Colonial American Press Era 1690-1820

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Colonial American Press Era
   Elite Stage of EPS Cycle
   Carried foreign news, official information,
    royal proclamations and local news. Still
    subject to the crown, but rarely enforced.
    Local governors censored the newspapers
    into the 18th Century.
   Authoritarian Theory
Authoritarian Theory
   Dates back to the 16th Century
   Purpose is to protect the government and
    churches from the press.
   The government looked at it as a way to UNIFY
    the community and to CONTROL the Press.
   In most cases, the publishers were the
    government. If newspapers were distributed
    without permission, it was considered treason.
   We call it CONTROL. They called it
Governor of Virginia Colonies - 1641

I thank God, that we have not free schools,
   nor free printing … and I hope that we
   shall not have them for a hundred of
   years. For learning has brought
   disobedience and hearsay into the world
   and printing has divulged and libeled them
   against the government. God keep us
   from them all.
Benjamin Harris
   Boston - 1690
   Publick Occurrences, Both Foreign & Domestick
   Came to America to flee the constraints of England.
    He offended the King of France by saying that the
    King was having an affair with his son’s wife. But in
    the colonies, just like in England, his newspaper still
    needed consent of the crown.
Boston Newsletter

   1704
   John Campbell – Postmaster General
   The audience was the educated Elite
   Supported by the government, therefore had
    more editorial freedom.
William Bradford
   1719
   First Colonial Printing Press
   First Paper Mill in USA
   1725 – Founded the New York Gazette
   “I hope that the General Assembly will find
    some effectual remedy to revive the dying
    credit of the Province, and restore us to our
    happy circumstances.”
Benjamin Franklin

   1721 – New England Courant

   1729 – Pennsylvania Gazette

   First to provide ad space

   First to lead editorial independence

   Supported paper through selling printing supplies.
Benjamin Franklin

   Invented the Franklin Stove
   Established our laws of electricity
   Delivered the Bill of Rights to England.
   First Postmaster General
   First Police and Fire forces
   Founded University of Pennsylvania
Peter Zenger

   1733
   German Immigrant
   New York Weekly Journal
   Fought the courts based on TRUTH, LIBERTY, and
    the right to SPEAK AND WRITE THE TRUTH.
   First major victory for the Press.
   By 1765, the British Parliament imposed a tax on all
    legal documents, official papers, books and
    newspapers. All printing had to be done on taxed
    paper. Franklin was instrumental in getting this tax
Colonial Period Traditions of Today
   The news media, both print and broadcast,
    relish their independence from government
   The news media, especially print, actively try
    and mold government policy.
   Journalist are committed to the seeking the
   The news media are economic entities that
    react in their own self-interest if their profit
    making ability is threatened.
Partisan Period
   Political Parties were formed.
   Branches of the Government were formed.
   The Alien & Sedition Acts: Supported by John
    Adams, president of the United States these acts
    restricted members of the press of criticizing the
    government, president and congress. Under these
    acts, 25 were brought to trial, and 10 convicted.
   Jefferson banned this act when he was elected
    President in 1800 and pardoned the 10 convicted.
Libertarian Theory

   Government should exist to solely serve the
    interest of the people. Therefore, the media
    should serve the PEOPLE and not the

   James Madison said …. “Nothing could be more
    irrational than to give people power and then
    withhold information from them.”
Partisan Period Traditions of Today
   Government should keep its hands out of the
    press – The first amendment.
   The news media are a forum for discussion
    and debate.
   The news media should comment vigorously
    on public issues.
   Government transgressions against the news
    media will ultimately be met by public
Penny Press Era
   Popular Stage of EPS Cycle
   Newspapers for the Common Man
   Industrial Revolution
   Technology
   Child Labor Laws
   Work Day is established
   More Leisure Time
   Education
Benjamin Day
   1833, at 22 founded and published the New York Sun,
    1,000 copies at a penny each.
   Highlighted local events, scandals, and police reports. It
    also ran serialized stories making the legends Davy
    Crockett and Daniel Boone popular. He also blazed the
    trail for celebrity news.
   By 1836, circulation zoomed to 20,000.
   By 1838, circulation was more than the 11 other
    newspapers serving New York combined.
   First to use color
   Began the tradition of using Newsboys
   Used advertising as a way to pay the bills.
James Gordon Bennett
   1835- New York Morning Herald
   Aimed to free his newspaper from political parties. He
    wanted an independent paper serving the middle and
    working class readers
   Aggressive News Style. He had fast boats that would
    sail out to the ships and bring back the news before any
    other editor would have it. When the telegraph was
    invented, he had writers from around the world send in
    their articles. COVER THE CITY
   Developed the term, “newsroom”
   By 1860 had the worlds largest daily newspaper at
Horace Greeley

   1841 – New York Tribune
   Influential Editor who separated news from
   An crusader for the common man, he advocated
    the distribution of government land to settlers,
    fought for fair labor laws, denounced
    monopolies, stood up against corrupt
    corporations, opposed capital punishment, and
    fought for the end of slavery.
News Wire Services
   1848 Associated Press (AP)
   1907 United Press formed by Scripps
   1909 International News Service formed by Hearst
   1958 United Press and International News Service
    merge to become United Press International (UPI)
   1982 UPI sold to Media News Corp.
   1989 UPI sold to Mexican Mafia
   1993 UPI sold to Saudi Arabia
   1999 UPI is sold to the Associated Press
   AP is largest American owned wire service
   Reuters is largest foreign owned wire service
Penny Press Traditions of Today
   Pyramid Story Structure
   Coverage and writing style that appealed to a general
   A commitment to social improvement, which included a
    willingness to crusade against corruption.
   Providing information to the people quickly.
   A detached, neutral perspective in reported events, a
    tradition fostered by the Associated Press, and often
    referred to as objective reporting (telling news without
Yellow Journalism Era
1865- 1900
   Popular Stage of EPS Cycle
   End of the Civil War to the Turn of the Century
   Scandalous and Sensationalistic
   Money versus the need for information –
    commonly known as “The Circulation War.”
   “The Yellow Kid” Comic Strip
Joseph Pulitzer
   1883 founded the New York World.
   Emphasized human interest, and crusaded for worthy
    causes. He was stickler for accuracy and fair reporting.
   He started the advice column and women’s pages. This
    resulted in increased advertising opportunities with
    department stores and other shopping venues.
   He was the first to employ women as reporters – Nellie
   Raised the funds for the ground in which the Statue of
    Liberty stands
   After his death the Columbia School for Journalism is
    founded and the Pulitzer Prize is created in his honor
William Randolph Hearst
   Educated at Harvard
   Worked for Joseph Pulitzer at New York World
   San Francisco Examiner
   1895 – New York Journal
   Passion versus Greed
   Motto: “When the news didn’t fit the mold he
    envisioned, he shaped it until it did.”
   At one point he hired gangsters to distribute his
   At the peak of his career, he had a hand in
    newspapers, radio stations, magazines, motion picture
    studios, and news syndicates.
The War between Hearts and Pulitzer

   Hearst wanted to out-do Pulitzer and take over
    circulation control in New York.
   The “Yellow Kid” was a cartoon at the time and popular
    with readers. They fought for control, with both finally
    publishing the cartoon.
   At one point, they both printed anti-Spanish stories
    from Cuba, many of them trumped up. Some say that
    the public hysteria fueled by the feuding publishers
    helped begin the Spanish-American war, when a US
    Battleship exploded in a Havana harbor, both stated
    that it was a Spanish attach, when in fact historians
    say the explosion was an accident.
Edward Scripps

   1878 – Cleveland Penny Press
   First Newspaper Chain running up to 35
    mass-audience papers in 15 states.
   Community Newspapers – editors receiving
    49% of the stock
   HIS GOAL: Offer newspapers at a low price,
    be politically independent, pro-labor and
    written for the ordinary person.
   His portfolio includes television, newspapers,
    hospitals, and other philanthropic causes.
20thCentury Press
1900 - Present
   Social Responsibility Theory
   Set the standard for objective, independent and
    responsible journalism.
   Schools in Journalism were created.
   Ethical Standards are developed
    20th   Century Press / 1900 - Present
    Adolph Ochs - Believed in sticking to principles,
     regardless of the discomfort it might cause others.
    At age 11, worked as an office assistance at a newspaper
     in Tennessee. At age 19, he purchased the paper and
     became publisher. In 1896, at the age of 28, he bought the
     bankrupt New York Times. Pulitzer and Hearst has taken
     most of the leadership from the Times. He raised the
     price of the paper to 5 cents and announced that his paper
     wasn’t going to sink “to the levels of yellow journalism.”
    In one year, circulation increased from 9,000 to 780,000.
    He is considered to be the first publisher to prove that you
     can succeed in circulation, profit and journalistic
Social Responsibility Theory
       Complaints leading to the SR Theory:
         The press gives their own opinions, especially when it
          comes to politics.
         The press allows big business and advertisers to control
          editorial content.
         The press is more entertaining than newsworthy and
          often lacks substance
         The press endangers public morals
         The press invades the policy of individuals
         The press is controlled by the business class.
Social Responsibility Theory
       The press should:
         Fulfill certain obligations to its communities
         Set standards of professionalism, truth, accuracy and
         Work within the framework of the law
         Avoid giving out information that might lead to crime,
          violence, or civil disorder.
         Represent the diversity of our culture and give various
         Pulitzer said … “Without high ethical ideals a
          newspaper not only is stripped of its splendid
          possibilities for public service, but also may become a
          positive danger to the community.”
USA Today
   Since its founding in 1982, USA Today has had a
    profound influence on establishing newspapers as
    a strong visual medium with color and graphics
    integrated with words. The newspaper’s weather
    coverage has also been imitated.
   Most sales comes from airports, hotels and places
    where travelers pick it up for a quick fix on the
   Guaranteed in every issue are at least a few
    sentences about what’s happening in news and
    sports from every state in the Union.
Wall Street Journal
   In 1882 Charles Dow and Edward Jones roamed
    the New York financial district for news, which they
    sent by courier to their clients. The service
    expanded into a newsletter.
   In 1889, the Wall Street was founded. By 1900,
    circulation reached 10,000 with coverage in
    Boston, Philadelphia and Washington. By 1940,
    the paper reached more than 30,000. Today with
    a daily circulation $1.8 million, the Journal is the
    second largest US Daily. USA Today is number
    one at $2.2 million.
Challenges - Circulation
   Newspapers have consistently been the most
    profitable businesses of the 20th Century. Even
    with circulation slipping, down to 52.4 million from
    62.8 million in 1988, the industry continues to be
    profitable. Most major chains, have reported
    operating profits in the 20 percent range.
   But in order to do so, reporting staffs have been
    trimmed, advertising rates have increased, paper
    quality and size has changed, and some print
    fewer pages.
Challenges – Sunday Edition
   Sunday editions have kept newspapers afloat for
    years because they were FAT with advertising. In
    fact, 40% of a daily newspapers revenue came
    from Sunday Editions.
   But in 2002, newspapers found that 73% of the
    readers over 65 read the Sunday paper, while only
    49% of readers 18-24 read it. In general, young
    people are not reading the newspapers as in years
Challenges – Marketing Databases
   With more and more people getting their news
    from online, a growing number of newspapers are
    requiring you to register. Access is free in
    exchange for personal information.
   While many newspapers web sites offer the same
    wide range coverage as the traditional print
    editions, many specialize in coverage for a
    particular audience. For instance, the “Florida
    Today,” out of Cocoa Beach, near Cape
    Canaveral, has saturation coverage of the nation’s
    space program.
Elite and Popular Stage

       Elite:
          Colonial American Press
          Partisan Period

       Popular:
          Penny Press Era
          Yellow Journalism Era
          Social Responsibility Era

   Ethnic Publications

   Business Publications

   Web Site Access

   Graphics

   Sections
Importance of Newspapers
   1,570 daily newspapers put out 52.8 million copies
    a day, reaching 127 million per day (2.2 per paper)
   Weekly newspapers put out 50 million copies,
    reaching about 200 million per week (4 per paper)
   The Los Angeles Times owned by the Chicago
    Tribune alone has a circulation of 1.3 million per
    day. It has 1300 editors, 22 foreign bureaus, and
    13 US bureaus. 57 reporters alone cover the
    federal government.
Media Literacy
   What percentage of the paper is news?
   What is the content?
   Does the newspaper have extensive local
    coverage or heavy on news wire stories
   What kind of staff?
   Does Management have a stake in the
    community, or does leadership rotate in and out.
   Blaming the Messenger
   The Watchdog Function
   Bad News Only Myth
   Media Truth
   Bias
Robert Kennedy Assassination
Robert Kennedy Assassination
Photo vs Graphic
Warships await signal for attack - 1944
Awaiting Escape in Germany - 1940
Advertising - 1944
Advertising - 1944
Advertising - 1944
Advertising - 1944
Advertising - 1944
Advertising - 1944
Advertising - 1944
Want Ads- 1944
Want Ads - 1944
Want Ads - 1944
Want Ads - 1944
Want Ads - 1944
Want Ads - 1944
Want Ads - 1944
Want Ads - 1944
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