about the aggregate and molecular structure of
the molecules.

Project Mentor: Professor K. Kash, Department of Physics
                                                              54
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
    Projection of New Solar Electric Process Technologies as Compared to Traditional Photovoltaic Cells

Joshua Rubin, Physics and Economics

          Nontraditional energy sources are a topic of much debate in the United States, and worldwide.
Technologies such as mono-crystalline and poly-crystalline solar cells, well established low efficiency and high cost
power sources, have begun to be replaced by a new generation of less efficient but significantly cheaper
photovoltaic cells. In the last decade a new substrate basted cell has been developed, producing thin film
photovoltaic cells. By comparing the newer approaches to the more traditional processes, through traditional
economic methods such as cost-benefit analysis, one might be able to succinctly demonstrate the viability of each
setup to the general consumer. Information such as recent trends, government legislation, environmental factors,
and state electrical costs will provide a solid foundation on which to compare the technologies. One might hope to
observe recognizable technological adoption trends in data available from NREL, the EPA, and other sources. This
project will use baseline comparison of the characteristics of thin film photovoltaics, over state by state differences,
to achieve this goal. Through statistical analysis techniques, run in Microsoft Excel, this project will present cost-
benefit comparisons of the different technologies and their potential roles as components of the American electrical
grid.

Project Mentor: Justin Sydnor, Economics




                                                      Mini Medical Experience

           Zachary Rubin, Department of Biology

                      For my capstone project, I developed an educational outreach program called Mini Medical
             Experience. The purpose of Mini Medical Experience is to expose high school students to the field of
             medicine in an exciting way and to help them determine if a career in medicine is right for them. Mini
Medical Experience is comprised of nine hands-on educational activities that are related to medicine, including
taking vital signs, performing intubation, and suturing. In addition, handouts are provided on how to get into
medical school along with information about special combined medical school programs. It has been designed to be
adaptable so that a diverse audience can facilitate this program, including high school science teachers and pre-
medical college students. For the Mini Medical Experience to be portable and easily replicated, I created and wrote
a curriculum guidebook to provide detailed lesson plans on the activities, a projected budget, and supplemental
handouts. As part of the capstone project, a Mini Medical Experience has been successfully implemented for
students at the Cleveland School of Science and Medicine at John Hay High School, and components of this
program have been adopted by the new Health Profession Pipeline Program. Mini Medical Experience was modeled
after Dr. Rubin’s Mini Medical School, an 18-hour program I started with my father in 2005 at Edward Hospital,
Naperville IL, and was designed to make this type of exposure experience more accessible throughout the country.

Project Mentor: Elizabeth Banks, Center for Civic Engagement and Learning
                                                              55
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                                    University Lofts:
                                An Innovative Student Housing Complex in University Circle

           Paul Salamon, Weatherhead School of Management

             The purpose of this business is to construct a unique student housing complex in University Circle
             catered to the students of the Cleveland Institute of Art and graduate students from Case Western
Reserve University. Our company recognizes an untapped market of undergraduates and young professionals who
seek modern living arrangements in this urban area. University Circle is the perfect location to build such a project;
it is an unsurpassed center of innovation in the fields of health care, education, arts and culture with approximately
13,000 students; also, over 50% of the residents are between the ages of 15 and 30. Through a partnership with the
Cleveland Institute of Art, our company will provide housing to the school’s first and second year students. The
complex will consist of two unique apartment styles, the Artist Lofts and Live+Work Lofts, each specifically
designed to cater to our target market. A central atrium, referred to as the Lawn, will serve as the main gathering
spot for students, with smaller multipurpose and entertainment rooms dispersed throughout the complex. University
Lofts' innovative design will support sustainable living practices, and it will be constructed to the highest
environmental standards. Salamon Development’s mission is to provide modern, innovative and sustainable student
housing within walking distance of all the institutions in University Circle, at prices that currently do not exist.
Through this project, our firm’s vision is to be become an established and reputable developer of unique urban
student housing as well as to contribute to the ongoing development of University Circle and the Greater Cleveland
area.

Project Mentor: Professor Jennifer Johnson, Department of Marketing and Policy Studies, Weatherhead School of
Management




              Age Related Loss of the DNA Mismatch Repair Pathway in Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells

           Anshul Saurastri, Department of Biochemistry; Jonathan Kenyon, Department of Pathology and
           Stanton Gerson, Department of Hematology/Oncology

            The DNA Mismatch Repair Pathway (MMR) is a critical pathway in cells that repairs base substitution
            mismatches and insertion deletion mismatches caused by faulty replication or recombination. Its
biological function is to maintain the genomic integrity of DNA, which, if left unrepaired, could lead to the
accumulation of mutations and oncogenesis. Defects in the MMR pathway have been linked to a variety of human
cancers, including Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer. Our lab has previously shown that loss of MSH2, an
essential gene in the pathway, leads to hematopoietic repopulation defects and methylating agent resistance in mice.
The current study is concerned with investigating MMR failure in clonal expansions of CD34+ human
hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Our hypothesis is that the process of aging leads to a series of changes, both genetic
and epigenetic, that result in reduced mismatch repair function. Using Microsatellite Instability (MSI), a well-
defined diagnostic marker for MMR failure, we monitor five different Microsatellite Loci for irregularities in human
bone marrow samples from patients of different ages. The data suggests that with an increase in age there is an
increase in MSI. This genomic instability observed in aged patient shows failure in HSC maintenance over time due
to MMR failure.

Project Mentor: Dr. Stanton Gerson M.D, Department of Hematology/Oncology
                                                             56
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                 A Comparison of Periodontal Referral Patterns: Trends Toward Urgent Care

Tina Saw, Department of Biology; Stuart Sears, DDS, MScD, Department of Periodontics; and Leena Palomo,
DDS, MSD, Department of Periodontics

          OBJECTIVES: The objective was to identify the frequency of periodontal disease diagnosis and the
referral of patients for specialized therapy in men versus women. METHODS: 1000 random charts from the Case
School of Dental Medicine were reviewed to identify if periodontal diagnosis took place and if a referral to a
periodontist was made based on the findings. Overall frequency of periodontal diagnosis in cases with clinical
attachment loss as indicated in clinical or radiographic records, frequency of subsequent referral to a periodontist
and the correlation of missing teeth and diagnosis of periodontitis were recorded and compared between the genders.
RESULTS: 45% of all charts included a periodontal exam. 10.4% of all patients were noted to have periodontitis.
22.1% of all patients were given a diagnosis and 16.1% were referred for periodontal care. No significant difference
in referrals was observed between genders (p=0.601, α=0.05). There was no correlation between having a diagnosis
and overall number of missing teeth (p=0.563, α=0.05) between the genders. CONCLUSIONS: Associations
between periodontal diagnosis and the referral to a periodontist for preventative care regimens and the treatment of
present pathology in an effort to retain teeth were not significantly different among genders. Across genders, the
majority of clinically or radiographically identifiable cases of periodontitis were not diagnosed nor referred. Since
steps toward periodontal care were not taken in either gender to achieve periodontal therapy's goal of preventing
tooth loss, the study observes a trend away from preventative care, presumably towards urgent care.

Project Mentor: Leena Palomo, DDS, MSD, Department of Periodontics

This is also a Michelson Morley Presentation




                                  Gait Patterns in The Domestic House Cat Chase Behavior

           Vivek Sengupta, Department of Biology

                       Hunting behavior of the domestic cat (Felis catus) was studied using high-speed videography
              (300 fps) and motion analysis. Cats were tested in a prey capture scenario to investigate gait changes
              during hunting. The study of mammalian locomotion has revealed that specific gait patterns are
employed when performing different tasks (Hildebrand, 1989). Predatory behavior was observed on an oval shaped
track, using a laser pointer as the cat’s simulated prey. The hunting behavior was divided into two stages; active
stalking followed by pounce and capture. The stalking stage was characterized by low profile pursuit of prey and
stable head orientation relative to both the cat’s body and the prey. Both the gait and head stabilization is distinct
from normal walking movements. The pounce/capture stage occurs when the cat is close enough to the prey to grasp
it in a single jump. Two-scenarios were investigated which depended upon how close the laser-target was to the cat.
In the first the target was close to the cat resulting in “capture” during stalking without a pounce. In the second the
target was distant from the cat resulting in stalking with a pounce. Data was analyzed frame-by-frame to produce
gait diagrams of each behavior. Preliminary results reveal distinctly different and reproducible gait patterns in the
pouncing and stalking stages of the hunt.

Reference: Hildebrand, M. (1989).The Quadrapedal Gaits of Vertebrates. BioScience, Vol. 39, No. 11 Animals in
Motion. Pp 766-775.

Project Mentor: Professor Roy Ritzmann, Department of Biology
                                                             57
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                   Physical Aging of Layered Glassy Polymers

Andrew Shaver, Macromolecular Science and Engineering; Deepak Langhe, Macromolecular Science and
Engineering

Physical aging of glassy polymers involves a gradual densification of polymer thus reducing the free volume in
polymeric system. The process causes changes in the mechanical, physical and optical properties of the polymers.
The physical aging accelerates when the polymer is present as an ultrathin single layer. However, it is very difficult
to make single layers of ultrathin polymers to study this phenomenon. We use a novel approach of multilayer
coextrusion process to easily nanolayered films of polymers. The effect of layer thickness on the physical aging of
nanolayered glassy polystyrene (PS) confined against a glassy polymer, polycarbonate (PC), was investigated via
forced assembly coextrusion. The PS layer thicknesses studied are 50nm, 100nm, 200nm, 300nm, and 1µm. The
thermal history of the PS nanolayers was reset by heating the multilayered films above the glass transition (Tg) of
PS, 100°C, to 115°C for 15 mins. The films were subsequently quenched to room temperature. The aging of
multilayered films was carried out at various temperatures below a Tg of PS . The changes in the relaxation enthalpy
at the Tg peak were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The relationship of layer thickness to
polystyrene physical aging was investigated.

Project Mentor: Dr. Anne Hiltner, Macromolecular Science and Engineering




                         Muscle Activity and Function in the Front Legs of Walking Cockroaches

          Elaine Simpson, Department of Biology; John Bender, Department of Biology; Roy Ritzmann,
          Department of Biology

            Cockroaches are able to move quickly and efficiently over rough terrain, making them excellent models
            for studying movement in animals. Much is known about the neural network responsible for muscle
activity and movement in the middle and hind legs. However, very little is known about control of the front legs,
which are crucial to steering, have one more degree of freedom than the middle and hind legs, and are the only legs
that enter the animal’s visual field. In order to investigate the connection between muscle activity and movement of
the front legs, we inserted electrodes into the coxal musculature of a cockroach’s front leg and then filmed the
animal with two high-speed cameras while they walked in place on oiled glass. We used these muscle recordings,
coupled with three-dimensional kinematic data, to determine the functions of specific muscles in the front legs of
walking cockroaches. In our analysis of the front leg, we identified homologs of the coxal depressor muscles found
in the middle and hind legs, as well as their innervating nerves. During walking, the front legs normally reach
forward and pull back in contrast with the exclusive backward movements of the other legs. Thus, these muscles are
activated in different patterns during the step phase than they are in the middle and hind legs. In addition to these
homologs, we found muscles that are responsible for actuation of the front legs extra degree of freedom which are
important in swinging the leg forward.

Project Mentor: Roy Ritzmann, Department of Biology
                                                             58
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
             Reinforcement of Clay Aerogels Via Incorporation of a Polymer Derived from Chitin

Michelle Sing, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering

     Clay aerogels, ultra low-density materials produced using a simple freeze-drying technique, show great promise
due to their low densities and their ability to be modified for various applications. These materials suffer from low
mechanical strengths; in order to increase the mechanical properties of aerogels, polymer reinforcement via
incorporation of a biopolymer into the clay matrix is of interest. While polymer incorporation has already been
achieved, the type of polymer incorporated helps in tailoring the properties of the resulting aerogel. Chitosan
(CHIT), a derivative of chitin, was incorporated using varying solution molarities at varying concentration, and the
resulting change in mechanical properties was investigated.

Project Mentor: Professor David Schiraldi and Jack Johnson III, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering




                           Molecular Imaging of Myelination in the Peripheral Nervous System

           Eduardo A Somoza 1,3, Changning Wang 2,3; and Chunying Wu3, , Yanming Wang 1,2,3

           1. Department of Biomedical Engineering; 2. Department of Chemistry, 3. Department of
           Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44122

In previous years we have designed and developed molecular probes that specifically binds to myelin membranes in
the central nervous system (CNS). One of these compounds is known as (E, E)-1,4-bis(49-aminostyryl)-2-
dimethoxy-benzene or BDB. The exact binding site of BDB is unknown but it is believed to be myelin basic protein
(MBP). Both CNS and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) myelin contain MBP in their composition, therefore, we
hypothesize that BDB can also bind to PNS myelin. We first performed in vitro fluorescent staining of the sciatic
nerve, the largest nerve in the PNS, to evaluate BDB’s binding properties towards PNS myelin. We then performed
ex vivo studies by administering BDB into a mouse via tail vein injection. At 1 hour after injection, the sciatic
nerve was removed and the nerve was visualized under a fluorescent microscope to examine specific staining. In
vivo imaging of the sciatic nerve after injection of BDB was conducted via multiphoton microscopy and fluorescent
luminescence Imaging. Results show the BDB indeed binds to PNS myelin with high specificity.

Project Mentor: Dr Yanming Wang, Department of Radiology, Chemistry, and Biomedical Engineering.
                                                            59
                                          Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
            Aging and Ethnicity: Historical and Cultural Limitations of Cumulative Disadvantage and Ethnic
                               Compensation to the Study of Ethnic Elderly in America

            Connie Stamoolis, Department of Anthropology

             The study of ethnicity and aging is oriented to understanding the extent to which ethnic distinctions
             make a difference in the experiences of aging. Historically, this field has been contested in its emphasis
on minority aging and the limited populations of study, its theories on aging, its utility, and its lack of perceived
difference among studied groups. The aim of this research is to discuss the empirical controversies and theoretical
challenges to the study of ethnicity and aging. This research looks to understand this literature via two related, albeit
dated, theories in aging and ethnicity literature- cumulative disadvantage and ethnic compensation, and examines
their historical context in the formation of current knowledge and study.

Project Mentor: Professor Charlotte Ikels, Department of Anthropology




                                                         Nanowire Biosensors

           Lily Stanley, Engineering Physics; Juan Du, Physics Department

                      As electrical devices have gotten smaller, nanowires have become a novel material for use in
            fabricating electronics. Using nanowires, transistors can be made on the nano scale. One possible use for
these small transistors is to detect biomolecules. The advantage nanowire biosensors have over current methods of
detecting biomolecules like DNA is that they are ultra-sensitive and can detect in real time. The methods that are
now used require the molecules first be labeled using fluorescents, and with nanowires this is no longer necessary. I
have studied the effects of binding biotin to the nanowire and hybridization with avidin. The strong binding of biotin
to avidin can then be used to form a base on which detector molecules can be attached. A better understanding of the
properties of the biotin-avidin base will help to build better biosensors.

Project Mentor: Xuan Gao, Physics Department
                                                              60
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                  Statistical Methods for Malaria Allele Calling

Michael Steward, Department of Mathematics; David Kent, Departments of Mathematics and Computer Science;
Dr. Peter Thomas, Departments of Mathematics, Biology, and Cognitive Science; and Dr. Peter Zimmerman, Center
for Global Health and Disease

          Malaria causes a significant number of deaths throughout the world. Treatment of malaria has been
hampered by the evolution of drug-resistant mutant strains, which are difficult to distinguish via conventional
microscopy. A new detection technique, the Fluorescent Microsphere Assay (FMA), has been developed to
distinguish these mutants from the drug-sensitive wild-type. We have developed a process to draw the distinction
between these strains from fluorescence data. First we transform Cartesian data into polar coordinates to assess the
total fluorescence and ratio of fluorescences. Using various statistical methods, we then approximate the underlying
distributions from which the data were drawn.
          Before we calculate the distributions for each strain of malaria, we need to decide which samples are
infected. To determine the threshold between the infected and uninfected samples, we fit a distribution consisting of
a truncated normal distribution and a nonparametric distribution to the radius data. The parameters for the truncated
normal are determined by minimizing the area shared between the distributions describing the infected and
uninfected populations. We then find the threshold between the uninfected and infected samples.
          To find the thresholds between single and double infections, we fit two transformed normal distributions
and a uniform distribution to the angle data. The parameters for these distributions are found through maximum
likelihood estimation. Once the distributions have been determined, the thresholds between samples infected with
one allele of malaria and those infected with both alleles are determined. This segmentation of FMA data can allow
evaluation of drug effectiveness and teach us how mutations are distributed in the sample.

Project Mentor: Professor Peter Thomas – Departments of Mathematics, Biology, and Cognitive Science




                                                Measuring the Density of Bone

           Kyle Strodtbeck, Department of Physics

                     Density is a fundamental property of condensed matter and some recent work suggests that there
            may be a direct relationship between it and magnetic susceptibility for biological materials. Magnetic
            susceptibility may therefore provide a method to image the density of the human body, which would be
of considerable value in medical diagnostics. However, checking this relationship requires measuring the in-vitro
density of biological samples. Because of their porous structure, inhomogeneity, and restricted lifetime, this is a
challenging task. The present investigation is focused on bone, which offers the most stable biological material for
physical measurements. In preliminary studies, using the standard water immersion method, it has been found that
changes in density of several percent can occur on immersing bone samples in water. Furthermore, these changes are
not a monotonic function of immersion time, presumably reflecting a complex interplay between the diffusion of
water into the sample. Bone samples were collected, for a variety of different species, and a specially designed
container was utilized to accurately determine their density at room temperature. Careful attention was paid to
reproducibility and experimental uncertainties. The non-monotonic behavior mentioned was studied between species
and it is our conclusion that these changes do not fit a simple pattern.

Faculty Mentor: David Farrell, PhD, Department of Physics
                                                            61
                                          Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                                   Multiplying Interaction
                            On a notion of perception and understanding in the age of interrelation

           David Johannes Stute, Philosophy Department

            Whereas the second half of the 20th century saw a fierce rivalry between two political theories, the rise of
            globalizing markets in the past twenty years has brought up new questions concerning the proper
systemic and governmental framework in the new age of interrelation. Old conceptions of the body politic and its
public sphere seem to be inadequate to accommodate and perpetuate the new structures arising out of economic
relations and interdependence. At the same time, challenges of universal scope, such as global warming, lack of
resources, and global injustice caused by joint policy, continue to gain prominence while old problems remain
unsolved. All this leaves little doubt that cooperation is necessary, requiring new systemic-political approaches to
accommodate an evolving reality. In my thesis I attempt to apply Jürgen Habermas’ theory of communicative reason
to these circumstances, thus reconstructing a notion of the public sphere in its original role as a counterweight to
economic and institutional interests. While Habermas limits himself to an interpretation of public spheres within a
liberal modern democracy, my goal is to analyze its nature among multiple states and their constituencies.
Technology and modern lifestyles have contributed to an exchange of ideas between diverse actors, which bears the
potential to constitute multinational spheres of interest. These developments will be discussed so as to provide one
plausible prediction of its outcomes based upon common communicative denominators across state borders.

Project mentor: Prof. Dr. Laura Hengehold, Philosophy Department




                                                 Sustainable Eating in Cleveland

           Mariya Topolyanskaya, Environmental Studies, Natural Sciences, Psychology B.A

                    This project was inspired by the book “Plenty” which encompasses the year-long attempt of two
           journalists living in Vancouver to eat food exclusively from a 100-mile radius of their home.

          Research entailed shopping for local (that is, from the state of Ohio) food ingredients and cooking three full
meals a week. Food purchasing decisions were also based on ethical and ecological consideration. Purchasing was
focused on supermarkets, farmers’ markets, farms, and Community Supported Agriculture programs in the
Cleveland area. Project also included literature research on what sustainable food is, and issues surrounding this
kind of eating. An informal blog was also used to supplement investigation.
          Convenience of purchasing was looked at, including time spent driving and distance traveled to purchasing
location, as well as costs of local as opposed to non-local food. Data was divided into products that were measured
on a cost per pound (mass measure) and cost per pint (volume measure) basis. Local food was found to be more
expensive than non-local when looking at mass measures (p=.0041), but not significantly more expensive when
looking at volume measures (p=.6517), suggesting that overall, local food is more expensive at times, but other
times comparable in price to non local food. Further research could be conducted to determine if there are certain
types of local food that are cheaper.

Project Mentors:
 Peter McCall, Director, Environmental Studies Program; Professor, Benthic ecology, Paleoecology
John Ruhl, Professor of Physics and Astronomy
Mano Singham, Director University Center for Innovation in Teaching and Education (UCITE)
                                                              62
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                             Development of a Protocol to Establish Whether Crayfish Develop
                                   Preference for Ethanol Consumption and Addiction

           Colleen Vadia, Biology; Debra Wood, Department of Biology

                      Animals of many different species become addicted to rewarding substances. Vertebrates are
            most often used to study ethanol consumption and addiction. However, invertebrate animals demonstrate
addictive behavioral responses as the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying addiction in mammals are also
found in invertebrates. Studies show that the fruit fly, Drosophila, is averse to ethanol odor but can develop a
preference for its consumption, demonstrating a hallmark for addictive behavior. Other invertebrate models, such as
crayfish, offer advantages for study: their nervous systems have fewer neurons than vertebrates and their neurons are
identifiable, larger, and more accessible than flies. It is unknown whether crayfish can become addicted to ethanol;
however, crayfish develop morphine addiction. My goal is to develop methods for testing whether crayfish exhibit
ethanol addiction. We are assaying ethanol consumption, antennal flicking (sniffing) and locomotion to determine
whether crayfish are attracted, indifference, or averse to ethanol odor. We found crayfish will consume ethanol-
soaked food. If crayfish avoid ethanol odor alone, this suggests that crayfish overcome the odor aversion to consume
ethanol-food, exhibiting a feature of addictive behavior. Addictive stimuli require more time for extinction of
learned preferences than non-addictive rewards. If the crayfish are averse or indifferent to ethanol odor, we will use
a conditioned-place preference test to determine if they develop ethanol-food preference and the relative time
needed for response extinction after ethanol is withdrawn. If ethanol odor is attractive, then we will use an aversive
stimulus paired with ethanol-food to determine whether ethanol preference is acquired, and extinguished.

Project Mentor: Dr. Debra Wood, Department of Biology




                            The effects of HIF and Notch signaling during vascular development

           Stephanie Velloze, Department of Biology

                      The development of the cardiovascular system is regulated by responses to low O2 tension
            (hypoxia). In response to hypoxic conditions, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) acts as a heterodimeric
            transcription factor consisting of HIF-1α and HIF-1β subunits. Our laboratory has shown that HIF
promotes the emergence and differentiation of endothelial cells (ECs) in response to hypoxia. Another signaling
pathway thought to be involved is Notch. Notch is important in controlling cell fate, and there is indication that it is
involved in early cardiovascular progenitor specification. Activation of Notch receptors occurs through direct
contact to a ligand-containing cell, resulting in cleavage of an intracellular form (NICD) that acts as a transcription
factor. Importantly, the HIF-1α subunit interacts with and stabilizes NICD. This project is concerned with
elucidating how interactions between Notch and HIF affect early vascular development. We hypothesize that Notch
will delay the hypoxic induction of EC differentiation. This was analyzed using an embryonic stem cell
differentiation assay where the release of NICD was pharmacologically blocked in wild-type and HIF-deficient cells
cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Changes in cell differentiation were detected by measuring the
expression of EC markers CD31, Flk-1, and Flt-1. Analysis of day 3 and 5 cultures showed Flk-1 expression was
delayed when Notch was inhibited. Differences were also observed between day 5 wild-type and HIF-deficient
cultures, indicating that Notch and HIF signaling pathways interact during vascular development. Analysis of CD31
and Flt-1 expression in day 3 and 5 cultures, and of day 7 and 9 cultures is underway.

Project Mentor: Diana Ramirez-Bergeron, Case Cardiovascular Research Institute
                                                              63
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
               Synthesis and Properties of Benzoxazine Functional Cellulose via Click Chemistry

Kevin Vietmeier, Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering; Dr. Tarek Agag, Department of
Macromolecular Science and Engineering; Dr. Hatsuo Ishida, Department of Macromolecular Science and
Engineering

     Benzoxazine is a novel engineering resin with extremely high thermal and mechanical properties. Benzoxazine
is also simple and relatively inexpensive to synthesize, and it is extremely flexible in design, which allows it to be
combined with a multitude of other polymers. The goal of this research is to create a bio-based copolymer between
benzoxazine and cellulose. By using cellulose, which is the most abundant natural resource, the cost of producing
this engineering polymer is greatly reduced, as is the amount of environmentally harmful reactants required.
Monofunctional 3-acetylene benzoxazine has been combined for the first time with cellulose on a molecular level.
The increased available surface area for coupling between benzoxazine and cellulose will increase the synergy
between the two materials, resulting in a final product with excellent thermal and mechanical properties. The
structure of the benzoxazine was confirmed by 1H NMR. Cellulose then underwent tosylation and then
azidification, and this material was used in the reaction with the benzoxazine. The compound was then studied
using infra-red spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. The coupled
monomer was confirmed using these techniques, and it was then polymerized via heat. Further research will be
performed to determine the thermal and mechanical properties of this novel copolymer.

Project Mentor: Dr. Tarek Agag, Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering




                                             Conduit of ATP release in Astrocytes

           B. Corbett Walsh, Department of Physics

            Cell volume regulation is of particular physiologic importance in neural tissues due to the adverse effects
            of even small changes in brain volume. In the brain, extracellular ATP acts as an autocrine / paracrine
            signaling molecule and participates in volume regulation by activating a family of P2 receptors. While
significant advances have been made regarding the signaling controlling ATP release, the actual conduits for the
export of ATP have not been clearly defined. Investigations of ATP release from astrocytes have identified several
ubiquitously expressed large channels as candidate conduits for ATP release; non-junctional “gap-junction
hemichannels” comprised of connexin or pannexin subunits, volume sensitive organic anion channels, and Maxi-
anion channels. ATP Assay and transfection using 1321N1 Human Astrocytoma and C6 Rat Glioma are currently
underway to determine which conduit is responsible for releasing ATP within astrocytes.

Project Mentor: Professor George Dubyak, Department of Physiology and Biophysics
                                                             64
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                        Human Somatic Cell Gene Knockout of Rpb1

           John Weaver, Department of Biology; Dr. Guangbin Luo, Department of Genetics; and Tao Chen,
           Department of Genetics

                      In this project I will be studying α-amanitin, a type of mushroom toxin, that when ingested by
            human cells it binds tightly to the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II known as the Rpb1 subunit.
This inevitably leads to death of the cells. In order to make human cells resistant to α-amanitin, both copies of the
Rpb1 must be knocked out resulting in subunits that do not facilitate the binding of α-amanitin to RNA polymerase
II. Because human cells are diploid, both copies of the Rpb1 gene must be knocked out in order to completely
ensure that the Rpb1 gene is no longer functioning properly. We will begin by knocking out the first copy of the
Rpb1 gene similar to the way in which the gene would be knocked out in the haploid organism yeast. This knockout
will be carried out by first creating two homology arms. The primer designed for these homology arms was made in
a way that if recombined with human DNA will cause a frameshift mutation in exon 3 and exon 4. The primers for
these homology arms were amplified using PCR and then they were introduced into a target vector. The vector used
was a Paav-lox P-Neo vector that contained a Neomycin gene containing both the EM7 promoter and PGK
promoter. An AAV virus will then be created and will later be used to infect human cells. The human cells
subjected to the AAV virus will then be screened to determine which cells were infected and as a result are now
heterozygous for the Rpb1 gene. At this point the human cells that have been infected by the AAV virus resulting in
an Rpb1 gene knockout will be subjected to chemical mutagenesis. Following this the cells will be tested to see if
any have become resistant to the toxin α-amanitin. If this is the case then we can come to the conclusion that both
copies of the Rpb1 genes in these resistant cells have been mutated. We can then use RT-PCR-amplification to
amplify the Rpb1 gene in the form of cDNA. From here we can analyze the DNA and determine the exact mutation
that took place that conferred resistance to the cells in question. From this project we can then extend our research
to studying other implications of Rpb1 knockouts. For example we can later study the interactions between Rpb1
and Recq5 and their effects on cancer therapy.

Project Mentor: Dr. Guangbin Lou, Department of Genetics




                              Nanocomposites of Healable Supramolecular Systems

Brandon Wenning, Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering and Department of Chemistry; Justin
Fox, Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering

          Forming nanocomposites of commercial polymeric materials has been shown to dramatically increase the
mechanical properties of such material systems. Cellulose fibers with a high aspect ratio blended into a polymer
matrix begin to dramatically strengthen a material above a certain concentration where the whiskers are able to
percolate across the sample. This project seeks to use these high aspect ratio fillers to strengthen and toughen a new
class of supramolecular materials which are designed to exhibit crack-healing properties. These high performance
materials utilize non-covalent bonds including hydrogen-bonding and π-π stacking to form dynamic networks which
give the materials their strength and advanced properties. The materials consist of low molecular weight soft
polymeric material as the core, in this study poly(tetrahydrofuran) was used. The polymer is then end-capped with a
three-ring aramid, which exhibits very strong intermolecular interactions and can also phase segregate from the
polymeric core. These materials are highly thermally responsive, allowing the networks to dissociate above a
healing temperature such that they can reform without compromising mechanical integrity. Mechanical testing of
these materials seeks to show that forming nanocomposites of these materials can increase the strength by an order
of magnitude, without sacrificing the ability to crack heal nor the material strength after the healing process.

Project Mentor: Dr. Stuart Rowan, Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering
                                                             65
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
               Creating a hybrid wheel to wheel-leg system for use in search and rescue missions

Anthony White, Department of Mechanical Engineering; Dr. Roger Quinn, Department of Mechanical
Engineering; and Dr. Richard Bachmann, Department of Mechanical Engineering

          Wheel-legs are a mechanical device used by specifically designed robots (Whegs) to traverse rough terrain.
Each wheel-leg is essentially a multi-spoke wheel without a rim. After many years of development and a further
understanding of Whegs locomotion, wheel-legs have proven to be less-than-optimal at travel over hard, smooth
surfaces. To counteract this problem a new system, wheels2-legs, is currently being developed. The system will
utilize two wheel-legs stacked on a single axle. On rough terrain, the two wheel-legs would be “in phase”, and act as
a single wheel-leg. For locomotion over smooth, hard surfaces, the user should be able to activate a system that
causes one wheel-leg on each axle to rotate with respect to the other wheel-leg on that axle. By rotating fully out of
phase, the two wheel-legs will cover the enter circumference of the rim, thus creating a “wheel”. This research
pertains specifically to creating the wheel-leg itself. In the past, wheel-legs were created from solid pieces of plastic
or aluminum. Wheel2-leg calls for a wheel-leg that has a large volume, which rules out aluminum and plastic,
because of weight issues. In the end a carbon fiber product is most desirable. However, carbon fiber cannot be
simply shaped into a specific form, molds must be utilized. For the core mold, balsa wood with aluminum structural
supports was chosen as a filler material. Balsa proved to be extremely light and the aluminum allowed the mold to
withstand the vacuum bagging process. Currently the process is extremely time consuming and relatively difficult.
Efforts in creating a more streamlined process are underway.

Project Mentor: Dr. Richard Bachmann, Department of Mechanical Engineering




                     Surface Modification of Diamond Films to Develop Selective Biosensors

Erica Wieser, Department of Chemical Engineering

Diamond electrodes have been discovered to be viable alternatives to metal electrode sensors in sensitivity and
resolution. Attaching a functional molecule to the diamond surface creates an electrode capable of sensing specific
neurotransmitting chemicals such as adenosine and dopamine. This research describes the first steps towards
creating an electrode that could potentially, indirectly sense acetylcholine, which is not electrochemically active.
First, diamond electrodes are grown in a hot filament vapor deposition reactor. Phenylenediamine is then reacted
with sodium nitrite and electrochemically reduced with cyclic voltammetry to form an aminophenyl free radical,
which attaches to the surface of the diamond film. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), a method for surface
and near surface analysis of chemical composition, can be used to determine whether nitrogen bonds (nitrogen 1s,
400 eV) are present at the diamond before and after cyclic voltammetry. If nitrogen appears after the cyclic
voltammetry, then the attachment of the aminophenyl molecule is supported. When XPS was performed, it did
indicate a raised nitrogen surface level, which could signify a successful attachment of the intermediate functional
molecule. The next step in the research would be to attach an enzymatic sensing molecule to the aminophenyl group
that would react directly with acetylcholine.

Project Mentor: Professor Heidi Martin, Department of Chemical Engineering
                                                              66
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                       Constraining Inelastic Dark Matter with X-Rays

            Alexander Wijangco, Department of Physics

                      Dark matter is a generic term for an exotic class of particles that might explain the observed
            gravitational movements of stars and galaxies. However, despite the best efforts of several experiments,
            dark matter particles have eluded direct detection. There have been experiments attempting to indirectly
detect these Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), but the results of these experiments are inconsistent
with the traditional notions of dark matter scattering. To accommodate this data, inelastic models of dark matter
have been proposed as new theory for dark matter. This research concerns itself with the inelastic model used to
explain the results of a particular indirect detection result: the DAMA signal. If these models are correct, then there
should exist other detectable evidence for these particles from the byproducts, principally X-Rays, of excited dark
matter decays. This research examine the theoretical signal one would see off massive gravitational bodies and
whether this signal falls within the realm of what can be experimentally verified.

Project Mentor: Professor Glenn Starkman, Department of Physics


                        Effect of Pluronic Copolymers on Lipid Bubble Size and Stability

Robin Wilson, Department of Biomedical Engineering; Tianyi Krupka, Departments of Biomedical Engineering
and Radiology; Luis Solorio, Department of Biomedical Engineering; Hanping Wu, Department of Radiology; Nami
Azar, Department of Radiology; and Agata Exner, Department of Radiology.

Ultrasound contrast agents (UCA), gas-filled bubbles stabilized by lipid, protein, or polymer shells, have typically
been used to improve ultrasound (US) imaging capabilities. Recently, UCAs have been researched for another
application –US-mediated drug delivery. In order to use these bubbles for effective tumor treatment, they must have
diameters less than 300 nm, so that they can escape the tumor vasculature and deliver drug at the target cells. To
reduce bubble size, we propose adding Pluronic, a triblock copolymer surfactant, to the bubble formulation. We
have studied six different Pluronics, ranging in molecular weight and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB).
Through these studies, we have shown a dependence of bubble size on Pluronic concentration, molecular weight,
and HLB. Being able to manipulate bubble size through these simple relationships gives us a novel method for
producing nanobubbles.

Project Mentor: Professor Agata Exner, Department of Radiology



                          The Effect of Smoking on Corneal Inflammatory Event Development in
                               Continuous Wear Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lens Wearers

            Kathryn Woeste, Department of Biology; Dr. Loretta Szczotka-Flynn, Department of Ophthalmology
            & Visual Sciences

            Silicone hydrogel contact lenses offer the benefit of enhanced oxygen permeability, but a continuous
wear (CW) modality can present clinical complications for the patient. Corneal inflammatory events (CIEs),
characterized by infiltration of white blood cells in the cornea, were investigated in this study. Research was
undertaken to determine if smoking is a significant risk factor for development of CIEs among CW silicone
hydrogel lens wearers. Patients enrolled in the Longitudinal Analysis of Silicone Hydrogel (LASH) Contact Lens
study were followed over the course of one year, receiving examinations after 1 week daily wear, and 1, 4, 8, and 12
months of continuous wear. During these visits, patients were assessed for development of CIEs. The role of
corneal staining, tear inflammation and microbiology of lenses were examined in evaluating CIE development
among smokers. Additional factors such as gender, age, dry eye symptoms, meibomian gland dysfunction, and
blepharitis were looked at to determine their significance in CIE etiology.

Project Mentor: Professor Radhika Atit, Department of Biology
                                                             67
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
              The Association of Self-Esteem, Depression, Stress, Personality, and Academic Achievement on
                                              Division-III Student-Athletes

            Andrea A. Wojtowicz, Department of Psychology

            This study investigated the association of being a varsity athlete at Case Western Reserve University and
            academic performance. The sample included 74 undergraduate students. The study group consisted of
37 varsity athletes from the women’s soccer, women’s volleyball, and football teams. The control group was 37
psychology 101 students that used their participation in the study as required research credit. Each participant
completed an online survey including demographics, self-assessment of academic abilities, an activities list
including the number of hours spent in university sponsored activity per week, Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale,
Gadzella’s student-life stress inventory, the Big Five Personality inventory, and the Beck Depression inventory. In
the analyses of the Gadzella’s, the Big Five Personality inventory, and GPA no significance was found between the
athletes and non-athletes. Significant results were only found on Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale, while the Beck
Depression Inventory showed a trend toward significance.

Project Mentor: Professor Amy Przeworski, Department of Psychology




                        Hemostatically Active Liposomes as Synthetic Platelet Substitutes

Timothy Wong, Department of Biomedical Engineering; Madhumitha Ravikumar, Department of Biomedical
Engineering; and Anirban Sen Gupta, PhD, Department of Biomedical Engineering

          Platelet transfusion plays a major role in the treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with hematologic
and oncologic platelet disorders. The clinically used transfusion therapies with allogenic platelet concentrates suffer
from biologic infections, febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions, alloimmunization-induced refractoriness, and
possibility of transfusion-associated immunosuppression. Moreover, the complex platelet-harvesting, processing,
and storage methods are expensive, and the short shelf-life (5-7 days) of platelet concentrates result in severe
shortages in supply. Hence, there is a significant clinical interest in designing a synthetic platelet substitute that can
mimic hemostatic functionalities of platelets, while providing advantages of large-scale preparation, reproducible
quality, long storage life, and absence of biologic infections. The two most important hemostatic functions of
platelets are to form (1) a stable adhesion to specific matrix proteins (collagen and vWf) under physiological shear
and (2) to aggregate via fibrinogen-mediated platelet bridging. Both functions require unique synergistic ligand-
receptor interactions, and mimicking these interactions on a liposome platform provides a way to develop a synthetic
platelet substitute. With this rationale, we have developed liposomes surface-modified with a fibrinogen-mimetic
RGD peptide, having specificity to platelet integrin GPIIb-IIIa, and a GPIbα protein fragment having specificity to
vWf. In-vitro studies were performed using fluorescently-labeled RGD-liposomes and GPIbα-liposomes under static
and dynamic conditions, to test their binding to activated platelets and vWf-coated surfaces respectively.
Furthermore, we have integrated these functionalities on a single liposome to study liposome-mediated aggregation
of activated platelets on vWf-coated surfaces under shear. We envision that these hemostatically active liposomes
can be effective in treating thrombocytopenia.

Project Mentor: Anirban Sen Gupta, PhD, Biomedical Engineering
                                                              68
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
Study of the effect of organic cationic salts on the polymerization of benzoxazine monomer and properties of
                                             their polybenzoxazines

Yuren Xie, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tarek Agag, Department of Macromolecular Science and
Engineering, Hatsuo Ishida, Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering

         The influence of various epoxide group-functional organic phosphonium and ammonium cations on the
ring opening polymerization of the standard bisphenol/aniline type benzoxazine monomer (BA-a) had been used.
For comparison, the effect various amines, phenols, acids on the ring opening polymerization of BA-a have also
been studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the polymerization behavior catalyzed BA-
a monomer, following the exothermic polymerization peak. Phosphonium salts were the most successful since
before the addition of epoxy, it brought the polymerization temperature of BA-a down to 210 from 235oC. The
phosphonium salt containing an epoxide group was observed to bring the curing temperature down to 218 from
235oC, however increasing the amount of salt added can further bring the temperature down without compromising
the thermal properties of the polymer, making this salt a dual functional catalyst.

Project Mentor: Professor Hatsuo Ishida, Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering




                           Modeling the Tensile Fracture Behavior of Metallic Glasses

Alexander J. Zaddach, Department of Materials Science and Engineering; Lisa A. Deibler, Department of
Materials Science and Engineering; John J. Lewandowski, Department of Materials Science and Engineering.

          It is believed that the tensile fracture of metallic glasses is a result of the formation of a thin band of low
viscosity material caused by high localized shear while the material around the band remains solid. This forms a
distinctive vein-like fracture surface. The mechanism has been modeled using a thin layer of grease between parallel
plates. By using greases of different viscosities, varying the viscosity of the outside medium through immersion in
liquids and temperature change, and measuring the size of the vein-like features after pulling the plates apart in
tension, a relationship can be found between the ratio of the viscosities and the feature size. This relationship could
then be used to estimate the viscosity in the shear band during fracture by measuring the feature size on the fracture
surface. Additionally, the viscoelastic properties of some metallic glass ribbons have been studied using dynamic
mechanical analysis.

Project Mentor: John J. Lewandowski, Department of Materials Science and Engineering
                                                              69
                                            Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                  Reflectivity Measurements of Critical Materials for the LUX Dark Matter Experiment

           Sander Zandbergen, Department of Physics

            The key component of the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) detector is measuring scintillation light
            from liquid xenon in order to detect particle dark matter in the form of Weakly Interacting Massive
            Particles(WIMPs). Optimal performance requires highly efficient transportation of photons to the
photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), so all other materials must be highly reflective. The two prime materials are a large
surface of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and some metal for electric field producing grids. I will use the group’s
prototype liquid xenon detector in situ, with liquid xenon scintillation light at a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)
wavelength of 175 nm, to take measurements from samples of several critical LUX components. These
measurements will be compared to a light collection Monte Carlo simulation, and reflectivity values will be
extracted. This will allow for proper selection of materials and full understanding of LUX light collection.

Project Adviser: Professor Thomas Shutt, Department of Physics




                     A Novel Method To Facilitate the Polymerization of Polybenzoxazine

Syed Zulqadar, Department of Macromolecular Engineering; Tarek Agag, Department of Macromolecular Science
and Engineering; Hatsuo Ishida, Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering

This research will directly impact society by making a class of exceptionally useful materials, made up of the
polymer benzoxazine, more commercially available by reducing its production costs by way of lowering the intense
temperatures currently needed for its manufacture. This project consists of manipulating the monomer used to
create polybenzoxazine to yield lower temperatures at which one can polymerize polybenzoxazine. Lowering the
temperature at which a ring opening for polymerization occurs is the major challenge of this project. The
manipulation mainly consists of changing the positions of the amide group (NH) within the two different types of
monomers, c-amide bifunctional benzoxazine and n-amide bifunctional benzoxazine. The n-amide structure has
yielded a significant drop in the temperature for the onset of exotherm (temperature at which a ring-opening for
polymerization occurs). In the case of c-amide structure, the position of the amide group is shifted so that it is not
attached to the benzene ring containing the hydroxyl group, and this change has yielded an even further decrease in
the onset of exotherm. Thus this research shows extreme promise in the possible creation of an entirely new class of
extremely eco-friendly polymers which can be used for a myriad of commercial purposes.

Project Mentor: Tarek Agag, Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering
                                                             70
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                     SECOND ANNUAL
              CELEBRATION OF STUDENT WRITING

The Celebration of Student Writing, a centerpiece of the University’s Writing
Week, showcases undergraduate student writing projects. The Celebration
encourages students to re-present and display their research and writing in formats
other than conventional word-processed letters and lines on the printed page. Some
students create video projects; others produce poster presentations or read aloud
portions of their writing; still others design models or digital illustrations that
present their writing projects in new media.
The Center for the Study of Writing, established in 2008 to facilitate research
and scholarship on writing at the University and in the world, serves three distinct
but interrelated roles at the University: to support writing and research by resident
and visiting students and scholars; to facilitate exciting new courses and curricula
on writing; and to provide an array of practical writing and publishing support
services to the University and University Circle communities. For more
information, see http://www.case.edu/writing/csw.
Writing Week and the Center for the Study of Writing are supported by generous
gifts from Marilyn McCulloch (FSM ’50); from Edward S. Sadar, M.D. (ADL ’64,
SOM ’68) and Melinda Melton Sadar (FSM ’66); from Sharon Schnall (MBA '87)
and Dr. R. Drew Sellers (EMBA '08); from Eric Winter, M.D. (CWR '98, GRS '91,
MD '98); from Jackson McHenry (ADL '52); and from an anonymous donor. The
Celebration of Student Writing is also supported by SAGES and the Department of
English.




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                               Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                            Between Doctors and Patients: Literature and Medicine

Anne Ryan, Course Instructor (USSY 287A)

Students: Nirmal Bhakta, Tim Darlington, Lediana Goduni, Chelsea Lasky, Kara Monnin, Amanda
Robinson

Our seminar has examined nineteenth and twentieth-century literature written by and about doctors, nurses, and
patients, including works by Louisa May Alcott, Jean Dominique Bauby, George Eliot, Atul Gawande, Charlotte
Perkins Gilman, Rachel Naomi Remen, Abraham Verghese, and William Carlos Williams. In particular, we’ve
focused on historical changes in the relationships between doctors and patients. We’ve also found that literature
about medicine unmasks the deep emotional responses that often go unexplored in the daily grind of scientific
education, research and medical work, and it provides an excellent context for discussing ethical issues faced by
doctors and patients such as the meaning of suffering, death and dying, medical authority and responsibility, the
rights of society’s most vulnerable members, professional detachment and compassion, and what to do in the face of
uncertainty or failure. We plan to display posters that represent the results of some of our research into the
fascinating intersections between literature and medicine.




                                               Case Reserve Review

Representative: John Rooney

Our Mission
To provide a forum whose contents shall be original poetry, prose, and other forms of creative writing, as well as
original photography, by all undergraduate and graduate students of Case Western Reserve University, the
Cleveland Institute of Art, the Cleveland Institute of Music, and any undergraduate student currently attending an
institution of higher learning in the United States of America.

About Us
The CRR is entirely student-run, although we are lucky to have Sarah Gridley, poet and professor at CWRU, as a
faculty advisor. The CRR is a member organization of CWRU’s Student Media Board.

What We Do
We encourage creative expression at CWRU by producing at least two book-styles issues containing creative writing
and photography each year (that’s one per semester). Prizes are awarded for exceptional work in poetry, prose, and
photography.
                                                            72
                                          Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                                    Chance Poetics

Representatives: Sarah Gridley and Annie Pécastaings

This table will conduct 3 activities, all of which invite on-site student participation: an Exquisite Corpse
collaborative poem; a Magnetic Poetry collaborative poem; and a collaborative “Erasure” poem performed on a
selection from Walt Whitman’s “Song of Myself.” Students are invited to stop by the table and engage in one, two,
or all of the experiments.

Chance poetics and collaborative poetics both partake of a long history in poetic counterculture: surrealists created
the poetic “game” of Exquisite Corpse in the early 20th century to encourage playful, associative composition, and it
received an enthusiastic renaissance among Beat poets in the sixties. Whereas Exquisite Corpse operates through an
additive process (writers contribute a new line to the “body” of a long poem, seeing only the line directly preceding
the new contribution), Erasure Poetics operates through the process of subtraction: poets begin with a completed,
published (often canonical) text, and “erase” word after word until a new poem emerges from its re-negotiated
“depths.” Contemporary works of erasure poetics will be on hand for inspiration (e.g. Ronald Johnson’s radi os (an
erasure performed on the first four books of Milton’s “Paradise Lost”) and Jen Bervin’s Nets (erasure performed on
Shakespeare’s sonnets).

The Chance Poetics Table invites students with an experimental spirit to come make poetry through the combined
influences of chance and collaboration. Readings of each will take place at conclusion of experiments.




                                          Colors, Capes and Characters

Brad Ricca, Course Instructor (USSY 275)

Students: Shannon Harkin, Elizabeth Johnston, Tesia Meade, Matthew Napfel, Tracy O’Brien, Johnny
Wright

Why We Write About Comics

        Superman. Wonder Woman. Batman. Power Girl? Is there really a course on comic books at Case Western
Reserve University? Maybe you’ve heard about it and always wondered what it was like. What do they read?
What do they write? And it’s GOT to be easy, right? Join us at our table to find out how a silly little comic book
can be an incredibly interesting, provocative, and oftentimes hilarious (and disturbing) place to think about how we
often view (and imagine) ourselves and others in popular culture. Look at panels, comics, slides, and papers as we
share with you our findings of what indeed you can learn from comic books.


                                                             73
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
                                      Common Reading Selection Committee

Representative: Mayo Bulloch

CWRU’s Common Reading Program
The Common Reading Program was started in 2002 for first-year students. For the past nine years, new
undergraduate students have been given a common reading assignment during the summer. The assigned book then
serves as a basis for programs and discussions beginning at orientation and continuing through the fall semester.

The Common Reading Program at Case also includes an essay contest about the assigned reading. Last year,
winners received $300 gift certificates from the University Bookstore sponsored by the Baker-Nord Center for the
Humanities. Winners also have dinner with the author.

This year's Common Reading Bottlemania by Elizabeth Royte will introduce the Year of Water. Over the summer,
all new undergraduates will receive a copy of Bottlemania, and discussions about the book will begin during
Orientation Welcome Days. Elizabeth Royte will then be the keynote speaker during the first week of classes at the
University Fall Convocation, Wednesday, August 25.

The Year of Water will promote events and programs focusing on issues such as the bottling of water and recycling
of plastic bottles, water quality, the wise use of water, watershed planning and management, water conservation,
storm water run-off, the politics and ethics of a scarce resource, and other related topics.




                             Crime and Punishment in German Literature and Film

Mary Beth Wetli, Course Instructor (USSY 285R)

Student Participants: Megan Witzke, Sage Schaff, Brittany Lavanty, and Dan Levine

How we determine what constitutes a crime? How is the violation of the law different from or similar to
transgressions of morality or ethical norms? What constitutes just punishment? In what ways is punishment an
insufficient answer to crime? What if regimes themselves are criminal? How societies define violations of the legal
code is related to a web of interconnected considerations including the form of government, social mores, evolving
conceptions of justice, the purpose of punishment, and attitudes toward individual criminals and criminality in
general. This course has explored these questions in German literature, film, and philosophy from the eighteenth-
century through the present against the backdrop of monarchy, democracy, occupation, fascism and communism.
Our survey of literary works and films has paid particular attention to the ways in which criminal transgression is
defined, when and why punishment is necessary, and the degree to which these resolutions are “just.” As a result,
students have developed an appreciation for the social, political, and historical context in which these questions are
raised.

For the Celebration of Student Writing, the students have chosen to make a film of one of the scenes from Heinrich
von Kleist’s novella Michael Kohlhaas, to illuminate some of the questions this text raises about the nature of justice
and its role in society. Four students will be on hand to screen it for others.

                                                             74
                                           Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
    Cross-Cultural Research and Cross-Cultural Composing: Bilingual Writers at Case Western Reserve

Jessica Gerard, Course Instructor (FSCS 150)

Students: Gongxia Chen, Yi (Tracy) Chen, Xuejing (Jenny) Wang, Xuhui (Terry) Chen, Shanshuai Sun, Ding
Wang, Tianxin Luo, Anni Li, Wenyu Chen, and Kan Jia

This presentation will showcase the individual and collaborative research and documentation efforts from two
SAGES seminars focusing on cross-cultural communication. The students in this class, who are bilingual (and in
some cases, multilingual) writers, will present on their original research in the area of cross-cultural communication.
In this SAGES seminar on Cross-Cultural Communication, students completed pilot studies in which they
formulated socially relevant research questions in the area of cross-cultural communication, collected data via
questionnaires, surveys, and interviews, and then analyzed and wrote up their results in a 3-4 page report. Topics
include cultural differences with regard to academic integrity, cross-cultural perceptions of classroom participation,
and cross-cultural perceptions of humor.




                                                 The Future of Food


Mary Holmes, Course Instructor (USNA 252)

Students: Scott Becka, Sammy Sarett, Faezeh Ghassemi, Phil Young, Rachel Wagner, Mark Ilhan

Since World War II, science and technology has transformed the way Americans produce and consume food. This
transformation has been supported by government policies and accomplished through the application of industrial
methods in agriculture, food processing, and food delivery. Such methods have allowed a tiny fraction of the
American population to produce vast quantities of food products at very low prices for American consumers. But
this American diet, while inexpensive, has turned out to be high in sugar, fat, and processed grains that are
contributing to chronic disease such as diabetes and obesity. In addition environmental impacts of confined animal
feeding operations, vast monoculture grain production, and global food transport are raising questions about the
sustainability of American agribusiness. This seminar has explored the evolution of food production in the United
States since World War II and has asked these question: Is it possible to nourish the world's population using
nutrition and flavor as guiding principals rather that cost? What is the true meaning of "sustainability" in
agriculture? The last third of the course was devoted to exploring the idea of restoring some farming to the
University Farm. We examined the growing trend at colleges and universities across the county of establishing
student run, sustainable farms for educational, outreach, and research purposes.




                                     Heroes and Hustlers in Latin Literature


Timothy Wutrich, Course Instructor (CLSC/WLIT 204)

Students: C.J. Dunlap, Allison Early, Ryan Hohman, Adam Kozak, John Rooney, Peter Schiraldi, Eritt
Sinkko

This class surveys Latin literature. Students read the comedies of Plautus, Caesar’s commentaries, Cicero’s
speeches, Vergil’s epic, Tacitus’s history, Augustine’s spiritual works, and the lyric poetry of Catullus, Horace, and
Ovid. In the assignment showcased here, students, who had just read the Odes of Horace, were asked to write a
poem in the style of Horace. They were invited to imagine how Horace, writing today, might have handled tone and
meter, length and topic in composing a poem.
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                Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Can They Drive Cleveland’s Economy Once Again?

Michael Goldberg & Annie Pécastaings, Course Instructors (USSO 286P)

Students: Buxbaum, Andrew; Galiano, Josette; Gilbert, Kelsey; Kang, Chang Won; Koepka, Ryan; Kwass,
Daniel; Li, Zhipeng ;Luong, Quyen; Mhanna, Christiane; Nardone, Samantha ; Nassif, Alexander; Okoye,
Chimadika ; Pearlman, Isaac; Pentz, Andrew; Pomerantz, Jeremy ; Shivers, Luke

This seminar focuses on the impact of immigrant entrepreneurs in Cleveland, and asks whether Cleveland should
proactively recruit foreign talent to rebuild its economy and spur a demographic growth. At the Celebration, the
students’ work will showcase the rich mosaic of diverse cultures that make up Cleveland’s immigrant community;
students will also evaluate policies and projects—such as the creation of an Immigrant Welcome Center – designed
to put Cleveland on the road to economic success.




                                             Introduction to Chemistry

Mike Kenney, Course Instructor (CHEM 106)

Chemistry is a visual science. Students in CHEM 106 are using a variety of multimedia techniques to communicate
science to their peers in a format that appeals to that specific audience. Videos and other multimedia presentations
will be shared.




                                                     Island Science

Mark Bassett, Course Instructor (USNA 255)

Students: Nik Bauer, Amy Cai, Roy Chiou, Matt DelBrocco, Wes Farra, Ali Hollingshead, Brandon Lavery,
Matt Loosli, Ray Moore, Yue Qi, Matt Richards, Joe Sewell, Jonathan Stone, Tiarra Thomas, Tony Vicini,
Alex Warofka, and Alex Weldon

Islands figure strongly in the Western imagination. (Think about Atlantis, Shakespeare’s The Tempest, Daniel
Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe, H.G. Wells’ The Island of Dr. Moreau, or television programs like Survivor and Lost.)
This seminar has journeyed beyond the myths and legends to explore the scientific realities of island life. Besides
tourists and vacationers, who or what lives on Kelleys Island--north of Sandusky, Ohio, on the coast of Lake Erie?
How did visiting the Galapagos Islands shape Darwin's theory of natural selection? What issues are faced by U.S.
states whose geographic territories incorporate islands? What concerns about global warming are being expressed
by AOSIS (the Alliance of Small Island States)? Of "island science" in general, this seminar has pondered questions
like these: Which islands are being studied? What do scientists learn by studying islands? Readings have focused
on biogeography, biodiversity, and natural history, but we were also introduced to such fields of study as ecology,
morphology and drift, ecotourism, and conservation, and management. During the last half of the course, seminar
students each designed an independent research project focusing on the island(s) and academic disciplines that most
interest them. Our topics include Tuvalu, Madagascar, Taiwan, Hawaii, and much more! Our exhibit will feature
small posters designed by the seminar participants.


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                                                    Life of the Mind

Jennifer Butler, Course Instructor (FSCC 100)

As part of their first semester on campus, first year students enroll in First Seminar. First Seminar classes have an
enrollment limit of 17 and are taught by the students’ academic advisor. Through First Seminars provide a valuable
opportunity for students to pursue academic inquiry, to learn about Case Western Reserve and its relationship with
other University Circle institutions, and to gain information from each other. First Seminars offer an intensive focus
on writing quality for all students. Students often engage in informal writing projects, formal written papers, group
projects, and oral presentations. Our presentation will highlight some of the books students have read, highlighting
some of the ideas about the mind, the academic community, and the world at large that students have explored as a
result of First Seminar.




                                                    Life of the Mind

Judit Simó, Course Instructor (FSCS 150)

Students: Xin Chen, Zhengyu Chen, Cheng Cheng, Lin Cheng, Minghao Du, Kaiwen Gao, Jing Hu, Xian
Huang, Wooyoung Jung, Weiying Kang, Yiqing Tong, Hanwen Zhang, Zeyin Zhang, Yingren Zhao, Hao
Zhou, and Zhaozhong Zhu

The course is a first seminar continuation class for first-year international students. The proposed poster displays
students’ work from the previous semester, which focused on issues in cross-cultural communication. For their
projects, students came up with their own research questions, collected data through interviews, surveys, and
observation, and finally, analyzed and wrote up the results. Papers include small-scale studies on the different
metaphorical uses of the color “red” in China and the USA, on the symbolic animals of the US and Korea,
differences in nonverbal communication, including gestures and eye-contact, between cultures and genders, and the
synchronism of verbal and nonverbal communication. Two projects explore the consequences of being educated in a
subculture different from one’s own.




                              Management of Chronic Illness in a Cultural Context

Tracey Hallman, Course Instructor (USSO 286V)

Student: Morgan Redenshek

Providing Prospective: Insights and Analysis of Picasso's "Bottle, Glass, and Fork"

Morgan Redenshek, a student in SAGES USSO286v, the Management of Chronic Illness in a Cultural Context, will
read from a paper written in her first semester seminar, Fall 2009. In the essay, Morgan employs her unique insight
to deconstruct a Picasso painting that she had viewed during a visit to the Cleveland Museum of Art. Morgan’s
observations and provocative vision of Picasso’s work is both illustrative and highly discerning.



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                                          Metaphors of Sports and Games

Judit Simó, Course Instructor (USSY 286X)

Students: Yi Cai, Quinn Gleisner, Samantha Lewis, Brandon Rolle, Arjun Sharma, and Yang Ye

The purpose of this course, titled “Metaphors of sports and games”, is to examine how sports and games are
metaphorically represented in language, whether in the media, biographies, or fiction. The course also touches on
the issue of how the language of sports and games is drawn on in other areas of life, most notably war, business, and
politics, just to name a few. For the display, students will assemble the findings of their research projects, which
involve the collection and analysis of data gained through surveys, interviews, observations, and text- analysis.
Perceptions and representations of several sports and games, among them football, tennis, soccer, and basketball will
be discussed.




                                             One World Many Cultures


Susan Dominguez & Cara Byrne, Course Instructors (FSCS 150-104 and FSCS 150-105)

Students: FSCS 150-104: Wendi Cai, Jun Choi, Il Kwon Lee, Mi Ri Lee, Tony Li, Emma Lu, Ted Park, Fez
Yang, Zhong Zheng
FSCS 150-105: Linneker Carvajal, Alex Chen, Ang Duan, Mimi Guo, Tianyu Han, Reechal Jiang, Yoon Kim,
Kaola Li, Christina Min, Chris Zhang, Haidee Zhang

Case’s international students enrolled in Dr. Dominguez’s One World Many Cultures SAGES seminar will host a
Scrabble Tournament using two Scrabble tables. Members of the Case community may compete individually or with
a partner. The theme of the game is CASE ENGLISHES. “New Rules” designed by students will be posted and
prizes will be awarded for every session.




                                                       Poetry Wall

Representatives: Jessica Gerard and Sean Thomas Dougherty

Students, faculty, and staff at Case Western Reserve are invited to write a favorite verse, poem, song, or saying in
any language they wish on our “Wall of Words.” Join us in celebrating our linguistic, cultural, and artistic diversity
through words!




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               Political Hype vs. Scientific Fact: Evidence, Risk, Preferences, Values and “Spin”

Susan Dominguez and Trudy E. Bell, Course Instructors (USNA 256)

Students will present abstracts of their research papers with an accompanying illustration. Topics range from
debates over nuclear and alternative energy, intellectual property, legalization of marijuana, organic foods, the diet
industry, obesity and health care, alternative energies, legal supplements for enhanced athletic performance, future
funding for NASA, the fresh water crises, global warming, cryonics, health effects of abortion, tanning salons and
cancer links.




                                    Professional Communication for Engineers

Eve McPherson, Course Instructor (ENGL 398)

Students: Solomon Alkhasov, Keith Angelino, Jane Backus, Johnathan Barrett, Austin Bishop, Cory Breed,
Jenna Caputo, Stephen Johnson, Alex Jordan, Ben Kaufman, Daniel Levy, Michael Lyrenmann, David
McCauley, Ryan Miller, Geoff Peyton, Vikram Ramanujam, Michael Slattery, Kumiko Sano, Andy Sekely,
Drew Swartz, Jordan Welch, Diane Wisinski, Josh Wunder


Professional Communication for Engineers, English 398, introduces principles and strategies for effective
communication in both academic and workplace engineering settings. Through analysis of case studies and of
academic and professional genres, this course develops the oral and written communication skills that characterize
successful engineers. Students prepare professional documents that specifically communicate academic and
technical knowledge to diverse audiences. As part of the course, students develop individual research or product
proposals on a topic reflecting professional interests and goals. The proposal’s required contents include an abstract,
problem statement, description of proposed research, literature review, research plan, qualifications of researcher,
budget, and works cited. The proposals are then adapted to a formal oral presentation that distills the proposal’s
contents into a concise oral argument for research support or product development. For this table presentation,
students have been asked to re-imagine their work for an even wider audience by developing a flyer or brochure that
reflects the most significant contents of the proposal and places an emphasis on visual design as a means of
generating interest in their work.




                             SHAKESPLOITATION: The Making of a Cultural Icon

Barbara Burgess-Van Aken, Course Instructor (USSY 286S)

Students: Corey Bowen, Doug Brubaker, Nora Evett, Emily Griffin, Andrew Hale, James Hale, Candace
Martin, Gabi Matthews, Even McDowell, Julie Qiu, Michael Sayler, Ethan Smith, Ryan Stroud, Christine
Yeh

Students in this University Seminar have been exploring Shakespeare reception from the seventeenth to the twenty-
first centuries applying variety of literary and cultural theories. The five segments of the exhibit include: a puppet
adaptation of Romeo and Juliet, a Marxist adapation of a Shakespeare play; a survey of the Case community about
its knowledge of Shakespeare; a display and quiz about portraits of Shakespeare, and a Shakespeare insult contest
(with prizes!).

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                                Sigma Tau Delta (English Honor Society of Case)

Representative: John Rooney

Sigma Tau Delta is the official English Honor Society of Case Western Reserve University. We provide a unique
opportunity for high-achieving English Majors to share their love of writing, reading, and the English language.
       In the past, we have held a writing contest and met with English Department Representatives often to discuss
promoting the English Major on campus. Thus, we are a voice for students of English, and we try to represent their
concerns.
       Sigma Tau Delta membership also provides scholarship opportunities and an atmosphere of collegiality
among likeminded devotees of the written and spoken word.
       We are actively pursuing new membership to bolster our ranks and to increase our campus presence and
capabilities.




                                                           Spies

Katherine Clark, Course Instructor (USSY 286W)

Students: Stefan Blagojevic, Kevin Brayer, Sean Carr, David Jannotta, Alex Kloss, Robert Lapadot, Ren Li,
Tim Maleski, Jessica Parker, Jessica Robinson, Mark Schultz, Zach Scott, Devon Smith, Jacob Snyder,
Jaanki Thakkar

In this seminar we have discussed spying in its many manifestations including the reasons and justifications offered
for spying; the different types of spying; the means by which spying is conducted; and whether or not spying is a
necessary evil. We have explored the fascination with spies and what spies represent culturally and historically.
Our object was that by the end of the semester we would be better readers of texts and more knowledgeable about
issues of identity, deception, and information gathering. Spies appear in all aspects of society. We are all aware of
spies who look for military and political secrets, but spies come in all flavors. There are spies in prisons who work
for the police and spies who work for criminal organizations; people who steal industrial secrets; and there are spies
in educational systems. Motivations for spying range from those who spy for ideological reasons to those who spy
for money, to those who spy because they are blackmailed in some form. Spies are international, both genders, all
religions. A spy can be anybody, which is part of the reason why the subject is so fascinating. Spies use whatever
natural tools they possess. They will use their intelligence and physical prowess, their sexuality and charisma, their
analytical skills and emotional connections to achieve their goals. For these reasons, studying spies as presented
historically and in popular culture is a perfect field for SAGES because spying is universal, and how cultures
interpret spying, especially at different historical points, is quite revealing about a culture's mores.

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                                     Travel Literature in the Age of Discovery

Annie Pécastaings, Course Instructor (USSO 285V)

Students: Jake Bell, Nicholas Couturier, William Lang, Eric McCray, Jessica McRitchie, Simone Michaels,
Laura Palmer, Stephen Sreshta, Kristen Zozulin

The discovery of the Americas in the late 15th century challenged Western assumptions about nature and culture,
and forced Europeans to draw the world anew, both literally and metaphorically. In this course, we address the
following questions: how did travel literature in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries reflect successive discoveries of
new geographical worlds? What new maps (geographical or metaphorical) did this literature help draw? Our core
texts include Shakespeare’s The Tempest, Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko, Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels, Voltaire’s
Candide, and Laurence Sterne’s A Sentimental Journey. At the Celebration, students will present on a variety of
themes, from technical topics to creative takes on the meaning of travel today.




                                     Travel Literature in the Age of Discovery

Annie Pécastaings, Course Instructor (USSO 285V)

Student: Stephen Sreshta

“A One-Way Trip to Tennessee”

This creative piece was designed to explore the feelings of isolation and indifference that accompany graduating
from high school. These sentiments are expressed through a summer road trip to the modern Woodstock.




                                    Voices of Musical Resistance: Spoken Word

Sean Dougherty, Coruse Instructor (USSY 287)

Students: Christopher Carlson, Amy Christianson, Anna Czekaj, Ian Dimayuga, Thomas Dooner, London
Holt, Jenna Pansky, Lillian Perez, Matthew Rucker, Raheem Stanfield, Latia White, Lydia Whittington,
Melinda Wolboldt

This interactive display will feature a site-specific "cube-like" installation of word and sound. In addition, there will
be a number of small and spontaneous, unannounced performances. This installation piece will be created out of
found objects, sound recordings, and text written on large sheets of paper. Join us!

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            2009 Common Reading Essay Winners
The CWRU Common Reading Program was started in 2002 for first-year students. For the past eight years, new
undergraduate students have been given a common reading assignment during the summer. The assigned book then
serves as a basis for programs and discussions beginning at orientation and continuing through the fall semester.

The Common Reading Program also includes an essay contest about the assigned reading. In 2009, four winners
each received $300 gift certificates from the University Bookstore, sponsored by the Baker-Nord Center for the
Humanities. The winners also received an invitation to have dinner with the author. of Three Cups of Tea, Greg
Mortenson. The prompts for the essays are provided below, and the four prize-winning essays are published here
(alphabetically by author). Congratulations! For more details about the Common Reading Program, visit
http://studentaffairs.case.edu/orientation/reading/.


2009 Essay Questions

Prompt #1
The book Three Cups of Tea relates the inspirational story of Greg Mortenson. After failing to climb mountain K-2,
Mortenson recuperates among the people of Korphe, who inspire him to focus his passion, energy, and resources on
building schools in rural Pakistan — a successful venture that continues today. While Mortenson's transformative
decision may seem abrupt, his family background, personality, education, and work experience may have prepared
him for his new mission.

As you reflect on Mortenson's story, where do you perceive radical changes in his approach to life and where do you
notice continuities? More generally, which elements of our personalities do you see as stable and which do you see
as subject to change, depending on our individual experiences and life choices?

In responding to this prompt, you are welcome to describe a transformative decision in your own life, or in the life
of someone you know about, instead of focusing on Mortenson's. Whatever your choice, your essay should help the
reader understand the decision and subsequent events in the light of previous experiences or specific personality
traits.

Prompt #2
What does the book Three Cups of Tea tell us about the issues or risks that we face when attempting to help others,
especially when we may be perceived as outsiders?

Does Mortenson do a good job of being aware of cultural contexts? To what extent did his humanitarian work
depend on building relationships "one cup of tea at a time?" What general lessons do you draw from his example?
In responding to this prompt, you are welcome to describe your own experience, or the experience of someone you
know about who is trying to make a positive contribution to another person's life or to a community. What obstacles
or challenges does this kind of effort present? What difference did relationship-building make, or what difference
could it have made to the story you tell?




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                                                      Thea Emmons

                                                 A Game of Old Maid

          I don’t remember what I was doing in the infirmary that early in the morning. I must have been getting a
BandAid, or maybe dropping off something that needed to be washed. I had never been in there before, so I entered
cautiously and looked around. On my left, two rooms with two bunk beds each. The nearest room was empty, and I
jumped when I realized that the other wasn’t, and that its occupant was staring back at me. Not only that, he looked
more surprised to see me than I him. He was a camper, a boy to whom I had never spoken, but had noticed since the
beginning of camp a few days before. He was one of the few campers there with no hair, and since I had assumed
chemo automatically leaves you hairless, those few who were actually bald had stuck out to me. Now, the little
amount of light in the room bounced off the top of his perfectly smooth head onto the wall. I had clearly caught him
in the middle of dressing, and he was only wearing shorts. He had his body partly covered up with his arms, but I
could still see the tubes that were taped down in loops, plastered onto his chest. When I think back to that instant, I
just see a freeze frame of him looking up at me, like I was his mother and had just walked into the room to see him
stealing a cookie, or drawing on the wall. Embarrassed, I quickly looked away, finished whatever I was doing, and
left.

          Our encounter at this camp for kids with cancer couldn’t have lasted more than a few seconds, and I have
never actually spoken to him. But that image of him is etched into my mind, as clear as if I had just walked into the
infirmary. It is as if that moment was a window that I looked through, from my world into his. I could see, just for a
second, into his world of early morning hospital visits and waking up every day with less hair than the day before.
From my world of practically nonexistent medical records, I peeked into his world, where the records burst with
years of chemotherapy and Zofran, radiation and CAT scans. But even more than that, through my window, I could
see how scared he was. True, he only looked scared because I had surprised him. But his face had such a raw look of
fear, I couldn’t help but draw parallels to what he and his family undoubtedly feel as they fight his leukemia.

          And then the window shut. I was out, he was in. I was back on the other side, peering over the ledge to
catch a glimpse of what goes on inside. This was one of the first times I had really felt like an outsider in this cancer
community. As my interest in the field of pediatric oncology grows, so does this constant struggle. I am not one of
them, I have no idea what this seven year old has already been through. There’s no way I could. Maybe I should just
leave this sensitive area to someone who knows what it’s like, firsthand. On the other hand, they still need my help,
and my concern for these kids isn’t meant to be overbearing, I just sincerely care about them. Whenever I am around
children with cancer or their families, I always feel a sense of awe towards them. Before, this would prevent me
from interacting with them normally, because I felt as though I wasn’t on their level. I was afraid to help out,
because a nagging voice in my head kept reminding me that I am an outsider, I am not a part of this community.
Now that I have more experience, the awe has changed into a strong feeling of respect. But still, it is hard for me to
create the balance of being an outsider in one sense, but having earned my way, in the eyes of the patients and their
families, into my own spot in their community. I’ve come to realize that although we’re in different worlds,
sometimes they can overlap. And to make that intersection happen, I must have some kind of relationship with this
community that I am reaching out to. Similar to Greg Mortenson’s situation in Three Cups of Tea, our relationship
can’t be based on a shared experience, so I believe that it must instead be based on trust. Trust that I have to gain
from them, whether it is by playing endless games of Old Maid with my camper, or just by being there. Whatever it
is, it must be done slowly, day by day, one cup of tea at a time.

          Mortenson does an extraordinary job of being aware of cultural contexts. He somehow strikes the balance
between knowledge for these peoples’ culture, and keeping enough distance to not be intruding. It is not at all an
easy thing to do. He speaks the language, learns the customs, and invests in the clothing. And to an extent, so have I.
My vocabulary has expanded to include words like broviac catheter and Medulloblastoma, and I can explain the
difference between a bone marrow transfusion and a bone marrow transplant. I no longer look twice when a child
has only wisps of hair on his head from chemo, or when he has ballooned to twice his previous size from the
steroids. But I am still learning. I still seem to be testing my boundaries, and struggle with where to draw the line.
When am I helping, and when am I intruding? When is my attention appreciated, and when do I need to back off?
One second I am telling myself that these kids are special, they’ve been through too much, they’ve ‘seen the other
side’. But then the next second I forget all of that, and am caught up in water guns and s’mores.


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          It is a frustrating and difficult balance to make, and many times I’ve told myself that it’s an impossible
balance, one I’ll never be able to create. But Three Cups of Tea continues to prove to me that it is not impossible.
True, it is hard, and takes time, patience, and understanding. No, I don’t have leukemia or a brain tumor. But
Mortenson wasn’t born into an impoverished Pakistani village, and he was never pressured to join the Taliban, or
had to scratch his arithmetic lessons in the dirt with a stick. So maybe these differences shouldn’t discourage us
from reaching out, but rather give us more reason to do so. And to make it an effective relationship, one that can
flourish, the people on the other end must trust us. So we must do whatever it takes to build that trust, very slowly,
bit by bit, “one cup of tea at a time”. If I learned anything from my encounter with the boy in the infirmary, it was
that rushing into this cross-cultural relationship would scare them away, make them wary of our intentions. If
Mortenson had never taken the time to drink tea with Haji Ali, or to get to know the people of Korphe, the villagers
would never have trusted him. But he did, so they did. As Mortenson’s interest and involvement with this part of the
world grew, his relationship with the people did as well. And that’s the only way to do it. One cup of tea, or game of
Old Maid, at a time.




                                                       Caitlin Hearn

                                                 A Lesson From Korphe

         I’ve never been the type of person who uses sticky notes or pencils to mark up books as I’m reading them.
Maybe it’s because it’s never occurred to me, or because nothing has ever stirred me enough to do so. But as I was
reading of Greg Mortenson’s travels and experiences in his book, Three Cups of Tea, I came across a passage that I
could not continue reading past until I had read it several times over and marked it with a Post-It.

          The passage takes place during the time Mortenson is overseeing the construction of the bridge that
connects the village of Korphe to the rest of the world. He describes the scene in the village after a hard day’s work:
villagers “basking in the last of the sunlight . . . on their warm, dry roofs, among the fruits of their successful
harvest, eating, smoking, and gossiping with the same sense of leisure as Parisians on the terrace of a sidewalk
café.” This image of the entire village relaxing and chatting with one another across the rooftops at dusk in early
autumn evoked strong memories of my experiences with my own family. How many times have I myself sat on the
porch of my grandmother’s house at twilight, surrounded by family, good food, and a sense of utter contentment?
There are some valued aspects of life that are never lost in translation.

          That being said, here was a man who lived, both geographically and culturally, a world away from
Pakistan. Yet he had more of a positive influence on this tiny, isolated village than any pact or declaration passed by
the U.S. or Pakistani governments. After making his promise to build a school for the children of Korphe, Greg
Mortenson could have easily written a letter to his congressman, senator or president requesting U.S. aid for the
village. He could have shifted the task from his shoulders to the legislators’ and considered his promise fulfilled.
Instead, he chose to dedicate several years of his life, as well as most of his money and belongings, to raising money
and building the school himself. Mortenson understood that personal communication between himself and the
villagers was the most effective way to achieve their common goal of educating Korphe’s children.

          The aforementioned passage depicts just how well Mortenson was aware of cultural contexts, and the
excellent job he did of using them to his advantage (and that of Korphe’s). He knew that Pakistani customs were
entirely different from those he was used to. However, in no way did he try to resist or change these customs;
rather, he embraced them and tried to learn as much about them as possible. The scene in the ‘Pindi shop of the
tailor, Manzoor Khan, is a perfect example of this. Not only did Mortenson watch and respect the tailor as he went
through the pre-prayer ritual, but he also asked to be taught how to pray to Allah. Even when Khan critiqued him,
he did not shy away or give up; he practiced, often alone, until he improved. It is this sort of enthusiasm with which
we should all throw ourselves into learning about other cultures. It is not just a sense of duty we should feel, but
rather a desire to help those who need it. Mortenson felt this desire, perhaps because he knew the people of Haji
Ali’s village, as well as their traditions, before he learned of their plight. Thus, his acceptance of and interest in this
culture was a vital factor in his drive to build a school for Korphe. It seems that the better we know people, and
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know them personally, the more likely we are to feel this desire to help. In failing to do so, we risk falling into the
worst trap a humanitarian worker can stumble into: being branded as an outsider.

          Coming across as an outsider to those you are trying to help is most likely the least effective way to help
them. Unfortunately, it is also rather an easy error to make and a difficult one to fix. We tend to see those we are
trying to help as having some sort of fault that we must repair, whether it be with their behavior, customs or beliefs.
It is only when we can put ourselves in their shoes, see life the way they do, that we can help others most
effectively. Greg Mortenson has accomplished this. He seems to be a complete natural at immersing himself in a
totally unfamiliar setting, though it is certainly easier for some than for others. It is when one falls into the trap of
continued ignorance, of disinterest, of failing to try to see things from another perspective, that one establishes
himself as an outsider. Mortensen avoided this, and in so doing was extraordinarily successful in his quest to build
schools all over rural Pakistan and Afghanistan.

          Other aspects of life are suddenly at risk as well when we decide to help another person or group of people.
Of course, this often depends on the situation, but humanitarian workers can risk losing time with those they love,
money, sleep, or the chance to raise a family. In Mortenson’s case, he risked death more than once to build his
schools as he traveled the dangerous Karakoram Highway and ventured into the hostile lands of the Taliban. But
those who seek to help others risk something else as well: their weltanschauung, or worldview, as they know it. In
striving to create a better life for others, Mortenson’s worldview has changed considerably. And, since his
worldview draws from more experience with other cultures than most people gain in a lifetime, it has most likely
changed for the better.

          Greg Mortenson’s relationship with the cha, or butter tea, of the Balti people can be seen as a metaphor for
his relationship with the people themselves. At first taste, on the way down from his failed attempt at K2, he found
the tea to be unfamiliar and rather unsavory. However, the more he drank it, the more accustomed he came to the
taste until he found himself gulping it down with relish. Similarly, he found the people of Korphe unfamiliar, but
the longer he stayed with them and the more he learned about them and their customs, the closer he grew to them
until he loved them like his own family. And they loved him back.

          Mortenson’s link to Korphe is a microcosm of what could happen, what needs to happen, between
countries and people. The more we learn about each other, and the more we want to help each other, the closer we
will be to achieving peace.




                                                   George Linderman

                                                  3 Cups of Tea Essay

A month or so ago, my father and I were watching an episode of ABC News' What Would You Do program. The
program is a type of hidden camera experiment to see if passersby would help a homeless man lying unconscious on
the ground with a can of beer in his hand. With heavy hearts, we watched eighty-eight upstanding citizens of our
country walk right on by, ignoring the man as if he weren't there. It was all his fault, they reasoned. He drank, he
didn't go to school, so why would they take the time to reach out to him? Thus, they walked right by, trading their
compassion for hard-heartedness, their concern for nonchalance, and in essence, their very humanity for a few
minutes of precious time.

Just as we were coming to the fearful realization that not one person in the entire crowd would help their fellow
human lying vulnerably on the ground, the hidden camera focused on a feeble, raggedly dressed lady, who was
slowly hobbling onto the scene, leaning on a cane for support. She started crying out, "Excuse me, excuse me,
somebody please call an ambulance." A single voice of compassion, alone in a sea of apathy, she just stood there
begging for someone to help the man she named, "Billy." Eventually, someone joined her and called 911, after
which the experiment was revealed, and the truth was told.

There is a remarkable lesson to be learned from this extraordinary lady named Linda Hamilton. The producers of the
program tried to find more information about her, and found that she was often homeless herself. How is it possible
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that so many of the well-off people of Newark did not stop for the unconscious man, but rather it was a poor,
homeless woman who had the heart to help him? What would drive someone with absolutely nothing to help such a
person, when no one else would even consider stopping?

Remarkably, this situation is not unique. While living in Albania, one of the poorest countries in Europe, my family
and I have come to the amazing realization that the people who have suffered greatly in their lives are the ones who
are willing to sacrifice everything they have for a total stranger. A perfect example of this is a lady named Tefta
Kuqe, who was born into a world of restriction and suffering while the communist regime was in power. She was
persecuted for her beliefs at every turn, persecutions that broke up her family, and sent her brother to prison--all due
to their devotion to freedom. However, this childhood of hardship and persecution led her to ingloriously dedicate
her life to people in need, an undertaking that she continues even now, at sixty-seven years old. In fact, some would
argue that it was her lifetime of hardships that actually prepared her for her work among the poor. If she were not so
clearly exposed to suffering, she would very possibly not have the devotion to spare others from it.

While reading 3 Cups of Tea, I realized that Greg Mortenson is another example of this concept. The co-author,
David Relin, aptly includes Mortenson's childhood to give us a sense for how such an amazing humanitarian is
created. When he was a child, he grew up as a missionary in Tanzania, where he and his family dedicated their lives
to helping people who were less fortunate. They built a teaching hospital, established relationships with the people
there, and otherwise engaged in humanitarian activity. After living in Africa for many years, he devoted his life to
caring for his epileptic sister--even to the extent of entering a neuroscience program with the hope of learning how
to cure her. Despite his best efforts, she passed away while he was in the hospital, recovering from a fall during
mountain-climbing.

As the book goes on to tell, Mortenson attempted to scale K2, but he failed and was saved by the residents of the
Pakistani village, Korphe. While there, he made the decision that would change his entire life: to build a school for
the children in the village of Korphe. By doing so, Mortenson committed himself to a lifetime of service and
sacrifice. He would eventually become the director of the Central Asia Institute and have an enormous effect on the
lives of the people of Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Just like Linda Hamilton and Tefta Kuqe, Greg Mortenson's decision to dedicate his life to the service of others was
not without similar experiences in his past. Ranging from his devotion to his sister, to his family's service in Africa,
Mortenson was constantly exposed to both his own hardships, and those experienced by others. It was this contact
with human suffering that prevented the terrible callousing that so many of us experience. One could even argue that
he was being prepared for the momentous day when he would make the decision to build that first school for the
children of Korphe.

At the peak of our suffering, we will often ask for a purpose to it all. We will beg our loved ones for an answer to
the simple question of, "Why?" and hear them somberly reply that, "It's just the way life is." What if there is more to
it than that? Perhaps the answer to this question lies in the lives of people like Greg Mortenson, Tefta Kuqe and
Linda Hamilton. Perhaps it is in our greatest suffering that our personalities are molded in such a manner that will
allow us to make the decision to help others. By looking at the lives of these amazing people, perhaps we can see
that when we undergo hardships, or when we are exposed to the suffering of humanity, we are being prepared for
the day when we have the opportunity to make a difference in the lives of the people around us.




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                                                   Michelle Williams

                                                   Three Cups of Tea

         Santhosh Kumar Benya, age six, lives in East India and goes to school at the Nabarangpur Child
Development Center. He is dressed in white shorts and a blue polo shirt slightly too large for his skinny frame. He is
standing with his arms tightly pressed to his sides, staring into the camera with a blank gaze, in front of a scuffed
whitewash wall. He has just been matched with a sponsor, a twelve year old American girl who is wondering what
on earth she can write to him about. The year is 2003, and the girl is me.

         Completely at a loss, I decide to read through the material that came with the photograph and short
description. There are many cautionary instructions, such as no pictures in swimsuits or revealing clothing that
would be offensive to another culture. More helpful are the directions not to write about material possessions or
experiences that will emphasize disparity between my life and his. “As time goes on,” the packet states, “you’ll
discover shared interests, perhaps a favorite school subject or a love of music.” Grateful for the advice, I dive into
writing the letter.

          Six years later, I have indeed discovered shared interests. Santhosh sings in his school choir and in church
and loves music, as do I. He enjoys playing cricket with his friends as much as I like tennis. He has two younger
siblings, and I have three younger brothers. And though my family provides money for him to go to school and
receive vaccines, he provides me with a smile every time I get a letter from him describing his schoolwork and
family life. He always includes his love and prayers for the well-being of my family. Never complaining about his
life, he occasionally sends news of others in his village suffering from heat stroke or injuries from hard labor.
Though I never thought of myself as a prejudiced person, I have to admit that I was surprised by his joyful and
caring attitude, despite his poverty. Luckily, I had been wisely advised in my written approach.

          It is always important to come at other cultures from a position of respect rather than judgment. In Greg
Mortenson’s case, his initial contact with the people of Korphe was guaranteed to be humble enough, since he
stumbled into the village tired, hungry, and lost. However, as Twaha notes much later, “he had peculiar habits, very
different from other Europeans. He made no demands for good food and environment. He ate whatever my mother
put before him and slept together with us in the smoke like a Balti.” In other words, Mortenson did not assume the
typical American manner of superiority, expecting to be treated like a king and enjoy the lifestyle he had become
accustomed to. Instead, he indicates by his behavior that there is absolutely no difference between the importance of
the Balti people and himself. His passion and love for children coupled with this respect formed the basis of his
quick acceptance into the society of Korphe, and later other villages all over Pakistan.

          When people approach others with conversion as a part of their goal, they often exude condescension
regardless of how commendable their intentions are. I believe that the most imperative factor in Mortenson’s large-
scale success is that he had no intentions of transforming Muslims into Christians. People are put automatically on
the defensive by the criticism implied by attempts at conversion, and when one is already surrounded by suspicions
simply because of nationality, the last situation one wants is to create more hostile feelings. On several occasions,
village mullahs take offense to Mortenson’s efforts because he is an infidel, despite his extreme care to honor the
traditions of the Islamic faith and culture. Had he expressed any desire to bring the Christian religion into his school
projects, he doubtlessly would have been prevented from building, and probably would have been attacked by
radicals.

         Impatient Americans often expect to be able to waltz in and “fix” other people or nations and still have time
for dinner. But as Haji Ali so wisely tells Greg Mortenson, “you must make time to share three cups of tea.”
Relationships meaningful enough to effect change cannot be forged in a rush. In attempting to help other nations,
Americans in particular are often unwilling to take the time to understand the recipients of aid. In many of
Mortenson’s experiences, the illiterate Pakistanis had a deeper knowledge of how to solve problems than he or our
government. For instance, Haji Ali advised using contacts the village already had in place to help set up the next
school building project. Faisal Baig correctly identified Osama bin Laden as the perpetrator of the 9/11 terrorist
attacks within a day of their happening. The list goes on and on, proving that it is extremely beneficial to listen to
the people who are “uneducated,” living in the midst of the crushing poverty Mortenson targets. Greg clearly knows


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how crucial it is to devote the necessary time to get acquainted with the people of Pakistan. Otherwise, his efforts
would surely not have been nearly as effective, and possibly would have failed entirely.

          “And now these three remain: faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love.” (1 Corinthians 13:13.)
As this verse from the Bible states, “morality” and “religion” are nothing without the love to back it up. Mortenson’s
grueling work for the people of Pakistan, especially the children, demonstrates the quality of his heart for the
impoverished. He selflessly gives his time and strength to the project of providing a quality education to society’s
abandoned and overlooked. The American people as well as the government could learn a lesson from Greg
Mortenson’s work. He made the effort for the “three cups of tea” in approaching another culture: humility, no
ulterior motives, and time to build relationships. These simple steps provide the foundation for one man to change
the world.




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                                     AWARDS

SOURCE PROVOST AWARDS
Students may elect to have their presentations judged by faculty reviewers for our SOURCE
Provost Award. One $200.00 and one $100.00 award will be given in each of seven categories:
Arts, Engineering & Computer Science, Humanities, Natural Sciences & Mathematics, Nursing,
Social Sciences, and Management & Accounting.
Awards will be announced at the Honors Convocation on Friday, April 25, during the
Community Hour.


Michelson-Morley Awards
This annual research competition, sponsored by the Department of Biology, is open to all Case
Western Reserve University undergraduates who have conducted research at CWRU or other
universities which is biologically related. One $300, one $200, and one $100 award will be
given. Awards will be announced at 1pm today in The Cleveland Room.
The competition honors the collaborative research initiated in 1885 between Albert A.
Michelson, a Case physicist, and Edward W. Morley, a Western Reserve Chemist, which
culminated in the Michelson-Morley experiment of 1887. This experiment negated the ether
theory of space, and constituted some of the experimental findings basic to Albert Einstein’s
theory of relativity.


SAGES Capstone Award
The Outstanding Capstone Project Award is given annually by The Executive Board of the Case
Western Reserve University Women's Club. Last year's winner was Katherine Hagen. Her
capstone was entitled "Analysis of Viola Vibrato Waveforms."




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                                          Many Thanks
Thank you very much to our alumni, faculty, post doctorate fellows, and graduate students who have volunteered to
serve as judges for the SOURCE competition. Without their assistance, our competition would not be possible.

Warren Alilain, Neurosciences                                  Carol Liedtke, Physiology & Biophysics
Elshad Allakhyarov, Physics                                    Nayandeep Mahanta, Mechanical Engineering
Tim Atherton, Physics                                          Ernest Marsolais, MD, Professor Emeritus, Orthopedics
Jeff Balcerski, Geological Sciences                            Uri Mbonye, Biological Sciences
Sam Barker, Materials Science                                  TJ McCallum, Psychology
Ilya Bederman, Physiology and Biophysics                       Emilia McGucken, Sociology
Anthony Berdis, Pharmacology                                   Jonathan Metcalfe, Anthropology
Patrizia Bonaventura, Communication Sciences                   Barbara Morrison, Francis Payne Bolton School of
Lauren Buerkle, Macromolecular Sciences &                      Nursing
Engineering                                                    Samantha Morley, Nutrition
John Cleary, Civil Engineering                                 Leah Orchinik, Psychology
Arin Connell, Psychology                                       Lain Pierce, Genetics
Lopamudra Das, Medicine                                        Patricia Princehouse, Philosophy and History
Melissa DeLucchi, Alumna                                       Kaustubha Qanungo, Biochemistry
Julie Exline, Psychology                                       Saifur Rashid, Neurosciences
Gaurav Goel, Chemical Engineering                              Andrea Romani, Physiology and Biophysics
Mary Quinn Griffin, Francis Payne Bolton School of             Vernon Ruffin, Physiology and Biophysics
Nursing                                                        Sudipto Saha, Proteomics
Alan Ho, Psychology                                            Anindya Sarkar, Physiology and Biophysics
Chris Hudak, Nursing                                           Kadhiravan Shanmuganathan, Macromolecular Sciences
Leslie Hayden, Geological Sciences                             and Engineering
Craig Hodges, Pediatrics                                       Mark Smith, Pathology
Ruth Jacob, Geological Sciences                                Jing Song, Proteomics
Joyce Jentoft, Professor Emeritus, Biochemistry                Lee Thompson, Psychology
Casey Johnson, Macromolecular Sciences &                       Ravikumar Varadarajan, Materials Science &
Engineering                                                    Engineering
Eliza Kaltenberg, Geological Sciences                          Elizabeth Woyczynski, Office of the President
Vijay Kumar, Biochemistry                                      Jingting Yang, Macromolecular Sciences & Engineering
James Laird, Chemistry                                         Yu Zhang, Chemistry
Hossein Lavvafi, Materials Science




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Senior Capstone Participants
The Senior Capstone is the culmination of our SAGES, Seminar Approach to General Education and
Scholarship, program. The senior capstone allows students to gain experience in defining a problem and
then developing a response to that problem, whether this involves research or artistic creation. Students
work individually or in small groups under the guidance of faculty mentors. SOURCE congratulates the
following students who are presenting their senior capstone projects today:



Yassmin Aljaberi                      Colleen Heffernan                             Anshul Saurastri
Cody Allen                            Tiffany Henkel                                Heather Schultz
Hanya Almudallal                      Lauren Hennen                                 Vivek Sengupta
Maya Alunkal                          Ken Hwang                                     Yasmeen Shahin
Laura Ansley                          Kara Imbrogno                                 Elaine Simpson
Katayoun Ayasoufi                     Kayla Imbrogno                                Eduardo Somoza
Johsua Barzilai                       Andrew Jenkins                                Constance Stamoolis
Mir Bear-Johnson                      Gareth Kafka                                  Lily Stanley
Katelyn Begany                        Akash Kataruka                                Kyle Strodtbeck
K. Grace Bell                         Rebecca Keating                               David Stute
Gary Bhagat                           Emily Konen                                   Marika Tapolyai
Himali Bhatt                          Colleen Konsavage                             Mariya Topolyanskaya
Lacy Blazetic                         Guozhi Liang                                  Colleen Vadia
Neena Bolla                           Seraina Murphy                                Stephanie Velloze
Elle Brennan                          Paul Niebrzydowski                            Corbett Walsh
Andrea Briggs                         Megan Norr                                    John Weaver
Geoffrey Browning                     Julia Obejero-Paz                             Brian Weeks
Caitlin Burkman                       Susan Orra                                    Alexander Wijangco
Megan Carl                            Harry Owusu-Dapaah                            Kathryn Woeste
Rebecca Carter                        Sarah Park                                    Andrea Wojtowicz
Amy Catalani                          Mayank Patel                                  Stacey Woodcraft
Benjamin Chandhok                     Christine Petzold                             Sander Zandbergen
Kathryn Clusman                       Funita Phan
David Dashevsky                       Nicole Pilasky
Frederick Davey                       Mariya Pogrebetskaya
Michael Ding                          Ramya Raman
Jaquetta Duncan                       Roshni Rao
Elizabeth Ennis                       Mary Beth Ray
Drew Enns                             Abigail Reed
Steven Ewart                          Nicholas Reinsvold
Andromeda Fair                        Megan Ritchey
Allen Ferrick                         Sarah Robinson
William Fox                           Brittany Rogers
Alex Galante                          Kelly Rogers
J.P. Graulty                          Theodore Roman
Canting Guo                           Andrew Rosenberger
Yashi Gupta                           Zachary Rubin
Matthew Hakes                         Paul Salamon



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 Intersections: SOURCE Symposium & Poster Session
                    2009 Winners
Arts-Poster Competition
1st (tie) – Christopher Kervick, “Experiencing Theatre at Scotland’s Fringe Festival with This Bridge Theatre
      Company.” Faculty mentor: Catherine Albers, Department of Theater and Dance
1st (tie) – Esther Wysong, “Cleveland Design Competition 2008: ‘Project InterPlay’ Design Entry for Park Space in
      West Cleveland.” Faculty mentor: Sally Levine, AIA, Art Studio Department: Architecture

Humanities Poster Competition
1st - Stephen Skentzos, “‘Smell how good this smells!’: a cross-linguistic study of medial constructions in
      expressions of sensory experience.” Faculty mentor: Per Aage Brandt, Department of Cognitive Science

Humanities Oral Competition
1st - Jason Huber, “Meaning’s Ambiguity: The Multivalent Discourse of Primitivism in the Polynesian Art of Paul
      Gauguin.” Faculty mentor: Anne Helmerich, Department of Art History
2nd - Mari Elisse Cortez, “Overseas Filipino Workers: National Benefits, Personal Sacrifices, and Unresolved
      Issues.” Faculty mentors: Laura Hengehold, Department of Philosophy; Eileen Anderson-Fye, Department of
      Anthropology; Mark Chupp, Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences

Natural Sciences Poster Competition
1st –Andrew Opsitnick, “Accumulations of Oil and Natural Gas in Clinton Sandstone near CWRU’s Squire
     Valleevue Farm.” Faculty mentor: Beverly Saylor; Department of Geological Sciences
2nd (tie): Jimmy Ibrahim, “Atherosclerosis: An Evolutionary Explanation For Human Vulnerability.” Faculty
     mentor: Cynthia Beall, Department of Anthropology
2nd (tie): Rebecca Levinson, “Hearing loss phenomenon in Usher Syndrome 1: Protein profiling of the cochlea,
     using proteomic methodologies.” Faculty mentors: Mark Chance, Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics;
     Robin Snyder, Department of Biology

Natural Science Oral Competition
1st – Lauren Boucher; “Conformational Dynamics of Antithrombin III With Its Allosteric Activator Heparin.”
     Faculty mentor: Patrick Wintrode, Department of Physiology and Biophysics

Social Sciences Poster Competition
1st: Ashley Berdine, “Parent Interactive Style Modifications Leading to Increased Rates of Development.” Faculty
     mentor: Lee Thompson, Department of Psychology
2nd (tie): Puja Shroff, “Emotions, Attention, Reactivity Study.” Faculty mentor: Arin Connell, Department of
     Psychology
2nd (tie): Andrew Gardella & Jeremy Safran, “A characterization of the boundaries of the anti-Hicks effect.” Faculty
     mentor: Bonnie Lawrence, Department of Psychology

Social Sciences Oral Competition
1st – Joseph Drungil, “Beyond the Lega Nord and Padanian Political Nationalism: A Cultural Explanation for
     Shifting Group Identities in Northern Italy.” Faculty mentor: Charlotte Ikels, Department of Anthropology
2nd – Amy Brown, “The Benefit of an Elective Year of Research: Comparison of Allen Fellows to Traditional 5-
     Year Orthopedic Surgery Residents at Case Western Reserve University.” Faculty mentors: Randall E. Marcus
     and Ellen Greenberger, Department of Orthopaedics; Stephen Hayensworth, Department of Biology

Engineering Poster Competition
1st – Kathleen Sutter, “Injectable Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) Acid Scaffolds with In Situ Pore Formation for Tissue
      Engineering.” Faculty mentor: Eben Alsberg, Department of Biomedical Engineering



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Engineering Oral Competition
1st - Alexander Schepelmann, “Vision-Based Obstacle Detection for the CWRU Cutter Autonomous Lawn Mower.”
      Faculty mentors: Roger Quinn, Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering; Frank Merat,
      Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science
2nd – Mitchell Cooper, “Comparison of Weighted and Weightless Transduction Mediums for Use in Urological
      Catheter Manometer.” Faculty mentor: Margot S. Damaser, Department of Biomedical Engineering;
      Cleveland Clinic Foundation

Nursing
1st – Diane Lui, “Midwifery and Obstetrics: A Comparative Study.” Faculty mentor: Claire Andrews, Frances
      Payne Bolton School of Nursing




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                           SOURCE Summer Program
The SOURCE Summer Program provides financial support for Case Western Reserve University students from all
academic majors to take part in research and creative endeavor projects. The program is very generously supported
by the Case Alumni Association and the University.




                                      2009 Summer Program Participants

 Student                  Project Title                                               Mentor
 Akash Kataruka           The effects of the adenovirus protein RIDα on               Cathleen Carlin,
                          autophagy and apoptosis                                     Physiology and
                                                                                      Biophysics

 Andrew Jenkins           Cardiac Imaging with an Optical Mapping and OCT             Andrew Rollins,
                          System                                                      Biomedical Engineering

 Antuane Rogers           Washington University in St. Louis Shakespeare Globe        Ron Wilson, Theater
                          Intensive

 Ashley Gan               Chemical Bath Deposition of CdS-TiO2 Films for              Mark DeGuire, Materials
                          Photovoltaic Solar Cells                                    Science and Engineering

 Aswin Sundaram           A low cost drug delivery system for reductioin of HIV       Horst von Recum,
                          transmission                                                Biomedical Engineering

 Eduardo Somoza           Molecular Imaging of Myelination in the Peripheral          Yanming Wang,
                          Nervous System                                              Radiopharmaceutical
                                                                                      Department, University
                                                                                      Hospitals

 Elizabeth McDonald       Cross-Analyses of International Anti-Bullying               Emilia McGucken,
                          Interventions                                               Sociology

 Erica Weiser             Surface Modification of Diamond Films to Develop            Heidi Martin, Chemical
                          Selective Biosensors                                        Engineering

 Heather Morgan           Development of a New Telescope for Detecting Ultra-         Corbin Covault, Physics
                          Rapid Optical Flashes
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Henry Snow              Augmenting an Autonomous Navigation System                  Roger Quinn, Mechanical
                        Through Computer Vision                                     and Aerospace
                                                                                    Engineering

Himali Bhatt            Pregnancy: Pre- and Post-Partum Practices and               Jill Korbin, Anthropology
                        Nutritional Beliefs in West India

Jenna Novak             Diamond Electrode Detection of Adenosine in the Pre-        Heidi Martin, Chemical
                        Botzinger Complex                                           Engineering

John Christian Dalton   A Comparative Study of Brazing versus Self-                 David Schwam, Materials
                        Propagating Reaction-Welding of Electrical Connectors       Science and Engineering

Jonathan Taylor         The Design and Construction of a Refined Autonomous         Roger Quinn, Mechanical
                        Lawnmower                                                   and Aerospace
                                                                                    Engineering

Kaitlyn Zolton          Model Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalyst Supported       Robert Savinell,
                        on Graphene Sheets for Oxygen Reduction Reaction            Chemical Engineering

Kirtishri Mishra        Quantification of the Efficacy of Tamoxifen-Inducible       Mitchell Drumm,
                        Gene Expression System to Regulate Cystic Fibrosis          Pediatrics

Laura Ansley            “Girls-in-Breeches:” The Gendering of Female Heroines
                        in American Western Dime Novels                             Renee Sentilles, History

Leah Dodson             Degradation of the Pharmaceutical Salbutamol in             Carlos Crespo, Chemistry
                        Aqueous Solution by Light

Megan Norr              Culture, Mind and Morality                                  Anthony Jack, Cognitive
                                                                                    Science

Megan Ritchey           Creativity in a Bipolar Pediatric Population                Sandra Russ, Psychology

Michael Steward         Statistical Analysis of Drug Effectiveness on Malaria       Peter Thomas,
                        with Recrudescence                                          Mathematics

Michelle Sing           Biomineralization of Clay Aerogels                          David Schiraldi,
                                                                                    Macromolecular Science
                                                                                    and Engineering

Neel Pancholi           Determining the Effect of Oxidative Stress in the           Hyoung-gon Lee,
                        Animal Model of Alzheimer’s Disease                         Pathology

Patrick Chirdon         The Effect of 5-HT Deletion on Brain Orexins and            Pingfu Feng, Pulmonary
                        Depressive Behaviors                                        Medicine

Raymond Rodgers         Shape controlled catalysts for carbon nanotube growth       Mohan Sankaran,
                                                                                    Chemical Engineering

Rebecca Carter          Addiction and “Generation Me”: Narcissistic and             Maria Pagano, Phychiatry
                        Prosocial Behaviors of Youth with Substance
                        Dependency Disorder in Comparison to Normative
                        Youths


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                                      Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
Rebecca Gans      Empathy, Rationality and Legal Judgment                        Anthony Jack, Cognitive
                                                                                 Science

Rebecca Kopplin   The developmet of a nano-particle catalyst based single        Chung-Chiun Liu,
                  use disposable lactic acid biosensor                           Chemical Engineering

Robin Wilson      In Vitro Characterization of Drug Delivery Using               Agata Exner, Radiology
                  Ultrasound-Sensitive Bubbles

                  In Vitro Dopamine Detection Using Diamond                      Heidi Martin, Chemical
Samantha Reed     Microelectrics                                                 Engineering


Tanvi Khot        MKK/SEK-1 is a Substrate of LRRK2/LRK-1 Kinase in              Zhaoyang (John) Feng,
                  PD Pathogenesis                                                Pharmacology

Theodore Roman    Combinatorial Analysis of Gene Copy Number in Lung             Mehmet Koyuturk,
                  Cancer                                                         Electrical Engineering
                                                                                 and Computer Science

Tina Saw          Dental Care Parameters, Dairy Consumption: A Study             Leena Palomo, Dental
                  of Women’s Oral Health                                         School

Xi Du             Role of Sodium Channel Polymorphisms in Cardiac                Isabelle Deschenes,
                  Arrhythmias                                                    MetroHealth Medical
                                                                                 Center, Medicine




              2009 SOURCE Summer SURES Program
                  Summer Undergraduate Research in Energy and Sustainability
                                   Summer Participants

Student            Project Title                                    Mentor
Trevor Allen       An Analysis of the Feasibility of                Peter McCall, Geological
                   Campus-Wide Composting                           Sciences

Kevin Brent        Determination of the Relative Response
                   Factor of Methane in Gas Chroma-                 Chih-Jen Sung, Mechanical and
                   tography with Flame Ionization Detection         Aerospace Engineering

Beatrice Floyd     Bio-Inspired Polyelectrolytes                    Alexis Abramson, Mechanical
                                                                    and Aerospace Engineering

Julia German       Smart Metering for Monitoring Energy             David Schwam, Materials
                   Consumption                                      Science and Engineering

Michael Kelley     Measurement of Thermoelectric                    Kenneth Singer, Physics
                   Properties in InAs and InSb Nanowires

Joshua Lostroh     A Study of the Thermoelectric Effects of         Ana Locci, Biology and
                   Polyelectrolyte Solutions                        University Farm

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                                Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
 Paul Manglona, Jr.          Feasibility Study of Thermoelectric              Xiong (Bill) Yu, Civil
                             Power Harvesting                                 Engineering

 Michael MacDonald           Measurement of Thermoelectric                    Xuan Gao, Physics
                             Properties in InAs and InSb Nanowires

 Cassandra McFadden          Pilot Study of Microbial Fuel Cell               Xiong (Bill) Yu, Civil
                             Technology for Commercial Use in                 Engineering
                             Waste Water Management and
                             Generating Electricity

 Paul Niebrzydowski          Understanding Conceptions of Energy              Peter Shulman, History
                             Independence

 Alexander Papadopulos       Carbon Footprint of Forged and Cast              David Schwam, Materials
                             Automotive Components                            Science and Engineering

 Mariya Topolyanskaya        Sustainable Eating in Cleveland                  Peter McCall, Geological
                                                                              Sciences

 Brandon Wenning             Supramolecular Polymeric Systems for             Stuart Rowan, Macromolecular
                             Healable Materials                               Science and Engineering




                    The Case School of Engineering –
                   Alcoa Campus Partnership Program
                           Academic Year Undergraduate Research Internship
                                Spring 2010 Participants & Presenters

The goals of the CSE-ACPP academic year internship are to increase the number of women and underrepresented
minority men who earn bachelor’s degrees in Engineering, to encourage more of our degree recipients to pursue
graduate study in these fields, and to increase the pool of diverse and globally-competent students in technical and
business fields. One of several means of achieving the goals is to encourage more students to participate in
undergraduate research. SOURCE is grateful to Alcoa for its continuous support of this program.


Student Name, Project Title, Faculty Mentor, Department
Rachel Craft, The Effect of Heat Treatments on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V (a
Sensitivity Study), David Schwam, Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering

Erin Hollinger, Benzoxazine-functionalized Chitosan: A New Class of Green Polymers of Many Potential
Applications, Hatsuo Ishida, Department of Macromolecular and Polymer Science

Anthony White, Creating a hybrid wheel to wheel-leg system for use in search and rescue missions, Richard
Bachmann, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Alex Zaddach, Modeling the Tensile Fracture Behavior of Metallic Glasses, John J. Lewandowski, Department of
Materials Science and Engineering

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                  Case Western Reserve University
                    Formal Summer Programs
                  Research & Creative Endeavors
As a research intensive university CWRU has several formal summer programs providing many
opportunities for research and creative projects to our undergraduates. Information about these
and other programs can be linked from the SOURCE website:
http://www.case.edu/provost/source/opp/funding.htm


Academic Careers in Engineering & Science (ACES+)
Biomedical Engineering National Science Foundation REU Program (BME-REU)
Case’s Rising Engineers and Technological Entrepreneurs (CREATE)
Center for AIDS Research Minority HIV Research Training Program (MHRTP)
Center for Layered Polymeric Systems (CLiPS)
Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics
Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Undergraduate Student Summer Program (ENGAGE)
Experiential Learning Fellowships – College of Arts and Sciences
Heart, Lung & Blood Minority Research Training Program
Macromolecular Science and Engineering Program in Polymers (EMAC-REU)
National Cancer Institute – Integrative Cancer Biology Program
Physics (NSF-REU)
Rainbow Babies and Children’s Hospital
SOURCE Summer Research Program
Summer Program in Undergraduate Research (SPUR)
Summer Undergraduate Research in Energy Studies (SURES)
Summer Undergraduate Research in Pharmacology (SURP)
Summer Undergraduate Research in Physiology (SURP)
The Wellman Hill Political Science Internship




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                        ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
There are many to thank for making this day happen. Obviously, the student presenters and their
faculty mentors for making the day possible and allowing all of us to see some of the great work
being done by our undergraduates with our faculty. I also appreciate our many judges who are
noted elsewhere in this program. Students request to be judged and we cannot provide this
educational experience without the assistance of many from all over the University.

There are many others who have contributed, some more visibly than others, but all in needed
ways. I apologize ahead of time for leaving anyone out. I wish to thank: Mark Bassett and the
Center for Student Writing for allowing Intersections to serve as the host for The Celebration of
Student Writing, Vice Provost Don Feke, Henry Hill and Rico Mixon-our wonderful campus
movers, Ryan Keytack and the Admissions staff, Charles Rozek with the Michelson-Morley
competition, and James Salerno. I also want to thank Carol Stark who is working our judges’
table again this year and to Hollie McGivern for assisting Carol and us. I hope you will be back
with us again next year. Thanks also to Andrea Hemphill from Undergraduate Studies who is
assisting us at our student check-in table.

This semester SOURCE has had five student workers who have contributed much to our office.
Sultan Ahmed, Maya Alunkal, Jeanne Li, and Darshan Pollepalli: we have enjoyed working with
each of you and appreciate very much the different talents and skills you have provided. And of
course, we appreciate your putting together all 50 easels early in the semester. Also many thanks
to Sean Yeldell who again provided us with all our marketing design work.

Bethany Pope contributes to Intersections (and SOURCE in general) in so many ways that I
won’t begin to detail here, but I will say thank you very much.




                                                    99
                                   Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session
Please note:

Research project titles, student names, mentor names and abstracts were submitted by the student researcher. The
SOURCE office cannot ensure the accuracy or omission of information submitted for publication.


                                                         100
                                         Intersections: Symposium and Poster Session

				
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