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THE NIXON YEARS

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					       THE NIXON YEARS


                                          THE
                                          IMPERIAL
                                          PRESIDENCY




“This country could run itself domestically without a
President. All you need is a competent cabinet to run the
country … you need a President for foreign policy.”
Richard Nixon
        President of the U.S. from
        1969-1974.
        The Imperial Presidency
        Vice President under
        Eisenhower from 1953-
        1961.
        Served in the Congress
        from 1946-1952.
        Only President to resign
        from office (after Watergate
        Scandal).
        Strict Republican and Anti-
        Communist.
NEW FEDERALISM
          Policy to reduce
          federal government’s
          role in the economy
          and turn over many
          tasks to state and
          local governments

          Passed “revenue-
          sharing” bills that
          granted federal funds
          to state and local
          governments to do
          with as they wished.
DOMESTIC ISSUES:
1ST President to be elected in
modern times after having lost a
prior bid for the Presidency
   Southern Strategy
   Anti-war protest at his inauguration
WAR ON CRIME:
   Takes a stance against
    permissive attitudes of courts
    towards criminals
   Replaces liberal judges on Supreme Court
    with conservatives
      Appoints Warren Burger as new Chief
       Justice to replace Earl Warren
  Nixon”& his staff – the “Berlin Wall”
Avoided Cabinet relied on his staff
Fiercely loyal team players
Cabinet posts are approved by
Senate, staff positions aren ‘t
H.R. Haldeman, Chief of Staff, “I get
done what he wants done and I
take the heat instead of him.”
John Ehrichman, chief domestic
advisor, framed issues and
narrowed down options
John Mitchell, Attorney General,
great influence spoke to Nixon
several times a day
MAJOR SUPREME COURT DECISIONS:
 NY TIMES vs. U.S., 1971
    Publication of Pentagon papers not a violation of
     national security
 FORCED BUSING, 1971
    To achieve racial integration; Nixon opposed
 ROE vs. WADE, 1973
    Legalization of abortion
 CAPITAL PUNISHMENT (reverses Warren Court)
    Court holds that it does NOT violate Bill of Rights
 U.S. vs. NIXON, 1973
    Watergate – executive privilege does NOT allow P to
     withhold items requested by Congressional subpoena
 26TH AMENDMENT passed lowering voting
 age to 18
                           The “Greenest”
                             President

Rachel Carson, Silent Spring
   Pesticides – led to ban on DDT
EPA created under Nixon in 1970
   Deals with all environmental & toxic waste policies
CLEAN AIR ACT, 1970
   DOT has responsibility to reduce automobile emissions
Water Pollution Control Act, 1972
   To clean up nation’s lakes and rivers
Endangered Species Act, 1973
Earth Day – April 22, 1970
FOREIGN
POLICY:
Major focus & Nixon’s
greatest strength
After a period of confrontation,
we are entering an era of
negotiation.” -Richard Nixon’s
1st Inaugural Address
Sheds his image as a “Cold
Warrior”
Policy of DÉTENTE:
   Relaxation of tensions with
    communist nations
      Foreign Policy Goals
Strategic arms limitation
Peaceful negotiation with foreign powers
  “Rapprochement” with China
  “Détente” with the Soviet Union
Reduced commitments of manpower to
foreign nations (Nixon Doctrine)
Promote peace and prevent imposition
of power by hostile countries on others
“Peace with honor” in Vietnam
  Minimal public support for the war
  Major reason for Nixon’s election
           Henry Kissinger
National Security Advisor from
1969-1975, and Secretary of
State from 1973-1977.
Didn’t really fit in with the other
key advisors
Key contributor to the foreign
policy decisions of the Nixon
Administration.
Advocates a practical foreign
policy based on maintaining
American strength rather than
moral principles
Triangular & Shuttle Diplomacy
Triangular Diplomacy
      The U.S. exploited growing Soviet-
      Chinese tensions.
        Russia hoped to protect itself from
         the growing Chinese threat in the
         East.
        Used successes in foreign policy
         with China and Russia to gain from
         the other country, thanks to
         additional leverage.
      After Nixon announced a visit to China,
      the Soviets expressed interest in a
      meeting with Nixon to ease tension as
      well.
      “Right now, we need the Chinese to
      correct the Russians, and to discipline
      the Russians.” -Kissinger
       COMMUNIST CHINA
China admitted to U.N. in 1971
Reasons for rapprochement:
  Trade with China— huge
   market
  Main reason: increase Sino-
   Soviet tension
Ping Pong Diplomacy:
  U.S. team invited to visit in
   1971 – first Americans
   allowed into Communist          America lifted its 20-year
   China                           trade embargo on mainland
                                   China.
  Huge diplomatic success!
Nixon first President to
                           COMMUNIST
visit Communist              CHINA:
China; Feb. ’72
   Had been set up by
    Kissinger the year
    before
US grants diplomatic
recognition
Nixon lifts trade and
travel restrictions        For a Democrat, negotiating with
                           Communist China could have been a
Removed Navy from          fatal political mistake. But the
                           Republican Nixon was known as a
Taiwan                     hard-liner anti-Communist, and so
                           could get away with it.
SOVIET RELATIONS
        Nixon and Kissinger
        hoped to negotiate for
        the mutual benefit of
        both the U.S.S.R. and
        the U.S. as opposed to
        demanding that the
        U.S.S.R. give into U.S.
        demands.
        Détente focused on
        peaceful negotiations
        and weapon limitations
        between the two nations.
The
Soviets:
    SALT
    Negotiations:

 Nixon visits Moscow / meets with Breshnev in
  May 1972
 Nuclear weapons (strategic arms) limitations
  agreed to
 Agreed to ban biological warfare

 Trade agreements reached – US grain sales to
  Soviets
  End of U.S.
Involvement in
   Vietnam
Cease-Fire in January
1973
Sec. Of State
Kissinger gets Nobel
Peace Prize
     WAR IN THE MIDDLE
   EAST: The Six-Day War
                 (1967)
Israel had won a crushing victory against the
Arabs in the Six-Day War of 1967, which
expanded the nation’s borders to include the
Golan Heights, the West Bank, the Gaza
Strip, and the Sinai Peninsula.
   Therefore, they assumed that the Arabs would not
    dare to attack them again so soon.
   But the Arabs were as determined as ever to
    reclaim their territory and eliminate the Jewish
    state.
      Israeli Territorial Gains
The pale blue indicates Israeli
territory before the Six-Day
War.
The slightly darker blue
indicates Israeli territorial gains.
   massive border expansions,
    especially on the Sinai Peninsula.
YOM KIPPUR WAR:
   Oct. 1973 on Jewish
    Holiday
   Egypt & Syria launch
    surprise attack on Israel
   Goal is to recapture
    territory lost in 6-day War
    of 1967
   Israel pushes troops back
    inside Egypt & calls on
    U.S. for aid
Nixon airlifts $2 billion in military
supplies to Israel
Soviets supplied Egypt & Syria
US aid to Israel causes Arab nations
to place embargo on oil shipments to
US & other nations supporting Israel
US & USSR trying to work through
UN to arrange cease-fire; agreed to
by late October
Peace-keeping force sent by UN by
end of 1973
HENRY KISSINGER &
SHUTTLE DIPLOMACY
      Kissinger – a political scientist
      of German heritage; came to
      U.S. in 1938; naturalized US
      citizen in 1943
      Became Sec. Of State in 1973
      Shuttle Diplomacy:
        Working with Egypt & Israel to
          reduce Middle East tensions
        Constant flying back & forth
          between these 2 countries
        Got significantly greater
          peace between them by
          1974/1975
THE OIL CRISIS:
Arab oil-producing nations (OPEC) place
embargo on oil shipments in 1973 to force
end to US support of Israel
US has 1/16 of world population; uses 1/3 of
its oil
Didn’t work BUT caused oil shortage & oil
prices to rise as much as 400%
Devastating effect on U.S.
Nixon wants to make US less dependent on
foreign oil, more self-sufficient
    Effects of Oil Crisis
State governments requested citizens not put up
Christmas lights
Nixon requested gasoline stations to voluntarily not sell
gasoline on Saturday nights or Sundays; 90% of owners
complied, which resulted in lines on weekdays.
1974, National max speed limit of 55mph, Emergency
Highway Energy Conservation Act
1975 Strategic Petroleum Reserve along with other
reserves ~4 years, 3 months w/out importing
1977, Dept. of Energy created
Daylight Savings Time year round
Cars lighter, more energy efficient
NASCAR cuts all distances by 10% & cancelled 24 hrs of
Daytona & 12 hrs of Sebring races
THE ECONOMY:
 MAJOR PROBLEMS:
  Inherits huge budget deficit & inflation from
   LBJ (Great Society & Vietnam)
  Japanese & German competition
  America’s dependence on OPEC
 Cuts $ supply to tackle inflation
 Resulted in “STAGFLATION”
  Economic slowdown, coupled with inflation
  Then, institutes freezes on wages & prices
  Also tries to stimulate economy with tax cuts
   and deficit spending
 US loses dominance in world markets –
 fewer US exports being purchased since
 prices so high (inflation)
  Economic Problems
Used Wage and
price controls and
deficit spending
unsuccessfully to
curb inflation and
unemployment
Oil price controls
made the
situation worse
        Election of 1972




GEORGE           GEORGE                NIXON
MCGOVERN         WALLACE
                                       Republican
Democrat         AL, Independent
                                       Landslide
SD Senator       Segregationist/       victory
Anti-war         Conservative
                                       521 to 17
   Troops out   Anti-civil rights     electoral votes
    in 90 days   Assassination         Over 60% of
Pro Social       attempt – drops out   popular vote
Welfare
WATERGATE
    Hotel Guard Frank Willis


On his rounds
noticed a taped
door, removed
it came back
later and it was
retaped, called
the police and
the burglars
were arrested
     U.S. V Nixon 1974
Claiming executive privilege, in regards to
turning over taped White House
conversations to evidence in the
Watergate Case
". . . Absent a claim of need to protect
military, diplomatic, or sensitive national
security secrets,
we find it difficult to accept the . . . [absolute]
confidentiality of presidential
communications." — Chief Justice Burger
8-0 decision, limits presidential power
        Effects of
       Watergate?
Drags on for 2 long years, public loses trust in the office of the
President
Ford becomes only unelected VP & P in U.S. history
Congress reasserts its authority after Nixon’s “imperial
presidency”
Congress passes the War Powers Act
Proof that no one is above the law.
All later Presidential scandals have “gate” added to the end
Congress can appoint independent investigations
Federal Campaign Act Amendments-limits contributions &
agency est. to oversee
Ethics in Government Act-Financial disclosure by high govt
official in all 3 branches.
Articles of Impeachment
Obstruction of
Justice
Abuse of
power
Refusal to
obey
congressional
orders
New President Gerald Ford, Betty Ford, Pat and Nixon walk to the helicopter
for Nixon's departure, August 9, 1974.
Nixon, the only
President to ever
resign, salutes and
says goodbye to the
White House forever
as he enters Marine
One on Aug. 9, 1974.
Nixon & Haldeman, “Jews are born spies”

				
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