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                        National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006
                                       version: 20011128                                    1
      New Snow Products
           from the
National Operational Hydrologic
    Remote Sensing Center
  National Snow Analyses (NSA)
   Multi-sensor   Snow Modeling and                             Snow Information
Snow Observations Data Assimilation                                Products

                       Numerical Weather                         Data Products
     Ground             Prediction Model
                            Forcings                               Interactive
                      Gridded Snow                                    Maps
    Airborne          Characteristics                             Time Series
                                 U.S.                                Plots
                                1-km2                                 Text
    Satellite                                                     Discussions
                               Hourly


                National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006                    3
  National Snow Analyses (NSA)
                            •   National Weather Service
   Multi-sensor                   –   First-order Stations
Snow Observations                 –   Cooperatives
                            •   Federal and State Agencies
                                  –   NRCS SNOTEL and Snow Courses
                                  –   USACE New England District Snow Surveys
                                  –   Federal Aviation Administration
     Ground                       –   California Dept. of Water Resources
                            •   Regional Mesonets
                                  –   Maine Cooperative Snow Survey
                                  –   PA, OK, IA, ND, NC State Mesonets
                                  –   MESOWEST (150 smaller mesonets)
    Airborne                •   International Agencies
                                  –   St. John River Basin
                                  –   Environment Canada
                                  –   BC Hydro

     Satellite                             50,000+ stations in database
                                         25,000+ actively reporting stations
                                10,000+ unique stations reporting snow observations


                 National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006                        4
  National Snow Analyses (NSA)
   Multi-sensor
Snow Observations              NWS Airborne Snow Survey Program



     Ground



    Airborne
                            • Snow Water Equivalent Measurement
                                  – Attenuation of natural terrestrial gamma
                                    radiation by water in snow
     Satellite


                 National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006                 5
  National Snow Analyses (NSA)
   Multi-sensor
Snow Observations         Airborne Snow Survey Program Flight Line Network



     Ground



    Airborne



     Satellite                                2,187 Flight Lines
                                              31 States, 8 Provinces


                 National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006               6
  National Snow Analyses (NSA)
                                   Alaska Flight Line Network
   Multi-sensor
Snow Observations


     Ground



    Airborne



     Satellite
                                                                 191 Flight Lines

                 National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006                      7
  National Snow Analyses (NSA)
                         Satellite Areal Extent of Snow Cover
   Multi-sensor
Snow Observations


     Ground


                          Feb 9 2004 - NOHRSC

    Airborne
                          •   Areal extent of snow cover is mapped using optical
                              remote sensing data from geostationary and polar-
                              orbiting satellites.
                          •   Cloud cover obscures surface – significant problem.
     Satellite            •   Sub-pixel percentage of snow cover (FSCA)
                              developed by ERDC/CRREL is in second year of
                              testing in NWS/NOHRSC operations.

                 National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006                      8
  National Snow Analyses (NSA)
                                 Advanced Very High Resolution
                                     Radiometer (AVHRR)
   Multi-sensor                     Fractional Snow Cover
Snow Observations

                           1 km          100%          80%       50%
     Ground

                           1 km            80%         50%       20%
                          Feb 9 2004 - NOHRSC

    Airborne
                           1 km
                                           50%         20%       0%

     Satellite                              1 km        1 km     1 km

                                                Percent Snow Cover

                 National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006          9
                              AVHRR Fractional Snow Cover
                                         2005 December 15




National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006               10
  National Snow Analyses (NSA)
   Multi-sensor   Snow Modeling and                             Snow Information
Snow Observations Data Assimilation                                Products

                       Numerical Weather                         Data Products
     Ground             Prediction Model
                            Forcings                               Interactive
                      Gridded Snow                                    Maps
    Airborne          Characteristics                             Time Series
                                 U.S.                                Plots
                                1-km2                                 Text
    Satellite                                                     Discussions
                               Hourly


                National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006                    11
National Snow Analyses (NSA)
                               •    Land Surface Model for Snow and Soil
Snow Modeling and                    – Domain: Continental U.S.
 Data Assimilation                   – Resolution: 1km2, Hourly
                                     – Physics: 5-Layer Energy and Mass Balance
                                           • Spatial implementation of modified
                                             1-D SNTHERM model developed by
 Numerical Weather                           ERDC/CRREL (Anderson/Jordan)
  Prediction Model                         • Spatial implementation of Prairie Blowing
                                             Snow Model (Pomeroy et al.)
      Forcings
                                     – Forcing: Mesoscale Weather Analyses
                                           • RUC2, Eta physically downscaled to 1 km2
Gridded Snow                         – Snow State Variables:
Characteristics                            •   Water Equivalent (SWE)
                                           •   Total Depth
                                           •   Surface Temperature
       U.S.                                •   Average Temperature
                                           •   Liquid Water Content (Snow Wetness)
      1-km2                                •   Snow Melt
      Hourly                   •    Snow Data Assimilation System
                                     – Multi-sensor data fusion to update snow
                                       states in model (SWE, snow depth)


                 National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006                           12
NOHRSC Model Physics




    National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006   13
      Snow Modeling Framework
                                                                      2
    Hourly Input              Snow Energy and Mass                            Data Assimilation
Gridded Data (1 km)              Balance Model

   Temperature
                                                                                  Snow
                                Blowing Snow Model                             Observations
 Relative Humidity
    Wind Speed
                      1
  Solar Radiation            Radiative Transfer Model                            Snow Water
 Atmos. Radiation                                                                Equivalent
   Precipitation                 State Variables for
 Precipitation Type                                                             Snow Depth
                                  Multiple Vertical
                                 Snow & Soil Layers                             Snow Cover
                                Snow Water Equivalent
  Static Gridded                     Snow Depth
   Data (1 km)                    Snow Temperature                             NSA Product
                      1                                                         Generation
   Soils Properties
                                 Liquid Water Content                     3
                                  Snow Sublimation                            Interactive Maps
   Land Use/Cover                                                                Digital Data
                                      Snow Melt
  Forest Properties                                                             Discussions


                      National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006                           14
Over 25,000 Reporting Stations




        National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006   15
Interactive Snow Information System
                                       www.nohrsc.noaa.gov




         National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006       16
Interactive Snow Information System




                                                SWE
                                                Depth


                                                Density


         National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006    17
  National Snow Analyses (NSA)
   Multi-sensor   Snow Modeling and                             Snow Information
Snow Observations Data Assimilation                                Products

                       Numerical Weather                         Data Products
     Ground             Prediction Model
                            Forcings                               Interactive
                      Gridded Snow                                    Maps
    Airborne          Characteristics                             Time Series
                                 U.S.                                Plots
                                1-km2                                 Text
    Satellite                                                     Discussions
                               Hourly


                National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006                    18
National Snow Analyses (NSA)
Snow Information
   Products      High-resolution Daily and Hourly Gridded Snow
                         Data Sets of Fused Model and Observations
 Data Products                                            Local Information (1 km2)

                                                                 • Snow Water Equivalent
   Interactive                                                   • Snow Depth
      Maps                                                       • Snow Density
                                                                 • Snow Sfc. Temperature
   Time Series                                                   • Snow Avg. Temperature
      Plots                                                      • Snow Melt
                                                                 • Sublimation
      Text                                                       • Snow Wetness
  Discussions                                         Continental U.S. Information

                                    • Archived at NCDC, NSIDC, and NDFD (soon)

                 National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006                             19
National Snow Analyses (NSA)
Integrated Modeled / Observed Snowpack State Variables

Daily Basin-by-Basin SHEF Products Shipped to AWIPS

            1. Snow Water Equivalent *
            2. Snow Depth *
            3. Areal Extent of Snow Cover *
            4. Blowing Snow Sublimation
            5. Surface Sublimation
            6. Snowmelt
            7. Average Snowpack Temperature
            8. Rain plus Melt

                                      * Includes assimilated snow observations

               National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006                20
                            www.nohrsc.noaa.gov




National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006     21
National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006   22
National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006   23
Physical Element Map Options




       National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006   24
Examples of Observed Snow Products
• NWS Cold Region Workshop: November 2004
• No modeled snow information is contained in the
  observed snow product maps.
• Observed snow product maps include:
   –   Snow depth
   –   Snow water equivalent
   –   Total snowfall
   –   Interpolated total snowfall
• Each product is generated for previous 24, 48, and 72
  hour periods (i.e.,12 total).
• Each product is updated every 2 hours to include most
  recent snow observations.
• Associated alphanumeric data are posted to NOHRSC
  web site.


                     National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006   25
Interactive Snow Information System
                                            1-2-3 Day Snow Depth
                                                Observations




         National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006             26
Interactive Snow Information System
                                           1-2-3 Day Snow Water
                                          Equivalent Observations




         National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006              27
                                     1-2-3 Day Snowfall
                                        Observations




National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006             28
National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006   29
National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006   30
National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006   31
New Climate Diagnostic Tools
• Interactive climatological information in SNOW-Info
   – New capability added last year

• Two types of information
   – Maps: Monthly Normal Snow Depth
      • NCDC 1961-1990 Climate Atlas for U.S.
          – October through April
          – 4 km resolution
          – Based on 5525 stations used in the NCDC U.S. Snow Climatology (TD-
            9641M)

   – Stations: Daily Snow Depth Climatologies
      • NCDC TD3200 Cooperative Summary of the Day
          – 4000 first-order and cooperative observer stations
          – SNOW-Info database currently extends to 1970, eventually to 1948

                  National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006                  32
New Climate Diagnostic Tools
  Monthly Normal Snow Depth 1961-1990



      OCT                               NOV                 DEC




      JAN                               FEB                 MAR
                 • SNOW-Info includes
                      – Monthly-normal maps
                      – Daily NSA departure-from-normal maps
      APR
            National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006         33
New Climate Diagnostic Tools
                                    www.nohrsc.noaa.gov




                                             Snow Depth




      National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006       34
New Climate Diagnostic Tools
                                    www.nohrsc.noaa.gov




                                    Normal Snow Depth
                                  November       (1961-
                                          1990)




      National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006       35
      New Climate Diagnostic Tools
                                             www.nohrsc.noaa.gov




Daily Deviation from Monthly
    Normal Snow Depth
         November
        (1961-1990)

               National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006       36
New Climate Diagnostic Tools
                                    www.nohrsc.noaa.gov




                                       Modeled and Observed
                                          SWE and Depth




      National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006       37
New Climate Diagnostic Tools
                                    www.nohrsc.noaa.gov




      National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006       38
National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006   39
Snow Water Equivalent                               Snow Depth




Snowpack Temperature                         Surface Sublimation

             National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006         40
Snowpack Temperature




                                                Snowmelt




           National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006   41
10,000 Snow Reporting Stations


                                                 NOHRSC NSA
                                                  Time Series




                National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006   42
Snow Reporting Station Metadata




    National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006   43
               Snow Reporting Station Metadata




                                                                    Forest Density




Land Use / Land Cover




                    National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006                    44
      In Summary




National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006   45
 Thank You !
www.nohrsc.noaa.gov


     National HIC/RH/HQ Meeting ● January 27, 2006   46

				
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