“The operation manual in a digital camera” by xumiaomaio


									                      “The operation manual in a digital camera”

                                         Yoshihiko Nishida, Yoshiharu Kouchi

                                         Wakayama University Yamaoka Laboratory
                                      Yoshihiko Nishida s055047@sys.wakayama-u.ac.jp
                                      Yoshiharu Kouchi s055023@sys.wakayama-u.ac.jp

       Abstract: This time, we researched the interface for building in an operation manual in the digital camera. And it named

       “Baby Interface”. It displays by small LCD and operates by easy switches. We caught improve portability for the mobile

       instrument by this research.

        Today, people developed many mobile instruments. Those operations are becoming very difficult and those operation

       manuals also becoming very thick. For example, the thickness of the operation manual of Japanese mobile phone is more

       1cm. You must have the operation manual until you learn the operation immediately after buying the mobile instrument,

       and you need the operation manual when you have forgotten. The thick operation manual lower the portability of the

       mobile instrument remarkably.

         Then, we assumed building in the operation manual in the instrument and we designed the interface for operating it by

       small LCD, and tested about them for evaluation.

 We researched with Minolta Camera Co., Ltd. since October,2003. And we proposed about the operation manual
of the digital camera to Minolta Camera Co., Ltd.
 Now, operation manual book attached to mobile instruments are becoming very difficult and very thick.
Specially, a cellular phone and a digital camera are becoming small but those operation are becoming very
difficult and those operation manual book becomes exceeds 1cm. Mobile instruments becomes easy to carry but
thick operation manual book will also have to be carried until you learned their operation. As a result, portability
becomes vary bad.
 Then, we proposed that we make the operation manual book digital and
build the operation manual in those mobile instruments. By this proposal,
even if you don’t carry the thick operation manual book, you will be able
to use mobile instruments, and harness original portability. In this research,
we proved this proposal using the digital camera "DiMAGE 5" (Figure1)
which it borrowed from Minolta Camera Co., Ltd.
                                                                                         Figure 1
 We took in the ergonomics in the old interface design. And we use the scientific method, and performed interface
and verification.
 This research was done by the following method.
            1.Examination restrictions of hardware.
            2.Considering from view point of ergonomics.
            3.Creating the interface proposal.
            4.Evaluation test of the interface proposal and analyzing it.
            5.Reexamination of the interface proposal.

1.Information gathering
 First, we investigated the state.

1.1 Investigation of the restrictions by hardware
 Now, few digitized operation manual exist. However, their operation manual read with personal computer. Then,
we investigated the restriction by hardware in case it read on the mobile
instruments, and we decided the operation and display device for
reading their digital operation manual.
 As a result, we selected the cross key for selecting item, the button for
deciding item, and the button for cancel. Moreover, we attached “the
manual button” (“the HELP button”) so that we could be displayed the
digital operation manual immediately. Also, we selected the small LCD
(size:4cmx3cm,resolution:320px*240px) as the display supposing being         Figure 2

carried in the mobile instruments of the next generation. (Figure2)

1.2 Investigation for visualizing information
 Next, we investigated the structure when we visualize information to LCD. From "Human computer interaction"
(2003,Kenichi Okada), The composition of 2dimention and 3dimention is ideal for easy operate by the cross key
and showing much more information. And think change of a form and a color as important is ideal for easy read
by small LCD.
2.The design of an interface
 Based on these investigation, we designed two interfaces for building an digital operation manual into a digital

2.1 Considering from view point of ergonomics
  We designed by knowledge of ergonomics. The size of the character displayed LCD was made into the
minimum value of 2.6mm from the following formulas.
                          [CHARACTER SIZE] = [DISTANCE(FROM AN EYE)] / 200
 This formula shows the character size in which human can read a character expressed. However, Ministry of
International Trade and Industry recommend value 3.49mm as character size when displaying a character on LCD,
we also took it into consideration.
 The reaction time after pushing a button was decided 0.1 seconds - 0.2 seconds second and animation time was
decided within 1. Because these time don’t feel stress to human.
 We displayed information to right from left and to downward from a top. Because people recognize towards the
lower right from the upper left when people read the information on a LCD. Moreover, we displayed by animation
to show the route of the operation from the idea “If people have recognized all over the interface, they can
estimate own location and own route”.

2.2 Decision of a structured design concept
 We got the requirement of the interface of the digital operation manual from the result of investigation, and the
above-mentioned consideration. We decided the “structured design concept. Thereby, we could get hold of the
item which should be thought as important. We thought it is important that they can build their mental model
(Consideration of the operation they have.) easy and they can confirm their location easy from the structured
design concept, when we design the interface of the digital operation manual.

2.3 Creating the interface
 We create two interface of the digital operation manual.

 Interface proposal 1: This interface have following features. (Figure 3)
           - Some groups were arranged in layers.
           - Display the popup menu when users don’t touch fixed
           - User can cancel the animation to navigate when they
           double click their mouse.

                                                                        Figure 3
Interface proposal 2: This interface have following features. (Figure 4)
            - Users can select to lower categories from upper
            - If they selected category, all menu slide in right.
            - They can read continuously over the other categories if
            they fail in selecting upper categories.

                                                                           Figure 4

3. Evaluation test
 We do a evaluation test the two interfaces and we get the advantage and problem which their interfaces. It not
only designed the interface like former, but it was able to raise completeness by this evaluation test more.

3.1 Outline of this evaluation test
 We test with eleven university students. We use the original application made with “Macromedia Flash”. We
set two tasks to subjects, and we let this application recorded time and action of subjects. Task1 is “Finding how
to set the focus of the camera”, task2 is “Finding how to change the quality of image to save and continuously,
finding how to record an animation”. Moreover, We request 5 stage evaluations performed about 20 items about
the interfaces after the test end.

3.2 Analysis
 From the test result, we find problem by
comparing a subject's route and time with a
designer's course and time. We set share point
about the route and time, and make the graph
(Figure 5). As a result, we can know the state
of subjects by a degree of slope of the graph
and we get following problems. (Table 1)

                                                       Figure 5
              Interface proposal 1                                           Interface proposal 2
              - Some subjects made a around first.                           - Some subjects were at a loss how to click the

Task 1        - Some subjects failed in selected.                            button.

              - Almost subjects look the popup menu.                         - Some subjects failed in category.

              - Some subjects failed in selected.                            - Some subjects failed in category.
Task 2
              - Some subjects press “Help” button to go back.                - Some subjects go start screen to go back.

Table 1

3.3 Analysis of the questionnaire by CS analysis
 We do CS analysis from 5 stage evaluations about 20 items about the interface after a test end. As a result, we
find the some problem item which importance is high and the subject makes the problem intentionally (although
importance is high, its degree of satisfaction is low) such as "relation between information and a color", "a layout
of an interface", and "contrast of an interface".

3.4 Results
 The following things (Table 2) were raised as problems and advantages of this interface from all evaluation

                   Interface proposal 1                                    Interface proposal 2
                   - We must improve the term of the operation manual as   - We must improve the term of the operation manual as

                   easy to understand.                                     easy to understand.

Problems           - We must reduce information from one screen.           - We must subdivide the categories.

                                                                           - We must emphasize the contrast of interface.

                                                                           - We must change the layout.

                   - Users can understand the route.                       - Beginners can use speedy as a person with experience.

Advantages         - Users can read most information on one screen.        - They can understand the operation easily.

                   - Character size is enough big.                         - They can find their location easily.

Table 2
4. Reexamination of the interface proposal.
 We redesigned the interface based on the result of the evaluation test. Thereby, we could design the interface of
digital operation manual for users can use easy.

 We think that the operation manual built into the digital camera created this time from the above research is what
can be enough used in case a beginner uses outside. It is that the result “Beginners can use speedy as a person with
experience” came out as the basis. The graph of the Task 1 of an evaluation test shows that it is very effective in
case fundamental operation in case where "explanation of the operation" and "categories" correspond. However,
in case where " explanation of the operation " and "categories" don’t correspond as task 2, users need more time
for finding. In this research, the term was altogether performed to "DiMAGE 5" according to the attached
operation manual book. But, we think that we can become more high completeness, if we classify suitable their

    - Toshiki Yamaoka:                  (2002).
    - Kenichi O., Hideaki K., Hidakazu S., Shogo N., Yoshie N.:

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