Nixon and Vietnam • Henry Kissinger- Nixon’s National Security advisor • Vietnamization: Gradual withdraw of U.S. troops = increased efforts of the South Vietnamese to fight the war. • Continued to bomb N.Vietnam as well as Laos & Cambodia Nixon & Foreign Policy • New Federalism- Distribute a portion of Fed. power to state and local Gov. • Détente: easing Cold War tensions • Nixon opened foreign policy with China and Soviet Union by visiting them Nixon’s Southern Strategy • Tried to appeal to Southern Democrats who were unhappy w/federal desegregation and liberal Supreme Court • Tried to slow down school deseg., voting rights and school busing – Shot down by Congress / Supreme Court Nixon • “Silent Majority:” middle class Americans who wanted order restored in the U.S. – Wiretapping of Dem. party officials and Dem. party headquarters at the Watergate office building in D.C. • Tax audits of antiwar and civil rights activists. Watergate: The President’s Men • H.R. Haldeman: Chief of Staff • John Ehrlichman: Chief Domestic Adv. • John Mitchell: Attorney General • John W. Dean III: Presidential Counsel Watergate • Spying on the Democratic National Party • Cover-up in destroying all evidence of the break-in • Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein of the Washington Post – Received little American interest. Watergate • Senate investigation • Nixon dismissed his “inner circle” • John Dean testified that Nixon was “heavily involved in the cover- up” • Presidential aide Alexander Butterfield: Nixon taped all conversations – Tapes were key in revealing what Nixon actually knew Watergate • Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned – Nixon appointed House Minority Leader Gerald Ford as the V.P. • House Judiciary Committee began looking into impeachment • Nixon agreed to release “edited tapes” – Court wanted unedited tapes = Nixon refused – Court had enough evidence for impeachment • Tapes finally released on Aug. 5, 1974 / resigned Aug. 8th Gerald Ford • President Nixon resigned, then Vice President Spirow Agnew resigned. • Pardoned Nixon: cost him public support • Continued discussions with the Soviet Union • South Vietnam surrendered to the North in 1975 • Communist take-over of Cambodia Jimmy Carter • Camp David Accords- Israel/Egypt – Carter calmed the tension between Egypt & Israel. Won Nobel Peace Prize. • Ayatollah Khomeini – Muslim leader in Iran that led rebels to overthrow the shah, & follow strict obedience of Qur’an- Islam’s holy book. • Iran Hostage Crisis – Proved that Carter didn’t have enough experience in dealing with foreign policy. Ronald Reagan • FDR was Reagan’s idol – Reagan reduced welfare, fought affirmative action programs. • Big government was bad. • Military = good • Purpose of foreign policy = defeat communism • Slash taxes • $$ to freedom fighters in 3rd world countries fighting communism • 41% increase in defense spending • Pledged to build 17,000 new nukes Reagan: Iran Contra • Spring 1985 • Israel give Iran American weapons in exchange for American hostages in Lebanon – U.S. would then resupply Israel – ***Trading weapons for hostages • NSC Staffer: Oliver North Russian Relations • Mikhail Gorbachev: Soviet President – Wanted to greatly improve Soviet relations w/the rest of the world – Transform the economy • INF Treaty: Agreement that the U.S. and Soviets would destroy 4% of their nuclear arsenal – 1st time ever that a treaty of this magnitude has been put into place – Allowed monitoring of the destruction of the nukes • Not a Reagan victory but a gift by Gorbachev Ronald Reagan • Reanganomics- strategy to give federal money to big business in hopes that it would trickle down to society. • Strategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars)- a strategy Reagan wanted to develop to keep Americans safe from enemy missiles. • Sandra Day O’Connor- first woman appointed into Supreme Court. • Mikhail Gorbachev- Gen. Secretary of Communist Party in S.U. – Glasnost- Openness – Perestrokia- gov. restructuring George H. Bush • Bush built on Reagan’s legacy and promised “Read my lips: no new taxes” in his acceptance speech at the Republican Convention. • Saddam Hussein- Iraqi dictator • Norman Schwarzkopf- commander in chief during Desert Storms. Slick Willy • Health Care Reform: Hillary Clinton • Reduced Federal deficit – Why? = booming economy • Reformed welfare • Impeached but served the rest of his term. • NAFTA • Internet • Contract w/America “Rocky IV” Questions 1) How is Apollo symbolic of the U.S. after WWII? 2) Apollo’s death is a representation of what? 3) How is Drago’s training a representation of the advancement in Soviet technology? Rocky’s training is an example that in order for the U.S. to overcome the Soviet Union, what did we have to do? 4) How is the size/age of Rocky and size / age of Drago a representation of the U.S. and Soviet Union?
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