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					                       WAVE User Manual

                                       Version 12




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                                     WAVE User Manual
                                      Update Sheet for Version 12
                                                          April 2009
Modifications:


The following modifications have been incorporated:

Section               Page(s)                 Update/Addition          Explanation

All                   All                     Update                   Conversion to Microsoft® Word format

2.3.2                 2-3                     Update                   AP20 option replaced by APIW

2.3.4                 2-5                     Update                   AP20 option replaced by APIW

3.8                   3-11                    Update                   Delete references to legacy program ASDIS

Table 4.1             4-7, 4-8                Update                   AP20 option replaced by APIW

4.3.5                 4-14                    Update                   AP20 option replaced by APIW

4.3.18                4-38                    Update                   AP20 option replaced by APIW

4.3.28                4-47                    Update                   Correction to Note in NOLO command

4.3.41                4-64                    Update                   AP20 option replaced by APIW

App A.3               A-2                     Update                   Delete references to legacy program ASDIS

App A.15              A-13                    Update                   Delete references to legacy program ADLIB

App C                 C-1                     Update                   Delete references to legacy program ASDIS

App C                 C-1 – C-2               Update                   AP20 option replaced by APIW




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
WAVE User Manual                                                                                                            Contents



                                                TABLE OF CONTENTS


1. Introduction to WAVE...................................................................................... 1-1
2. Description of WAVE....................................................................................... 2-1
 2.1. Introduction ................................................................................................... 2-1
 2.2. Data ............................................................................................................... 2-1
 2.3. Load calculation ............................................................................................ 2-1
  2.3.1. Conventional wave theories ..................................................................... 2-1
  2.3.2. Shell NewWave ........................................................................................ 2-3
  2.3.3. Irregular Wave .......................................................................................... 2-4
  2.3.4. API Wave Recipe ..................................................................................... 2-4
  2.3.5. Current Stretching .................................................................................... 2-5
  2.3.6. Force Calculation ..................................................................................... 2-8
  2.3.7. Wind loading ............................................................................................ 2-9
  2.3.8. Self weight and buoyancy ........................................................................ 2-9
3. The Analysis ..................................................................................................... 3-1
 3.1. Introduction ................................................................................................... 3-1
  3.1.1. Strength Analysis ..................................................................................... 3-2
  3.1.2. Fatigue Analysis ....................................................................................... 3-2
    3.1.2.1. Deterministic Analysis ....................................................................... 3-6
    3.1.2.2. Spectral Analysis ................................................................................ 3-6
 3.2. Data overview ............................................................................................... 3-8
 3.3. Preliminary data ............................................................................................ 3-8
 3.4. Structural geometry ....................................................................................... 3-8
  3.4.1. Valid element types .................................................................................. 3-8
  3.4.2. Global and local axes systems .................................................................. 3-9
    3.4.2.1. Coordinate Local Axes ....................................................................... 3-9
    3.4.2.2. Element Local Axes ........................................................................... 3-9
    3.4.2.3. Water Axes ......................................................................................... 3-9
 3.5. Structural Suppressions ............................................................................... 3-10
 3.6. Loading ....................................................................................................... 3-10
 3.7. Data units .................................................................................................... 3-10
 3.8. Data Check .................................................................................................. 3-12
 3.9. Results ......................................................................................................... 3-13
 3.10. Files Output by WAVE ............................................................................... 3-21
4. Description of the WAVE Data ........................................................................ 4-1
 4.1. Free format syntax......................................................................................... 4-1
  4.1.1. General Principles .................................................................................... 4-1
    4.1.1.1. Geometric, topological and boundary data ........................................ 4-1
    4.1.1.2. Wave load data ................................................................................... 4-3
  4.1.2. Special Symbols ...................................................................................... 4-5
 4.2. Data Requirement for a Wave Analysis ........................................................ 4-6
  4.2.1. WAVE LOAD Data ................................................................................. 4-6
 4.3. Description of the Wave Load Data Block ................................................... 4-8
  4.3.1. LOAD Header Command ......................................................................... 4-9
  4.3.2. AMAS Command ................................................................................... 4-10
  4.3.3. AMPLITUDE Command ....................................................................... 4-11




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WAVE User Manual                                                                                                Contents

   4.3.4. BEAM Element Command .................................................................... 4-12
   4.3.5. Current BLOCKAGE Factor Command ................................................ 4-12
   4.3.6. BUOYANCY Command ........................................................................ 4-13
   4.3.7. CURRENT Command............................................................................ 4-15
   4.3.8. DRAG Coefficients ................................................................................ 4-17
   4.3.9. ELEVATION Command ........................................................................ 4-18
   4.3.10. END Command ...................................................................................... 4-19
   4.3.11. EXECUTE Command ............................................................................ 4-20
   4.3.12. FREE Flooding Command ..................................................................... 4-20
   4.3.13. GRAVITY Command ............................................................................ 4-21
   4.3.14. GRID Wave Command .......................................................................... 4-23
   4.3.15. Marine GROWTH Command ................................................................ 4-29
   4.3.16. HYDR Command ................................................................................... 4-30
   4.3.17. Keulegan-Carpenter Number Tables ...................................................... 4-34
   4.3.18. Wave KINEMATICS Factor Command ................................................ 4-36
   4.3.19. MASS Inertia Coefficients ..................................................................... 4-36
   4.3.20. MAXM Command (Static Analysis) ...................................................... 4-38
   4.3.21. MAXM Command (Harmonic Analysis) ............................................... 4-38
   4.3.22. MOVE Command................................................................................... 4-39
   4.3.23. NANG Command ................................................................................... 4-40
   4.3.24. NOBM Command .................................................................................. 4-40
   4.3.25. NOBO Command ................................................................................... 4-40
   4.3.26. NOFR Command .................................................................................... 4-41
   4.3.27. NOLO Command ................................................................................... 4-42
   4.3.28. NOSW Command................................................................................... 4-43
   4.3.29. NOWI Command ................................................................................... 4-44
   4.3.30. NOWL Command .................................................................................. 4-45
   4.3.31. OFFSET Command ................................................................................ 4-45
   4.3.32. OUTPUT Control Command ................................................................. 4-47
   4.3.33. PEXT Command .................................................................................... 4-47
   4.3.34. POINT Current Command ..................................................................... 4-48
   4.3.35. PHASE Command (Static and Time History Analysis) ......................... 4-50
   4.3.36. PRINT Command ................................................................................... 4-51
   4.3.37. Reynolds Number Tables ....................................................................... 4-52
   4.3.38. RESET Command .................................................................................. 4-53
   4.3.39. SLWT Command ................................................................................... 4-54
   4.3.40. SPECTRAL Command .......................................................................... 4-55
   4.3.41. Wave SPREADING Command.............................................................. 4-56
   4.3.42. STOP Command..................................................................................... 4-57
   4.3.43. TIDE Command ..................................................................................... 4-57
   4.3.44. TIME Command..................................................................................... 4-59
   4.3.45. TOLERANCE Command....................................................................... 4-60
   4.3.46. Calculation Method, TYPE Command .................................................. 4-61
   4.3.47. UNITS Command................................................................................... 4-61
   4.3.48. VISCOSITY Command ......................................................................... 4-63
   4.3.49. WAVE Command .................................................................................. 4-64
   4.3.50. WIND Command ................................................................................... 4-65
   4.3.51. WPAR Command ................................................................................... 4-66
   4.3.52. WSET Command ................................................................................... 4-68




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WAVE User Manual                                                                                                        Contents

  4.3.53. XMAS Data ............................................................................................ 4-69
  4.3.54. ZONE Data ............................................................................................. 4-70
 4.4. WINDSPEC Data ........................................................................................ 4-71
  4.4.1. FREQUENCY Command ...................................................................... 4-71
  4.4.2. GUST Command .................................................................................... 4-72
  4.4.3. PWND Command................................................................................... 4-72
5. MASS User Guide ............................................................................................ 5-1
 5.1. Introduction ................................................................................................... 5-1
 5.2. Technical Description ................................................................................... 5-1
 5.3. Method of Analysis ....................................................................................... 5-2
 5.4. Commands for MASS ................................................................................... 5-5
  5.4.1. Use of Zones in MASS ............................................................................. 5-5
 5.5. Printed Output ............................................................................................... 5-5
6. Examples 6-1
 6.1. Example 1, Simple Static Wave Analysis ..................................................... 6-1
 6.2. Example 2, Dynamic Spectral Fatigue Analysis ......................................... 6-14
Appendix. A     Preliminary Data .......................................................................... A-1
 A.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. A-1
 A.2 SYSTEM Command .................................................................................... A-2
 A.3 PROJECT Command ................................................................................... A-2
 A.4 JOB Command ............................................................................................. A-3
 A.5 STRUCTURE Command ............................................................................. A-3
 A.6 COMPONENT Command ........................................................................... A-4
 A.7 FILES Command ......................................................................................... A-5
 A.8 TITLE Command ......................................................................................... A-5
 A.9 TEXT Command .......................................................................................... A-6
 A.10 OPTIONS Command ................................................................................... A-6
 A.11 GOTP Command......................................................................................... A-7
 A.12 FREQUENCY Command ............................................................................ A-7
 A.13 SAVE Command.......................................................................................... A-9
 A.14 UNITS Command ...................................................................................... A-10
  A.14.1 Global UNITS Definition ...................................................................... A-10
  A.14.2 Results UNITS Command ..................................................................... A-11
 A.15 LIBRARY Definition ................................................................................. A-12
 A.16 END Command .......................................................................................... A-12
Appendix. B     Running Instructions ....................................................................B-1
 B.1 Files Required/Created by WAVE/MASS ....................................................B-1
 B.2 Transfer of Wave Loads to ASAS Using Option STG3 ...............................B-4
 B.3 Running Instructions for WAVE and MASS ................................................B-5
Appendix. C     Valid Options................................................................................C-1
Appendix. D     Consistent Units........................................................................... D-1
Appendix. E     References .................................................................................... E-1
Appendix. F     Superseded Commands ................................................................ F-1
 F.1 BEAM Element Command ........................................................................... F-1
 F.2 NOBM Command ......................................................................................... F-2




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WAVE User Manual                                                                                             Introduction




WAVE
Wave Load Generator for Offshore Jacket Structures

1.     Introduction to WAVE

WAVE is a program within the ASAS-OFFSHORE suite of programs which generates wave and wind loading
on steel jacket structures for subsequent static, dynamic or fatigue analyses. The program uses the TUBE,
BEAM and BM3D elements available in ASAS to describe the three-dimensional frame that idealises the
offshore structure.

In addition to the description of the structure, WAVE requires environmental data, which defines the position of
the jacket relative to the mean water-level and sea-bed together with wave height and direction, current profile
and direction, wind direction and velocity. The description also defines the presence of flooded or sealed
members, the presence of marine growth, and the drag and inertia force coefficients for the loaded members.

A number of different wave theories have been implemented for the user to select from. Facilities are provided
to permit wave loading to be computed within the requirements of the API codes of practice (RP2A-WSD and
RP2A-LRFD) including the effects of apparent wave period, non-linear current stretching, current blockage
factor and wave kinematics factor. Extreme wave kinematics may be developed using the Shell NewWave
model, which utilises statistical analysis of sea state information. Wave loading may also be generated from a
random sea state.

The control of the program is made as automatic as possible. The management of computer resources is
contained entirely within the program and there is no need for intervention by the user. To give flexibility,
however, the program contains a set of control commands which are available if required. Typically, these
‘Options’ can be used to control the scope of the output, perform data checks only or save the program files for
post-processing.




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WAVE User Manual                                                                                           Introduction




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         WAVE User Manual                                                                               Description of WAVE



2.        Description of WAVE

2.1. Introduction

WAVE is one of the main modules that comprise the ASAS-OFFSHORE system. It can be run separately or
with the other modules end-to-end (see Section 3 of this Manual).

WAVE calculates the wave, wind and current loading on fixed offshore structures where the structural members
are of relatively small section size compared with the wave length. This chapter describes the data requirements
and methodology of the program.

2.2. Data

The structural model consists of a standard ASAS data file comprising member definitions, nodal coordinates,
material and section properties, and the appropriate boundary conditions. All environmental loading to be
applied to the structure is generated using a series of command lines which supply the necessary information
required. Any additional, user defined, loads which need to be included in a subsequent structural analysis have
to be added as additional loadcases to the resulting ASAS data file (see Example 1, Section 6.1). Only WAVE
LOAD loading is valid in WAVE, other load types will produce an error.

2.3. Load calculation



2.3.1.      Conventional wave theories

For the wave loading, a suitable wave theory is used to calculate the water particle kinematics. The following
wave theories are currently available in WAVE:

     •      Linear Wave Theory (Airy)(Reference 1)

     •      Solitary Wave Theory (Cnoidal)(Reference 2)

     •      Stokes 5th Order Theory(Reference 3)

     •      Stream Function Theory(Reference 4 and 5)


For guidance on selection of the appropriate wave theory, reference should be made to Reference 6, from which
Figure 2.1 has been reproduced.

For conditions not covered by the above wave theories, a facility exists for supplying the wave kinematics in the
form of a grid of velocities and accelerations, together with a free surface profile. The program utilises linear
interpolation for determining kinematic values at locations between the grid positions. See Section 4.3.14 GRID
Wave Data for further details.




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     WAVE User Manual                                                                                   Description of WAVE




                              Figure 2.1 The Range of Validity of Various Wave Theories

Notes


1.      None of these theories is theoretically correct at the breaking limit.

2.      Wave theories intended for limiting height waves should be referenced for waves higher than 0.9Hb when
        stream function theory may underestimate the kinematics.

3.      Stream function theory is satisfactory for wave loading calculations over the remaining range of regular
        waves. The suggested order of stream function is shown above but should be checked by comparison with
        the results from a higher order solution.




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       WAVE User Manual                                                                                 Description of WAVE


2.3.2.      Shell NewWave

The Shell NewWave wave model is incorporated into WAVE as an alternative to the conventional deterministic
wave theories described in Section 2.3.1. The NewWave wave model was developed by Shell Research
(Reference 10) in order to produce a more realistic description of the physical processes which occur under
extreme design waves in real seas, something which cannot be accurately described by traditional deterministic
wave theories. NewWave is not appropriate for harmonic analyses.

In the NewWave model, the water particle kinematics are generated from a wave spectrum using linear theory.
It uses a statistically-based superposition of linear wavelets to define the wave profile and associated kinematics
representing the most likely maximum condition of a real sea. The unique features of the theory are illustrated in
Figure 2.2 below. This figure shows that the wave crest is significantly higher than the neighbouring troughs,
which is consistent with observations of extreme waves.

By definition the NewWave model is dispersive (or evolving) in that the crest height varies with time. In order
that analyses may be undertaken in a similar mode to that employed in deterministic wave studies, the wave may
be ‘frozen’ and stepped through the structure in the same way that conventional wave theories are processed.

Key features of the NewWave model in WAVE are:
   •        Delta stretching of wave kinematics under the crest

   •        Current blockage may be included using the BLOC command

   •        Wave spreading for nearly uni-directional seas may be selected using the WPAR command

   •        Doppler shift effects may be incorporated to account for wave/current interaction using the APIW
            option

   •        Both evolving and non-evolving waves are facilitated

   •        Morison force coefficients may be specified as a function of the characteristic amplitude to tube
            diameter ratio using the AMPL table definition

   •        Facilities to tune the solution method, where appropriate, using the WPAR command




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     WAVE User Manual                                                                                           Description of WAVE



   M 6.0
      5.0
      4.0
      3.0
      2.0
      1.0
      0.0
     -1.0
     -2.0
     -3.0
        -500.0       -400.0     -300.0      -200.0      -100.0        0.0        100.0       200.0      300.0      400.0    500.0
                                            Distance in wave direction
             PSMZ wave surface elevation - Shell NewWave - EVOLVING


                                              Figure 2.2 NewWave Surface Profile



2.3.3.        Irregular Wave

The irregular wave model provides a facility to analyse loading that takes into full acount the randomness of the
sea state.

In the irregular wave model implemented, the wave particle kinematics are assumed to be generated from a wave
spectrum using linear theory. The wave spectrum can be defined in one of the three forms: JONSWAP, Pierson-
Moskowitz or user defined.

The irregular wave is created by adding together the parameters (wave height, velocity and acceleration) of a
number of regular Airy wavelets with random phases and with amplitudes that correspond to the required
spectrum. The default number of wavelets is 50 and this may be re-specified using the WPAR command,
subject to an upper limit of 1000.

The wavelet phases are generated by a random number generator. The initial seed (default 1) for this process
may be modified using the WPAR command, which will enable a different set of random phases to be generated.
On a subsequent run, the same initial seed will generate the same sequence of random phases again.

Delta stretching of wave kinematics as implemented in the Shell New Wave model is also available in irregular
wave.




2.3.4.        API Wave Recipe

The latest editions of the API Codes of Practice for Fixed Offshore Platforms, RP2A-WSD and RP2A-LRFD,
provide a methodology for undertaking design loading assessment for jacket structures subject to combined
wave and current action. The methods proposed differ significantly from previous editions for the API code and
require the use of several new analytical techniques in order to achieve the desired effect.




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       WAVE User Manual                                                                                 Description of WAVE


Several facilities exist to apply the requirements of API:

   •        Automatic computation of apparent wave period when a wave is superimposed upon a current.

   •        Inclusion of wave spreading utilising a wave kinematics factor or wave spreading power to modify the
            horizontal velocities and accelerations.

   •        Inclusion of current blockage effects of the structure by allowing the definition of a current blockage
            factor.

   •        Combined wave and current kinematics utilising non-linear stretching.

   •        Provision for relating the hydrodynamic coefficients Cd and Cm to Reynolds Number and/or
            Keulegan-Carpenter Number.


Many of these facilities are enabled using the APIW option (see Appendix .C) which requests the calculation of
apparent wave periods and allows wave spreading and current blockage effects to be included. With this option
non-linear current stretching is also selected by default, although this may be overridden using one of the other
current stretching options listed below and in Appendix .C. Non-linear current stretching may also be requested
for non-API analyses using the APIC option.

APIW also selects wave kinematic computations which ignore convective acceleration terms, as required by the
code of practice. This may be overridden using the CONV option, which is the default for non-APIW analyses.

The determination of Cd and Cm using Reynolds Number and Keulegan-Carpenter Number is realised by
developing named tables relating these terms together. The use of named tables permits different relationships
to be applied to various parts of the structure to enable hydrodynamic modelling of marine growth, coated
members, conductor groups, etc.




2.3.5.      Current Stretching

Current profiles are normally specified to a mean water level in the design criteria. In order to account for the
local water surface variation in the presence of a wave some method to stretch (or compress) the profile to the
surface must be utilised.

Several methodologies exist for computing the modified current profile and these have been embodied within
WAVE by specifying certain options at run time.

The simplest method is to use vertical extrapolation of the input current profile above mean water level. This is
the default method used for all analyses except those undertaken to the new API regulations. Whilst this method
provides reasonable results for slab profile (constant velocity) currents it is usual to adopt one of the other
stretching methodologies described below.




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     WAVE User Manual                                                                                   Description of WAVE



                        SWL




                        Zw




                       Seabed



                            Simple vertical extension



The API WSD 20th Ed. and LRFD 1st Ed. codes of practice suggest the use of a non-linear stretching algorithm
as providing the best estimate of global loads on a structure. This method computes the stretched current for a
particle instantaneously at a particular elevation as the speed at an elevation corresponding to the mean elevation
of the water particle over a full wave cycle. The relationship is given as




                                                        sinh (2π (z′ + d) / λ n
                                         z = z′ + η
                                                           sinh (2π d/ λ n )



where       z            is the elevation of the point of interest
             z′          is the effective elevation corresponding to z
            d            is the still water depth
            λn           is the wave length
            η            is the wave surface elevation above the point of interest
            z, z′,η      are measured from the mean still water level

A simplified approach to the above is to use linear stretching whereby the current velocity in the presence of a
wave is constant for a given percentage of water depth. This can be written as
                                                    z + d = (z′ + d)(d + η ) /d

where the symbols are as defined for non-linear stretching.




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     WAVE User Manual                                                                                      Description of WAVE




                           SWL


                        Zw




                           Seabed



                                            Linear stretching




A fourth option, which maintains mass conservation, is also available whereby the linearly stretched model
above is adjusted so that the total momentum in the stretched profile from the seabed to the water surface is the
same as that for the still water definition. Recent theoretical studies have demonstrated that this solution may be
inappropriate and is not recommended by the new API regulations.                                 It is included here for upwards
compatibility.


                            SWL




                            Zw




                           Seabed



                                           Mass Conservation




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     WAVE User Manual                                                                                   Description of WAVE


2.3.6.      Force Calculation

The wave load forces on submerged tubular sections are computed using Morison’s equation:

                 F = 0.5Cd ρ D u |u| + Cm ρ A a

where       F        force per unit length of member
            Cd       drag coefficient
            ρ        mass density of water
            D        member diameter (including marine growth, etc)
            u        instantaneous velocity resolved normal to the member
            Cm       inertia coefficient
                                          πD2
            A        cross-sectional area
                                           4
            a        instantaneous acceleration resolved normal to the member

                 Cm = 1 + Ca


where       Ca       added mass coefficient

The effects of the increased diameter of a section due to marine growth are fully accounted for in the wave
calculations.

The drag and mass coefficients can be explicitly defined, or can be specified as a function of Reynolds number
(Re) and/or Keulegan-Carpenter number (Kc) viz:

                 Re = u D / ν

                 Kc = u T / D


where       ν        kinematic viscosity
            T        the wave period

Two methods of calculating the forces are available. The default (as recommended in API) is to resolve the fluid
velocities and accelerations normal to the member axis and, thus, only calculate normal member forces.
Alternatively, the forces may be calculated along the line of the instantaneous velocity or acceleration and then
resolved normally and tangentially to the member; this second method is not recommended since it is physically
incorrect but is sometimes required for certain regulatory authorities.

Non-tubular sections may be wave loaded in which case the following adaption to Morison’s equation is
employed:

                 Fy = 0.5 Cdy ρ Dy uy |u| + Cm ρ Dy Dz ay

                 Fz = 0.5 Cdz ρ Dz uz |u| + Cm ρ Dy Dz az




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     WAVE User Manual                                                                                   Description of WAVE


where         Cdy      drag coefficient in local y direction
              Cdz      drag coefficient in local z direction
              Dy       element dimension orthogonal to local y direction (including marine growth)
              Dz       element dimension orthogonal to local z direction (including marine growth)
              uy       component of u in local y direction
              uz       component of u in local z direction
              ay       component of a in local y direction
              az       component of a in local z direction

For the purposes of calculating wave loads, an element will be divided into separate segments wherever a change
in diameter occurs and wherever marine growth thickness changes along the element length. Water particle
forces are calculated at both ends and at the centre point of a segment. If the value at the centre point differs
from the linearly interpolated value from the end points by less than a predefined tolerance, linear distributed
loads are produced, otherwise quadratic distributed loads are generated. Where long members are utilised in the
model, the elements may be optionally further subdivided based upon a user defined tolerance for member
segmentation (see Section 4.3.44).




2.3.7.        Wind loading

Wind loading of an element assumes a constant wind velocity over all structural elements above the water line
and is computed using the equation:

                    F = 0.5Cd ρ D u |u|

where     F            wind force per unit length
          ρ            mass density of air
          u            instantaneous velocity resolved normal to the member



2.3.8.        Self weight and buoyancy

Structural self weight can be calculated for some or all members or may be omitted completely on a loadcase by
loadcase basis. For a tubular section the weight is given by:

                      W = π (D2- d2) ρ g / 4.0 + π (Dg2 - D) ρ g g / 4.0


where         W        weight per unit length
              D        external diameter of tube
              d        internal diameter of tube
              Dg       external diameter including marine growth
              ρ        material mass density for tube
              ρg       material mass density for marine growth material




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Self weight of marine growth is automatically calculated when defined. It should be noted that a saturated
density of marine growth is assumed and that buoyancy effects are thus allowed for when the fouled member is
below the water surface.

Loads due to buoyancy may be accounted for by either of two methods, the ‘displaced fluid’ method or the more
rigorous hydrostatic method.

1.      The displaced fluid method calculates the weight of sea water displaced by a submerged member and
        applies this weight as an upward force. The force is applied as a distributed load resolved normal to and
        along the element axis.




where       Dg       is the external diameter (including marine growth)
            ρf       is the fluid density
            g        is the acceleration due to gravity
            α        is the angle between the member and the horizontal plane

This method is not recommended for general use although, in some circumstances, it may give a better estimate
of member Euler buckling stability than method 2 (see note 2 below).




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2.      A more rigorous calculation of the forces on submerged members is possible if all hydrostatic pressure
        forces acting on an isolated member are taken into account. This method results in a system of forces
        consisting of distributed loads acting normal to the member and concentrated loads acting at the ends
        which more accurately predicts yield (without buckling) and deflections. This method is used if the
        BRIG option is used. See Appendix .C.




It should be noted that if a hydrostatic collapse check is to be subsequently carried out in BEAMST, the method
adopted for the buoyancy calculations needs to be provided since the formula includes a term for the axial stress
induced due to hydrostatic pressure. An interaction occurs between internal fluid pressure, external fluid pressure
and member curvature:

(i)     High external pressure has a stabilising effect on Euler buckling.

(ii)    High internal pressure has a destabilising effect on Euler buckling.


This effect is not taken into account by the WAVE or BEAMST programs.




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     WAVE User Manual                                                                                   The Analysis



3.     The Analysis

3.1. Introduction

Much of the data employed in WAVE will remain constant irrespective of the type of analysis being carried out
but certain data is dependent upon the subsequent analysis to be pursued. This chapter provides an overview to
the data requirements of the system and guidelines for establishing the appropriate wave scenarios for a given
type of analysis.

Offshore structural analyses fall logically into one of four categories:

1.     Static
       Time history or at selected ‘snap shots’ during the passing of the wave. This method is often used for the
       strength analysis of jacket structures.

2.     Static harmonic
       The loading is sine wave fitted, two load cases at 90 degree phase angle apart are regarded as real and
       imaginary components of a complex loading. The structure is analysed statically for both the real and
       imaginary loading. The response amplitude is given by:
                                      (real response )2 + (imaginary response )2

       The phase angle of the response is given by:


                                    tan-1 (imaginary response / real response)


       This method is suggested for analysing structures whose natural frequencies are not excited by the waves
       and which respond proportionally to wave height i.e. structures dominated by the inertia term in
       Morison’s equation. This could be either large diameter structures or a shallow water jacket structure
       subject to small amplitude waves.


3.     Dynamic harmonic
       This is similar to the static complex method except that the static analysis of the harmonic loading is
       replaced by a dynamic analysis. In conjunction with spectral analysis (see the FATJACK User Manual)
       this method is suited to structures which respond in proportion to wave height but which are excited
       dynamically by waves with periods near the natural period of the structure.

4.     Dynamic time history
       A dynamic step by step analysis of the response of the structure to a time history of loading.




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WAVE can be used as the first stage of the above analytical procedures 1 to 3 It can also be used for method 4
but the software authors should be contacted prior to attempting this form of analysis.

Analyses of offshore structures are usually performed to determine either the strength or fatigue performance of
the structural elements.




3.1.1.      Strength Analysis

For a strength analysis the structure will usually be operating away from any wave period/structure period
resonance. It is, therefore, most usual to carry out a static analysis with a manually calculated dynamic
amplification factor applied if required.

In order to determine the maximum loading on the structure it is necessary to carry out an analysis using several
wave periods and wave crest positions; facilities exist within WAVE to automatically select the wave positions
corresponding to maximum base shear or overturning moment which normally relate to the maximum stress
conditions.

If the structure is operating close to a resonance then method 3 (dynamic harmonic) in conjunction with spectral
post-processing is a possible solution. This method is only valid for structures which respond proportionally to
wave height at any given wave period. This is not the case for jackets and thus is not appropriate for the extreme
loading analysis of such structures. The dynamic harmonic technique may be satisfactory for gravity and floating
structures but, in general, the AQWA programs are more suitable for these types of structure since they allow for
diffraction and radiation effects.

Method 4 (dynamic time history) is generally suitable for strength analysis of drag dominated structures. In
practice, however, the method is often difficult to apply and should be attempted by only the more experienced
users.




3.1.2.      Fatigue Analysis

For fatigue analysis the wave heights of importance are usually small and, therefore, the loading is often
dominated by the inertia term of Morison’s equation. Method 2 (static harmonic) for structures operating well
away from resonance, or method 3 (dynamic harmonic) for structures near resonance are likely to be satisfactory
for fatigue studies. For some shallow water sites, however, the effect of wave particle motion non-linearity and
non-linear drag may be important whereas the dynamic response may not. In this case a static time history
fatigue analysis may be performed.

The fatigue life of a structural element is proportional to the stress ranges generated by a combination of the
different wave heights and periods likely to be encountered. The required stress ranges are obtained using time
history or complex analysis and applying either deterministic or spectral fatigue methods.

The fatigue methods are summarised in Figure 3.1.




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                                                                                                                            Time history                                Harmonic                                     Harmonic                                                        Harmonic
                                                                                                                            Deterministic                               Deterministic                            Spectral                                                            Spectral
                                                                                                                            Static                                      Static                                    Static                                                             Dynamic

                                                                                                             ( multiple      real force                ( harmonic           sine fit through
                                                                                                               load cases)  time history                load cases )      force time history


                                                                                                                           Representitive Waves                         Representitive Waves                          Representitive Waves                      Representitive Waves           Environmental mass data
                                                                                                                ( H 1, T1 ) ( H 2, T2 )...                 ( H 1, T 1 ) ( H 2, T2 ) ...                 ( H 1 , T1 ) ( H 2 , T2 ) ...               ( H 1 , T1 ) ( H 2 , T2 ) ...



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            MASS
                                                                                                                            WAVE                                        WAVE                                          WAVE                                       WAVE
                                                                                                                          [ statics data ]                   [dynamics data]                                          [ dynamics data ]                          [ dynamics data ]
                                                                                                                    ( no MAXM )                                      ( MAXM N )                                       ( MAXM N )                                 ( MAXM N )
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ASAS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   For waves                                  (natural frequency analysis)
                                                                                                                For each                                 For each                                       For waves
                                                                                                                wave                                     wave                                           1,2,...                                    1,2,...         Harmonic load cases
                                                                                                                               Individual load cases                        Harmonic load case                          Harmonic load cases
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        h 1 , h 2 ,...                             h 1 , h 2 ,...
                                                                                                                              (one for each phase)                           h 1 , h 2 ,...
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ( in complex form)                         ( in complex form)
                                                                                                                                                                            ( in complex form)
                                                                                                                                                                            sine fitted                                  sine fitted                               sine fitted




                                                                                                                         ASAS                                       ASAS                                          ASAS                                                              RESPONSE

                                                                                                                                Static response to each load case       Static response to max                         Static response to max                                   [ Steady state ]
                                                                                                                                ( x DAF if required)                    and min load cases                             and min load cases
                                                                                                                                                                        ( x DAF if required)                           ( x DAF if required)                                             Normal mode analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Direct solution in frequency
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        domain
                                                                                                               For each                                  For waves                                      For waves
                                                                                                               wave           Individual stresses        1,2,...            Static stress               1,2,...          Static stress                                                   Steady state response
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         to unit harmonic load
                                                                                                                                                                            ranges S 1 , S 2 ,...                        ranges S 1 , S 2 ,...                                           cases ( transfer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         function s /H )




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Analysis
                                                                                                                      FATJACK2                                  FATJACK2                                                FATJACK2                                                       FATJACK2
Page 3 - 4




                                                                                                                     [ deterministic ]                        [ deterministic ]                                         [ spectral ]                                                   [ spectral ]
                                                                                                                                 Obtain stress range from maximum                                                       Assumes Rayleigh distribution                                  Assumes Rayleigh distribution
                                                                                                                                 and minimum of individual stresses                                                     of stress response                                             of stress response


                                                                                                                                                                                          Figure 3.1 Strategies for wave fatigue analysis
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3.1.2.1. Deterministic Analysis

Deterministic analysis assumes that the sea state can be modelled as a series of discrete waves of various height
and period following one another. A simple deterministic analysis concentrates on modelling correctly the height
distribution of the waves and very roughly assigns wave periods to the selected heights. A better deterministic
method (sometimes referred to as semi-probabilistic) pays more attention to the wave period. Reference should
be made to DEn and DNV guidelines.

Deterministic analyses are good for structures which, although they may be sensitive to wave period effects, do
not exhibit a very peaky resonance type of sensitivity to a narrow range of wave periods. Deterministic analyses
can be used for structures which respond non-proportionally to wave height e.g. where drag is important.


3.1.2.2. Spectral Analysis

Spectral analysis is better for dynamically sensitive structures but cannot deal well with non-proportional
response to wave height. The frequency content of the sea is used in conjunction with a series of wave load cases
to calculate the response and fatigue damage occurring in a (typically 3 hour) seastate. The damage is then
summed over all the sea states.

Spectral analysis methodology is shown graphically in Figure 3.4.




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                             Figure 3.4 Graphical description of spectral fatigue analysis




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        WAVE User Manual                                                                                The Analysis



3.2. Data overview

The data for WAVE is prepared as a series of blocks, each specifying a particular feature of the problem. The
details of the blocks required for each part of the analysis are given in the appropriate sections.

            Phase 0                    Preliminary data

            Phase 1                    Structural geometry

            Phase 2                    Structural suppressions

            Phase 3                    Loading

3.3. Preliminary data

The Preliminary data defines the control names and parameters that may be referenced in subsequent analyses.
In general the data is the same irrespective of the type of analysis being undertaken with the following
exceptions:

(i).     For a simple static or time history fatigue analysis the job type is classified as linear. See Figures 3.10
         and 3.11

(ii).    For a deterministic or spectral fatigue analysis the job type is classified as dynamic and a frequency
         definition must be supplied. Note that for a static analysis the subsequent ASAS data file produced must
         be modified to redefine the analysis as linear. See Appendix .A and Figures 3.12and 3.13 .


3.4. Structural geometry

Phase 1 data define the topological and physical properties of the idealisation and will be the same irrespective
of the type of analysis being considered. The following sections refer to particular features and restrictions
which should be read in conjunction with the ASAS User Manual.




3.4.1.      Valid element types

WAVE will only compute environmental loads for TUBE, BEAM and BM3D elements. Other elements are
available within the ASAS-OFFSHORE suite but will ignored in the load calculation.

TUBE        2-node three-dimensional tube element, transmitting both axial forces and bending moments and used
            extensively for offshore structures.

BEAM        2-node three-dimensional beam element, transmitting both axial forces and bending moments and
            suitable for many three-dimensional frames.




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BM3D         2-node general version of BEAM which allows for the effect of shear deflection and also allows
             arbitrary orientation of the principle axes.

For further details refer to Appendix A of the ASAS User Manual.




3.4.2.       Global and local axes systems

Regardless of the systems used to define coordinates, the displacement freedoms are referred to the structure
global axis system (or a local skew system). This is a right-handed rectangular cartesian (X, Y, Z) system.


3.4.2.1. Coordinate Local Axes

Coordinate local axes are used to define the positions of nodes in space. Any required combination of cartesian,
cylindrical polar or spherical polar systems may be used; all of them are transformed to the global rectangular
system within the program. For each local system, the user provides the origin and the direction cosines relative
to the global system. Coordinates may, of course, be entered directly in the global system if required.


3.4.2.2. Element Local Axes

Many types of element have their own local axes. These are used for the definition of geometric properties,
element loads and force/stress results. The direction of the element local axes is usually defined by the order of
the nodes on the elements. Full details are given in the relevant element description sheets in Appendix A of the
ASAS User Manual.


3.4.2.3. Water Axes

Water axes Xw, Yw and Zw are defined separately to the structure Global Axes. The position of the water axes
relative to the global axes is specified in the ‘WAVE LOAD’ data. All of the ‘hydrodynamic’ quantities such as
wave direction, current direction, mean water level, etc. are then defined relative to the Water Axes.

The water axis Zw is always vertical and positive upwards.The water axis Xw lies in a plane parallel to the global
plane with the water axis Yw on the positive side of the XY plane, Yw is positive in the direction of positive Y
(see also Section 4.3.13 GRAV command and Section 4.3.22 MOVE command).

This facility enables the global structure axes to be defined to ‘best fit’ the structure but, in general, for most
offshore structures one axis is nearly always vertical and by convention this is usually denoted as the Global Z
axis. For this situation the directions of the global and water axes are related simply by supplying ‘-g’ in the Z
field of the wave loading GRAVity data command (where g is the gravitational acceleration in consistent units).
The facility of being able to vary the position of the structure relative to the water is used to the full in the
LAUNCH program which investigates the behaviour of the structure as it is launched from a barge, tilted and
installed.




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3.5. Structural Suppressions

WAVE does not carry out the structural analysis and, therefore, the model does not strictly have to be
suppressed. However, since a data file is produced which can subsequently be input to the structural analysis
program ASAS, it is good practice to include all boundary conditions in the WAVE data so that no modification
is necessary prior to the analysis.


3.6. Loading

WAVE data input differs from that for ASAS only in the specification of the loading. For WAVE there must be
only one load case specified, which has only one load type viz WAVE LOAD. Several load cases can be
generated from this single set of data, which is described in detail in Section 4. The various WAVE LOAD
commands are used to describe particular sea states, each state being terminated by an EXECute command. At
least one load case is generated by each EXECute command, and sometimes several. The formatted output file
produced by WAVE will only contain loading information produced from the WAVE LOAD block. If other
load types are required for the subsequent analysis with ASAS they must be added to the WAVE output file after
the WAVE program has been run.


3.7. Data units

The user is free to choose any system of units for his data. Prior to version H10 of the program the units
employed had to form a consistent system so that all data was defined given the basic units of force and length.
From version H10, the free format input will allow an explicit definition of units for the analysis which can be
locally overridden within each data block (where appropriate).

The basic global units to be employed are defined in the Preliminary data using the UNITS command (see
Appendix A.14) where the units of force, length and, where appropriate, temperature are supplied. Time is
assumed to be in seconds. These basic units will be utilised as the default input and results units.

A default angular unit is adopted by the program depending upon the data being read in. For wave load data an
angular unit of degrees is assumed. For topological and boundary data see the appropriate section in the ASAS
User Manual.

In order to facilitate the utilisation of different units for the various data blocks a UNITS command can be used
within the main body of the data to locally override the basic units defined in the Preliminary data. This facility
enables each data block to have one or more different sets of data units which may or may not be the same as the
global definitions.

The following example shows a simple structure where the basic global units are Newtons and Metres but the
geometric properties have been supplied in both millimetres and inches.




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                                                                                   Defined units                   Derived units
        SYSTEM DATA AREA 50000
        PROJECT ASAS
        FILES      ASAS
        JOB NEW LINE
        OPTIONS GOON
        UNITS N M                                                                  Newtons Metres        Kg
        END                                                                        Centigrade
        COOR
        CART
        1     0.0       0.0       0.0
        2     1.0       0.0       0.0
        3     2.0       0.0       0.0
        END
        ELEM
        MATP        1
        BEAM        1    2    1
        BEAM        2    3    2
        END
        GEOM
        UNITS MM                                                                   Newtons Millimetres   Kgx10-9
        1 BEAM 108.0                    90.0     90.0       25.5
        UNITS INCHES                                                               Newtons Inches             See note 3
        2 BEAM 12.0                 5.0        5.0     3.2
        END
        MATE                                                                            Newtons Metres        Kg
        1 2.0E11              0.3       0.0     0.0
        END
        .
        .


Notes


1.      The units defined in the Preliminary data must be given for both force and length.The temperature unit is
        optional and defaults to centigrade.The mass unit is a derived quantity consistent with the units of length
        and force specified.

2.      Locally defined units will be reset at the end of a data block. Thus in the MATE data the units are reset to
        the global terms Newtons and metres automatically. For wave loading any UNITS command remains
        operative until the END command unless overridden by subsequent UNITS definitions.




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3.     In the second units definition in the GEOM data, the force and length units do not form a consistent set
       and so a mass unit cannot be derived. This is acceptable to the program provided that the data being
       defined does not require a mass or density input. Thus units of Newtons and inches would be
       unacceptable in the MATE data where the density is specified. Appendix .D provides a list of unit
       definitions which permit the calculation of a consistent mass unit.

4.     Where mass data has to be supplied the input can be simplified by choosing the appropriate units of force
       and length to provide a consistent unit of mass of either 1kg (using Newtons and metres) or 1lb (using
       Poundals and feet).

If units are employed, the cross checks and results will, by default, be printed in the basic global units defined in
the Preliminary data and any data defined using local unit definitions will be factored appropriately. Although
not affecting the results produced by WAVE, the user can optionally override the displacement and/or stress
results units for the subsequent structural analysis (see Appendix .A, UNITS command).

For fixed format data, or where the UNITS command is not used, the user must ensure that all data utilises a
consistent system throughout.Three examples of consistent sets are shown below.

        SI Units                           Force in Newtons, length in metres, mass in kilograms, time in seconds,
                                           acceleration in metres/sec2.

        Imperial Units                     Force in pounds, length in feet, mass in slugs, time in seconds, acceleration in
                                           feet/sec2.

        Imperial Units                     Force in poundals, length in feet, mass in pounds, time in seconds,
                                           acceleration in feet/sec2.

For any other set of units, the unit of consistent mass will be a multiple of the basic unit of mass because it is a
derived unit. The consistent unit of mass is obtained by dividing the unit of force by the acceleration due to
gravity, which itself has units of length divided by time squared. A change in the unit of length, for example
from feet to inches or metres to millimetres requires a corresponding change to the unit of mass used for defining
the density.


3.8. Data Check

WAVE includes extensive syntax and context checking on input data. Two levels of diagnostic are noted:

ERROR                    The data cannot be sensibly processed by the program and thus cannot be allowed to
                         proceed beyond the data checking stage.

WARNING                  The data may be suspect and should be checked by the user before continuing.

Normally, both conditions will prevent the run from proceeding. If, however, the GOON option is specified
(Appendix .B) the run will proceed even after “WARNINGS” have been issued.




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3.9. Results

(i)      Data Echo


WAVE normally prints the image of each data line as it is read. However, by setting the appropriate control
options, this printing can be restricted to specified data blocks. Data lines which are found to be in error are
printed with an appropriate error message.

(ii)     Expanded Data and Summaries


WAVE normally prints a complete list of expanded and cross-referenced data. By setting the appropriate control
option, only selected summaries are printed. Wave information and member hydrodynamic properties are
echoed as shown in Figure 3.5 . A load flag is reported for each type of load, eg wave loads, buoyancy, self
weight. This flag is set to 1 if the load type is to be applied or zero if the load type is to be omitted. In addition, a
detailed table of element hydrodynamic properties may be obtained using the HYDR option, as shown in Figure
3.6 .

(iii)    Wave Loads


The degree of detail in the printed wave load information depends on the OUTPut chosen. It can range from
brief output (OUTP=1) to a full printout of member loads at each phase increment (OUTP=3). Examples of these
are shown in Figures 3.7 to 3.9.

Additional loads or load cases may be edited into the load data after the WAVE run.




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                                                                                                                 *****************
                                                                                                                 * WAVE CASE   1 *
                                                                                                                 *****************
                                                                                                                 WAVE DATA
                                                                                                                 ---- ----
                                                                                                                 HEIGHT      13.00                  THEORY    STRM FN.             7        CREST ELEVATION    7.8077E 00
                                                                                                                 PERIOD          11.50              COMPUTED HEIGHT          13.00          TROUGH ELEVATION-5.1923E 00
                                                                                                                 DIRECTION         0.00            COMPUTED LENGTH   1.8625E 02          SETUP            0.0000E-01
                                                                                                                 WAVE A          6.3D 01 1.3D 00 -1.3D-02 2.6D-03 8.8D-05 -6.4D-05 2.8D-05
                                                                                                                 COEFS B         7.8D 00 7.6D 00 6.9D 00 6.2D 00 5.2D 00 4.1D 00 3.0D 00 1.9D 00 7.9D-01 -1.7D-01 -1.1D 00
                                                                                                                                -1.9D 00 -2.7D 00 -3.3D 00 -3.9D 00 -4.3D 00 -4.6D 00 -4.8D 00 -5.1D 00 -5.2D 00 -5.2D 00
                                                                                                                PHASE DATA
                                                                                                                ----- ----
                                                                                                                START      -10.00                   INCREMENT               5.00                INCREMENTS        3
                                                                                                                GRAVITY AND AXES DATA
                                                                                                                ------- --- ---- ----
                                                                                                                ACCEL. X     0.00D-01               STILL WATER LEVEL     0.00D-01          ORIGIN OF WATER AXES
                                                                                                                                                                                            --------------------
                                                                                                                ACCEL.      Y     0.00D-01          SEA-BED              -3.54D 01          GLOBAL X    2.03D 01
                                                                                                                ACCEL.      Z    -9.81D 00          WATER DEPTH          3.54D 01           GLOBAL   Y   1.06D 01
                                                                                                                RESULTANT         9.81D 00          WATER DENSITY        1.02D 00           GLOBAL   Z   -5.26D-01
                                                                                                                                                                       CHECKS ON LOAD DATA WAVE CASE   1
                                                                                                                                                                       ---------------------------------
                                                                                                             PROP   ELEM    DRAG     MASS    SLAM     BUOYANCY         EXTRA MASS PER    SELF         BEAM            WAVE BUOY SELF FREE WIND BEAM PRINT
                                                                                                             NODE1 NODE2    COEF     COEF    COEF   DENSITY FLOOD     LENGTH   ELEMENT DENSITY DIAM-Y DIAM-Z          LOAD LOAD WGHT FLD. LOAD LOAD LEVEL
                                                                                                             -----------    ----     ----    ----   ------- -----     ------   ------- ------- ------ ------          ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- -----
                                                                                                                1           0.00 X 0.00 X       1.02D 00        1.00 0.00D-01 0.00D-01 7.85D 00 0.00D-01 0.00D-01       1    1   1    0    1    0    1
                                                                                                                            0.70 Y 2.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                            0.70 Z 2.00 Z 0.00 Z
                                                                                                                       41   0.00 X 0.00 X       0.00D-01        0.00 0.00D-01 0.00D-01 0.00D-01 1.78D-01 1.27D-01       1    0   0    0    1    1    1
                                                                                                                            0.00 Y 1.30 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                            0.00 Z14.00 Z 0.00 Z
                                                                                                                            MARINE GROWTH
                                                                                                                            -------------




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               The Analysis
                                                                                                                            THICKNESS      DENSITY       UPPER LEVEL     LOWER LEVEL     DRAG COEF       MASS COEF
                                                                                                                            ---------      -------       -----------     -----------     ---------       ---------
Page 3 - 15




                                                                                                             DEFAULT           0.005      1.300D 00       1.400D 01       6.000D-01         0.70            2.00
                                                                                                             DEFAULT           0.010      1.300D 00       6.000D-01      -1.640D 01         1.00            2.00
                                                                                                             DEFAULT           0.010      1.300D 00      -1.640D 01      -2.140D 01         1.00            2.00

                                                                                                                                                                      Figure 3.5 Hydrodynamic Properties Report
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                                                                                                                                                   TUBE            MARINE
                                                                                                             ELEMENT STEP   START   FINISH   DIAMETER THICKNESS    GROWTH     CDX    CDY     CDZ        CMX    CMY    CMZ
                                                                                                                   1    1   0.000   10.000      0.219     0.014     0.025    0.00   1.00    1.00       0.00   2.00   2.00
                                                                                                                   2    1   0.000    9.500      0.219     0.014     0.025    0.00   1.00    1.00       0.00   2.00   2.00
                                                                                                                   3    1   0.000    9.500      0.219     0.014     0.025    0.00   1.00    1.00       0.00   2.00   2.00
                                                                                                                   4    1   0.000    3.670      0.219     0.014     0.025    0.00   1.00    1.00       0.00   2.00   2.00
                                                                                                                  42    1   0.000    6.824      0.150     0.010     0.025    0.00   1.00    1.00       0.00   2.00   2.00
                                                                                                                   5    1   0.000    0.698      0.219     0.014     0.025    0.00   1.00    1.00       0.00   2.00   2.00
                                                                                                                   6    1   0.000    0.578      0.219     0.014     0.025    0.00   1.00    1.00       0.00   2.00   2.00
                                                                                                                   7    1   0.000    3.767      0.219     0.014     0.025    0.00   1.00    1.00       0.00   2.00   2.00
                                                                                                                   8    1   0.000    2.850      0.219     0.014     0.025    0.00   1.00    1.00       0.00   2.00   2.00
                                                                                                                   9    1   0.000    5.690      0.219     0.014     0.025    0.00   1.00    1.00       0.00   2.00   2.00
                                                                                                                  10    1   0.000    1.434      0.219     0.014     0.025    0.00   1.00    1.00       0.00   2.00   2.00
                                                                                                                            1.434    5.690      0.219     0.014     0.010    0.00   1.00    1.00       0.00   2.00   2.00
                                                                                                                 11    1    0.000    1.043      0.219     0.014     0.010    0.00   1.00    1.00       0.00   2.00   2.00
                                                                                                                            1.043    5.690      0.219     0.014     0.010    0.00   1.00    1.00       0.00   2.00   2.00
                                                                                                                 12    1    0.000    6.529      0.219     0.014     0.010    0.00   1.00    1.00       0.00   2.00   2.00
                                                                                                                 13    1    0.000    6.276      0.219     0.014     0.010    0.00   1.00    1.00       0.00   2.00   2.00
                                                                                                                            6.276    6.529      0.219     0.014     0.005    0.00   0.70    0.70       0.00   2.00   2.00
                                                                                                                 14    1    0.000    5.575      0.219     0.014     0.005    0.00   0.70    0.70       0.00   2.00   2.00
                                                                                                                 15    1    0.000    3.984      0.219     0.014     0.005    0.00   0.70    0.70       0.00   2.00   2.00
                                                                                                                 16    1    0.000    3.679      0.219     0.014     0.005    0.00   0.70    0.70       0.00   2.00   2.00
                                                                                                                            3.679    3.984      0.219     0.014     0.000    0.00   0.70    0.70       0.00   2.00   2.00
                                                                                                                 40    1    0.000    0.486      0.010     0.000     0.010    0.00   1.00    1.00       0.00   2.00   2.00
                                                                                                                 41    1    0.000    0.517      0.010     0.000     0.005    0.00   0.70    0.70       0.00   2.00   2.00


                                                                                                                                                     Figure 3.6 Detailed Element Hydrodynamic Report




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                                                                                                             *****************    HEIGHT      13.00
                                                                                                             * WAVE CASE   1 *    PERIOD      11.50
                                                                                                             *****************    DIRECTION    0.00

                                                                                                                                                         TOTAL LOADS JACKET   SYSTEM
                                                                                                                                                         ----- ----- ------   ------
                                                                                                                           INC    PHASE        X             Y           Z               RX           RY            RZ
                                                                                                                           ---    -----       ---           ---         ---              --           --            --
                                                                                                                             1   -10.00   1.0719D 02   -1.6388D 00 -3.3971D   01   -3.4162D 02   1.5795D 02   -8.5252D 02
                                                                                                                             2    -5.00   1.0896D 02   -2.2554D 00 -3.3719D   01   -3.4377D 02   1.3420D 02   -8.7969D 02
                                                                                                                             3    -0.00   1.0898D 02   -2.8525D 00 -3.3776D   01   -3.4806D 02   1.2719D 02   -8.9398D 02

                                                                                                                                                         TOTAL LOADS SEABED   SYSTEM
                                                                                                                                                         ----- ----- ------   ------
                                                                                                                           INC    PHASE        X             Y           Z              RX            RY           RZ
                                                                                                                           ---    -----       ---           ---         ---             --            --           --
                                                                                                                             1   -10.00   1.0719D 02   -1.6388D 00 -3.3971D   01   7.8708D 01    3.3206D 03   3.2117D 02
                                                                                                                             2    -5.00   1.0896D 02   -2.2554D 00 -3.3719D   01   9.6028D 01    3.3656D 03   3.2534D 02
                                                                                                                             3    -0.00   1.0898D 02   -2.8525D 00 -3.3776D   01   1.1380D 02    3.3580D 03   3.2332D 02



                                                                                                                                                       Figure 3.7 Default Resultant Load Report (OUTP = 1)




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                                                                                                             *****************      HEIGHT      13.00




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         WAVE User Manual
                                                                                                             * WAVE CASE   2 *      PERIOD      11.50
     Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

                                                                                                             *****************      DIRECTION   90.00

                                                                                                             ELEMENT    1   TUBE    NODE NUMBERS    100     110     LENGTH       1.00D 01     MASS COEFFS.    0.00 X   2.00 Y   2.00 Z
                                                                                                             -------        ----    GEOMETRIC PROPERTY        1     DIAMETER     2.19D-01     DRAG COEFFS.    0.00 X   1.00 Y   1.00 Z

                                                                                                                            INC     PHASE             LOCAL SYSTEM    ---   TOTAL ELEMENT LOADS   ---    JACKET SYSTEM
                                                                                                                            ---     -----             ------------          -------------------          -------------
                                                                                                                              1    -10.00   0.0000D-01 X -2.4439D 00 Y 0.0000D-01 Z     0.0000D-01 X 0.0000D-01 Y -2.4439D 00 Z

                                                                                                             ELEMENT    2   TUBE    NODE NUMBERS    110     120     LENGTH       9.50D 00     MASS COEFFS.    0.00 X   2.00 Y   2.00 Z
                                                                                                             -------        ----    GEOMETRIC PROPERTY        1     DIAMETER     2.19D-01     DRAG COEFFS.    0.00 X   1.00 Y   1.00 Z

                                                                                                                            INC     PHASE             LOCAL SYSTEM    ---   TOTAL ELEMENT LOADS   ---    JACKET SYSTEM
                                                                                                                            ---     -----             ------------          -------------------          -------------
                                                                                                                              1    -10.00   0.0000D-01 X -6.2085D 00 Y 1.1627D 01 Z     0.0000D-01 X 1.1627D 01 Y -6.2085D 00 Z

                                                                                                             ELEMENT    3   TUBE    NODE NUMBERS    120     130     LENGTH       9.50D 00     MASS COEFFS.    0.00 X   2.00 Y   2.00 Z
                                                                                                             -------        ----    GEOMETRIC PROPERTY        1     DIAMETER     2.19D-01     DRAG COEFFS.    0.00 X   1.00 Y   1.00 Z

                                                                                                                            INC     PHASE             LOCAL SYSTEM    ---   TOTAL ELEMENT LOADS   ---    JACKET SYSTEM
                                                                                                                            ---     -----             ------------          -------------------          -------------
                                                                                                                              1    -10.00   0.0000D-01 X -6.2085D 00 Y 1.1627D 01 Z     0.0000D-01 X 1.1627D 01 Y -6.2085D 00 Z

                                                                                                             ELEMENT    4   TUBE    NODE NUMBERS    130     140     LENGTH       3.67D 00     MASS COEFFS.    0.00 X   2.00 Y   2.00 Z
                                                                                                             -------        ----    GEOMETRIC PROPERTY        1     DIAMETER     2.19D-01     DRAG COEFFS.    0.00 X   1.00 Y   1.00 Z

                                                                                                                            INC     PHASE             LOCAL SYSTEM    ---   TOTAL ELEMENT LOADS   ---    JACKET SYSTEM
                                                                                                                            ---     -----             ------------          -------------------          -------------
                                                                                                                              1    -10.00   0.0000D-01 X -2.3985D 00 Y 4.4916D 00 Z     0.0000D-01 X 4.4916D 00 Y -2.3985D 00 Z

                                                                                                             ELEMENT   42   TUBE    NODE NUMBERS    130     170     LENGTH       6.82D 00     MASS COEFFS.    0.00 X   2.00 Y   2.00 Z
                                                                                                             -------        ----    GEOMETRIC PROPERTY        3     DIAMETER     1.50D-01     DRAG COEFFS.    0.00 X   1.00 Y   1.00 Z

                                                                                                                            INC     PHASE              LOCAL SYSTEM    ---   TOTAL ELEMENT LOADS   ---    JACKET SYSTEM
                                                                                                                            ---     -----              ------------          -------------------          -------------
                                                                                                                              1    -10.00   -2.3172D 00 X -2.0733D 00 Y 7.2644D 00 Z    -4.1768D-01 X 7.2618D 00 Y -3.0872D 00 Z

                                                                                                             ELEMENT    5   TUBE   NODE NUMBERS    140      150     LENGTH       6.98D-01     MASS COEFFS.    0.00 X   2.00 Y   2.00 Z
                                                                                                             -------        ----   GEOMETRIC PROPERTY         1     DIAMETER     2.19D-01     DRAG COEFFS.    0.00 X   1.00 Y   1.00 Z




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Analysis
                                                                                                                            INC     PHASE              LOCAL SYSTEM    ---   TOTAL ELEMENT LOADS   ---    JACKET SYSTEM
Page 3 - 18




                                                                                                                            ---     -----              ------------          -------------------          -------------
                                                                                                                              1    -10.00   -2.3038D-01 X -3.6045D-01 Y 9.1172D-01 Z    -4.8033D-02 X 9.1062D-01 Y -4.2743D-01 Z


                                                                                                                                                        Figure 3.8 Brief Elemental Resultant Load Report (OUTP = 2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 WAVE User Manual
     Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.




                                                                                                                   ELEMENT      2 TUBE      NODE NUMBERS    110       120      LENGTH       9.50D+00   ELEM. MASS /LENGTH   7.08D-02    PROPN FLOOD    1.00
                                                                                                                   -------        ----      GEOMETRIC PROPERTY          1      DIAMETER     2.19D-01   EXTRA MASS /LENGTH   0.00D+00    FLUID DENS 1.02D+00
                                                                                                                             DISTANCE     DRAG        MASS                  CURRENT       WAVE VELOCITY       WAVE ACCELERATION     LOADS   ( LOCAL SYSTEM )
                                                                                                             INC   PHASE     FROM END    Y    Z      Y    Z     DIAMETER    VELOCITY       H         V           H         V          X         Y         Z
                                                                                                             ---   -----     --------   ---------   ---------   --------    --------   ------------------    ------------------   ----------------------------
                                                                                                               1   -10.0         0.00   1.00 1.00   2.00 2.00   2.69D-01    7.77D-01   1.74D+00 -6.28D-02   -6.94D-01 -3.62D-02   0.00D+00 -6.75D-01 3.79D-01
                                                                                                                                 9.50   1.00 1.00   2.00 2.00   2.69D-01    7.77D-01   2.01D+00 -4.26D-02   -4.62D-01 -4.50D-02   0.00D+00 -6.72D-01 4.98D-01
                                                                                                              2     -5.0         0.00   1.00 1.00   2.00 2.00   2.69D-01    7.77D-01   1.61D+00 -6.95D-02   -7.75D-01 -3.21D-02   0.00D+00 -6.75D-01 3.29D-01
                                                                                                                                 9.50   1.00 1.00   2.00 2.00   2.69D-01    7.77D-01   1.92D+00 -5.09D-02   -5.55D-01 -4.20D-02   0.00D+00 -6.74D-01 4.55D-01
                                                                                                              3      0.0         0.00   1.00 1.00   2.00 2.00   2.69D-01    7.77D-01   1.46D+00 -7.55D-02   -8.50D-01 -2.76D-02   0.00D+00 -6.75D-01 2.77D-01
                                                                                                                                 9.50   1.00 1.00   2.00 2.00   2.69D-01    7.77D-01   1.81D+00 -5.85D-02   -6.44D-01 -3.85D-02   0.00D+00 -6.75D-01 4.09D-01
                                                                                                                                  INC      PHASE               LOCAL SYSTEM    ---   TOTAL ELEMENT LOADS   ---    JACKET SYSTEM
                                                                                                                                  ---      -----               ------------          -------------------          -------------
                                                                                                                                    1     -10.00     0.0000D+00 X -6.3993D+00 Y 4.1682D+00 Z     0.0000D+00 X 4.1682D+00 Y -6.3993D+00 Z
                                                                                                                                    2      -5.00     0.0000D+00 X -6.4074D+00 Y 3.7247D+00 Z     0.0000D+00 X 3.7247D+00 Y -6.4074D+00 Z
                                                                                                                                    3       0.00     0.0000D+00 X -6.4113D+00 Y 3.2567D+00 Z     0.0000D+00 X 3.2567D+00 Y -6.4113D+00 Z


                                                                                                                                                                Figure 3.9 Detailed Elemental Resultant Load Report (OUTP = 3)




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                                                                                                        Page 3 - 20
        WAVE User Manual                                                                                The Analysis



3.10. Files Output by WAVE

WAVE can be used for either a static or dynamic analysis and as a result will output different files depending on
the solution type.

(i).     Static Analysis


A formatted output file is provided which is a direct copy of the ASAS data from phases 0, 1 and 2 followed by
the generated wave load cases. The wave loads on each member will be described in one of the two distributed
load patterns BL6 or BL7 and by nodal forces as shown in the ASAS User Manual.

(ii).    Harmonic Analysis


A steady-state dynamic analysis gives a formatted output file of the harmonic loading for input to ASAS as a
quasi-static analysis; also produced is a binary file containing similar data for use by RESPONSE for a harmonic
analysis.    It may be necessary to modify the JOB command on the formatted output file to change the
NEW/OLD parameter to the appropriate value.

Figures 3.10 to 3.13 illustrate the analysis types available in WAVE and the associated files which are produced.




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     WAVE User Manual                                                                                        The Analysis



                                SYSTEM DATA AREA 50000
                                JOB NEW LINE
                                PROJECT PWA1
                                OPTIONS
                                SAVE .... FILES
                                END
                                .
                                .
                                WAVE LOAD
                                .
                                .
                                PHAS 8 0.0 0
                                .
                                .
                                END
                                STOP                                                  WAVE user input data




                                                 WAVE


                                 SYSTEM DATA AREA 50000
                                 JOB NEW LINE
                                 PROJECT PWA1
                                 OPTIONS
                                 SAVE .... FILES
                                 .
                                 END
                                 .
                                 .
                                 END                                                Generated ASAS data
                                 STOP




                                                 ASAS



                                                PWA110

                                                                                    ASAS backing files
                                                PWA135




                                                 LOCO



                                              BEAMST




                                      Figure 3.10 Example of a simple static analysis




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     WAVE User Manual                                                                                        The Analysis



                                 SYSTEM DATA AREA 50000
                                 JOB NEW LINE
                                 PROJECT PWA1
                                 OPTIONS
                                 SAVE .... FILES
                                 END
                                 .
                                 .
                                 WAVE LOAD
                                 .
                                 .
                                 PHAS 8 0.0 0
                                 .
                                 .
                                 END
                                 STOP                                                 WAVE user input data




                                                 WAVE


                                 SYSTEM DATA AREA 50000
                                 JOB NEW LINE
                                 PROJECT PWA1
                                 OPTIONS
                                 SAVE .... FILES
                                 END

                                  END                                               Generated ASAS data
                                  STOP



                                                 ASAS




                                                PWA110

                                                                                    ASAS backing files

                                                PWA135




                                               FATJACK2




                                 Figure 3.11 Example of a stress history fatigue analysis




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     WAVE User Manual                                                                                       The Analysis



                                 SYSTEM DATA AREA 50000
                                 JOB NEW FREQ
                                 PROJECT PWA1
                                 OPTIONS
                                 SAVE .... FILES
                                 FREQUENCY SPIT
                                 END
                                 .
                                 .
                                 WAVE LOAD
                                 .
                                 .
                                 MAXM 6
                                 .
                                 END
                                 STOP                                                WAVE user input data




                                                WAVE


                                 SYSTEM DATA AREA 50000
                                 JOB NEW LINE
                                 PROJECT PWA1
                                 OPTIONS
                                 SAVE .... FILES
                                 END
                                 .
                                 .
                                 .
                                 END
                                 STOP                                              Generated ASAS data



                                                 ASAS




                                                 PWA110

                                                                                   ASAS backing files

                                                 PWA135




                                              FATJACK2




              Figure 3.12 Example of an harmonic deterministic/spectral fatigue analysis (static)




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     WAVE User Manual                                                                                                The Analysis




               WAVE user input data                                          MASS user input data

           SYSTEM DATA AREA 50000                                         SYSTEM DATA AREA 50000
           JOB NEW FREQ                                                   JOB OLD FREQ
           PROJECT PWA1                                                   PROJECT PWA1
           FILES   RWAV                                                   OPTIONS
           OPTIONS                                                        SAVE .... FILES
           SAVE .... FILES                                                END
           END                                                            .
           .                                                              .
           .                                                              WAVE LOAD
           WAVE LOAD                                                      .
           .                                                              .
           .                                                              MAXM 8
           MAXM 8                                                         .
           .                                                              .
           .                                                              END
           END                                                            STOP
           STOP




                         WAVE                                                            MASS


                                                                          SYSTEM DATA AREA 50000
                                                                          JOB OLD FREQ
                                                                          PROJECT PWA1
                                                                          OPTIONS
                                                                          SAVE .... FILES
                                                                          END
                                                                          .
                                                                          .
                                                                          .
                                                                          END
                                                                          STOP



                                                                                         ASAS
                        PWA110




                                                                                         PWA135
                                                                                                        ASAS backing files
                        RWAV35




                                                                           SYSTEM DATA AREA 50000
                                                                           JOB RESP
                                                                           PROJECT PWA1
                                                                           STRUCTURE PWA1
                                                                           NEWSTRUCTURE RST1
                                                                           OPTIONS
                                                                           SAVE ... FILES
                                                                           END
                                                                           LOADFILE RWAV
                                                                           .
                                                                           .
                                                                           .
                                                                           END
                                                                           STOP



                                                                                      RESPONSE


                                                                                      FATJACK2



      Figure 3.13 Example of an harmonic spectral fatigue or steady state response analysis (dynamic)



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     WAVE User Manual                                                                                   The Analysis




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.   Page 26
     WAVE User Manual                                                                            Description of the WAVE data



4.       Description of the WAVE Data

4.1. Free format syntax



4.1.1.      General Principles

WAVE data utilises a free format syntax structure. Two systems operate for data entry to reduce the amount of
data required.


4.1.1.1. Geometric, topological and boundary data

The data defining the structural topology and boundary conditions (Phase 1 and Phase 2) consists of a series of
data blocks. These data blocks are specified using syntax diagrams similar to those shown below.

                     HEADER

                     KEYWORD                     (alpha)                               /integer/

                                                 KEYWORD1
                     real                                                              //integer//
                                                 KEYWORD2

                     integer                     KEYWORD3                              real

                     END




Each data block commences with a compulsory header command and terminates with an END command which
delimit the information from the other data. The sequence of the input data follows the vertical line down the
left hand side of the page. If a data block can be omitted, this will be indicated as shown below.

                     HEADER

                     END




Within each data block, each horizontal branch represents a possible input instruction. Input instructions are
composed of keywords (shown in upper-case), numerical values or alphanumeric strings (shown in lower-case
characters), and special symbols. Each item in the list is separated from each other by a comma or one or more
blank spaces.




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        WAVE User Manual                                                                         Description of the WAVE data


A single line of data must not be longer than 80 characters.

Numerical values have to be given in one of two forms:

(i).     If an integer is specified a decimal point must not be supplied.

(ii).    If a real is specified the decimal point may be omitted if the value is a whole number.


Exponent formats may be utilised where real numbers are required.

         for example              0.004         4.0E-3       4.0D-3       are equivalent

         similarly                410.0         410          4.10E2       are the same.


Alphanumeric strings must begin with a letter (A-Z). The letters A-Z can be supplied in upper or lower case but
no distinction is made between the upper and lower case form. Hence “A” is assumed identical with “a”, “B”
with “b” and so on.

         For example              BM3D          are all permissible alphanumeric strings
                                  BL5
                                  ALL

         Also                     COMB          are all identical
                                  Comb
                                  comb

         However                  3BMD
                                  5BL
         are examples of inadmissible alphanumeric strings.


Alphanumeric strings must not include any special symbols (see Section 4.1.2)

If certain lines are optional, these are shown by an arrow which bypasses the line(s)


                       KEYWORD                            integer




In order to build up a data block, a line or series of lines may be repeated until the complete set has been defined.
These are shown by an arrow which loops back.




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                        HEADER

                       real                               integer

                       END




Some data lines require an integer or real list to be input whose length is variable. This is shown by a horizontal
arrow around the list variable.

                       real                               integer




Where one or more possible alternative items may appear in the list, these are shown by separate branches for
each.
                                               KEYWORD1
                                                                                    integer
                   integer                     KEYWORD2


                                               KEYWORD3                             real




An optional item in a line will be enclosed in brackets e.g.

                   KEYWORD                             (alpha)                       integer




The relevant data block description will give details of any default value to be adopted if the item is omitted.


4.1.1.2. Wave load data

The wave load data generally assigns additional properties to elements, or groups of elements, which are
specifically required for the load generation. The data syntax is similar to that employed for the structural data
but consists of individual command lines, each of which assigns the additional parameters to the element(s). The
typical syntax of a command line is as follows:




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     WAVE User Manual                                                                            Description of the WAVE data




The wave data is used for generating the environmental loading experienced by the structure due to waves, wind,
current, etc. In order to facilitate generating a number of different loading conditions the wave data is broken up
into one or more data sets each terminated by an EXECute command. Each data block generates at least one load
case. For example, in the case of an harmonic analysis, two loadcases per EXEC are generated (one real, one
imaginary).

Once a command has been defined, the value(s) specified remain assigned to the appropriate element(s) until
modified by a subsequent command. Basic data, such as drag and mass coefficients, need only to be supplied
once within the first EXECutable data set to remain constant throughout the analysis (unless required to be
overridden).

The data values may be assigned to all elements using the keyword ALL or to specific elements using the
keywords ELEM, PROP or GROUP followed by a list of user element numbers, geometric property numbers or
element group numbers. The list may be continued onto subsequent lines using the special symbol : (see Section
4.1.2).

The list may be abbreviated using the keyword TO in the form i TO j to create a list of all values between i and j
inclusive.

Not all the element, property or group numbers defined need not exist in the structure. Only those elements in
the list which correspond to elements in the structure will be included.

To demonstrate the wave data procedure, consider an analysis where variations in the drag coefficient are to be
investigated. For the initial data the drag terms are modified from the default values and these are operational for
the first two EXECutable data sets. For the third and subsequent EXECutable sets the drag terms are reset back
to the default values by respecifying the drag command.
        LOAD 1
          CASE 1 ’ENVIRONMENTAL LOAD GENERATION’
          WAVELOAD
          DRAG 0.0                0.75 0.75              ALL
          .
          .
          EXEC
          .
          .
          EXEC
          DRAG 0.0                0.7           0.7      ALL
          .




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        WAVE User Manual                                                                             Description of the WAVE data


           .
           EXEC
           etc




4.1.2.           Special Symbols

The following is a list of characters which have a special significance to the WAVE input.


*          An asterisk is used to define the beginning of a comment, whatever follows on the line will not be
           interpreted. It may appear anywhere on the line, any preceding data will be processed as normal.
           For example


           * THIS IS A COMMENT FOR THE WHOLE LINE


           FREE ELEM 1 2 * THIS IS A COMMENT FOR PART OF A LINE


’          single quotes are used to enclose some text strings which could contain otherwise inadmissible characters.
           The quotes are placed at each end of the string. They may also be used to provide in-line comments
           between data items on a given line. For example


           BUOY ‘density’ 1026.0 ‘prop flood’ 1.0 ALL


,          A comma or one or more consecutive blanks will act as a delimiter between items in the line. For
           example


           5, 10, 15 is the same as 5 10 15


:          A colon at the start of the line signifies that the line is a continuation from the previous line.
           For example


           5 10 15           is the same as         5
                                                    :    10
                                                    :    15

This is not available in the WAVE LOAD data block.




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4.2. Data Requirement for a Wave Analysis

The data required to perform a Wave Loading analysis is divided into two parts.

The first part consists of the standard ASAS structural data and boundary conditions. These data are not
described in detail in this manual and the user is referred to Section 5 of the ASAS User Manual for a full
description.

The second part consists of the Wave Load data. These data replace the ASAS loading data and are described in
this manual in Sections 4.3 to 4.3.54. A summary of the Wave Load commands is given in Section 4.2.1.




4.2.1.      WAVE LOAD Data

Many of the commands described in this section are optional and merely change default values within the
program. Once a default value has been changed, by the input of the appropriate command, it remains at the
new value until altered again. A list of the WAVE LOAD commands valid for WAVE is given in Table 4.1.




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   Command             Meaning                                           Comments
     AMAS              Additional mass on element                        Default – none
     AMPL              A/D dependent drag and mass                       Default – none
                       coefficients
     BLOC              Current blockage factors                          Optional for use with API codes (use APIW option)
     BUOY              Buoyancy                                          Default – none
     CURR              Current from any direction
     DRAG              Drag coefficients                                 Default - 0.0, 0.7, 0.7
     ELEV              Water elevation                                   Mandatory in 1st wave case
     END               End of all wave load data                         Mandatory
     EXEC              Execute                                           Mandatory
     FREE              Free flooding                                     Default – none
     GRAV              Gravity components                                Mandatory in 1st wave case
     GRID              Grid wave kinematics                              User defined waves
     GROW              Marine growth                                     Default – none
     KC                KC dependent drag and mass                        Default – none
                       coefficients
     KINE              Wave kinematics factor                            Optional for use with API codes (use APIW option)
     MASS              Inertia coefficients                              Default - 0.0, 2.0, 2.0
     MAXM              Find maximum                                      Mandatory for dynamics
     MOVE              Water axes                                        Default - coincident with jacket axes
     NANG              Number of angle steps                             Optional for use with RENL and KC tables. Default
                                                                         –8
     NOBO              No buoyancy                                       Overrides BUOY command
     NOFR              No free flooding                                  Overrides FREE command
     NOLO              No loads                                          Overrides loading commands
     NOSW              No self-weight                                    Overrides SLWT command
     NOWI              No wind load                                      Overrides WIND command
     NOWL              No wave load                                      Overrides WAVE command
     OFFS              Member offsets                                    Default – none
     OUTP              Print control                                     Default - jacket totals only
     PCUR              Any current
     PEXT              External pressure for buoyancy                    Default - pressure computed from sea water density
                                                                         and elevation including wave action effect
     PHAS              Phase                                             Mandatory for statics using conventional wave
                                                                         theories
     PRIN              Element printing                                  Default – none


                               Table 4.1 Command words and their defaults for WAVE




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   Command             Meaning                                           Comments
     RENL              Reynolds dependent drag and                       Default – none
                       mass coefficients
     RESE              Reset loads                                       Optional
     SLWT              Self-weight                                       Default – none
     SPEC              Seastate spectrum definition                      Default – none
     SPRE              Wave spreading power                              Optional for use with API codes (use APIW option)
     TIDE              Current in wave direction
     TIME              NewWave or irregular wave                         Mandatory for NewWave or irregular wave
                       analysis times                                    analyses
     TOLS              Tolerance command                                 Default 0.1, 0.0
     TYPE              Calculation method                                Default - resolve velocities
     UNIT              Define new units                                  Optional
     VISC              Kinematic viscosity                               Must be defined if RENL command used
     WAVE              Wave data                                         Must not precede ELEV command
     WIND              Wind data                                         Default – none
     WPAR              Wave parameters
     WSET              Define element sets for summation                 Must be defined before first EXEC command
                       of loading
     XMAS              Extra mass/unit length                            Default – none
     ZONE              Define zones for DRAG, MASS
                       and GROW command




                       Table 4.1 Command words and their defaults for WAVE (continued)


4.3. Description of the Wave Load Data Block




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4.3.1.      LOAD Header Command


            LOAD                ncase


            CASE                case                 `title'


            WAVE LOA


            data


            EXEC

            END




Parameters

LOAD              : compulsory header keyword to denote the start of the loading data

ncase             : number of loadcases (always 1 for wave). (Integer)

CASE              : compulsory keyword to denote the start of the loadcase data

case              : loadcase number (Integer)

title             : loadcase title (alphanumeric string in quotes, 40 characters)

WAVE LOA : compulsory keyword to denote start of the wave data

EXEC              : keyword to denote end of each wave load generation case (see Section 4.3.11)

END               : compulsory keyword to denote end of the wave data

Notes


1.       Only one load case is specified on the LOAD command. One or more wave loadcases can be generated
         from this single set of data by defining individual sea states each terminated by an EXEC command. Each
         sea state generates at least one ASAS load case.

2.       The generated loadcases are given loadcase numbers starting at 1 and incrementing by 1.




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4.3.2.      AMAS Command

This facility enables non-structural mass such as stiffening rings, anodes, etc. to be included. Extra mass is input
as a value per element.




Parameters

AMAS          : keyword

mass          : extra mass per element. (Real)

ELEM          : keyword to indicate element selection

elem          : list of user element numbers. (Integer)

GROU          : keyword to indicate group selection

group         : list of group numbers. (Integer)

PROP          : keyword to indicate geometric property selection

prop          : list of geometric property numbers. (Integer)

ALL           : keyword to indicate selection of all elements

Notes


1.       Extra mass may be specified per unit length per element using the XMAS command.

2.       Masses are not cumulative. Subsequent AMAS definitions for a particular element will overwrite
         previous values.

3.       XMAS may be specified in addition to AMAS for a given element, in which case the XMAS mass and
         the AMAS mass are cumulative.




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4.3.3.      AMPLITUDE Command

The AMPL command defines tables of A/D parameters with corresponding values of drag and mass coefficients.
This permits the automatic computation of the hydrodynamic coefficients based upon the characteristic water
particle motion amplitude, A, and the member diameter, D. The value of A at any point is computed by WAVE.
This command is only available for use with the Shell NewWave wave model.

Parameters

AMPL           : keyword

tablename : name of the table associated with this data (up to 32 alphanumeric characters)

DRAG           : keyword to indicate drag values are supplied

MASS           : keyword to indicate mass values are supplied

                                                                  DRAG                ad      cd

           AMPL              tablename                            MASS                ad       cm

                                                                  DRAG             MASS                 ad   cd   cm


ad             : A/D parameter value. (Real)

cd             : corresponding drag coefficient. (Real)

cm             : corresponding mass coefficient. (Real)

Notes


1.       The characteristic water particle motion amplitude, A, is a function of the sea wave spectrum, the vertical
         position of the point under consideration and the water depth. Full details will be found in Reference 10

2.       For values of A/D outside the defined range, the related parameter is assumed constant and equal to the
         extreme values defined, e.g.




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3.       If both drag and mass coefficients are specified, they must be given in the order of the DRAG and MASS
         keywords.

4.       At least two sets of values must be supplied.

5.       Note that this command is only applicable to the NewWave model.

Example


The following represents the values suggested by Shell for smooth and rough (fouled) members.

         AMPL         SMOOTH          DRAG         MASS
         :      1.0     0.7       2.0        5.0       0.7      1.7
         :   10.0       0.7       1.6      15.0        0.7      1.6
         :   20.0       0.6       1.0
         AMPL    ROUGH              DRAG    MASS
         :    1.0 1.5             2.0    5.0 1.3                1.5
         :   10.0       1.2       1.3      15.0        1.2      1.3
         :   20.0       1.1       1.3




4.3.4.       BEAM Element Command

The BEAM command is replaced by the HYDR command. See Appendix .F for the original specification.




4.3.5.       Current BLOCKAGE Factor Command

The BLOC command specifies a user defined current blockage factor for use within the API codes of practice.
The factor can be varied at different heights on the structure.


     BLOC           FACTOR                 factor             ( zmin          zmax )




Parameters

BLOC          : keyword

FACTOR : keyword to define that a user defined current blockage is to be supplied

factor        : current blockage factor. (Real)

zmin          : minimum height on structure (in water axes) to which this blockage factor applies. (Real)




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zmax          : maximum height on structure (in water axes) to which this blockage factor applies. (Real)

Notes


1.       Several BLOC commands can be supplied to vary the blockage factor at different heights on the
         structure.

2.       If zmin and zmax are omitted, the blockage factor is applied between the seabed and still water level.

3.       A default value of 1.0 is used for any region of the structure not covered by a user defined factor.

4.       BLOC commands are cumulative and a table is built up as each command is read. To reinitialise the table
         use the RESEt command.

5.       For a fatigue analysis API requires that a factor of 1.0 be used.

6.       For a factor not within the range 0.7 ≤ factor ≤ 1.0, a warning will be issued but the user defined value
         will be used.

7.       This command will only be utilised when used in conjunction with the APIW option.

Example


         BLOC        1.0
         .
         EXEC
         .
         RESE 3
         BLOC        0.9      0.0      10.0
         BLOC        0.95 10.0 15.0
         BLOC        0.97 15.0 20.0




4.3.6.      BUOYANCY Command

The BUOY command specifies those members for which buoyancy loads are to be calculated. The elements
may be filled, either wholly or partially, with an internal fluid either by specifying the density and proportion of
flooding or, where the members are free flooding, using the FREE command (see Note 4 below). The command
is optional and no buoyancy is calculated if omitted.




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Parameters

BUOY          : keyword

density       : mass density of internal fluid. (Real)

flood         : proportion of flooding of internal fluid. (Real)

elev          : elevation used for computing internal pressure. (Real) If elev Zb, the sea bed level, internal
                pressure is computed assuming fluid pressure to elevation elev. If elev <Zb, internal pressure is
                computed to the elevation of the water surface vertically above the point in question.

ELEM          : keyword to indicate element selection

elem          : list of user element numbers. (Integer)

GROU          : keyword to indicate group selection

group         : list of group numbers. (Integer)

PROP          : keyword to indicate geometric property selection

prop          : list of geometric property numbers. (Integer)

ALL           : keyword to indicate selection of all elements

Notes


1.      The weight of any internal fluid is automatically included in the buoyancy calculation.

2.      Buoyancy forces are calculated for members below the sea bed. For members above the water surface
        only the weight of internal fluid is computed if elev is omitted.

3.      The proportion of flooding varies between 0.0 for no flooding and 1.0 for full flooding.

4.      If the member is free flooded (FREE) the internal fluid details (density and flood) should be omitted
        otherwise the mass of the internal fluid may be duplicated.




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5.       The buoyancy calculations are based on the outer diameter of the members including any marine growth
         which may be present.

6.       There are two methods of applying the buoyancy forces to a member. The choice is governed by the
         BRIG option. See also Section 2.3.8.

7.       Internal pressure due to internal fluid is only included for the BRIG option.

8.       If elev is omitted in both the BUOY and FREE commands, internal pressure will be ignored. If elev is
         specified more than once for an element, the last specification will be assumed.




4.3.7.      CURRENT Command

The CURR command specifies a predetermined current profile in a given direction.



            CURR            iprofile            v el-s           v el-b          elev            dir




Parameters

CURR          : keyword

iprofile      : profile type integer                1        linear profile
                                                    2        exponential profile

vel-s         : current velocity at still water level. (Real)

vel-b         : current velocity at sea bed. (Real)

elev          : elevation relative to water axis at which current becomes constant. (Real)

dir           : direction of current relative to water axis system. (Real)

Notes


1.       The current may vary either linearly or exponentially between the seabed and a predefined elevation
         above which the current is assumed to remain constant.




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                elev                                                       elev

                                                      v el-s                                                 v el-s




                  Zw                                                        Zw




                                         v el-b                                                     v el-b
                                       Linear current variation                                    Exponential current variation




2.     Direction and elevation are in the ‘water’ axis system. Direction is in degrees around the water Zw axis,
       zero degrees being in the positive Xw direction, and ninety degrees being in the positive Yw direction.




3.     Options exist to modify the current profile using either mass conservation or relative velocities. See
       Appendix .C.

4.     The CURR command remains operative until overridden by a subsequent TIDE, CURR or PCUR
       command. If it is required to return to having no current or tide loading then a dummy TIDE command
       should be provided with zero velocity.




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4.3.8.      DRAG Coefficients

The DRAG command defines the drag coefficients, Cd, for the members used in the calculation of wave and
wind forces.




Parameters

DRAG              : keyword

cdx               : drag coefficient in element local x-direction. (Real)

cdy               : drag coefficient in element local y-direction. (Real)

cdz               : drag coefficient in element local z-direction. (Real)

TABL              : keyword to indicate that a table is to be utilised for determining the hydrodynamic coefficient

tablename         : name of table containing drag coefficients

ZONE              : keyword to indicate drag coefficients apply only to elements or part of elements in the zone

zonename          : name of zone

ELEM              : keyword to indicate element selection

elem              : list of user element numbers. (Integer)

GROU              : keyword to indicate group selection

group             : list of group numbers. (Integer)

PROP              : keyword to indicate geometric property selection

prop              : list of geometric property numbers. (Integer)

ALL               : keyword to indicate selection of all elements

Notes


1.       The command is optional and if omitted the program defaults to the following values:
         Axial,          x             Cd = 0.0
         Transverse,     y and z       Cd = 0.7




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2.       Drag coefficients may be made dependent on Reynolds number, Keulegan-Carpenter number or A/D ratio
         by use of the TABL keyword. See RENL, KC and AMPL commands for details of how to set up the
         tables.

Examples


         DRAG      0.0      0.7       0.75       ELEM       10      20     30
         DRAG      RENL       TABLE1         ZONE        GROWTH          ALL




4.3.9.      ELEVATION Command

The ELEV command defines:

The Mean Water Level relative to the Water Axes Origin

The Sea Bed Level relative to the Water Axes Origin

The density of the sea water

The density of the air


This command is mandatory in the first loadcase, but need not reappear thereafter.




Parameters

ELEV                   : keyword

selev                  : elevation of mean water level relative to water axes origin. (Real)

belev                  : elevation of sea bed relative to water axis. (Real)

water density          : mass density of sea water (e.g. 1025Kg/m3). (Real)

air density            : mass density of air (e.g. 1.23 kg/m3). (Optional). (Real)

Notes


1.       The density is multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity as input by the GRAV command, and so must
         be input in units of MASS per unit volume e.g. 1025 Kg/m3

2.       If the WIND option is used to denote the generation of loading for a WINDSPEC analysis, the density of
         sea water should be set to zero, and a value of air density must be provided




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Example


       ELEV        100      -25       1025




4.3.10. END Command

An END command terminates the WAVE LOAD data block.


      END


Parameters

END           : keyword




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4.3.11. EXECUTE Command

The EXEC command signifies the end of data for this wave case. There may be several wave cases present in an
WAVE run and each must be terminated by an EXEC command. Loads are calculated on every member based
on the commands preceding the EXEC command. The number of static loadcases generated by a single static
wave case depends on the number of positions of the wave defined on the PHAS command and on whether a
MAXM command was present. The number of quasi-static loadcases generated by a single dynamic wave
loadcase is two, one real and one imaginary, to retain the magnitude and phase information for a harmonic
analysis.


        EXEC




Parameters

EXEC          : keyword




4.3.12. FREE Flooding Command

The FREE command may be used to specify those members which are flooded with the external fluid up to the
actual water surface thus inducing additional loading due to the weight of the contained fluid on the members
concerned. The command is optional and no free flooding is assumed if omitted.




Parameters

FREE          : keyword

elev          : elevation used for computing internal pressure. (Real)

                If elev Zb, the sea bed level, internal pressure is computed assuming fluid pressure to elevation
                elev. If elev <Zb, internal pressure is computed to the elevation of the water surface vertically
                above the point in question.




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ELEM          : keyword to indicate element selection

elem          : list of user element numbers. (Integer)

GROU          : keyword to indicate group selection

group         : list of group numbers. (Integer)

PROP          : keyword to indicate geometric property selection

prop          : list of geometric property numbers. (Integer)

ALL           : keyword to indicate selection of all elements

Notes


1.      Free flooding effects are calculated for members below the sea bed.

2.      If elev is omitted in both the BUOY and FREE commands, internal pressure will be ignored. If elev is
        specified more than once for an element, the last specification will be assumed.

3.      Internal pressure, if any, is only included for the BRIG option.




4.3.13. GRAVITY Command

The GRAV command defines the relationship of the jacket axes to the water axes by specifying the value and
direction of the gravitational acceleration relative to the jacket axis system. This command is mandatory. It
must appear only once.



        GRAV              gx           gy           gz




Parameters

GRAV          : keyword

gx            : gravitational vector component in x direction (global jacket axis). (Real)

gy            : gravitational vector component in y direction (global jacket axis). (Real)

gz            : gravitational vector component in z direction (global jacket axis). (Real)




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Notes


1.      If the components of gravitational acceleration are given as (0,0,-g), the jacket and water axes are
        coincident, with the Z-axis directed vertically upwards.

                                                       ZG
                                                                         YG




                                                                                   XG


                                                        ZW
                                                                     YW



                                                                                  XW


                                                             Jacket and water axes coincident


2.      The GRAV command defines the direction of the gravitational vector (-Zwater) with respect to the jacket
        (global) axis system. The convention adopted for the X and Y axes of the water axes system is as
        follows:

        Xwater always lies in the global XY plane with Ywater on the positive side of the global XY plane. In
        the special case where Ywater is also in the global XY plane Ywater lies in the global Y direction.

                                           YG

                            ZG                                 XG




                                                  ZW


                                                                              YW



                                                                              XW

                                                         General orientation of water axes




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4.3.14. GRID Wave Command

This data is used as an alternative means for defining the wave kinematics (i.e. particle velocities and
accelerations) instead of adopting one of the wave theories detailed in Section 4.3.49 WAVE DATA. Typically
this data is used when the structure is to be loaded with waves that are outside of the conventional wave theory
applicability limits (see Figure 2.1 ) and an alternative source of wave kinematics has been found. The wave is
described by defining the surface profile together with velocities and accelerations at regular intervals or grid
points throughout the wave. The location of the horizontal and vertical grid lines may be selected to coincide
with oceanographic/measured data. The general form of the data shown below.




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GRID Wave Header




Parameters

GRID              : keyword to indicate beginning of grid data

SYMM              : keyword. The wave is considered to be symmetric in profile about the crest position.
                     Horizontal velocities and vertical accelerations are assumed symmetric about the crest position.
                     Vertical velocities and horizontal accelerations are antisymmetric about the crest. Only half the
                     wave period needs to be defined (see Note 1 below). This is the default option.

ASYM              : keyword. The wave is considered to be asymmetric in both profile and wave kinematics. The
                     whole wave period must be defined.

nloc              : number of horizontal grid locations to be defined (see Figure 4.1). (Integer)

nhgt              : number of vertical grid positions to be defined (see Figure 4.1). (Integer)

wavelength : wavelength. This must be supplied in order to establish the phase relationship between the
             structural elements and the wave. (Real)

                                          SURF(1)
                     HEIGHT(5)                               SURF(2)

                     HEIGHT(4)
                                                                              SURF(3)

                     HEIGHT(3)
         nhgt
         vertical                                                                                       SURF(4)
         grid
         locations                                                                                                    SURF(5)
                     HEIGHT(2)




                     HEIGHT(1)
                                    PHASE(1)          PHASE(2)          PHASE(3)               PHASE(4)           PHASE(5)

                                                                        nloc horizontal grid locations


                                                    Figure 4.1 Grid definitions




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Example


A symmetric wave of 110 m wavelength is defined using 5 horizontal and 4 vertical grid points.

       GRID        SYMM       5     4    110.

Horizontal Grid Definition




Parameters

GPHS          : keyword to indicate that phase angles are to be used in defining the horizontal grid locations

phase         : phase angle from crest position. (Real)
                nloc values must be supplied to fully define the grid. See Note 2 for sign convention

GLOC          : keyword to indicate that distances are to be used in defining the horizontal grid locations

location      : distance from the crest position. (Real)
                nloc values must be supplied to fully define the grid. See Note 2 for sign convention

Example


Horizontal locations of 9 grid lines are defined.

       GPHS        0.0      -10.0        -20.0         -40.0        -60.0        -90.0
       GPHS        -120.0         -150.0         -180.0

or, assuming the wavelength is 180 m,

       GLOC        0.0      5.0 10.0           20.0       30.0        45.0
       GLOC        60.0       75.0       90.0




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SURFACE Profiles and Kinematics




Parameters

SURF          : keyword to denote that surface elevations and kinematic definitions are to follow

surface       : wave surface elevation relative to the water axes for each of the horizontal grid locations defined
                on the GPHS or GLOC commands. nloc values in total must be supplied. (Real)

VELH          : keyword to indicate horizontal particle velocities

VELV          : keyword to indicate vertical particle velocities

ACCH          : keyword to indicate horizontal particle accelerations

ACCV          : keyword to indicate vertical particle accelerations

value         : wave kinematics for the surface for each of the horizontal grid locations defined on the GPHS or
                GLOC command. nloc values in total must be supplied. (Real)

Example


Surface profile and kinematics for 4 phase locations.

        SURF 8.75           8.65        8.37       8.0
        VELH 2.2            1.82        0.93       0.0
        VELV 0.0            1.05        1.61       1.51
        ACCH 0.0            2.2         3.37       3.29
        ACCV -2.44 -1.83 -0.39 1.11




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GRID Kinematics

This block of data should be repeated nhgt times

         GHGT                  height


         VELH                  v alue


         VELV                  v alue


         ACCH                  v alue


         ACCV                  v alue




Parameters

GHGT          : keyword to denote that kinematic definitions for the specific elevation are to follow

height        : grid elevation relative to the water axes. (Real)

VELH          : keyword to indicate horizontal particle velocities

VELV          : keyword to indicate vertical particle velocities

ACCH          : keyword to indicate horizontal particle accelerations

ACCV          : keyword to indicate vertical particle accelerations

value         : wave kinematics for the given grid height for each of the horizontal grid locations defined on the
                GPHS or GLOC command. (Real)
                Values corresponding to grid positions above the water surface need not be defined. See Note 3.

Example


Velocities and accelerations for elevation 10.0 for 4 phase locations

        GHGT       10.0
        VELH       0.645        0.558        0.322        0.0
        VELV       0.0          0.315        0.553        0.639
        ACCH       0.0          0.674        1.17         1.35
        ACCV       -1.15 -0.974 -0.485                    0.185




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Notes


1.      For symmetric waves, only half the wave period needs to be defined, the program will automatically
        generate wave kinematics for the symmetric part of the wave. The generated kinematics are shown in
        Figure 4.2 below.
                                                                   PHASE = 0




                                                                          VELV
                                                         VELH                           VELH
                                                 VELV

                                                            ACCV          ACCV
                                                     ACCH                               ACCH




                                               GENERATED                              DEFINED


                                    Figure 4.2 Generated symmetric wave kinematics


2.      In common with all phase definitions in WAVE, a positive phase angle indicates that the wave crest has
        passed the point of interest; conversely, this corresponds to a negative linear distance, as shown in Figure
        4.3 below.
                                 +180                                PHASE = 0                          -180
                                 -L/2                                DISTANCE = 0                       +L/2




                             Figure 4.3 Sign convention of phase and distance definitions

3.      Where grid points occur at or above the surface elevation, the kinematic values may be set to zero or, if at
        the end of the line, may be ignored. Thus only sufficient number of values to define the subsurface grid
        need be supplied.




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4.3.15. Marine GROWTH Command

The GROW command defines the thickness of marine growth. The command is optional and zero thickness is
assumed if omitted. A number of such commands may be used to define varying growth thickness with depth.
New drag and inertia coefficients may be defined to take account of the roughness of marine growth.




Parameters

GROW              : keyword

thick             : thickness of marine growth. (Real)

density           : saturated density of marine growth. (Real)

ZONE              : keyword to indicate growth values apply only to elements or parts of elements in the zone

zonename          : name of zone

upper             : upper level of growth relative to water axes. (Real)

lower             : lower level of growth relative to water axes. (Real)

cd                : drag coefficient in element local y and z directions. If not defined the appropriate element drag
                     coefficient is used. (Real)

cm                : mass coefficient in element local y and z directions. If not defined the appropriate element
                     mass coefficient is used. (Real)

ELEM              : keyword to indicate element selection

elem              : list of user element numbers. (Integer)

GROU              : keyword to indicate group selection

group             : list of group numbers. (Integer)

PROP              : keyword to indicate geometric property selection

prop              : list of geometric property numbers. (Integer)

ALL               : keyword to indicate selection of all elements




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Notes


1.      The self weight of marine growth is automatically included in the total weight reported. If self weight of
        the growth is not required then the density should be set to zero.

2.      If defined, the drag and inertia coefficients supplied on the GROW command override those defined on
        the DRAG and/or MASS commands for a given element irrespective of the order of the data.




4.3.16. HYDR Command

The HYDR command defines section dimensions and marine growth values for a part of an element. The
command is optional and existing section dimensions and growth values are used if omitted. A number of such
commands may be used to define specific section dimensions which will supersede existing dimensions. The
same applies for marine growth.




Parameters

HYDR          : keyword

DIAM          : keyword to indicate that revised section dimensions are supplied

dy            : Overall dimension in local-y direction (see Note 3), including marine growth (if present)

dz            : Overall dimension in local-z direction (see Note 3), including marine growth (if present)

AREA          : keyword to indicate that revised section areas are supplied

at            : total area, including marine growth (if present). This is used in Morison’s equation

as            : cross-sectional area of element (ie annulus area for a tube). This is used for self-weight
                calculations

ai            : cross-sectional area of internal void of tube. This is used for buoyancy calculations

SURF          : keyword to indicate that a revised surface perimeter is supplied




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perimeter : surface perimeter, including marine growth (if present). This is used for axial drag calculations

DENS          : keyword to indicate that a revised element material density is supplied

density       : element material density. This is used for self-weight calculations

GROW          : keyword to indicate that revised marine growth data is supplied

ag            : cross-sectional area of growth (ie area of annulus of growth on a tube)

dg            : saturated density of marine growth. These are used to calculate the weight of the growth for the
                section

NONE          : keyword to indicate that there is no marine growth on this section

ECAP          : keyword to indicate that revised end cap area are supplied

aout          : outer enclosed area of end cap. This is used to calculate end cap forces due to external pressure

ain           : inner enclosed area of end cap. This is used to calculate end cap forces due to internal pressure

FACT          : keyword to indicate that the lengths following are proportions of the element length (ie a
                maximum of 1.0)

len1          : distance along the element to the start of the revised data

len2          : distance along the element to the end of the revised data. If FACT has been specified, then len1
                and len2 are the proportion of the element lengths

ELEM          : keyword to indicate element selection

elem          : list of user element numbers. (Integer). ALL may not be specified.

GROU          : keyword to indicate group selection

group         : list of group numbers. (Integer). ALL may not be specified.

PROP          : keyword to indicate geometric property selection

prop          : list of geometric property numbers. (Integer). ALL may not be specified.

Notes

1.      If a section is to be respecified because of a local change in dimension or area, then the following values
        MUST be specified.
        No growth - DIAM, AREA, SURF
        Growth - DIAM, AREA, SURF, GROW
        GROW NONE should be included if no growth is required on an element that is within a marine growth
        zone.




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2.     If the length information is omitted, the properties are applied along the complete length of the element.

3.     The dimensions supplied are given in terms of the local axes of the element, as shown below.
                                               Y




                                dy

                               Z                                                  Z




                                                               dz
                                                           Y




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4.          Beam elements that have sections assigned to them via their geometry definition will automatically adopt
            appropriate properties for the calculation of wave loading and added mass. The following tables provide
            information regarding the terms used in the load and mass computations.


     Section type dy           dz      at       as                      ai                   perim          ag                aout    ain
     TUB                d      d                                                                                               π d2
                                                        πt(d - t)            π(d - 2t )2     πd             πtg(d+tg)
                                                                                                                                      π(d - 2t ) 2
                                                                                                                                4         4
                                                                                 4
     BOX                                        2dtw + 2(b-2tw)tf (d-2tf)(b-2tw)
                        d      b       db                                                    2(d + b)                         db      Gi
     RHS                                        2dt + 2(b-2t)t          (d-2t)(b-2t)
     WF                                                                                      2(d + b) +
                                                2btf + (d-2tf)tw
                                                                                             2(b - tw)
     CHAN                                                                                    2(d + b) +
                                                dtw + 2(b-tw)tf
                                                                                             2(b - tw)      (perim + 4tg)tg
     ANGL               d      b       as       dt + (b - t)t           0.0                  2(d + b)                         Gs      0.0
     TEE                                        tfb +
                                                                                             2(d + b)
                                                (d - tf)tw
     FBI                                        2btf +                                       2(d + b) +
                                                (d - 2tf)tw                                  2(b - tw)
     PRI5               N/     N/
                                       N/A      N/A                     N/A                  N/A            N/A               N/A     N/A
     FAB5               A      A



where
d               is beam depth
b               is beam width
tf              is flange thickness
tw              is web thickness
t               is plate thickness
tg              is thickness of any attached marine growth


The above assumes that the top and bottom flanges for the BOX and FBI section types are the same. The
program will correctly account for different bottom flange dimensions if specified. Any specified fillet radius is
ignored in these calculations.




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     Section type Drag load           Inertia load       Self weight       Buoyancy/               Hydrodynamic    End cap force
                                                                           Free flooding           mass
     TUB
                    Cdydyρw           Cmyatρw                                                      ρw(Cmy - 1)at
     BOX                                                 ρsas              ρwat - ρiai                             ρi ain-ρo aout
                    Cdzdzρw           Cmzatρw                                                      ρw(Cmz - 1)at
     RHS
     WF
     CHAN
                    Cdydyρw           Cmyatρw                                                      ρw(Cmy - 1)at
     ANGL                                                ρsas              ρwat                                    N/A
                    Cdzdzρw           Cmzatρw                                                      ρw(Cmz - 1)at
     TEE
     FBI
     PRI5
                    N/A               N/A                N/A               N/A                     N/A             N/A
     FAB5


5.          Prismatic and fabricated sections that are required to be wave loaded must have explicit HYDR
            commands supplied.

Example


A tube with diameter 1.4 and thickness 0.07 has a marine growth applied of 0.2 and density 1.5 over a length of
1.5 starting 2.1 from the first end. The following commands would need to be specified to reflect this.

            HYDR DIAM       1.8       1.8      2.1       3.6      ELEM       3
            HYDR AREA       2.5446900            0.2924823 1.2468981                         2.1    3.6     ELEM   3
            HYDR SURF       5.6548668            2.1 3.6 ELEM 3
            HYDR GROW       1.0053096            1.5      2.1       3.6      ELEM        3

where at           = π(1.4 + 2 x 0.2)2/4 = 2.5446900
             as    = π(1.42 - (1.4 - 2 x 0.07)2)/4 = 0.2924823
             ai    = π(1.4 -2 x 0.07)2/4 = 1.2468981
             perim = π(1.4 +2 x 0.2) = 5.6548668
             ag    = π((1.4 + 2x 0.2)2 - 1.42)/4 = 1.0053096




4.3.17. Keulegan-Carpenter Number Tables

The KC command defines tables of Keulegan-Carpenter numbers with corresponding values of drag and mass
coefficients so that for each element the drag and mass coefficients can be calculated as a user-defined function
of the Keulegan-Carpenter number. The table can, optionally, be made to be dependent on Reynolds number
allowing bilinear interpolation of drag and mass coefficients.




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Parameters

KC              : keyword

tablename : name of the Keulegan-Carpenter table (up to 32 alphanumeric characters)

RENL            : keyword to indicate Reynolds number is to be supplied

r               : Reynolds number. (Real)

DRAG            : keyword to indicate drag value is supplied after Keulegan-Carpenter number

MASS            : keyword to indicate mass value is supplied after Keulegan-Carpenter number

kc              : Keulegan-Carpenter number. (Real)

cd              : corresponding drag coefficient. (Real)

cm              : corresponding mass coefficient. (Real)

Notes


1.      For each element the Keulegan-Carpenter number KC and (optionally) Reynolds number Re are
        calculated as follows:

        Re           =            Diameter x velocity / Kinematic viscosity
        KC           =            Wave period x velocity / Diameter

        where the velocity is the maximum water particle velocity throughout a wave cycle normal to the
        member. The calculated value of KC defines a position in the array of KC commands and linear
        interpolation is used to obtain values for the drag and mass coefficients for the member. If the Reynolds
        number is also given, bilinear interpolation is utilised.


2.      For values of KC outside the defined range, the related parameter is assumed constant and equal to the
        extreme values defined, eg

                    Cd
                                      •
                                                •


                                                             •




                                                                                    Kc


3.      The drag and/or mass coefficients must be in the order of the DRAG and MASS keywords.

4.      The kinematic viscosity (VISC) must be specified, if Reynolds number dependency is required.

5.      Note that this command is not applicable to the NewWave model.




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6.        Note that this command is not applicable to wind loading.

Examples

          KC KCTABLE1 DRAG MASS
          :  4.0 0.3   1.95
          :  8.0 0.48 1.8
          : 12.0 0.75 1.6
          : 20.0 1.05 1.2



4.3.18. Wave KINEMATICS Factor Command

The KINE command specifies a user defined wave kinematics factor for use within the API codes of practice.


          KINE          factor




Parameters

KINE           : keyword

factor         : user defined wave kinematics factor. (Real)

Notes


                                                                      power+ 1
1.        If the KINE command is not used, factor =                             where power is the wave spreading power
                                                                      power + 2
          defined on the SPREAD command.


2.        If neither KINE nor SPREAD command is used, a default factor of 1.0 is used.

3.        If both the KINE and SPREAD commands are used, the value of the KINE command takes precedence.

4.        This command will only be utilised when used in conjunction with the APIW option.

5.        The factor is used to multiply the horizontal wave velocities and accelerations.




4.3.19. MASS Inertia Coefficients

The MASS command defines the inertia coefficients, Cm, for the members used in the calculation of wave
forces.




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Parameters

MASS              : keyword

cmx               : inertia coefficient in element local x-direction. (Real)

cmy               : inertia coefficient in element local y-direction. (Real)

cmz               : inertia coefficient in element local z-direction. (Real)

TABL              : keyword to indicate that a table is to be utilised for determining the hydrodynamic coefficient

tablename         : name of table containing mass coefficients

ZONE              : keyword to indicate mass coefficients apply only to elements or parts of elements in the zone

zonename          : name of zone

ELEM              : keyword to indicate element selection

elem              : list of user element numbers. (Integer)

GROU              : keyword to indicate group selection

group             : list of group numbers. (Integer)

PROP              : keyword to indicate geometric property selection

prop              : list of geometric property numbers. (Integer)

ALL               : keyword to indicate selection of all elements

Notes


1.      The command is optional and if omitted the program defaults to the following values:

                Axial,                 x              Cm = 0.0
                Transverse,            y and z        Cm = 2.0


2.      Inertia coefficients may be made dependent on Reynolds number, Keulegan-Carpenter number or A/D
        ratio by use of the TABL keyword. See RENL, KC and AMPL commands for details of how to set up
        the tables.

Examples


        MASS       0.0      2.0       2.2      ELEM       10      20     30
        MASS       RENL       TABLE1         ZONE        GROWTH         ALL




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4.3.20. MAXM Command (Static Analysis)

The MAXM command specifies the type of wave loading generated. With a MAXM command present only the
loadcases corresponding to the maximum and/or minimum horizontal base shear force or overturning moment on
the structure are transferred to the structural analysis file. The command is optional for a static analysis (see
Section 3) and in the absence of the MAXM command all loadcases are output. The MAXM command must be
defined within each loadcase for which it is required.



            MAXM              ibmsf            imax




Parameters

MAXM          : keyword

ibmsf         : load type integer                   0        maximum based on base shear force
                                                    1        maximum based on overturning moment

imax          : max type integer                    2        maximum irrespective of sign
                                                    1        positive maximum only
                                                   -1        negative maximum only
                                                    0        both maxima are output




4.3.21. MAXM Command (Harmonic Analysis)

The MAXM command is mandatory for harmonic analyses (see Section 3) and is used to define the number of
equispaced phase positions within one wave cycle to be investigated and subsequently reduced to an equivalent




            MAXM              npos




sinusoidal loadcase.



Parameter

MAXM          : keyword




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npos          : number of wave positions to be investigated within one wave cycle and used to sine fit. (Integer)




4.3.22. MOVE Command

The MOVE command defines the origin of the Water Axes relative to the structure Global Axes. The command
is optional and if omitted, the origins of the Water and the Global axes are assumed coincident.



        MOVE               x           y             z




Parameters

MOVE          : keyword

x,y,z         : coordinates of origin of water axis in the global coordinate system. (Real)

Example


        MOVE       0.0      0.0       -∆z

                                                               ZG                 YG



                                                                                           XG


                                                                     ZW

                               
                               ∆Z                                              YW


                                                                                           XW



                                                                    Water axis relative to jacket axis




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4.3.23. NANG Command

This command defines the number of angle steps a wave is to be divided into for determining the maximum
velocity experienced by a submerged element in a wave cycle. The maximum velocity is used for calculating the
drag and mass coefficients for an element if Reynolds or Keulegan-Carpenter tables are used. See the notes in
4.3.17 and 4.3.37 on how the computed velocity is used.

        NANG            nangle




Parameters

NANG            : keyword

nangle          : the number of equal phase angles a wave is to be divided into for evaluating the maximum
                  velocity. The angle increment used is 360/nangle degrees

Example


        NANG       20

Notes


1.      The value for nangle must be greater than zero.

2.      The default value for nangle is 8.

3.      No more than one NANG command is allowed for each wave case.




4.3.24. NOBM Command

The NOBM command is replaced by NOLO. See Appendix .F for the original specification.




4.3.25. NOBO Command

The NOBO command specifies elements for which buoyancy loads are excluded. The command overrides any
previous BUOY command associated with the specified elements. The buoyancy loading may be reactivated at
any later stage by using another BUOY command.




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Parameters

NOBO          : command keyword

ELEM          : keyword to indicate element selection

elem          : list of user element numbers. (Integer)

GROU          : keyword to indicate group selection

group         : list of group numbers. (Integer)

PROP          : keyword to indicate geometric property selection

prop          : list of geometric property numbers. (Integer)

ALL           : keyword to indicate selection of all elements

Note


Any number of BUOY and NOBO commands may be used to activate and deactivate loading for different wave
(EXEC) cases. The commands are processed in user input order.




4.3.26. NOFR Command

The NOFR command specifies elements for which free flooding loads are excluded. The command overrides
any previous FREE command associated with the specified elements. The free flooding loading may be
reactivated at any later stage by using another FREE command.




Parameters

NOFR          : keyword

ELEM          : keyword to indicate element selection




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elem          : list of user element numbers. (Integer)

GROU          : keyword to indicate group selection

group         : list of group numbers. (Integer)

PROP          : keyword to indicate geometric property selection

prop          : list of geometric property numbers. (Integer)

ALL           : keyword to indicate selection of all elements

Note


Any number of FREE and NOFR commands may be used to activate and deactivate loading for different wave
(EXEC) cases. The commands are processed in user input order.




4.3.27. NOLO Command

The NOLO command specifies elements for which all loads are excluded. The command overrides any previous
load command associated with the specified elements. The loading may be reactivated at any later stage by using
appropriate load commands.




Parameters

NOLO          : keyword

ELEM          : keyword to indicate element selection

elem          : list of user element numbers. (Integer)

GROU          : keyword to indicate group selection

group         : list of group numbers. (Integer)

PROP          : keyword to indicate geometric property selection




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prop          : list of geometric property numbers. (Integer)

ALL           : keyword to indicate selection of all elements

Note


Any number of BUOY, FREE, SLWT, WAVE, WIND and NOLO commands may be used to activate and
deactivate loading for different wave (EXEC) cases. The commands are processed in user input order.




4.3.28. NOSW Command

The NOSW command specifies elements for which structural self weight loads are to be ignored. The command
overrides any previous SLWT command associated with the specified elements. The self weight loading may be
reactivated at any later stage by using another SLWT command.




Parameters

NOSW          : keyword

ELEM          : keyword to indicate element selection

elem          : list of user element numbers. (Integer)

GROU          : keyword to indicate group selection

group         : list of group numbers. (Integer)

PROP          : keyword to indicate geometric property selection

prop          : list of geometric property numbers. (Integer)

ALL           : keyword to indicate selection of all elements

Notes


1.      Any number of SLWT and NOSW commands may be used to activate and deactivate loading for
        different wave (EXEC) cases. The commands are processed in user input order.




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2.      The weight of marine growth is automatically calculated if a GROW command is present. It is unaffected
        by SLWT/NOSW commands.

3.      The weight of any internal fluid is automatically calculated if BUOY/FREE commands are present. It is
        unaffected by SLWT/NOSW commands.




4.3.29. NOWI Command

The NOWI command specifies tubular elements for which wind loads are excluded. The command overrides any
previous WIND command for the specified elements. The wind loading may be reactivated at any later stage by
using another WIND command.




Parameters

NOWI          : keyword

ELEM          : keyword to indicate element selection

elem          : list of user element numbers. (Integer)

GROU          : keyword to indicate group selection

group         : list of group numbers. (Integer)

PROP          : keyword to indicate geometric property selection

prop          : list of geometric property numbers. (Integer)

ALL           : keyword to indicate selection of all elements

Note


The NOWI command is overridden by subsequent WIND definitions. It is important, therefore, to respecify the
NOWI commands after each use of the WIND command.




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4.3.30. NOWL Command

The NOWL command specifies tubular elements for which wave loads are excluded. The command overrides
any previous WAVE command for the specified elements. The wave loading may be reactivated at any later
stage by using another WAVE command.




Parameters

NOWL          : keyword

ELEM          : keyword to indicate element selection

elem          : list of user element numbers. (Integer)

GROU          : keyword to indicate group selection

group         : list of group numbers. (Integer)

PROP          : keyword to indicate geometric property selection

prop          : list of geometric property numbers. (Integer)

ALL           : keyword to indicate selection of all elements

Notes


1.      The NOWL command is overridden by subsequent WAVE definitions. It is important, therefore, to
        respecify the NOWL commands after each use of the WAVE command.

2.      Use of NOWL ALL does not nullify the existing WAVE definition. The wave surface profile is still
        applied and this may affect other loading such as buoyancy. To return to the still water condition, a
        WAVE command with zero wave height must be specified.




4.3.31. OFFSET Command




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The OFFS command defines offsets of member ends from the nodal positions. In this way the thicknesses of
joints can be taken into account when calculating the loading on these members. The offset is taken as a
shortening of the member along its axis.




Parameters

OFFS          : keyword

off1          : offset at end one of element. (Real)

off2          : offset at end two of element. (Real)

ELEM          : keyword to indicate element selection

elem          : list of user element numbers. (Integer)

GROU          : keyword to indicate group selection

group         : list of group numbers. (Integer)

PROP          : keyword to indicate geometric property selection

prop          : list of geometric property numbers. (Integer)

ALL           : keyword to indicate selection of all elements

Note


The offsets defined on this command are additive to any member offsets which may have been defined in the
Geometric Properties data. See ASAS User Manual for details.




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4.3.32. OUTPUT Control Command

The OUTP command controls the amount of printed output for each wave (EXEC) case.



            OUTP              iout




Parameters

OUTP          : keyword

iout          : output control integer              1        Total forces and moments only are reported
                                                    2        Total forces on each member are reported
                                                    3        Water particle velocities, accelerations, drag and mass
                                                             coefficients and the individual forces on each member
                                                             are reported

Notes


1.      Output 3 produces a large quantity of output and should be used with caution.

2.      For MASS, see Section 5.5 for reported information.




4.3.33. PEXT Command

The PEXT command specifies those members where the external pressures are to be calculated from the given
density and elevation. The command is optional and, if omitted, the external pressure (if applicable) will be
calculated from the sea water density and surface elevation including the effect of wave action.




Parameters

PEXT          : keyword

density       : mass density of external fluid (Real)




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elev          : elevation used for computing external pressure (Real)
                If elev Zb the sea bed level, external pressure is computed assuming fluid pressure to elevation
                elev. If <Zb, external pressure is computed to the elevation of the water surface vertically above
                the point in question.

ELEM          : keyword to indicate element selection

elem          : list of user element numbers (Integer)

GROU          : keyword to indicate group selection

group         : list of group numbers (Integer)

PROP          : keyword to indicate geometric property selection

prop          : list of geometric property numbers (Integer)

ALL           : keyword to indicate selection of all elements

Notes


1.      External pressure calculation is only carried out for the BRIG option




4.3.34. POINT Current Command

The PCUR command specifies a user defined current profile. Each PCUR (point current) command defines a
single point on a current profile. The profile may vary in both magnitude and direction with depth.



            PCUR              v elocity             direction                   elev ation




Parameters

PCUR          : keyword

velocity      : current velocity. (Real)

direction : current direction relative to water axis system. (Real)

elevation : elevation of this point value relative to water axis. (Real)




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Notes


1.      Direction and elevation are in the ‘water’ axis system. Direction is in degrees around the water Zw axis,
        zero degrees being in the positive Xw direction and ninety degrees being in the positive Yw direction.




2.      PCUR commands are cumulative and a table is built-up as each command is read. To reinitialise the
        table, supply another type of current command (i.e. TIDE or CURR), which can have magnitude zero, or
        use the RESEt command.




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3.      All locations above the uppermost level defined have a constant current magnitude and direction equal to
        the defined values. Similarly, the values below the lowest defined value are constant. Thus one PCUR
        command will define a constant current magnitude and direction at all water depths.

4.      Options exist to modify the current profile using either mass conservation or relative velocities (see
        Appendix .C).




4.3.35. PHASE Command (Static and Time History Analysis)

The PHAS command determines the position of the wave crest relative to the origin of the water axis system for
each computed loadcase within each wave. The command is mandatory and must be included in every wave
(EXEC) case.



            PHAS              npos             pos             inc




Parameters

PHAS          : keyword

npos          : number of wave positions in this case. (Integer)

pos           : position of wave crest relative to water axis (degrees). (Real)

inc           : phase increment (degrees). (Real)

Notes


1.      A phase position of zero corresponds to the wave crest at the origin of the water axis system. A positive
        wave position indicates that the wave crest has passed the water origin.




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                                                     ZW
                                      .
                                      .                                   .
                                                                          .
                                      .
                                      .                                   .
                                                                          .
                                      .
                                      .                                   .
                                                                          .
                                      .
                                      . -10                              .
                                                                          .
                                      .
                                      .                                   . +30º
                                                                          .
                                      .                                   .




                                                                                         Direction of
                                                                                         wave advance



2.      If inc = 0 then the phase increment is set to 360/npos

3.      This command is not available for NewWave or irregular wave analyses. Utilise the TIME command
        instead.




4.3.36. PRINT Command

The PRIN command may be used to override the OUTP command for specific elements.



            PRIN                  iout                    elem




Parameters

PRIN          : keyword

iout          : output control integer              1        No elemental information is reported
                                                    2        Total forces on each member are reported
                                                    3        Water particle velocities, accelerations, drag and mass
                                                             coefficients, and the individual forces on each member are
                                                             reported

elem          : user element number. (Integer)

Note


Option 3 produces a large quantity of output and should be used with caution.




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4.3.37. Reynolds Number Tables

The RENL command defines tables of Reynolds numbers with corresponding values of drag and mass
coefficients so that for each element the drag and mass coefficients can be calculated as a user-defined function
of Reynolds number. The table can, optionally, be made to be dependent on the Keulegan-Carpenter number
allowing bilinear interpolation of drag and mass coefficients.




Parameters

RENL            : keyword

tablename : name of the Reynolds table (up to 32 alphanumeric characters)

KC              : keyword to indicate Keulegan-Carpenter number is to be supplied

kc              : Keulegan-Carpenter number. (Real)

DRAG            : keyword to indicate drag value is supplied after Reynolds number

MASS            : keyword to indicate mass value is supplied after Reynolds number

r               : Reynolds number. (Real)

cd              : corresponding drag coefficient. (Real)

cm              : corresponding mass coefficient. (Real)

Notes


1.      For each element the Reynolds number Re and (optionally) Keulegan-Carpenter number KC are
        calculated as follows:

        Re           =            Diameter x velocity / Kinematic viscosity
        KC           =            Wave period x velocity / Diameter

        where the velocity is the maximum water particle velocity throughout a wave cycle normal to the
        member. The calculated value of Re defines a position in the array of RENL commands and linear
        interpolation is used to obtain values for the drag and mass coefficients for the member. If the Keulegan-
        Carpenter number is also given, bilinear interpolation is utilised.


2.      For values of Re outside the defined range, the related parameter is assumed constant and equal to the
        extreme values defined, eg




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                 Cd
                                  •
                                            •


                                                         •




                                                                                Re



3.       The drag and/or mass coefficients must be in the order of the DRAG and MASS keywords.

4.       The kinematic viscosity (VISC) must be specified.

5.       Note that this command is not applicable to the NewWave model.

6.       This command is not applicable to wind loading.

Examples

         RENL REYNOLD1                KC 10          DRAG       MASS       20000         1.6      1.0
         : 30000 1.2                  1.15
         : 40000 1.0                  1.3
         : 80000 0.8                  1.65
         : 100000 0.65                1.70
         : 200000 0.6                 1.75



4.3.38. RESET Command

The RESE command may be used to reset

(i)      the table of point currents to zero

(ii)     the marine growth data to zero

(iii)    the element loading to default.

(iv)     the BLOC values to default

(v)      the table of wind data to zero



            RESE               ireset




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Parameters

RESE          : keyword

ireset        : reset integer              0        reset point currents
                                           1        reset marine growth
                                           2        reset loads to default settings
                                           3        reset the API 20th BLOC values to the default value
                                           4        reset the PWND data to zero (see Section 4.4.3)

Note


The default settings for loads are as follows:
                         wave loads on tubes and elements with sections defined
                         no wave load on elements without section information
                         no buoyancy load
                         no self-weight of structure
                         no wind load
                         no free flooding
                         self-weight of marine growth if GROW commands present




4.3.39. SLWT Command

The SLWT command may be used to include the structural weight of members. If the command is omitted then
no structural weight will be calculated.




Parameters

SLWT          : keyword

density       : structural material density of member(s). (Real)

ELEM          : keyword to indicate element selection

elem          : list of user element numbers. (Integer)




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GROU          : keyword to indicate group selection

group         : list of group numbers. (Integer)

PROP          : keyword to indicate geometric property selection

prop          : list of geometric property numbers. (Integer)

ALL           : keyword to indicate selection of all elements

Notes


1.      If the structural density of the member is omitted the value of the density specified in the materials data
        will be utilised.

2.      To prevent the calculation of element self weight use the NOSW command.

3.      The calculation of the self-weight of any marine growth or internal fluid is not affected by this command.
        See BUOY, GROW, NOFR and NOBO commands.




4.3.40. SPECTRAL Command

This command is used to define the wave spectrum to be employed in a NewWave or irregular wave analysis.




Parameters

SPEC          : keyword

JONS          : keyword to select a JONSWAP wave spectrum

PMOS          : keyword to select a Pierson Moskowitz wave spectrum

UDEF          : keyword to indicate that a user defined spectrum is to be supplied

UWAV          : keyword to indicate that user defined wavelet details are to be supplied

peak          : peak period (Tp) for the spectrum. (Real)




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gamma         : enhancement factor for the spectrum. Defaults to 3.3 if not defined. (Real)

freq          : frequency ordinate (Hz) for user defined spectrum

energy        : corresponding energy density ordinate (length2/Hz) for user defined spectrum

height        : height of wavelet. (Real)

period        : period of wavelet. (Real)

phase         : phase of wavelet. (Real)

wavelength:length of wavelet. If zero, the wavelength will be computed internally by the program. (Real)

Notes


1.      Only one such command should be defined for a given NewWave / irregular wave case.

2.      For user defined spectra sufficient pairs of ordinates must be provided to adequately define the sea state.

3.      For UWAV spectrum, phase is unused in a NewWave analysis.

4.      For UWAV spectrum, the number of wavelet data defined in this command determines the number of
        wavelets to be used to model the wave spectrum. This will override any WPAR WAVELET data
        specified.

Example


        SPEC         PMOS         10.0
        SPEC         UDEF
        :    0.04           0.004          0.0477         0.458          0.0547          3.089
        :    0.0654         7.650          0.0724         8.2405         0.0794          7.4185
        :    0.0865         6.1053         0.0936         4.8084         0.1006          3.7133
        :    ....




4.3.41. Wave SPREADING Command

The SPRE command specifies a user defined wave spreading power for use with the API codes of practice.
This command is used to enable the program to compute a wave kinematics factor.


            SPRE               power




Parameters




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SPRE          : keyword

power         : user defined wave spreading power. (Real)

Notes

                                                                                    (power+ 1)
1.      If the SPRE command is used, wave kinematics factor =
                                                                                    (power+ 2)

2.      If the SPRE command is not used (and KINE is not used) a default value of 1.0 is used for the wave
        kinematics factor.

3.      If both the KINE and SPREAD commands are used, the value of the KINE command take precedence.

4.      This command will only be utilised when used in conjunction with the APIW option.

5.      Note that this command is not applicable to the NewWave model.




4.3.42. STOP Command

A STOP command is needed to signify the end of the data.



        STOP




Parameters

STOP          : keyword




4.3.43. TIDE Command

The TIDE command specifies a predetermined current profile in the same direction as an associated wave.



            TIDE               iprofile              v el-s             v el-b            elev




Parameters




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TIDE          : keyword

iprofile      : profile type integer                1        linear profile
                                                    2        exponential profile

vel-s         : current velocity at still water level. (Real)

vel-b         : current velocity at sea bed. (Real)

elev          : elevation relative to water axis at which current becomes constant. (Real)

Notes


1.      The tide current may vary either linearly or exponentially between the seabed and a predefined elevation
        above which the current is assumed to remain constant.


           SWL


             elev                                                       elev

                                                  v el-s                                                  v el-s




                 ZW                                                       ZW




                                     v el-b                                                      v el-b
                                   Linear current variation                                    Exponential current variation




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2.      Options exist to modify the current profile using either mass conservation or relative velocities (see
        Appendix .C).

3.      The TIDE command remains operative until overridden by a subsequent TIDE, CURR or PCUR
        command. If it is required to return to having no current or tide loading then a dummy TIDE command
        should be provided with zero velocity.




4.3.44. TIME Command

The TIME command determines the times to be used for determining the position of the maximum wave crest in
a NewWave or irregular wave analysis. It is analogous to the PHAS command used for deterministic wave
theories.

                               time
            TIME
                               npos          time         timinc




Parameters

TIME          : keyword

time          : initial instant defining the position of the maximum wave crest. A time of 0.0 corresponds to the
                instant when this crest is above the water axis origin. (Real)

npos          : if stepping the wave through the structure, this parameter defines the number of time steps to be
                used. (Integer)

timinc        : time increment at which the wave will be stepped. (Real)

Notes


1.      Since NewWave / irregular wave is a dispersive wave, the concept of stepping a wave by phase angle is
        inappropriate since the wave crest varies with time and space.

2.      For NewWave, a positive time value indicates that the maximum wave crest has passed the water origin.
        For a non-evolving wave, this is shown diagramatically below.




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3.      This command is only available for NewWave or irregular wave analyses. Utilise the PHAS command
        for conventional deterministic wave theories.




4.3.45. TOLERANCE Command

The TOLS command defines the tolerances to be used to decide between linear and quadratic distributed loads
and for the subdivision of elements. The command is optional and, if omitted, a default value of 0.1 is used to
decide between linear and quadratic and no sub-division will occur.

The water particle force is calculated at the centre point of the element or subdivision and compared with a value
interpolated linearly between the end values. If this lies within the given tolerance then linear distributed loads
are used and no subdivision occurs. If the calculated force lies outside the given tolerance, quadratic distributed
loads are used and the second tolerance is checked to decide whether or not to subdivide the element. If the
value lies outside the second tolerance then both halves of the element have separate quadratic distributed loads.




Parameters

TOLS          : keyword

tload         : tolerance for linear/quadratic distributed loads. (Real)

tsub          : tolerance for element subdivision. (Real)




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Note


If tsub is omitted then no subdivision occurs.




4.3.46. Calculation Method, TYPE Command

The conventional method (e.g. API Code of Practice) of calculating wave forces is to resolve the fluid velocities
and accelerations normal to the member axis and calculate forces normal to the member only. However, an
alternative method required by some codes may be specified in which the force directed along the vector of
instantaneous velocity or acceleration is calculated and then resolved normal to and along the axis of the
member. The command is optional and if absent type 1 is selected.



            TYPE                  itype




Parameters

TYPE            : keyword

itype           : calculation type control integer

                  0 or 1          resolve fluid particle motions (default)

                  2               resolve hydrodynamic forces




4.3.47. UNITS Command

If global units have been defined using the UNITS command in the Preliminary data (Appendix A.14.1) the
wave input data units may be locally overridden by the inclusion of an UNITS command.




Parameters

UNITS       :              keyword




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unitnm :                 name of unit to be utilised (see below)

Notes


1.      Force, length, and angular units may be specified. Only those terms which are required to be modified
        need to be specified, undefined terms will default to those currently active.

2.      The default input angular unit for waveload data is degrees.

3.      A list of valid unit names can be found in the ASAS User Manual

4.      The mass unit is derived from the force and length unit currently defined. In order to determine the
        consistent mass unit the force and length terms must both be either metric or imperial. This requirement is
        only necessary where mass or density data is being specified, in other cases inconsistencies are permitted.




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Example


                                                                 Operational Units
        SYSTEM DATA AREA 50000
        PROJECT ASAS
        FILES      ASAS
        JOB NEW LINE
        OPTIONS GOON END
        UNITS N M                                                Newtons Metres
        END
        .
        .
        .
        LOAD       1
        CASE 1 ’title’
        WAVE LOAD
        UNITS          MM                                        Newtons Millimetres Degrees
        .
        .
        .
        UNITS          KILONEWTONS                               Kilonewtons Millimetres Degrees
        .
        .
        .
        UNITS N RADIANS                                          Newtons Millimetres Radians
        .
        .
        .




4.3.48. VISCOSITY Command

The VISC command defines the kinematic viscosity for the sea water for Reynolds number calculations.



            VISC                 viscosity




Parameters

VISC          : keyword




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viscosity : kinematic viscosity

Note


This command must be present if Reynolds numbers (RENL commands) are used in the definition of drag and
mass coefficients.

Example


        VISC         1.3E-06




4.3.49. WAVE Command

The WAVE command defines the wave theory, and the Height, Period and Direction of the wave. This
command is optional, but if it appears must come after the ELEV command.




Parameters

WAVE          : keyword

theory        : wave theory keyword
                         AIRY              Linear wave theory (Airy)
                         CNOIDAL           Solitary wave theory (Cnoidal 1st)
                         STOKE5            Stokes 5th order theory
                         GRID              Grid wave
                         STREAMn Stream function theory of order n (3 ≤ n ≤ 9)

height        : wave height. (Real)

period        : wave period in seconds. (Real)

direction : wave direction. (Real)

NEWW          : keyword to denote the NewWave wave model is to be used

crest         : maximum crest elevation measured from the mean water level. (Real)




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IRRE          : keyword to denote an irregular wave spectrum is to be used.

sigheight : significant wave height of the spectrum. (Real)

Notes


1.      The NewWave wave model must not be used in the same run as any of the conventional wave theories.

2.      Direction and elevation are in the ‘water’ axis system. Direction is in degrees around the water Zw axes,
        zero degrees being in the positive Xw direction and ninety degrees being in the positive Yw direction.




3.      For backward compatibility, the theory may be given as an integer with the following correspondence:

                     1            AIRY
                     2            CNOIDAL
                     5            STOKES
                     10           GRID WAVE
                     -n           Stream function theory of order n


4.      NewWave is a dispersive wave, i.e. it is not cyclic as with the other deterministic waves. The crest height
        given is the maximum that can occur when the linear wavelets which constitute the wave are all in phase
        at their respective peaks.

5.      NewWave may not be utilised in harmonic analyses.

6.      Irregular wave, by definition is also a dispersive wave and it may not be utlised in harmonic analyses

7.      For a user defined wave spectrum (i.e. UDEF specified in the SPECTRAL command), the significant
        wave height is computed from the area under the defined spectrum. In this case, sigheight specified here
        is used for the stretching depth calculation only.




4.3.50. WIND Command

The WIND command enables wind loading to be input on members above the water surface. This command is
optional, but if omitted no wind loads are applied.




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        WIND                v elocity             direction               density




Parameters

WIND          : keyword

velocity      : wind velocity. (Real)

direction : wind direction. (Real)

density       : mass density of air. (Real)

Notes


1.      Direction is in the ‘water’ axis system. Direction is in degrees around the water Zw axes, zero degrees
        being in the positive Xw direction and ninety degrees being in the positive Yw direction.




2.      The wind velocity is assumed constant for all elevations. Should a variation with elevation be required
        this can be modelled by modifying the drag coefficients of the appropriate elements.




4.3.51. WPAR Command

This command permits user control over the default parameters adopted for the NewWave and/or irregular wave
computations. Unless guided otherwise, it is suggested that the default values embodied within WAVE are
adopted.




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Parameters

WPAR            : keyword

STRETCH : keyword to indicate that the delta stretching depth parameter is to be defined. If this parameter is
                  not defined a default value of 0.5 is used (NewWave and irregular wave)

dsa             : stretching depth factor. (Real). Stretching begins at a depth of dsa.Hs below the mean water
                  level (MWL) up to the water surface, where Hs is the maximum crest elevation or significant
                  wave height measured from MWL and specified in the WAVE command. No stretching occurs
                  below this depth, or if the wave surface is below MWL

DELTA           : keyword to indicate that the delta stretching parameter is to be defined. If this parameter is not
                  defined a default value of 0.3 is adopted (NewWave and irregular wave)

delta           : delta parameter. (Real). A value of 0.0 corresponds to Wheeler stretching under wave crests, 1.0
                  corresponds to linear extrapolation of kinematics at mean water level to crest (0.0 ≤ delta ≤ 1.0)

SPREAD          : keyword to indicate that the wave spreading constant is to be defined. If this parameter is not
                  defined no wave spreading will be considered (alpha = 0.0). See Note 2 below. (NewWave only)

alpha           : wave spreading constant in degrees (0.0 ≤ alpha ≤ 40.0). (Real)

SHIFT           : keyword to indicate that a common phase shift is to be applied to all the component wavelets. If
                  this parameter is not defined then no phase shift will be applied, and all the wave frequency
                  components will come into phase at x = t = 0.0 (NewWave only)

theta           : phase shift to be applied in degrees. (Real)

OFFSET          : keyword to denote an offset is to be applied to an evolving wave to define where the wave crests
                  come into phase along the direction of wave propagation. If this parameter is not defined for an
                  evolving wave then no offset will be applied (NewWave only)

offset          : offset distance from the origin in the direction of the wave. (Real)

EVOLVING          :        keyword to indicate that an evolving wave is required. If this keyword is not specified
                  then a non-evolving wave is generate (NewWave only)

WAVELET : keyword to denote the number of regular wavelets to be used to model the wave spectrum. If this
                  parameter is not defined, the default value is 50 (NewWave and irregular wave)




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nwave           : number of regular wavelets used to model the wave spectrum (1 ≤ nwave ≤ 1000) (Integer)

SEED            : keyword to denote the random seed is to be defined. If this parameter is not defined, the default
                  seed is 1

iseed           : seed to start the generation of random phases (Integer)

Notes


1.      Before utilising any of the options described above for Shell NewWave, the user is directed to Reference
        10

2.      The SPREAD constant alpha is used to modify the horizontal wave kinematics for nearly uni-directional
        seas. It must not be confused with the SPREAD command used for API analyses which utilises a quite
        different parameter and methodology to determine the spreading characteristics.

3.      The SPREAD command must not be used in conjunction with the NewWave model.

Example


        WPAR       SPREAD         10.0
        WPAR       EVOLVING
        WPAR       WAVELET 100




4.3.52. WSET Command

The WSET command specifies sets of elements into which base shears and moments for the jacket are summed
for the elements specified or implied.




Parameters

WSET          : keyword

name          : name of wave set (alphanumeric, 4 characters)

ELEM          : keyword to indicate element selection

elem          : list of user element numbers (integer)




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PROP          : keyword to indicate geometric property selection

prop          : list of geometric property numbers (integer)

GROUP         : keyword to indicate group selection

group         : list of group numbers (integer)

ALL           : keyword to indicate selection of all elements

Note


Any number of WSET commands may be used to specify different groupings of elements in one analysis. They
must be specified before the first EXEC command (i.e. in first wave case). They then operate on all wave cases.




4.3.53. XMAS Data

This facility enables distributed masses such as that due to the effects of internal fluids where buoyancy loading
is being ignored. Extra mass is input per unit length of each selected element.




Parameters

XMAS          : keyword

mass          : extra mass per unit length. (Real)

ELEM          : keyword to indicate element selection

elem          : list of user element numbers. (Integer)

GROU          : keyword to indicate group selection

group         : list of group numbers. (Integer)

PROP          : keyword to indicate geometric property selection

prop          : list of geometric property numbers. (Integer)




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ALL           : keyword to indicate selection of all elements

Notes


1.      Extra mass may be specified per element using the AMAS command.

2.      Masses are not cumulative. Subsequent XMAS definitions for a particular element will overwrite
        previous values.

3.      AMAS may be specified in addition to XMAS for a given element.




4.3.54. ZONE Data

The ZONE command defines the limits of a specified zone in any or all of the X, Y and Z directions.




Parameters

ZONE              : keyword

zonename          : name of zone (up to 32 alphanumeric characters)

limname           : keyword which may be one of the following:
                    XMIN, XMAX, YMIN, YMAX, ZMIN, ZMAX

limit             : coordinate value associated with the corresponding limname. Values must be specified in the
                     water axis system. (Real)

Notes


1.      Undefined values are assumed to be at +/- infinity.

2.      The zonenames can be used with the DRAG, MASS and GROW commands.

Examples


        ZONE       ZONE1        ZMIN       -2.0        ZMAX       27.5

        ZONE       ZONE2        ZMIN       1.5       ZMAX       31.7       YMAX        147.5        XMIN   -25.5




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4.4. WINDSPEC Data

The data described in this section is appropriate only when WAVE is used to generate loadcases for a
WINDSPEC wind fatigue analysis, and should only be used in conjunction with option WIND.

For a WINDSPEC analysis, it is necessary to generate ‘wave load’ cases for wind loads on each bay of the
structure. The bays of the structure are defined by the ASAS group numbers, each non-zero ASAS group
corresponding to one bay of the structure. The loadcases required for a WINDSPEC analysis consist of
NDIR*NBAY*NGUST wave cases (each consisting of a real and imaginary pair) where NDIR is the number of
base wind directions, NGUST is the number of gust directions relative to each base wind direction, and NBAY is
the number of bays in the structure. Each of the cases is formed by subtracting the results of a base wind case
from the results of a base+gust wind case.                   The PWND and GUST data lines allow data equivalent to
NDIR*NBAY*NGUST WAVE loadcases to be generated internally, with drag data, as defined on the DRAG
data lines being applied and removed automatically. The subtraction of the base case from the base + gust case
is also carried out internally.

The PWND data line defines the velocity, direction and elevation of the base wind case.

The GUST data line defines the number of wind gust directions to be used (1 or 2).

The FREQ data line defines the frequencies to be used in the RESPONSE run following the WAVE run.




4.4.1.      FREQUENCY Command

The FREQ command defines one frequency to be used in the RESPONSE analysis. All frequencies to be used
in the RESPONSE analysis must be defined in WAVE by appropriate FREQ commands.



           FREQ                    freq




Parameters

FREQ          : keyword

freq          : frequency

Notes


1.       All frequency data must be specified before the first PWND data line.

2.       The frequencies must be specified in ascending order.




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4.4.2.       GUST Command

The GUST command defines the number of gust directions to be considered for each base wind case. Either one
or two gust directions may be considered. The first gust direction will always be in the direction of the base
wind case, the second gust direction will always be at an angle of 90° around the water z axis from the base wind
direction.



           GUST                    ngust




Parameters

GUST          : keyword

ngust         : number of gust directions

Note


The gust data must be specified before the first PWND data line.




4.4.3.       PWND Command

The PWND command specifies the velocity, direction and elevation of the base wind case. Each PWND
command defines one point on the wind current profile.



           PWND                   velocity                    direction                 elevation




Parameters

PWND              : keyword

velocity          : wind velocity. (Real)

direction         : direction of wind relative to water axis system. (Real)

elevation         : elevation of this point value relative to water axis. (Real)




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Notes


1.      Direction and elevation are in the ‘water’ axis system. Direction is in degrees around the water Zw axis,
        zero degrees being in the positive Xw direction and ninety degrees being in the positive Yw direction.




2.      PWND commands are cumulative and a table is built-up as each command is read. To reinitialise the
        table use the RESE command.

3.      All locations above the uppermost level defined have a constant wind velocity and direction equal to the
        defined values. Similarly, the values below the lowest defined value are constant. Thus one PWND
        command will define a constant wind velocity and direction at all water depths.




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5.      MASS User Guide

5.1. Introduction

MASS is a pre-processor in the ASAS-OFFSHORE system and is used to calculate the additional mass due to
marine growth, non-structural elements, added hydrodynamic mass and flooded members for use in a natural
frequency analysis. The masses are lumped on to the appropriate nodal freedoms. The program outputs a
modified ASAS data file in which the extra mass appears in a Direct Mass Input Data Block. This avoids the
considerable task of such quantities being calculated and input by hand.

5.2. Technical Description

The equations of motion of structural dynamics are:

                        
                 M + Cx + Kx = F(t)
                  x


where       M             is the mass matrix
            C             is the modal damping matrix
            K             is the structural stiffness matrix
            F(t)          forcing function with respect to time
                x
            x, x,       is the displacement vector (and its derivatives)

For offshore structures it is assumed that the elements of M, C and K are constant.

The mass matrix M not only defines the structural mass of the finite element model, but also the non-structural
mass which is vital for an accurate modal analysis. Examples of added mass are machine components on an
offshore rig deck, marine growth, and mass arising from flooded members. These added masses can contribute a
considerable amount to the total mass of matrix M.

MASS modifies the basic ASAS data file so that the main program can model these important effects. It
automatically generates the extra mass data relevant to these effects.

Structural mass for tubular elements may be applied with the SLWT command. Alternatively, the structural
mass can be calculated at the time of the ASAS frequency run.

The mass of marine growth is calculated from the specific density and thickness where the value of density is
chosen to reflect both the weight of marine organisms themselves, and the pockets of water contained within
them. The effect of marine growth is applied using the GROW command.

The added (hydrodynamic) mass is calculated automatically by the program for all tubular elements below the
water surface, assuming it is a function of the displaced volume of the tube. The mass of internal water for
flooded members is also included by the MASS program, and is applied equally in all directions. Flooding may
be applied with the BUOY or FREE command.




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      WAVE User Manual                                                                                    MASS User Guide


The hydrodynamic mass is calculated from the following equation using the displaced volume of water:

                 MH = ρ V (Cm - 1)


where       MH            is the added hydrodynamic mass
            Cm            is the inertia coefficient
            ρ             is the mass density of sea water
            V             is the displaced volume of water (including marine growth)

The default values for the inertia coefficient are 0.0 along the member axis, and 2.0 for the local y and z axes.
The hydrodynamic mass, therefore, is only calculated in the transverse directions, zero indicating that mass
effects are to be ignored. If mass is required to act axially this may be achieved by modifying the inertia
coefficients appropriately.

The total mass for each member is computed and split equally between the nodes at either end. Mass effects are
not included on underwater members other than tubes.

5.3. Method of Analysis

In nearly all aspects MASS is identical to WAVE, the exceptions being:

(a)     MASS only applies to a dynamic analysis. The resulting ASAS data file is utilised in a natural frequency
        analysis prior to running RESPONSE. See Figure 5.1.

(b)     The added mass is only calculated for the first wave case. Other wave cases can be present but will be
        ignored.

(c)     A list of WAVE LOAD commands valid for MASS is given in Table 5.1. Any other WAVE LOAD
        command not appropriate to MASS will be ignored.

(d)     A DIRECT MASS data block should not be present in the MASS input data. Any additional masses can
        be edited in to the file created by MASS before the ASAS run.




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   WAVE User Manual                                                                                        MASS User Guide


     WAVE user input data                                            MASS user input data

  SYSTEM DATA AREA 50000                                         SYSTEM DATA AREA 50000
  JOB NEW FREQ                                                   JOB OLD FREQ
  PROJECT PWA1                                                   PROJECT PWA1
  FILES   RWAV                                                   OPTIONS
  OPTIONS                                                        SAVE .... FILES
  SAVE .... FILES                                                END
  END                                                            .
  .                                                              .
  .                                                              WAVE LOAD
  WAVE LOAD                                                      .
  .                                                              .
  .                                                              MAXM 8
  MAXM 8                                                         .
  .                                                              .
  .                                                              END
  END                                                            STOP
  STOP




               WAVE                                                            MASS


                                                                 SYSTEM DATA AREA 50000
                                                                 JOB OLD FREQ
                                                                 PROJECT PWA1
                                                                 OPTIONS
                                                                 SAVE .... FILES
                                                                 END
                                                                 .
                                                                 .
                                                                 .
                                                                 END
                                                                 STOP



                                                                               ASAS
               PWA110




                                                                               PWA135
                                                                                               ASAS backing files
               RWAV35




                                                                  SYSTEM DATA AREA 50000
                                                                  JOB RESP
                                                                  PROJECT PWA1
                                                                  STRUCTURE PWA1
                                                                  NEWSTRUCTURE RST1
                                                                  OPTIONS
                                                                  SAVE ... FILES
                                                                  END
                                                                  LOADFILE RWAV
                                                                  .
                                                                  .
                                                                  .
                                                                  END
                                                                  STOP



                                                                            RESPONSE


                                                                             FATJACK2



                     Figure 5.1 Dynamic spectral fatigue analysis using MASS and WAVE




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   WAVE User Manual                                                                                           MASS User Guide



 Command             Meaning                                                   Comments

 GRAV                Gravity Components                                        Mandatory in 1st wave case

 MOVE                Water Axes                                                Default - coincident with jacket axes

 ELEV                Water Elevation                                           Mandatory in 1st wave case

 BUOY                Buoyancy                                                  Default - none

 FREE                Free Flooding                                             Default - none

 SLWT                Self-Weight                                               Default - none

 AMAS                Additional Mass on Element                                Default - none

 XMAS                Extra Mass/Unit length                                    Default - none

 GROW                Marine Growth                                             Default - none

 MASS                Inertial Coefficients                                     Default 0.0, 2.0, 2.0

 NOBO                No Buoyancy                                               Overrides BUOY command

 NOFR                No Free Flooding                                          Overrides BUOY command

 NOSW                No Self-Weight                                            Overrides FREE command

 MAXM                Find Maximum                                              Mandatory for Dynamics

 OUTP                Print Control                                             Default - Jacket Totals only

 PRIN                Element Printing                                          Default - none

 EXEC                Execute                                                   Mandatory

 ZONE                Print total masses within given zones                     Default - none


                              Table 5.1 Command words and their defaults for MASS




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     WAVE User Manual                                                                                     MASS User Guide



5.4. Commands for MASS

A list of valid commands or MASS is given in Table 5.1. Other WAVE commands may be present in the data
but will be ignored.




5.4.1.      Use of Zones in MASS

In MASS, for each zone defined the apparent drag, volume, structural mass, apparent mass, length and surface
area are summed up and printed in a table for geometric properties containing elements bounded by the region.

The mass and other values are assigned to a particular zone according to the location of the centroid of each
element subdivision. To be considered as being in a zone, the location of the centroid must be ‘greater than the
minimum value’ and ‘less than or equal to the maximum value.’

5.5. Printed Output

MASS echoes the user data and prints expanded data and summaries unless options are included to suppress
them. The mass information reported depends upon the level requested using the OUTP command (see also
Section 4.3.32).

OUTP level 1 will print the total masses for the jacket under the separate headings of element, growth, flooding,
extra and hydrodynamic mass. See Figure 5.1.

OUTP level 2 will print a heading containing some geometric data for the element and total mass for the element
in the global axes system, in addition to the totals. See Figure 5.2.

OUTP level 3 will print the following for each subdivision of the element: length, internal and external
diameters, thickness and density of any applicable marine growth, and the mass per unit length for element mass,
growth mass, flooding mass, extra mass and hydrodynamic mass in the local axes system, in addition to the level
2 printing. See Figure 5.4.

If the ZONE command is selected grand total mass summations are tabulated under the headings structural mass
(i. e. steel + growth + flooding + additional) and apparent mass in global X, Y and Z directions. See Figure 5.5.




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   WAVE User Manual                                                                                     MASS User Guide




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         WAVE User Manual
    Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.




                                                                                                                           TOTAL JACKET MASS (TUBE ELEMENTS)
                                                                                                                           ---------------------------------
                                                                                                                       ELEMENT     GROWTH      FLOOD       EXTRA          HYDRODYNAMIC
                                                                                                                       -------     ------      -----       -----          ------------
                                                                                                                      3.988D 01   1.510D 01   2.929D 01   2.000D 01      5.421D 01 X   4.046D 01 Y    1.375D 01 Z



                                                                                                                                                                 Figure 5.1 Default Mass Report (OUTP = 1)

                                                                                                            ELEMENT      1   TUBE   NODE NUMBERS      1      3      LENGTH       8.06D 00    MASS COEFFS.    0.00 X   2.00 Y   2.00 Z
                                                                                                            -------          ----   GEOMETRIC PROPERTY       1      FLUID DENS   0.00D-01    PROPN FLOOD     0.00

                                                                                                                         TOTAL ELEMENT MASS (GLOBAL)       1.719D 01 X   1.709D 01 Y   1.080D 01 Z
                                                                                                                                                          *****************************************

                                                                                                            ELEMENT      7   TUBE   NODE NUMBERS      1      4      LENGTH       1.79D 01    MASS COEFFS.    0.00 X   2.00 Y   2.00 Z
                                                                                                            -------          ----   GEOMETRIC PROPERTY       2      FLUID DENS   0.00D-01    PROPN FLOOD     0.00

                                                                                                                         TOTAL ELEMENT MASS (GLOBAL)       3.021D 00 X   1.744D 00 Y   2.702D 00 Z
                                                                                                                                                          *****************************************


                                                                                                                                                             Figure 5.2 Brief Elemental Mass Report (OUTP = 2)

                                                                                                            ELEMENT      8   TUBE   NODE NUMBERS      3      2      LENGTH       1.79D 01    MASS COEFFS.    0.00 X   2.00 Y   2.00 Z
                                                                                                            -------          ----   GEOMETRIC PROPERTY       2      FLUID DENS   0.00D-01    PROPN FLOOD     0.00

                                                                                                                      SD LENGTH         DIAMETER              GROWTH         ELEMENT MASS PER UNIT LENGTH
                                                                                                                      -- ------     -----------------   ----------------    ------------------------------




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            MASS User Guide
                                                                                                                                    EXTERNAL INTERNAL    THICK   DENSITY     ELEMENT   GROWTH    FLOOD     EXTRA       HYDRODYNAMIC (LOCAL AXES)
                                                                                                                      1 1.79D 01    3.33D-01 3.13D-01   0.00D-01 0.00D-01   7.96D-02 0.00D-01 0.00D-01 0.00D-01       0.00D-01 X 8.93D-02 Y 8.93D-02 Z

                                                                                                                         TOTAL ELEMENT MASS (GLOBAL)       3.021D 00 X   1.744D 00 Y   2.702D 00 Z
                                                                                                                                                          *****************************************
Page 5-7




                                                                                                                                                            Figure 5.4 Detailed Elemental Mass Report (OUTP = 3)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    WAVE User Manual
    Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.




                                                                                                            ZONE                                        XMAX          XMIN          YMAX            YMIN       ZMAX          ZMIN
                                                                                                            ----                                        ----          ----          ----            ----       ----          ----
                                                                                                               1                                        1.0000       -1.0000       17.0000          0.0000    16.0000        0.0000

                                                                                                             GEOM   DIA       TH     APP.DG X APP.DG Y APP.DG Z      VOLUME STR.MASS    APP.M X   APP.M Y   APP.M Z    LENGTH   SF.AREA
                                                                                                             ----   ---       --     -------- -------- --------      ------ --------    -------   -------   -------    ------   -------
                                                                                                              1 1.000D 00 2.500D-02 1.129D 01 1.120D 01 1.400D 00 1.475D 01 9.688D 00 3.924D 01 3.901D 01 2.435D 01 1.612D 01 5.066D 01
                                                                                                              2 3.330D-01 1.000D-02 2.238D 01 7.459D 00 2.051D 01 1.342D 01 7.645D 00 2.798D 01 1.640D 01 2.580D 01 9.603D 01 1.005D 02
                                                                                                              3 1.000D 00 2.500D-02 1.129D 01 1.120D 01 1.400D 00 1.475D 01 9.688D 00 4.924D 01 4.901D 01 3.435D 01 1.612D 01 5.066D 01

                                                                                                               TOTAL   1            4.496D 01 2.986D 01 2.331D 01 4.293D 01 2.702D 01 1.165D 02 1.044D 02 8.451D 01 1.283D 02 2.018D 02
                                                                                                               ---------


                                                                                                            ZONE                                        XMAX          XMIN          YMAX            YMIN       ZMAX          ZMIN
                                                                                                            ----                                        ----          ----          ----            ----       ----          ----
                                                                                                               1                                        1.0000       -1.0000       17.0000          0.0000    16.0000        0.0000

                                                                                                                 X             Y           Z1           Z2        DIA        CDX        CDY        CDZ        CMX        CMY        CMZ        NG
                                                                                                                ---           ---          --           --        ---        ---        ---        ---        ---        ---        ---        --
                                                                                                             0.0000D-01    8.5000D 00   1.6000D 01   0.0000D-01 1.0835D 00 1.4000D 00 1.1200D 01 1.1287D 01 2.4352D 01 3.9009D 01 3.9242D 01    1
                                                                                                             0.0000D-01    8.5000D 00   1.6000D 01   0.0000D-01 1.0335D 00 2.0513D 01 7.4592D 00 2.2384D 01 2.5801D 01 1.6399D 01 2.7979D 01    2
                                                                                                             0.0000D-01    8.5000D 00   1.6000D 01   0.0000D-01 1.0835D 00 1.4000D 00 1.1200D 01 1.1287D 01 3.4352D 01 4.9009D 01 4.9242D 01    3


                                                                                                               GRAND TOTAL FOR      APP.DG X APP.DG Y APP.DG Z      VOLUME STR.MASS    APP.M X   APP.M Y   APP.M Z    LENGTH   SF.AREA
                                                                                                                                    -------- -------- --------      ------ --------    -------   -------    ------   -------
                                                                                                                                   -4.496D 01-2.986D 01-2.331D 01-4.293D 01-2.702D 01-1.165D 02-1.044D 02-8.451D 01-1.283D 02-2.018D 02-



                                                                                                                                                                      Figure 5.5 Mass Zone Report




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                                                                                                        Page 5-9
     WAVE User Manual                                                                                      Examples


6.     Examples

6.1. Example 1, Simple Static Wave Analysis

This is an example of a simple static wave analysis of a riser. The following items should be noted:

1.     The vertical axis lies parallel to global z direction, as given on the GRAV command.

2.     The water axis is shifted from the global axis system as defined on the MOVE command so that the Xw
       Yw plane is coincident with the still water level.

3.     The still water level is 35.4 metres above the seabed.

4.     Although the point current profile remains constant, a RESE command has to be supplied and the point
       currents redefined to account for the change in direction. Failure to do this would result in unwanted
       current loading.

5.     A change in marine growth drag terms is being investigated for different wave directions and this is
       implemented by RESEtting the growth data and redefining the data with new drag terms.

6.     7th order Stream Function has been requested for wave loading.

7.     Element number 1 is to excluded from the wave loading and this must be specified using a NOWL
       command after each WAVE/PCUR definition.

The WAVE run will produce a file suitable for input to ASAS for a static stress analysis (for this example, the
file name will be ASASWA). Additional loads representing other loading conditions can be edited onto this file
if necessary before running ASAS.




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     WAVE User Manual                                                                                      Examples




                                       Figure 6.1 Example 1, Simple Riser Analysis




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     WAVE User Manual                                                                                      Examples

       SYSTEM DATA AREA 100000
       PROJECT RISE
       JOB NEW LINE
       FILES ASAS
       TITLE ‘MANUAL EXAMPLE OF SIMPLE ANALYSIS’
       OPTIONS GOON HYDR
       END
       *----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       COOR
       CART LEGS
       DCOS 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.993 0.122
       ORIG 64.066 10.640 -34.616
       100   0.0    0.0     0.0
       110 -10.0    0.0     0.0
       120 -19.5    0.0     0.0
       *    KNEE BEND
       130 -29.0    0.0     0.0
       140 -32.67   0.0     0.0
       150 -33.271 0.0      0.354
       160 -33.634 0.0      0.803
       170 -34.093 0.0      4.540
       *    INTERMEDIATE CLAMP
       180 -36.534 0.0      6.010
       190 -38.299 0.0     11.417
       200 -40.064 0.0     16.824
       *    CLAMP 1
       210 -41.829 0.0     22.231
       215 -42.315 0.0     22.225
       220 -42.625 0.0     28.708
       *    CLAMP 2
       230 -43.420 0.0     35.185
       235 -43.934 0.0     35.125
       240 -44.129 0.0     40.712
       250 -44.129 0.4852 44.664
       260 -44.129 0.9705 48.616
       END
       *----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       ELEM
       MATP 1
       GROU 1
       /
       TUBE 100 110 1
       RP 16 10
       GROU 2
       BM3D 210 215 2 40
       BM3D 230 235 2 41
       GROU 3
       TUBE 130 170 3 42
       END
       *----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       MATE
       1 ISO 2.1E8 0.3 11.7E-6 7.85
       END
       *----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       GEOM
       1 TUBE 0.219 0.014
       2 BM3D PG01 0.33 0.0 0.25
       3 TUBE 0.150 0.010
       END


                                   Figure 6.2 Example 1, Simple Static Wave Analysis




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     WAVE User Manual                                                                                      Examples

       SECT
       PG01 WF XSEC 0.178 0.127 0.025 0.025
       END
       *----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       RELE
       RX CLA 40 210
       RY CLB 40 210
       RZ CLC 40 210
       RX CHA 41 230
       RY CHB 41 230
       RZ CHC 41 230
       RY 42 130
       RZ 42 130
       RX 42 170
       RY 42 170
       RZ 42 170
       END
       *----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       SUPP
       RX Y Z 100
       X Y 260
       ALL 215
       ALL 235
       END
       *----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       LOAD 1
       CASE 1
       WAVE LOAD
       GRAV 0.0 0.0 -9.81
       MOVE 20.26 10.64 -0.526
       ELEV 0.0 -35.4 1.025
       BUOY   1.025 1.0 PROP 1
       SLWT   7.850 ALL
       MASS   0.0 2.0 2.0 ALL
       MASS 0.0 0.0 0.0 ELEM 40 41
       DRAG   0.0 0.7 0.7 ALL
       DRAG 0.0 0.0 0.0 ELEM 40 41
       PCUR 1.61 0   0.00
       PCUR 1.55 0 -8.85
       PCUR 1.46 0 -17.70
       PCUR 1.41 0 -21.24
       PCUR 1.36 0 -24.78
       PCUR 1.28 0 -28.32
       PCUR 1.16 0 -31.86
       PCUR 1.05 0 -33.63
       PCUR 0.00 0 -35.40
       GROW   0.005 1.30 14.0    0.6 0.7 2.0 ALL
       GROW   0.010 1.30   0.6 -16.4 1.0 2.0 ALL
       GROW   0.010 1.30 -16.4 -21.4 1.0 2.0 ALL
       GROW   0.025 1.30 -21.4 -35.4 1.0 2.0 ALL
       WAVE -7 13.0 11.5 0
       WIND 36.0 0 1.23E-3
       NOBO ELEM 1 40 41
       NOSW ELEM 1 40 41
       NOWL ELEM 1
       PHAS 3 -10.0 5.0
       MAXM 1 2
       EXEC


                           Figure 6.2 Example 1, Simple Static Wave Analysis (continued)




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     WAVE User Manual                                                                                      Examples

       *
       RESE    0
       RESE    1
       GROW      0.005     1.30 14.0           0.6    1.117    2.0   ALL
       GROW      0.010     1.30   0.6        -16.4    1.595    2.0   ALL
       GROW      0.010     1.30 -16.4        -21.4    1.000    2.0   ALL
       GROW      0.025     1.30 -21.4        -35.4    1.000    2.0   ALL
       PCUR    1.61 90       0.00
       PCUR    1.55 90      -8.85
       PCUR    1.46 90     -17.70
       PCUR    1.41 90     -21.24
       PCUR    1.36 90     -24.78
       PCUR    1.28 90     -28.32
       PCUR    1.16 90     -31.86
       PCUR    1.05 90     -33.63
       PCUR    0.00 90     -35.40
       WAVE    -7 13.0     11.5 90
       WIND    36.0 90     1.23E-3
       *
       NOWL    ELEM 1
       *
       PHAS    1 -10.0 0
       OUTP    2
       EXEC
       *
       RESE    0
       PCUR    1.61 135   0.00
       PCUR    1.55 135 -8.85
       PCUR    1.46 135 -17.70
       PCUR    1.41 135 -21.24
       PCUR    1.36 135 -24.78
       PCUR    1.28 135 -28.32
       PCUR    1.16 135 -31.86
       PCUR    1.05 135 -33.63
       PCUR    0.00 135 -35.40
       WAVE    -7 13.0 11.5 135
       WIND    36.0 135 1.23E-3
       *
       NOWL    ELEM 1
       *
       PHAS    3 -10.0 5
       OUTP    3
       EXEC
       *
       END
       STOP

                           Figure 6.2 Example 1, Simple Static Wave Analysis (continued)




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     WAVE User Manual                                                                                    Examples




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.   Page 6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        WAVE User Manual
     Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

                                                                                                                 *****************
                                                                                                                 * WAVE CASE   1 *
                                                                                                                 *****************
                                                                                                                 WAVE DATA
                                                                                                                 ---- ----
                                                                                                                 HEIGHT                  13.00     THEORY    STRM FN.             7       CREST ELEVATION   7.8077E+00
                                                                                                                 PERIOD                  11.50     COMPUTED HEIGHT          13.00         TROUGH ELEVATION-5.1923E+00
                                                                                                                 DIRECTION                  0.00   COMPUTED LENGTH      1.8625E+02        SETUP             0.0000E+00
                                                                                                                 WAVE A         6.3D+01 1.3D+00 -1.3D-02 2.6D-03 8.8D-05 -6.4D-05 2.7D-05
                                                                                                                 COEFS B        7.8D+00 7.6D+00 6.9D+00 6.2D+00 5.2D+00 4.1D+00 3.0D+00 1.9D+00 7.9D-01 -1.7D-01 -1.1D+00
                                                                                                                               -1.9D+00 -2.7D+00 -3.3D+00 -3.9D+00 -4.3D+00 -4.6D+00 -4.8D+00 -5.1D+00 -5.2D+00 -5.2D+00
                                                                                                                 PHASE DATA
                                                                                                                 ----- ----
                                                                                                                 START      -10.00                 INCREMENT               5.00              INCREMENTS       3

                                                                                                                 GRAVITY AND AXES DATA
                                                                                                                 ------- --- ---- ----
                                                                                                                 ACCEL. X     0.00D+00             STILL WATER LEVEL     0.00D+00        ORIGIN OF WATER AXES
                                                                                                                                                                                         --------------------
                                                                                                                 ACCEL.    Y     0.00D+00          SEA-BED              -3.54D+01        GLOBAL X    2.03D+01
                                                                                                                 ACCEL.    Z    -9.81D+00          WATER DEPTH           3.54D+01        GLOBAL    Y   1.06D+01
                                                                                                                  RESULTANT    9.81D+00        WATER DENSITY       1.02D+00          GLOBAL Z          -5.26D-01
                                                                                                             1WAVE     13.01.00.0 (QA) 16:08 02-05-2001   ‘MANUAL EXAMPLE OF SIMPLE ANALYSIS’                               PAGE   24


                                                                                                                                                                     CHECKS ON LOAD DATA WAVE CASE   1
                                                                                                                                                                     ---------------------------------

                                                                                                                 WIND DATA
                                                                                                                 ---- ----
                                                                                                                 SPEED           3.60D+01          DIRECTION               0.00          DENSITY       1.23D-03

                                                                                                                  POINT CURRENT DATA
                                                                                                                  ----- ------- ----
                                                                                                                  CURRENT      DIRECTION       ELEVATION
                                                                                                                  VELOCITY     ---------       ---------
                                                                                                                   --------




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Examples
                                                                                                                  1.050D+00        0.0        -3.363D+01
Page 6 - 7




                                                                                                                  1.160D+00        0.0        -3.186D+01
                                                                                                                  1.280D+00        0.0        -2.832D+01
                                                                                                                  1.360D+00        0.0        -2.478D+01
                                                                                                                  1.410D+00        0.0        -2.124D+01
                                                                                                                  1.460D+00        0.0        -1.770D+01
                                                                                                                  1.550D+00        0.0        -8.850D+00
                                                                                                                  1.610D+00        0.0         0.000D+00
                                                                                                             1WAVE     13.01.00.0 (QA) 16:08 02-05-2001        ‘MANUAL EXAMPLE OF SIMPLE ANALYSIS’                          PAGE   25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           WAVE User Manual
     Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.


                                                                                                                                                            TUBE            MARINE
                                                                                                              ELEMENT STEP SD       START      FINISH DIAMETER THICKNESS    GROWTH        CDX        CDY           CDZ        CMX        CMY         CMZ
                                                                                                                    1    1 1        0.000      10.000    0.219     0.014     0.025       0.00       1.00          1.00       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                                    2    1 1        0.000       9.500    0.219     0.014     0.025       0.00       1.00          1.00       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                                    3    1 1        0.000       9.500    0.219     0.014     0.025       0.00       1.00          1.00       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                                    4    1 1        0.000       3.670    0.219     0.014     0.025       0.00       1.00          1.00       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                                   42    1 1        0.000       6.824    0.150     0.010     0.025       0.00       1.00          1.00       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                                    5    1 1        0.000       0.698    0.219     0.014     0.025       0.00       1.00          1.00       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                                    6    1 1        0.000       0.578    0.219     0.014     0.025       0.00       1.00          1.00       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                                    7    1 1        0.000       3.767    0.219     0.014     0.025       0.00       1.00          1.00       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                                    8    1 1        0.000       2.850    0.219     0.014     0.025       0.00       1.00          1.00       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                                    9    1 1        0.000       5.690    0.219     0.014     0.025       0.00       1.00          1.00       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                                   10    1 1        0.000       1.434    0.219     0.014     0.025       0.00       1.00          1.00       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                                            2       1.434       5.690    0.219     0.014     0.010       0.00       1.00          1.00       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                                   11    1 1        0.000       1.043    0.219     0.014     0.010       0.00       1.00          1.00       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                                            2       1.043       5.690    0.219     0.014     0.010       0.00       1.00          1.00       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                                   12    1 1        0.000       6.529    0.219     0.014     0.010       0.00       1.00          1.00       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                                   13    1 1        0.000       6.276    0.219     0.014     0.010       0.00       1.00          1.00       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                                            2       6.276       6.529    0.219     0.014     0.005       0.00       0.70          0.70       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                                   14    1 1        0.000       5.575    0.219     0.014     0.005       0.00       0.70          0.70       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                                   15    1 1        0.000       3.984    0.219     0.014     0.005       0.00       0.70          0.70       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                                   16    1 1        0.000       3.679    0.219     0.014     0.005       0.00       0.70          0.70       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                                            2       3.679       3.984    0.219     0.014     0.000       0.00       0.70          0.70       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                                   40    1 1        0.000       0.486       BEAM             0.010       0.00       1.00          1.00       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                                   41    1 1        0.000       0.517       BEAM             0.005       0.00       0.70          0.70       0.00       2.00        2.00
                                                                                                             1WAVE     13.01.00.0 (QA) 16:08 02-05-2001  ‘MANUAL EXAMPLE OF SIMPLE ANALYSIS’                                                   PAGE   26



                                                                                                                                                                 CHECKS ON LOAD DATA WAVE CASE   1
                                                                                                                                                                 ---------------------------------
                                                                                                             PROP   ELEM   DRAG   MASS   SLAM     BUOYANCY       EXTRA MASS PER    SELF         BEAM       WAVE BUOY SELF FREE WIND BEAM PRINT
                                                                                                                GROUP      COEF   COEF   COEF   DENSITY FLOOD   LENGTH   ELEMENT DENSITY DIAM-Y DIAM-Z     LOAD LOAD WGHT FLD. LOAD LOAD LEVEL
                                                                                                             -----------   ----   ----   ----   ------- -----   ------   ------- ------- ------ ------     ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- -----
                                                                                                                  1        0.00 X 0.00 X       1.02D+00   1.00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 7.85D+00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00   1     1    1    0     1    0      1
                                                                                                                           0.70 Y 2.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                           0.70 Z 2.00 Z 0.00 Z
                                                                                                                  2        0.00 X 0.00 X       0.00D+00   0.00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 7.85D+00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00   1     0    1    0     1    0      1
                                                                                                                           0.70 Y 2.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                           0.70 Z 2.00 Z 0.00 Z
                                                                                                                  3        0.00 X 0.00 X       0.00D+00   0.00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 7.85D+00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00   1     0    1    0     1    0      1
                                                                                                                           0.70 Y 2.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                           0.70 Z 2.00 Z 0.00 Z




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Examples
Page 6 - 8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      WAVE User Manual
                                                                                                                        1    0.00 X 0.00 X       0.00D+00   0.00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00   0   0    0   0    1   0    1
     Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
                                                                                                                             0.70 Y 2.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                             0.70 Z 2.00 Z 0.00 Z
                                                                                                                        40   0.00 X 0.00 X       0.00D+00   0.00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00   0   0    0   0    1   0    1
                                                                                                                             0.00 Y 0.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                             0.00 Z 0.00 Z 0.00 Z
                                                                                                                        41   0.00 X 0.00 X       0.00D+00   0.00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00   0   0    0   0    1   0    1
                                                                                                                             0.00 Y 0.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                             0.00 Z 0.00 Z 0.00 Z
                                                                                                                                                                MARINE GROWTH
                                                                                                                                                                -------------
                                                                                                                                                  THICKNESS      DENSITY     UPPER LEVEL   LOWER LEVEL     DRAG COEF     MASS COEF
                                                                                                                                                  ---------      -------     -----------   -----------     ---------     ---------
                                                                                                              DEFAULT                                0.005      1.300D+00     1.400D+01     6.000D-01         0.70          2.00
                                                                                                              DEFAULT                                0.010      1.300D+00     6.000D-01    -1.640D+01         1.00          2.00
                                                                                                              DEFAULT                                0.010      1.300D+00    -1.640D+01    -2.140D+01         1.00          2.00
                                                                                                              DEFAULT                                0.025      1.300D+00    -2.140D+01    -3.540D+01         1.00          2.00
                                                                                                             1WAVE      13.01.00.0 (QA) 16:08 02-05-2001   ‘MANUAL EXAMPLE OF SIMPLE ANALYSIS’                                            PAGE   27



                                                                                                                 *****************       HEIGHT      13.00
                                                                                                                 * WAVE CASE   1 *       PERIOD      11.50
                                                                                                                 *****************       DIRECTION    0.00
                                                                                                                                                                 TOTAL LOADS JACKET SYSTEM
                                                                                                                                                                 ----- ----- ------ ------
                                                                                                                                  INC    PHASE         X             Y           Z           RX             RY            RZ
                                                                                                                                  ---    -----        ---           ---         ---          --             --            --
                                                                                                                                    1   -10.00    1.0718D+02   -1.6377D+00 -3.3845D+01 -3.4071D+02     1.5530D+02   -8.5246D+02
                                                                                                                                    2    -5.00    1.0895D+02   -2.2561D+00 -3.3583D+01 -3.4280D+02     1.3132D+02   -8.7967D+02
                                                                                                                                    3     0.00    1.0897D+02   -2.8559D+00 -3.3627D+01 -3.4700D+02     1.2405D+02   -8.9400D+02
                                                                                                                                                                 TOTAL LOADS SEABED SYSTEM
                                                                                                                                                                 ----- ----- ------ ------
                                                                                                                                  INC    PHASE         X             Y           Z            RX            RY           RZ
                                                                                                                                  ---    -----        ---           ---         ---           --            --           --
                                                                                                                                    1   -10.00    1.0718D+02   -1.6377D+00 -3.3845D+01   7.8242D+01    3.3202D+03   3.2115D+02
                                                                                                                                    2    -5.00    1.0895D+02   -2.2561D+00 -3.3583D+01   9.5580D+01    3.3652D+03   3.2531D+02
                                                                                                                                    3     0.00    1.0897D+02   -2.8559D+00 -3.3627D+01   1.1339D+02    3.3576D+03   3.2329D+02




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Examples
Page 6 - 9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        WAVE User Manual
                                                                                                             1WAVE    13.01.00.0 (QA) 16:08 02-05-2001     ‘MANUAL EXAMPLE OF SIMPLE ANALYSIS’                                           PAGE      33
     Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

                                                                                                                 *****************     HEIGHT      13.00
                                                                                                                 * WAVE CASE   2 *     PERIOD      11.50
                                                                                                                 *****************     DIRECTION   90.00
                                                                                                                 ELEMENT     1 TUBE    NODE NUMBERS    100     110    LENGTH      1.00D+01   ELEM. MASS /LENGTH   0.00D+00   PROPN FLOOD    0.00
                                                                                                                 -------       ----    GEOMETRIC PROPERTY        1    DIAMETER    2.19D-01   EXTRA MASS /LENGTH   0.00D+00   FLUID DENS 0.00D+00
                                                                                                                               INC     PHASE             LOCAL SYSTEM    ---   TOTAL ELEMENT LOADS   ---    JACKET SYSTEM
                                                                                                                               ---     -----             ------------          -------------------          -------------
                                                                                                                                 1    -10.00   0.0000D+00 X -2.4439D+00 Y 0.0000D+00 Z     0.0000D+00 X 0.0000D+00 Y -2.4439D+00 Z

                                                                                                                 ELEMENT     2 TUBE    NODE NUMBERS    110     120    LENGTH      9.50D+00   ELEM. MASS /LENGTH   7.08D-02   PROPN FLOOD    1.00
                                                                                                                 -------       ----    GEOMETRIC PROPERTY        1    DIAMETER    2.19D-01   EXTRA MASS /LENGTH   0.00D+00   FLUID DENS 1.02D+00
                                                                                                                               INC     PHASE             LOCAL SYSTEM    ---   TOTAL ELEMENT LOADS   ---    JACKET SYSTEM
                                                                                                                               ---     -----             ------------          -------------------          -------------
                                                                                                                                 1    -10.00   0.0000D+00 X -6.2085D+00 Y 1.1627D+01 Z     0.0000D+00 X 1.1627D+01 Y -6.2085D+00 Z
                                                                                                                 ELEMENT     3 TUBE    NODE NUMBERS    120     130    LENGTH      9.50D+00   ELEM. MASS /LENGTH   7.08D-02   PROPN FLOOD    1.00
                                                                                                                 -------       ----    GEOMETRIC PROPERTY        1    DIAMETER    2.19D-01   EXTRA MASS /LENGTH   0.00D+00   FLUID DENS 1.02D+00
                                                                                                                               INC     PHASE             LOCAL SYSTEM    ---   TOTAL ELEMENT LOADS   ---    JACKET SYSTEM
                                                                                                                               ---     -----             ------------          -------------------          -------------
                                                                                                                                 1    -10.00   0.0000D+00 X -6.2085D+00 Y 1.1627D+01 Z     0.0000D+00 X 1.1627D+01 Y -6.2085D+00 Z
                                                                                                                 ELEMENT     4 TUBE    NODE NUMBERS    130     140    LENGTH      3.67D+00   ELEM. MASS /LENGTH   7.08D-02   PROPN FLOOD    1.00
                                                                                                                 -------       ----    GEOMETRIC PROPERTY        1    DIAMETER    2.19D-01   EXTRA MASS /LENGTH   0.00D+00   FLUID DENS 1.02D+00
                                                                                                                               INC     PHASE             LOCAL SYSTEM    ---   TOTAL ELEMENT LOADS   ---    JACKET SYSTEM
                                                                                                                               ---     -----             ------------          -------------------          -------------
                                                                                                                                 1    -10.00   0.0000D+00 X -2.3985D+00 Y 4.4916D+00 Z     0.0000D+00 X 4.4916D+00 Y -2.3985D+00 Z
                                                                                                                 ELEMENT    42 TUBE    NODE NUMBERS    130     170    LENGTH      6.82D+00   ELEM. MASS /LENGTH   3.45D-02   PROPN FLOOD    0.00
                                                                                                                 -------       ----    GEOMETRIC PROPERTY        3    DIAMETER    1.50D-01   EXTRA MASS /LENGTH   0.00D+00   FLUID DENS 0.00D+00
                                                                                                                               INC     PHASE              LOCAL SYSTEM    ---   TOTAL ELEMENT LOADS   ---    JACKET SYSTEM
                                                                                                                               ---     -----              ------------          -------------------          -------------
                                                                                                                                 1    -10.00   -2.3172D+00 X -2.0733D+00 Y 7.2644D+00 Z    -4.1768D-01 X 7.2618D+00 Y -3.0872D+00 Z
                                                                                                                 ELEMENT     5 TUBE   NODE NUMBERS    140      150    LENGTH      6.98D-01   ELEM. MASS /LENGTH   7.08D-02   PROPN FLOOD    1.00
                                                                                                                 -------       ----   GEOMETRIC PROPERTY         1    DIAMETER    2.19D-01   EXTRA MASS /LENGTH   0.00D+00   FLUID DENS 1.02D+00
                                                                                                                               INC     PHASE              LOCAL SYSTEM    ---   TOTAL ELEMENT LOADS   ---    JACKET SYSTEM
                                                                                                                               ---     -----              ------------          -------------------          -------------
                                                                                                                                 1    -10.00   -2.3038D-01 X -3.6045D-01 Y 9.1172D-01 Z    -4.8033D-02 X 9.1062D-01 Y -4.2743D-01 Z
Page 6 - 10




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Examples
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 WAVE User Manual
                                                                                                                   *****************        HEIGHT        13.00
     Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
                                                                                                                   * WAVE CASE   2 *        PERIOD        11.50
                                                                                                                   *****************        DIRECTION     90.00
                                                                                                                                                                      TOTAL LOADS JACKET SYSTEM
                                                                                                                                                                      ----- ----- ------ ------
                                                                                                                                  INC       PHASE           X             Y           Z            RX                RY            RZ
                                                                                                                                  ---       -----          ---           ---         ---           --                --            --
                                                                                                                                    1      -10.00     -3.7023D+00    1.9973D+02 -3.7717D+01   2.2326D+03        1.3550D+03    5.1532D+03
                                                                                                                                                                TOTAL LOADS SEABED SYSTEM
                                                                                                                                                                ----- ----- ------ ------
                                                                                                                                  INC    PHASE         X            Y            Z            RX                     RY            RZ
                                                                                                                                  ---    -----        ---          ---          ---           --                     --            --
                                                                                                                                    1   -10.00   -3.7023D+00   1.9973D+02 -3.7717D+01 -4.5417D+03               4.5783D+02    1.0671D+03
                                                                                                             1WAVE      13.01.00.0 (QA) 16:08 02-05-2001   ‘MANUAL EXAMPLE OF SIMPLE ANALYSIS’                                                      PAGE   42


                                                                                                                   *****************        HEIGHT        13.00
                                                                                                                   * WAVE CASE   3 *        PERIOD        11.50
                                                                                                                   *****************        DIRECTION    135.00
                                                                                                                   ELEMENT     11 TUBE      NODE NUMBERS    200      210      LENGTH       5.69D+00   ELEM. MASS /LENGTH     7.08D-02   PROPN FLOOD    1.00
                                                                                                                   -------        ----      GEOMETRIC PROPERTY         1      DIAMETER     2.19D-01   EXTRA MASS /LENGTH     0.00D+00   FLUID DENS 1.02D+00
                                                                                                                             DISTANCE     DRAG        MASS                 CURRENT       WAVE VELOCITY       WAVE ACCELERATION      LOADS   ( LOCAL SYSTEM )
                                                                                                             INC     PHASE   FROM END    Y    Z      Y    Z     DIAMETER   VELOCITY       H         V           H         V           X         Y         Z
                                                                                                             ---     -----   --------   ---------   ---------   --------   --------   ------------------    ------------------    ----------------------------
                                                                                                               1     -10.0       0.00   1.00 1.00   2.00 2.00   2.39D-01   1.46D+00   2.68D+00 5.97D-02     5.61D-02 -7.49D-01   -5.88D-01 -1.04D+00 1.90D+00
                                                                                                                                 1.04   1.00 1.00   2.00 2.00   2.39D-01   1.47D+00   2.74D+00 7.20D-02     6.54D-02 -7.94D-01   -5.88D-01 -1.06D+00 1.96D+00
                                                                                                                                 1.04   1.60 1.60   2.00 2.00   2.39D-01   1.47D+00   2.74D+00 7.20D-02     6.54D-02 -7.94D-01   -5.88D-01 -1.56D+00 3.12D+00
                                                                                                                                 5.69   1.60 1.60   2.00 2.00   2.39D-01   1.52D+00   3.03D+00 1.42D-01     1.15D-01 -1.00D+00   -5.88D-01 -1.76D+00 3.64D+00
                                                                                                               2     -5.0        0.00   1.00 1.00   2.00 2.00   2.39D-01   1.46D+00   2.68D+00 -8.37D-02   -7.86D-02 -7.48D-01   -5.88D-01 -1.06D+00 1.90D+00
                                                                                                                                 1.04   1.00 1.00   2.00 2.00   2.39D-01   1.47D+00   2.74D+00 -8.08D-02   -7.33D-02 -7.93D-01   -5.88D-01 -1.09D+00 1.96D+00
                                                                                                                                 1.04   1.60 1.60   2.00 2.00   2.39D-01   1.47D+00   2.74D+00 -8.08D-02   -7.33D-02 -7.93D-01   -5.88D-01 -1.60D+00 3.13D+00
                                                                                                                                 5.69   1.60 1.60   2.00 2.00   2.39D-01   1.52D+00   3.04D+00 -5.58D-02   -4.52D-02 -1.01D+00   -5.88D-01 -1.83D+00 3.66D+00
                                                                                                               3      0.0        0.00   1.00 1.00   2.00 2.00   2.39D-01   1.46D+00   2.66D+00 -2.26D-01   -2.13D-01 -7.37D-01   -5.88D-01 -1.07D+00 1.87D+00
                                                                                                                                 1.04   1.00 1.00   2.00 2.00   2.39D-01   1.47D+00   2.71D+00 -2.33D-01   -2.11D-01 -7.82D-01   -5.88D-01 -1.10D+00 1.93D+00
                                                                                                                                 1.04   1.60 1.60   2.00 2.00   2.39D-01   1.47D+00   2.71D+00 -2.33D-01   -2.11D-01 -7.82D-01   -5.88D-01 -1.62D+00 3.09D+00
                                                                                                                                 5.69   1.60 1.60   2.00 2.00   2.39D-01   1.52D+00   3.02D+00 -2.53D-01   -2.05D-01 -9.95D-01   -5.88D-01 -1.87D+00 3.63D+00
                                                                                                                                  INC       PHASE               LOCAL SYSTEM     ---  TOTAL ELEMENT LOADS   ---    JACKET SYSTEM
                                                                                                                                  ---       -----               ------------          -------------------          -------------
                                                                                                                                    1      -10.00    -3.3454D+00 X -8.8013D+00 Y 1.7733D+01 Z    -1.2950D+01 X 1.4091D+01 Y -6.0711D+00 Z
                                                                                                                                    2       -5.00    -3.3454D+00 X -9.0752D+00 Y 1.7775D+01 Z    -1.3207D+01 X 1.4040D+01 Y -6.1618D+00 Z
                                                                                                                                    3        0.00    -3.3454D+00 X -9.2548D+00 Y 1.7604D+01 Z    -1.3305D+01 X 1.3820D+01 Y -6.2213D+00 Z
Page 6 - 11




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Examples
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               WAVE User Manual
                                                                                                                     ELEMENT    40 BM3D    NODE NUMBERS    210       215    LENGTH        4.86D-01    ELEM. MASS /LENGTH   0.00D+00   PROPN FLOOD    0.00
     Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
                                                                                                                     -------       ----    GEOMETRIC PROPERTY          2                              EXTRA MASS /LENGTH   0.00D+00   FLUID DENS 0.00D+00
                                                                                                                             DISTANCE   DRAG      MASS                   CURRENT        WAVE VELOCITY       WAVE ACCELERATION     LOADS   ( LOCAL SYSTEM )
                                                                                                              INC    PHASE   FROM END Y     Z    Y    Z         DIAMETER VELOCITY        H         V           H         V          X         Y         Z
                                                                                                              ---    -----   -------- --------- ---------       -------- --------    ------------------    ------------------   ----------------------------
                                                                                                                1    -10.0       0.00 1.60 1.60 2.00 2.00                1.52D+00    3.03D+00 1.42D-01     1.15D-01 -1.00D+00   0.00D+00 0.00D+00 1.49D-01
                                                                                                                                 0.49 1.60 1.60 2.00 2.00                1.52D+00    3.03D+00 1.68D-01     1.36D-01 -1.00D+00   0.00D+00 0.00D+00 1.50D-01
                                                                                                                2     -5.0       0.00 1.60 1.60 2.00 2.00                1.52D+00    3.04D+00 -5.58D-02   -4.52D-02 -1.01D+00   0.00D+00 0.00D+00 1.44D-01
                                                                                                                                 0.49 1.60 1.60 2.00 2.00                1.52D+00    3.04D+00 -2.95D-02   -2.39D-02 -1.01D+00   0.00D+00 0.00D+00 1.45D-01
                                                                                                                3      0.0       0.00 1.60 1.60 2.00 2.00                1.52D+00    3.02D+00 -2.53D-01   -2.05D-01 -9.95D-01   0.00D+00 0.00D+00 1.38D-01
                                                                                                                                 0.49 1.60 1.60 2.00 2.00                1.52D+00    3.02D+00 -2.27D-01   -1.84D-01 -9.97D-01   0.00D+00 0.00D+00 1.38D-01
                                                                                                             1WAVE       13.01.00.0 (QA) 16:08 02-05-2001       ‘MANUAL EXAMPLE OF   SIMPLE ANALYSIS’                                              PAGE   51



                                                                                                                                   INC     PHASE             LOCAL SYSTEM    ---  TOTAL ELEMENT LOADS   ---    JACKET SYSTEM
                                                                                                                                   ---     -----             ------------         -------------------          -------------
                                                                                                                                     1    -10.00   0.0000D+00 X 0.0000D+00 Y 7.2689D-02 Z    -3.7034D-04 X 6.2065D-02 Y 3.7834D-02 Z
                                                                                                                                     2     -5.00   0.0000D+00 X 0.0000D+00 Y 7.0179D-02 Z    -3.5756D-04 X 5.9922D-02 Y 3.6528D-02 Z
                                                                                                                                     3      0.00   0.0000D+00 X 0.0000D+00 Y 6.7067D-02 Z    -3.4170D-04 X 5.7265D-02 Y 3.4908D-02 Z
                                                                                                             1WAVE       13.01.00.0 (QA) 16:08 02-05-2001       ‘MANUAL EXAMPLE OF SIMPLE ANALYSIS’                                               PAGE   52



                                                                                                                    *****************      HEIGHT       13.00
                                                                                                                    * WAVE CASE   3 *      PERIOD       11.50
                                                                                                                    *****************      DIRECTION   135.00
                                                                                                                                                                     TOTAL LOADS JACKET SYSTEM
                                                                                                                                                                     ----- ----- ------ ------
                                                                                                                                  INC      PHASE         X               Y           Z            RX               RY           RZ
                                                                                                                                  ---      -----        ---             ---         ---           --               --           --
                                                                                                                                    1     -10.00   -1.1458D+02      1.3384D+02 -6.5571D+01   9.5849D+02       2.9212D+03   4.1238D+03
                                                                                                                                    2      -5.00   -1.1600D+02      1.3222D+02 -6.5898D+01   9.0896D+02       2.9303D+03   4.0748D+03
                                                                                                                                    3       0.00   -1.1463D+02      1.2767D+02 -6.6169D+01   8.4912D+02       2.9316D+03   3.9422D+03

                                                                                                                                                                     TOTAL LOADS SEABED SYSTEM
                                                                                                                                                                     ----- ----- ------ ------
                                                                                                                                  INC      PHASE         X               Y           Z           RX                RY           RZ
                                                                                                                                  ---      -----        ---             ---         ---          --                --           --
                                                                                                                                    1     -10.00   -1.1458D+02      1.3384D+02 -6.5571D+01 -3.1522D+03       -2.5238D+03   1.9299D+02
                                                                                                                                    2      -5.00   -1.1600D+02      1.3222D+02 -6.5898D+01 -3.1402D+03       -2.5722D+03   1.6172D+02
                                                                                                                                    3       0.00   -1.1463D+02      1.2767D+02 -6.6169D+01 -3.0337D+03       -2.5271D+03   1.3590D+02
Page 6 - 12




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Examples
                                                                                                                                                        Figure 6.3 Example 1, Selected Static Wave Analysis Results
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                                                                                                        Page 6 - 13
     WAVE User Manual                                                                                      Examples


6.2. Example 2, Dynamic Spectral Fatigue Analysis

This demonstrates the use of WAVE and MASS for a dynamic spectral fatigue analysis and includes all data
files pertinent to the problem. For additional information regarding the dynamic and fatigue data, reference
should be made to the RESPONSE and FATJACK User Manuals respectively.

Notes

1.      The global and water axes systems are coincident; hence a MOVE command is not provided.

2.      Additional mass of 10,000 Kgs is applied to elements 3 and 4 to model non-structural appurtenances.

3.      Three wave conditions are considered. Each wave is investigated at six wave crest positions (as defined
        on the MAXM command) in order to generate the harmonic loading. For realistic analyses many more
        wave conditions and directions will need to be considered but the data provided here is sufficient to
        demonstrate the principles.

4.      The leg members are all free flooded.

5.      The MASS data file is identical to the WAVE file except for changes to the preliminary data. Information
        not utilised in MASS will be ignored. Should additional modelling be required for the MASS run this
        may be incorporated by modifying the WAVE LOAD data appropriately. The structural information may
        also be changed provided that elements are not removed, added, or their order varied. It is the MASS
        structural data that is ultimately used in the dynamic response analysis. The analysis is shown
        schematically in Figure 6.4.




                       Figure 6.4 Example 2, Model for Dynamic Spectral Fatigue Analysis




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           Structural and                                                                               Structural and
                                                                    T40810                              Additional Mass
           Environmental                                                                                Data
           Data
                                                             PROJECT FILE

                 WAVE                                                                                       MASS


                                                                                                           T40MMA
               T40W W A
                                                                                                        Structural and
           Structural and                                                                               Mass Data
           Environmental
           Loading

                                                                                                            ASAS

                                         T40W35




                                                                                                            T40M35




                                                                    RESPONSE




                                                                       T40R35




                       Fatigue
                       Related                                      FATJACK2
                       Data




                      Figure 6.5 Example 2, File Utilisation for Dynamic Harmonic Analyses




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     WAVE User Manual                                                                                      Examples


            SYSTEM DATA AREA 100000
            PROJECT T408
            JOB NEW FREQ
            FILES   T40W
            TITLE DYNAMIC SPECTRAL ANALYSIS WITH UNITS (N MM)     T0502WAV.DAT 19/01/90
            TEXT **************************************************************************
            TEXT ASAS-OFFSHORE SYSTEM TEST FOR DYNAMIC SPECTRAL ANALYSIS+UNITS T0502WAV.DAT
            TEXT CREATED 19/01/90
            TEXT ASSOCIATED FILES
            TEXT T0502FAT.COM COMMAND FILE FOR RUNNING ANALYSIS
            TEXT T0502WAV.DAT WAVE RUN
            TEXT T0502MAS.DAT MASS RUN
            TEXT T0502RES.DAT RESPONSE STEADY STATE ANALYSIS
            TEXT T0502FAT.DAT SPECTRAL FATIGUE RUN
            TEXT **************************************************************************
            FREQUENCY JACO
            OPTIONS GOON
            UNITS MM NEWTONS
            SAVE DYPO FILES
            END
                      COOR
                      CART
            UNITS M KN
                      1              0.0       0.0        0.0
                      3              0.0      10.0       80.0
                      5              0.0      20.0      160.0
                      7              0.0      30.0      240.0
                      2              0.0     170.0        0.0
                      4              0.0     160.0       80.0
                      6              0.0     150.0      160.0
                      8              0.0     140.0      240.0
                     11              0.0      85.0       40.0
                     12              0.0      85.0      120.0
                     13              0.0      85.0      200.0
            END
                      ELEM
            TUBE 1 3     1
            TUBE 3 5     1
            TUBE 5 7     3
            TUBE 2 4     1
            TUBE 4 6     1
            TUBE 6 8     3
            TUBE 1 11    2
            TUBE 11 4    2
            TUBE 3 11    2
            TUBE 11 2    2
            TUBE 3 4     2
            TUBE 3 12    2
            TUBE 12 6    2
            TUBE 5 12    2
            TUBE 12 4    2
            TUBE 5 6     2
            TUBE 5 13    4
            TUBE 13 8    4
            TUBE 6 13    4
            TUBE 13 7    4
            TUBE 7 8     2
            END


                     Figure 6.6 Example 2, Wave Data for Dynamic Spectral Fatigue Analysis




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                      MATE
            UNITS M KN
                     1       ISO 0.205E09    0.3     0.0      0.7846E+1
            END
                      GEOM
            UNITS M KN
                     1      TUBE     1.00     0.1
                     3      TUBE     1.00     0.1   0 0 0   7.5
            :               STEP     0.80     0.06
                     2      TUBE     0.350    0.045
                     4      TUBE     0.30     0.025
            END
                      SUPP
            ALL 1
            ALL 2
            END
                      LOAD    1
            CASE   1 WAVE LOAD TEST
                      WAVE LOAD
            UNITS M KN
                  GRAV          0.0      0.0         -9.81
                  OUTP    1
                  ELEV             200.0     0.0       1.025
                  WAVE    STOKE5   13.67      10.0     270.0
                  NOLO    ELEM   1
                  AMAS    10.0   ELEM 3 4
                  MAXM    6
                  SLWT    ALL
                  FREE    ELEM 1 2 3 4 5 6
                  GROW 0.1 1.3 18.0 10.0 ALL
                  EXEC
                  WAVE    STOKE5 3.33         8.0    270.0
                  MAXM    6
                  NOLO    ELEM 1
                  EXEC
                  WAVE    STOKE5 1.67         6.0    270.0
                  MAXM    6
                  NOLO    ELEM 1
                  EXEC
            END
                      STOP



            Figure 6.6 Example 2, Wave Data for Dynamic Spectral Fatigue Analysis (continued)




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            SYSTEM DATA AREA 100000
            PROJECT T408
            JOB OLD FREQ
            FILES   T40M
            TITLE DYNAMIC SPECTRAL ANALYSIS WITH UNITS (N MM)     T0502MAS.DAT 19/01/90
            TEXT **************************************************************************
            TEXT ASAS-OFFSHORE SYSTEM TEST FOR DYNAMIC SPECTRAL ANALYSIS+UNITS T0502MAS.DAT
            TEXT CREATED 19/01/90
            TEXT ASSOCIATED FILES
            TEXT T0502FAT.COM COMMAND FILE FOR RUNNING ANALYSIS
            TEXT T0502WAV.DAT WAVE RUN
            TEXT T0502MAS.DAT MASS RUN
            TEXT T0502RES.DAT RESPONSE STEADY STATE ANALYSIS
            TEXT T0502FAT.DAT SPECTRAL FATIGUE RUN
            TEXT **************************************************************************
            FREQUENCY JACO
            OPTIONS GOON
            UNITS MM NEWTONS
            SAVE DYPO FILES
            END
            .
            .



Remaining data as given for WAVE

                     Figure 6.7 Example 2, Mass Data for Dynamic Spectral Fatigue Analysis




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     WAVE User Manual                                                                                      Examples


       SYSTEM DATA AREA 100000
       PROJECT T408
       JOB OLD FREQ
       FILES   T40M
       TITLE DYNAMIC SPECTRAL ANALYSIS WITH UNITS (N MM)     T0502MAS.DAT 19/01/90
       TEXT **************************************************************************
       TEXT ASAS-OFFSHORE SYSTEM TEST FOR DYNAMIC SPECTRAL ANALYSIS+UNITS T0502MAS.DAT
       TEXT CREATED 19/01/90
       TEXT ASSOCIATED FILES
       TEXT T0502FAT.COM COMMAND FILE FOR RUNNING ANALYSIS
       TEXT T0502WAV.DAT WAVE RUN
       TEXT T0502MAS.DAT MASS RUN
       TEXT T0502RES.DAT RESPONSE STEADY STATE ANALYSIS
       TEXT T0502FAT.DAT SPECTRAL FATIGUE RUN
       TEXT **************************************************************************
       FREQUENCY JACO
       OPTIONS GOON
       UNITS MM NEWTONS
       SAVE DYPO FILES
       END
                 COOR
                 CART
       UNITS M KN
                 1              0.0       0.0        0.0
                 3              0.0      10.0       80.0
                 5              0.0      20.0      160.0
                 7              0.0      30.0      240.0
                 2              0.0     170.0        0.0
                 4              0.0     160.0       80.0
                 6              0.0     150.0      160.0
                 8              0.0     140.0      240.0
                11              0.0      85.0       40.0
                12              0.0      85.0      120.0
                13              0.0      85.0      200.0
       END
                 ELEM
       TUBE 1 3     1
       TUBE 3 5     1
       TUBE 5 7     3
       TUBE 2 4     1
       TUBE 4 6     1
       TUBE 6 8     3
       TUBE 1 11    2
       TUBE 11 4    2
       TUBE 3 11    2
       TUBE 11 2    2
       TUBE 3 4     2
       TUBE 3 12    2
       TUBE 12 6    2
       TUBE 5 12    2
       TUBE 12 4    2
       TUBE 5 6     2
       TUBE 5 13    4
       TUBE 13 8    4
       TUBE 6 13    4
       TUBE 13 7    4
       TUBE 7 8     2
       END


             Figure 6.8 Example 2, Resultant ASAS Data for Dynamic Spectral Fatigue Analysis




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                      MATE
            UNITS M KN
                     1       ISO 0.205E09                      0.3         0.0           0.7846E+1
            END
                      GEOM
            UNITS M KN
                     1      TUBE     1.00                        0.1
                     3      TUBE     1.00                        0.1   0 0 0          7.5
            :               STEP     0.80                        0.06
                     2      TUBE     0.350                       0.045
                     4      TUBE     0.30                        0.025
            END
                      SUPP
            ALL 1
            ALL 2
            END
                      DIRE
                      LUMP    ADDED MA
            UNITS NEWTON       MILLIMETRE
                   3.557D 02   X     3
                   3.408D 02   Y     3
                   2.897D 02   Z     3
                   3.607D 02   X     4
                   3.458D 02   Y     4
                   2.947D 02   Z     4
                   2.961D 02   X     5
                   2.842D 02   Y     5
                   2.436D 02   Z     5
                   2.817D 02   X     6
                   2.698D 02   Y     6
                   2.292D 02   Z     6
                   8.088D 01   X     7
                   8.082D 01   Y     7
                   7.703D 01   Z     7
                   7.529D 01   X     8
                   7.523D 01   Y     8
                   7.144D 01   Z     8
                   8.170D 01   X    11
                   6.632D 01   Y    11
                   7.788D 01   Z    11
                   7.049D 01   X    12
                   5.850D 01   Y    12
                   6.656D 01   Z    12
                   2.999D 01   X    13
                   2.598D 01   Y    13
             END   2.847D 01   Z    13
                      STOP




     Figure 6.8 Example 2, Resultant ASAS Data for Dynamic Spectral Fatigue Analysis (continued)




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            SYSTEM DATA AREA 100000
            PROJECT T408
            JOB RESP
            FILES   T40R
            STRUCTURE T40M
            NEWSTRUCTURE T40R
            TITLE DYNAMIC SPECTRAL ANALYSIS WITH UNITS (N MM)     T0502RES.DAT 19/01/90
            TEXT **************************************************************************
            TEXT ASAS-OFFSHORE SYSTEM TEST FOR DYNAMIC SPECTRAL ANALYSIS+UNITS T0502RES.DAT
            TEXT CREATED 19/01/90
            TEXT ASSOCIATED FILES
            TEXT T0502FAT.COM COMMAND FILE FOR RUNNING ANALYSIS
            TEXT T0502WAV.DAT WAVE RUN
            TEXT T0502MAS.DAT MASS RUN
            TEXT T0502RES.DAT RESPONSE STEADY STATE ANALYSIS
            TEXT T0502FAT.DAT SPECTRAL FATIGUE RUN
            TEXT **************************************************************************
            OPTIONS NOBL GOON
            SAVE FATJ FILES
            END
            LOADFILE T40W
            DAMP
            1 1 1 36 5.0
            END
            SELE
            1 2 3
            END
            STOP


                  Figure 6.9 Example 2, Response Data for Dynamic Spectral Fatigue Analysis




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            SYSTEM DATA AREA 30000
            PROJECT T408
            JOB POST
            FILES   T40F
            STRUCTURE T40R
            TITLE DYNAMIC SPECTRAL ANALYSIS WITH UNITS (N MM)     T0502FAT.DAT 19/01/90
            TEXT **************************************************************************
            TEXT ASAS-OFFSHORE SYSTEM TEST FOR DYNAMIC SPECTRAL ANALYSIS+UNITS T0502FAT.DAT
            TEXT CREATED 19/01/90
            TEXT ASSOCIATED FILES
            TEXT T0502FAT.COM COMMAND FILE FOR RUNNING ANALYSIS
            TEXT T0502WAV.DAT WAVE RUN
            TEXT T0502MAS.DAT MASS RUN
            TEXT T0502RES.DAT RESPONSE STEADY STATE ANALYSIS
            TEXT T0502FAT.DAT SPECTRAL FATIGUE RUN
            TEXT **************************************************************************
            OPTIONS NOBL GOON END
            SAVE FATJ FILES
            END
            ANALYSIS SPECTRAL
            SCF TUBE DEFA 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
            SCF AUTO JOIN W 541871169
            SCF AUTO JOIN W 541871169
            LIMI W GAP 100.0 2000.0
            WAVE 1 13670.0 10.0 270.0
            WAVE 2 3330.0 8.0 270.0
            WAVE 3 1670.0 6.0 270.0
            *THE FOLLOWING JOINTS ARE CONNECTED TO AN ELEMENT
            JOIN 1 3 11 2 4 5 12 6 7 8
            S-N A001 ELEM 1
            S-N A001 ELEM 7
            S-N A001 ELEM 10
            S-N A001 ELEM 4
            S-N A001 ELEM 2
            S-N A001 ELEM 11
            S-N A001 ELEM 9
            S-N A001 ELEM 12
            S-N A001 ELEM 8
            S-N A001 ELEM 5
            S-N A001 ELEM 15
            S-N A001 ELEM 3
            S-N A001 ELEM 14
            S-N A001 ELEM 6
            S-N A001 ELEM 13
            CURV A001 SING 100.0 2000000.0 4.38
            SPEC 1 PMOS 1000.0 2.5 1.0
            SPEC 1 PMOS 1000.0 3.5 8.0
            SPEC 1 PMOS 1000.0 4.5 7.0
            SPEC 1 PMOS 1000.0 5.5 10.0
            SPEC 1 PMOS 1000.0 6.5 7.0
            SPEC 1 PMOS 1000.0 7.5 4.0
            SPEC 1 PMOS 1000.0 8.5 2.0
            SPEC 1 PMOS 1000.0 9.5 1.0


                  Figure 6.10 Example 2, Fatigue Data for Dynamic Spectral Fatigue Analysis




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            SPEC   1   PMOS   1000.0 10.5 1.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   3000.0 2.5 1.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   3000.0 3.5 37.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   3000.0 4.5 58.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   3000.0 5.5 45.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   3000.0 6.5 21.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   3000.0 7.5 10.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   3000.0 8.5 4.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   3000.0 9.5 2.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   3000.0 10.5 1.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   5000.0 3.5 11.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   5000.0 4.5 75.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   5000.0 5.5 72.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   5000.0 6.5 36.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   5000.0 7.5 10.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   5000.0 8.5 3.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   5000.0 9.5 2.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   7000.0 4.5 41.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   7000.0 5.5 78.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   7000.0 6.5 40.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   7000.0 7.5 11.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   7000.0 8.5 3.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   7000.0 9.5 1.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   9000.0 4.5 7.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   9000.0 5.5 61.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   9000.0 6.5 45.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   9000.0 7.5 12.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   9000.0 8.5 3.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   9000.0 9.5 1.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   11000.0 5.5 33.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   11000.0 6.5 40.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   11000.0 7.5 12.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   11000.0 8.5 3.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   11000.0 9.5 1.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   13000.0 5.5 10.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   13000.0 6.5 37.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   13000.0 7.5 15.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   13000.0 8.5 3.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   15000.0 5.5 1.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   15000.0 6.5 25.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   15000.0 7.5 14.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   15000.0 8.5 3.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   17000.0 6.5 10.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   17000.0 7.5 13.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   17000.0 8.5 4.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   17000.0 9.5 1.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   19000.0 6.5 2.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   19000.0 7.5 10.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   19000.0 8.5 4.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   21000.0 6.5 1.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   21000.0 7.5 6.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   21000.0 8.5 3.0
            SPEC   1   PMOS   23000.0 7.5 2.0


             Figure 6.10 Example 2, Fatigue Data for Dynamic Spectral Fatigue Analysis (continued)




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            SPEC   1 PMOS 23000.0 8.5 2.0
            SPEC   1 PMOS 23000.0 9.5 1.0
            SPEC   1 PMOS 25000.0 7.5 1.0
            SPEC   1 PMOS 25000.0 8.5 2.0
            SPEC   1 PMOS 27000.0 8.5 2.0
            SPEC   1 PMOS 27000.0 9.5 1.0
            SPEC   1 PMOS 29000.0 9.5 1.0
            SPEC   1 PMOS 31000.0 9.5 1.0
            TRAN   1 1 1.0 2 1.0 3 1.0
            YEAR   30.0
            ACCE   9810.0
            PRIN   XCHE DETA USAG SUMM SCFE
            STOP


             Figure 6.10 Example 2, Fatigue Data for Dynamic Spectral Fatigue Analysis (continued)




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       WAVE User Manual
    Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

                                                                                                            1WAVE       13.01.00.0 (QA) 16:21 02-05-2001     DYNAMIC SPECTRAL ANALYSIS WITH UNITS (N MM)   T0502WAV.DAT 19/01/90           PAGE   24
                                                                                                                                                           REPORT UNITS NEWTONS    MILLIMETRES DEGREES

                                                                                                                                                                  CHECKS ON LOAD DATA WAVE CASE   2
                                                                                                                                                                  ---------------------------------
                                                                                                            PROP   ELEM     DRAG   MASS   SLAM     BUOYANCY       EXTRA MASS PER    SELF         BEAM      WAVE BUOY SELF FREE WIND BEAM PRINT
                                                                                                               GROUP        COEF   COEF   COEF   DENSITY FLOOD   LENGTH   ELEMENT DENSITY DIAM-Y DIAM-Z    LOAD LOAD WGHT FLD. LOAD LOAD LEVEL
                                                                                                            -----------     ----   ----   ----   ------- -----   ------   ------- ------- ------ ------    ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- -----
                                                                                                                    1       0.00 X 0.00 X       0.00D+00   0.00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 MATERIAL 0.00D+00 0.00D+00   1   0   1   0       0   0    1
                                                                                                                            0.70 Y 2.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                            0.70 Z 2.00 Z 0.00 Z
                                                                                                                    2       0.00 X 0.00 X       0.00D+00   0.00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 MATERIAL 0.00D+00 0.00D+00   1   0   1   0       0   0    1
                                                                                                                            0.70 Y 2.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                            0.70 Z 2.00 Z 0.00 Z
                                                                                                                    3       0.00 X 0.00 X       0.00D+00   0.00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 MATERIAL 0.00D+00 0.00D+00   1   0   1   0       0   0    1
                                                                                                                            0.70 Y 2.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                            0.70 Z 2.00 Z 0.00 Z
                                                                                                                    4       0.00 X 0.00 X       0.00D+00   0.00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 MATERIAL 0.00D+00 0.00D+00   1   0   1   0       0   0    1
                                                                                                                            0.70 Y 2.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                            0.70 Z 2.00 Z 0.00 Z
                                                                                                                        1   0.00 X 0.00 X       0.00D+00   0.00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00   0   0   0   0       0   0    1
                                                                                                                            0.70 Y 2.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                            0.70 Z 2.00 Z 0.00 Z

                                                                                                                        2   0.00 X 0.00 X       0.00D+00   0.00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 7.85D-09 0.00D+00 0.00D+00   1   0   1   1       0   0    1
                                                                                                                            0.70 Y 2.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                            0.70 Z 2.00 Z 0.00 Z
                                                                                                                        3   0.00 X 0.00 X       0.00D+00   0.00 0.00D+00 1.00D+01 7.85D-09 0.00D+00 0.00D+00   1   0   1   1       0   0    1
                                                                                                                            0.70 Y 2.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                            0.70 Z 2.00 Z 0.00 Z
                                                                                                                        4   0.00 X 0.00 X       0.00D+00   0.00 0.00D+00 1.00D+01 7.85D-09 0.00D+00 0.00D+00   1   0   1   1       0   0    1
                                                                                                                            0.70 Y 2.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                            0.70 Z 2.00 Z 0.00 Z




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Examples
Page 6-26
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       WAVE User Manual
                                                                                                            1WAVE        13.01.00.0 (QA) 16:21 02-05-2001          DYNAMIC SPECTRAL ANALYSIS WITH UNITS (N MM)                 T0502WAV.DAT 19/01/90
    Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
                                                                                                            PAGE    27
                                                                                                                                                           REPORT UNITS NEWTONS          MILLIMETRES DEGREES

                                                                                                                 *****************     HEIGHT    3330.00
                                                                                                                 * WAVE CASE   2 *     PERIOD       8.00
                                                                                                                 *****************     DIRECTION 270.00
                                                                                                                                                                   TOTAL LOADS JACKET SYSTEM
                                                                                                                                                                   ----- ----- ------ ------
                                                                                                                                INC    PHASE           X               Y           Z           RX                    RY            RZ
                                                                                                                                ---    -----          ---             ---         ---          --                    --            --
                                                                                                                                  1     0.00      4.8250D-10      2.3955D+04 -1.3060D+07 -1.2889D+12            5.7653D-05   -4.1026D-05
                                                                                                                                  2    60.00     -1.8588D-09      2.7405D+03 -1.3059D+07 -1.2855D+12           -2.9917D-04    2.4342D-04
                                                                                                                                  3   120.00     -1.5877D-09     -2.3044D+04 -1.3065D+07 -1.2817D+12           -1.9029D-04    5.9363D-05
                                                                                                                                  4   180.00      2.4986D-09     -2.7122D+04 -1.3071D+07 -1.2815D+12            4.1932D-04   -1.8595D-05
                                                                                                                                  5   240.00      1.7869D-09     -5.0512D+03 -1.3073D+07 -1.2851D+12            2.8767D-04   -2.4198D-04
                                                                                                                                  6   300.00      1.5877D-09      2.3457D+04 -1.3067D+07 -1.2893D+12            1.9029D-04   -5.9363D-05
                                                                                                                                                                   TOTAL LOADS SEABED SYSTEM
                                                                                                                                                                   ----- ----- ------ ------
                                                                                                                                INC    PHASE           X               Y           Z           RX                    RY            RZ
                                                                                                                                ---    -----          ---             ---         ---          --                    --            --
                                                                                                                                  1     0.00      4.8250D-10      2.3955D+04 -1.3060D+07 -1.2889D+12            5.7653D-05   -4.1026D-05
                                                                                                                                  2    60.00     -1.8588D-09      2.7405D+03 -1.3059D+07 -1.2855D+12           -2.9917D-04    2.4342D-04
                                                                                                                                  3   120.00     -1.5877D-09     -2.3044D+04 -1.3065D+07 -1.2817D+12           -1.9029D-04    5.9363D-05
                                                                                                                                  4   180.00      2.4986D-09     -2.7122D+04 -1.3071D+07 -1.2815D+12            4.1932D-04   -1.8595D-05
                                                                                                                                  5   240.00      1.7869D-09     -5.0512D+03 -1.3073D+07 -1.2851D+12            2.8767D-04   -2.4198D-04
                                                                                                                                  6   300.00      1.5877D-09      2.3457D+04 -1.3067D+07 -1.2893D+12            1.9029D-04   -5.9363D-05
                                                                                                             RESTART STAGE   1 COMPLETED
                                                                                                             FREESTORE USED     100000
                                                                                                             CPU =       0.469 FOR STAGE   1


                                                                                                                                      Figure 6.11 Example 2, Selected Wave Results for Dynamic Spectral Fatigue Analysis




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Examples
Page 6-27
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             WAVE User Manual
                                                                                                            1MASS       13.01.00.0 (QA) 16:24 02-05-2001      DYNAMIC SPECTRAL ANALYSIS WITH UNITS (N MM)        T0502MAS.DAT 19/01/90           PAGE   19
    Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

                                                                                                                                                      MASS UNIT KILOGRAM   (X1000.000)     LENGTH UNITS MILLIMETRES

                                                                                                                                                                   CHECKS ON LOAD DATA MASS CASE   1
                                                                                                                                                                   ---------------------------------
                                                                                                                *****************
                                                                                                                * MASS CASE   1 *
                                                                                                                *****************

                                                                                                                GRAVITY AND AXES DATA
                                                                                                                ------- --- ---- ----
                                                                                                                ACCEL. X     0.00D+00              STILL WATER LEVEL   2.00D+05          ORIGIN OF WATER AXES
                                                                                                                                                                                         --------------------
                                                                                                                ACCEL.      Y   0.00D+00           SEA-BED             0.00D+00          GLOBAL X    0.00D+00
                                                                                                                ACCEL.      Z   -9.81D+03          WATER DEPTH         2.00D+05          GLOBAL   Y   0.00D+00
                                                                                                                RESULTANT       9.81D+03           WATER DENSITY       1.02D-09          GLOBAL   Z   0.00D+00
                                                                                                                        THE FOLLOWING LINES ARE NOT APPLICABLE TO ASASMASS AND HAVE BEEN IGNORED -
                                                                                                                                                                WAVE
                                                                                                                                                                NOLO
                                                                                                            1MASS       13.01.00.0 (QA) 16:24 02-05-2001   DYNAMIC SPECTRAL ANALYSIS WITH UNITS (N MM)           T0502MAS.DAT 19/01/90           PAGE   20
                                                                                                                                                      MASS UNIT KILOGRAM   (X1000.000)     LENGTH UNITS MILLIMETRES

                                                                                                                                                                    CHECKS ON LOAD DATA MASS CASE   1
                                                                                                                                                                    ---------------------------------
                                                                                                            PROP   ELEM     DRAG   MASS     SLAM     BUOYANCY       EXTRA MASS PER    SELF         BEAM          WAVE BUOY SELF FREE WIND BEAM PRINT
                                                                                                               GROUP        COEF   COEF     COEF   DENSITY FLOOD   LENGTH   ELEMENT DENSITY DIAM-Y DIAM-Z        LOAD LOAD WGHT FLD. LOAD LOAD LEVEL
                                                                                                            -----------     ----   ----     ----   ------- -----   ------   ------- ------- ------ ------        ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- -----
                                                                                                                    1       0.00 X 0.00 X       0.00D+00     0.00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 MATERIAL 0.00D+00 0.00D+00    0    0    1    0       0   0    1
                                                                                                                            0.70 Y 2.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                            0.70 Z 2.00 Z 0.00 Z
                                                                                                                    2       0.00 X 0.00 X       0.00D+00     0.00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 MATERIAL 0.00D+00 0.00D+00    0    0    1    0       0   0    1
                                                                                                                            0.70 Y 2.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                            0.70 Z 2.00 Z 0.00 Z
                                                                                                                    3       0.00 X 0.00 X       0.00D+00     0.00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 MATERIAL 0.00D+00 0.00D+00    0    0    1    0       0   0    1
                                                                                                                            0.70 Y 2.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                            0.70 Z 2.00 Z 0.00 Z
                                                                                                                    4       0.00 X 0.00 X       0.00D+00     0.00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 MATERIAL 0.00D+00 0.00D+00    0    0    1    0       0   0    1




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Examples
Page 6-28




                                                                                                                            0.70 Y 2.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                            0.70 Z 2.00 Z 0.00 Z
                                                                                                                        1   0.00 X 0.00 X       0.00D+00     0.00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 7.85D-09 0.00D+00 0.00D+00     0    0   1    1       0   0    1
                                                                                                                            0.70 Y 2.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                            0.70 Z 2.00 Z 0.00 Z
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          WAVE User Manual
    Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
                                                                                                                       2   0.00 X 0.00 X       0.00D+00   0.00 0.00D+00 0.00D+00 7.85D-09 0.00D+00 0.00D+00      0    0    1   1      0   0    1
                                                                                                                           0.70 Y 2.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                           0.70 Z 2.00 Z 0.00 Z
                                                                                                                       3   0.00 X 0.00 X       0.00D+00   0.00 0.00D+00 1.00D+01 7.85D-09 0.00D+00 0.00D+00      0    0    1   1      0   0    1
                                                                                                                           0.70 Y 2.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                           0.70 Z 2.00 Z 0.00 Z
                                                                                                                       4   0.00 X 0.00 X       0.00D+00   0.00 0.00D+00 1.00D+01 7.85D-09 0.00D+00 0.00D+00      0    0    1   1      0   0    1
                                                                                                                           0.70 Y 2.00 Y 0.00 Y
                                                                                                                           0.70 Z 2.00 Z 0.00 Z

                                                                                                            1MASS      13.01.00.0 (QA) 16:24 02-05-2001    DYNAMIC SPECTRAL ANALYSIS WITH UNITS (N MM)        T0502MAS.DAT 19/01/90           PAGE   22
                                                                                                                                                   MASS UNIT KILOGRAM    (X1000.000)       LENGTH UNITS MILLIMETRES

                                                                                                                                                                 CHECKS ON LOAD DATA MASS CASE   1
                                                                                                                                                                 ---------------------------------
                                                                                                                                                               MARINE GROWTH
                                                                                                                                                               -------------
                                                                                                                                                 THICKNESS      DENSITY     UPPER LEVEL   LOWER LEVEL        DRAG COEF     MASS COEF
                                                                                                                                                 ---------      -------     -----------   -----------        ---------     ---------
                                                                                                             DEFAULT                              100.000      1.300D-09     1.800D+04     1.000D+04            0.70          2.00
                                                                                                            1MASS      13.01.00.0 (QA) 16:24 02-05-2001   DYNAMIC SPECTRAL ANALYSIS WITH UNITS (N MM)         T0502MAS.DAT 19/01/90           PAGE   23
                                                                                                                                                   MASS UNIT KILOGRAM    (X1000.000)       LENGTH UNITS MILLIMETRES

                                                                                                                            TOTAL JACKET MASS (TUBE ELEMENTS)
                                                                                                                            ---------------------------------
                                                                                                                        ELEMENT     GROWTH      FLOOD       EXTRA       HYDRODYNAMIC
                                                                                                                        -------     ------      -----       -----       ------------
                                                                                                                       1.320D+03   1.415D+01   1.983D+02   2.000D+01   4.224D+02 X   3.254D+02 Y   9.707D+01 Z
                                                                                                            1MASS      13.01.00.0 (QA) 16:24 02-05-2001   DYNAMIC SPECTRAL ANALYSIS WITH UNITS (N MM)     T0502MAS.DAT 19/01/90               PAGE   24




                                                                                                            RESTART STAGE   1 COMPLETED
                                                                                                            FREESTORE USED     100000
                                                                                                            CPU =       0.172 FOR STAGE    1



                                                                                                                                          Figure 6.12 Example 2, Selected Mass Results for Dynamic Spectral Fatigue Analysis




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Examples
Page 6-29
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          WAVE User Manual
                                                                                                            1RESPONSE 13.01.00.0 (QA) 16:25 02-05-2001     DYNAMIC SPECTRAL ANALYSIS WITH UNITS (N MM)        T0502RES.DAT 19/01/90            PAGE   5
    Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

                                                                                                                                                         REPORT UNITS NEWTONS       MILLIMETRES RADIANS

                                                                                                                                                           SUMMARY TABLE OF FREQUENCIES
                                                                                                                                                           ----------------------------
                                                                                                                              MODE NUMBER     EIGENVALUE    ANGULAR FREQ.         PERIOD        FREQUENCY       GEN. MASS       NORM. FACTOR
                                                                                                                              -----------     ----------    -------------         ------        ---------       ---------       ------------
                                                                                                                                   1          3.8207E-03      6.1812E-02        1.0165E+02    9.8376E-03       6.4988E+02        3.9227E-02
                                                                                                                                   2          1.0721E-02      1.0354E-01        6.0681E+01    1.6480E-02       6.4800E+02        3.9284E-02
                                                                                                                                   3          4.7360E-02      2.1762E-01        2.8872E+01    3.4636E-02       1.5301E+02        8.0843E-02
                                                                                                                                   4          6.2295E-02      2.4959E-01        2.5174E+01    3.9724E-02       1.8318E+02        7.3885E-02
                                                                                                                                   5          9.0945E-02      3.0157E-01        2.0835E+01    4.7996E-02       9.0221E+01        1.0528E-01
                                                                                                                                   6          9.7569E-02      3.1236E-01        2.0115E+01    4.9714E-02       5.7807E+02        4.1592E-02
                                                                                                                                   7          1.0246E-01      3.2009E-01        1.9629E+01    5.0944E-02       1.7422E+02        7.5762E-02
                                                                                                                                   8          4.3558E-01      6.5999E-01        9.5202E+00    1.0504E-01       1.5209E+03        2.5642E-02
                                                                                                                                   9          4.4606E-01      6.6788E-01        9.4077E+00    1.0630E-01       1.5641E+03        2.5286E-02
                                                                                                                                  10          5.4912E-01      7.4103E-01        8.4790E+00    1.1794E-01       7.7063E+04        3.6023E-03
                                                                                                                                  11          8.6539E-01      9.3027E-01        6.7542E+00    1.4806E-01       1.1264E+04        9.4223E-03
                                                                                                                                  12          9.5747E-01      9.7850E-01        6.4212E+00    1.5573E-01       1.7914E+05        2.3627E-03
                                                                                                                                  13          9.5956E-01      9.7957E-01        6.4142E+00    1.5590E-01       2.0083E+04        7.0564E-03
                                                                                                                                  14          1.2953E+00      1.1381E+00        5.5208E+00    1.8113E-01       4.9252E+04        4.5060E-03
                                                                                                                                  15          1.3189E+00      1.1484E+00        5.4711E+00    1.8278E-01       7.9515E+05        1.1214E-03
                                                                                                                                  16          1.5595E+00      1.2488E+00        5.0313E+00    1.9876E-01       1.2058E+10        9.1067E-06
                                                                                                                                  17          1.9219E+00      1.3863E+00        4.5322E+00    2.2064E-01       5.8589E+05        1.3064E-03
                                                                                                                                  18          2.1971E+00      1.4823E+00        4.2389E+00    2.3591E-01       5.4776E+05        1.3512E-03
                                                                                                                                  19          2.3563E+00      1.5350E+00        4.0933E+00    2.4430E-01       8.8473E+09        1.0632E-05
                                                                                                                                  20          2.9448E+00      1.7160E+00        3.6615E+00    2.7311E-01       3.1783E+09        1.7738E-05
                                                                                                                                  21          3.2390E+00      1.7997E+00        3.4912E+00    2.8644E-01       6.0993E+04        4.0491E-03
                                                                                                                                  22          3.5554E+00      1.8856E+00        3.3322E+00    3.0010E-01       3.7376E+05        1.6357E-03
                                                                                                                                  23          5.5502E+00      2.3559E+00        2.6670E+00    3.7495E-01       6.8675E+05        1.2067E-03
                                                                                                                                  24          5.8724E+00      2.4233E+00        2.5928E+00    3.8568E-01       9.4129E+05        1.0307E-03
                                                                                                                                  25          8.7289E+00      2.9545E+00        2.1267E+00    4.7022E-01       1.1178E+05        2.9911E-03
                                                                                                                                  26          8.7948E+00      2.9656E+00        2.1187E+00    4.7199E-01       1.1276E+05        2.9780E-03
                                                                                                                                  27          8.8705E+00      2.9783E+00        2.1096E+00    4.7402E-01       9.1103E+07        1.0477E-04
                                                                                                                                  28          9.0123E+00      3.0020E+00        2.0930E+00    4.7779E-01       6.9184E+06        3.8019E-04
                                                                                                                                  29          1.4791E+01      3.8459E+00        1.6337E+00    6.1209E-01       1.4403E+07        2.6350E-04
                                                                                                                                  30          1.4802E+01      3.8474E+00        1.6331E+00    6.1233E-01       5.1409E+04        4.4104E-03
                                                                                                                                  31          1.4926E+01      3.8634E+00        1.6263E+00    6.1488E-01       4.8943E+04        4.5202E-03
                                                                                                                                  32          1.5077E+01      3.8829E+00        1.6182E+00    6.1799E-01       6.0358E+05        1.2872E-03
                                                                                                                                  33          2.2375E+01      4.7303E+00        1.3283E+00    7.5285E-01       3.1704E+04        5.6162E-03
                                                                                                                                  34          2.2471E+01      4.7404E+00        1.3255E+00    7.5446E-01       7.2611E+07        1.1735E-04
                                                                                                                                  35          2.2500E+01      4.7435E+00        1.3246E+00    7.5495E-01       2.9652E+04        5.8072E-03



                                                                                                                                       Figure 6.13 Example 2, Selected Response Results for Dynamic Spectral Fatigue Analysis




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Examples
Page 6-30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              WAVE User Manual
                                                                                                            1FATJACK   13.01.00.0 (QA) 16:25 02-05-2001     DYNAMIC SPECTRAL ANALYSIS WITH UNITS (N MM)   T0502FAT.DAT 19/01/90   PAGE   17
    Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.


                                                                                                                                                          REPORT UNITS NEWTONS    MILLIMETRES DEGREES


                                                                                                                                               FATIGUE LIVES
                                                                                                                                               -------------

                                                                                                            JOINT      1  CHORD      1          DIAMETER   1000.000       THICKNESS    100.000
                                                                                                            ------------
                                                                                                            BRACE JOINT       BRACE                                            USAGE
                                                                                                            NUMBER TYPE DIAMETER THICKNESS    INSET POSITION WELDSIDE     S-N FACTOR     LIFE    REMK
                                                                                                            ------ ---- ------------------ -------- -----------------     ---- ------ ---------- ----
                                                                                                                 7        350.000   45.000          270 CROWN BRACE       A001   0.11 536296

                                                                                                            JOINT      2  CHORD      4          DIAMETER   1000.000       THICKNESS    100.000
                                                                                                            ------------
                                                                                                            BRACE JOINT       BRACE                                            USAGE
                                                                                                            NUMBER TYPE DIAMETER THICKNESS    INSET POSITION WELDSIDE     S-N FACTOR     LIFE    REMK
                                                                                                            ------ ---- ------------------ -------- -----------------     ---- ------ ---------- ----
                                                                                                                10        350.000   45.000          270 CROWN BRACE       A001   0.10 678960

                                                                                                            JOINT      3  CHORD      1      2   DIAMETER   1000.000       THICKNESS    100.000
                                                                                                            ------------
                                                                                                            BRACE JOINT       BRACE                                            USAGE
                                                                                                            NUMBER TYPE DIAMETER THICKNESS    INSET POSITION WELDSIDE     S-N FACTOR     LIFE    REMK
                                                                                                            ------ ---- ------------------ -------- -----------------     ---- ------ ---------- ----
                                                                                                                11        350.000   45.000           90 CROWN BRACE       A001   0.12 298418
                                                                                                                 9        350.000   45.000           90 CROWN BRACE       A001   0.14 159335
                                                                                                                12        350.000   45.000          270 CROWN BRACE       A001   0.24   16996

                                                                                                            JOINT      4  CHORD      4      5   DIAMETER   1000.000   THICKNESS    100.000
                                                                                                            ------------
                                                                                                            BRACE JOINT       BRACE                                        USAGE
                                                                                                            NUMBER TYPE DIAMETER THICKNESS    INSET POSITION WELDSIDE S-N FACTOR     LIFE    REMK
                                                                                                            ------ ---- ------------------ -------- ----------------- ---- ------ ---------- ----
                                                                                                                11        350.000   45.000           90 CROWN BRACE A001     0.12 292877
                                                                                                                 8        350.000   45.000           90 CROWN BRACE A001     0.15 127954
                                                                                                                15        350.000   45.000           90 CROWN BRACE A001     0.27    8723.34
                                                                                                            * WARNING * NO S-N DATA FOR ELEMENT NUMBER      16 - ELEMENT IGNORED

                                                                                                            JOINT      5  CHORD      2      3   DIAMETER   1000.000       THICKNESS    100.000




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Examples
Page 6-31




                                                                                                            ------------
                                                                                                            BRACE JOINT       BRACE                                            USAGE
                                                                                                            NUMBER TYPE DIAMETER THICKNESS    INSET POSITION WELDSIDE     S-N FACTOR     LIFE    REMK
                                                                                                            ------ ---- ------------------ -------- -----------------     ---- ------ ---------- ----
                                                                                                                14        350.000   45.000          270 CROWN BRACE       A001   0.94      39.94
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                WAVE User Manual
                                                                                                            *   WARNING   * NO S-N DATA FOR ELEMENT NUMBER      17 - ELEMENT IGNORED
    Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

                                                                                                            *   WARNING   * NO S-N DATA FOR ELEMENT NUMBER      16 - ELEMENT IGNORED

                                                                                                            JOINT      6  CHORD      5      6   DIAMETER   1000.000   THICKNESS    100.000
                                                                                                            ------------
                                                                                                            BRACE JOINT       BRACE                                        USAGE
                                                                                                            NUMBER TYPE DIAMETER THICKNESS    INSET POSITION WELDSIDE S-N FACTOR     LIFE    REMK
                                                                                                            ------ ---- ------------------ -------- ----------------- ---- ------ ---------- ----
                                                                                                                13        350.000   45.000          270 CROWN BRACE A001     0.84      63.10
                                                                                                            * WARNING * NO S-N DATA FOR ELEMENT NUMBER      19 - ELEMENT IGNORED
                                                                                                            * WARNING * NO S-N DATA FOR ELEMENT NUMBER      20 - ELEMENT IGNORED
                                                                                                            * WARNING * NO S-N DATA FOR ELEMENT NUMBER      21 - ELEMENT IGNORED
                                                                                                            * WARNING * NO S-N DATA FOR ELEMENT NUMBER      21 - ELEMENT IGNORED
                                                                                                            * WARNING * NO S-N DATA FOR ELEMENT NUMBER      18 - ELEMENT IGNORED

                                                                                                            JOINT     11
                                                                                                            ------------
                                                                                                            BRACE JOINT       BRACE                                            USAGE
                                                                                                            NUMBER TYPE DIAMETER THICKNESS    INSET POSITION WELDSIDE     S-N FACTOR     LIFE    REMK
                                                                                                            ------ ---- ------------------ -------- -----------------     ---- ------ ---------- ----
                                                                                                                 7        350.000   45.000            0 SADDLE BRACE      A001   0.13 259301
                                                                                                                10        350.000   45.000            0 SADDLE BRACE      A001   0.12 307057
                                                                                                                 9        350.000   45.000          180 SADDLE BRACE      A001   0.10 875159
                                                                                                                 8        350.000   45.000          180 SADDLE BRACE      A001   0.11 411931

                                                                                                            JOINT     12
                                                                                                            ------------
                                                                                                            BRACE JOINT       BRACE                                            USAGE
                                                                                                            NUMBER TYPE DIAMETER THICKNESS    INSET POSITION WELDSIDE     S-N FACTOR     LIFE    REMK
                                                                                                            ------ ---- ------------------ -------- -----------------     ---- ------ ---------- ----
                                                                                                                12        350.000   45.000          180 SADDLE BRACE      A001   0.20   38225
                                                                                                                15        350.000   45.000          180 SADDLE BRACE      A001   0.20   37936
                                                                                                                14        350.000   45.000          180 SADDLE BRACE      A001   0.25   13564
                                                                                                                13        350.000   45.000          180 SADDLE BRACE      A001   0.27    9075.53



                                                                                                                                        Figure 6.14 Example 2, Selected Fatigue Results for Dynamic Spectral Fatigue Analysis




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Examples
Page 6-32
Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
                                                                                                        Page 6-33
       WAVE User Manual                                                                                  Appendix A



                                                Appendix. A Preliminary Data


A.1 Introduction
The preliminary data is the first block of the WAVE data. It defines:

   •        memory size to be used

   •        identity of the project

   •        job type

   •        structure or component to be processed within that project

   •        options which will affect the course of the run

   •        amount of printing produced


The preliminary data must contain a JOB command and terminate with END. Other commands when used may
be in any order, however the user is recommended to follow the order shown below.

The following commands available within the preliminary data affect the running of WAVE or MASS

        SYSTEM                    -             memory requirement
        PROJECT                   -             name of project
        JOB                       -             type of analysis
        STRUCTURE                 -             name of structure
        COMPONENT                 -             name of master component
        FILES                     -             name of backing files
        TITLE                     -             title for this run
        TEXT                      -             descriptive text
        OPTIONS                   -             control options
        GOTP                      -             origin for load resultants
        FREQUENCY                 -             required for harmonic load generation
        SAVE                      -             select files to be saved
        UNITS                     -             defines units used for data input and results
        LIBRARY                   -             section library file name
        END                       -             terminate preliminary data


Other commands can be used which may be required for the subsequent ASAS analyses. It is suggested that any
commands ultimately required for the structural analysis are included in the WAVE or MASS run.




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.   Page A-1
     WAVE User Manual                                                                                         Appendix A


Following a WAVE or MASS run the user should check the preliminary data in the formatted output file
(xxxxWA or xxxxMA) and make any changes necessary before it is submitted to ASAS.



A.2 SYSTEM Command
To define the amount of memory used for data by this run. Optional.


         SYSTEM                  DATA AREA                   memory




Parameters

SYSTEM            : keyword

DATA AREA            :        keyword

memory            : amount of memory (in 4-byte words) to be used by this run. Typical values are between 30000
                     and 1000000. If the SYSTEM command is omitted, a default value of 1000000 is used.

Example


        SYSTEM DATA AREA 80000



A.3 PROJECT Command
To define the project name for the current run. Optional, if omitted project name defaults to ASAS.



           PROJECT                  pname



Parameters

PROJECT           : keyword

pname             : project name for current run.               (Alphanumeric, 4 characters, the first character must be
                     alphabetic)

Notes


1.      All runs with the same project name access the same data base. A project data base consists of one
        project file (with a file name consisting of the 4 characters of pname with the number 10 appended)
        which acts as an index to other files created under this project, together with those other files.




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       Page A-2
     WAVE User Manual                                                                                    Appendix A


Example


       PROJECT          HIJK



A.4 JOB Command
To define the type of analysis being performed and whether to create a new project data base or to update an



       JOB            (status)             jobtype


existing one.


Parameters

JOB           : keyword

status        : job status

                NEW           this is the first run in a new project database

                OLD           for all subsequent runs associated with the same project

                If blank OLD is assumed.

jobtype       : keyword

                LINE          static or stress history analysis

                FREQ          harmonic analysis

Example


To define a new project database named FRED

       PROJECT          FRED
       JOB       NEW      LINE



A.5 STRUCTURE Command
To define the structure name for the current run.




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.   Page A-3
     WAVE User Manual                                                                                         Appendix A




            STRUCTURE                     sname




Parameters

STRUCTURE :                   keyword

sname             : structure name. The name must be unique from all other structure or master component names
                     in this project. (Alphanumeric, 4 characters, the first character must be alphabetic)

Notes


1.      This command must not be used for a component creation run.

2.      If the FILES command is omitted, sname is also used as the file name prefix fname.

3.      If both the STRUCTURE and the FILES commands are omitted then the project name pname is used
        in place of sname and fname.

Example


        STRUCTURE           SHIP



A.6 COMPONENT Command



            COMPONENT                    cname



To define the master component name for a component creation run. Compulsory for component creation runs.


Parameters

COMPONENT              : keyword

cname                  : master component name for the component being created by this run. The name must be
                         unique from all other structure or master component names in this project. (Alphanumeric,
                         4 characters, the first character must be alphabetic)

Notes


1.      The name must not be an element name (eg BR20, BEAM) or the words DCOS, MIRR or ORIG.




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2.      If the FILES command is omitted, cname is also used as the file name prefix fname.

Example


        COMPONENT           LEFT



A.7 FILES Command



            FILES               fname



To define the prefix name to be used for the backing files created in this run. Optional.


Parameters

FILES         : keyword

fname         : prefix name for any backing files created by this run. (Alphanumeric, 4 characters, the first
                character must be alphabetic)

Notes


1.      fname is used as a prefix for all files created during the current run. The four characters are appended
        with two digits in the range 12 to 35 to create each individual file.

2.      If the FILES command is omitted, the structure name sname or component name cname is used in
        place of fname.

3.      If both the STRUCTURE and the FILES commands are omitted then the project name pname is used
        in place of fname.

Example


        FILES        BILL



A.8 TITLE Command
To define a title for this run. Recommended.




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            TITLE               title




Parameters

TITLE         : keyword

title         : this line of text will be printed out at the top of each page of the results file. (Alphanumeric, up to
                74 characters)

Example


         TITLE       THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF A TITLE LINE


A.9 TEXT Command
To define a line of text to be printed once only at the beginning of the results file. Several TEXT lines may be
defined to give a detailed description of the current analysis on the printed output. Optional.


            TEXT                 text




Parameters

TEXT          : keyword

text          : this line of text will be printed once, at the beginning of the results file. (Alphanumeric, up to 75
                characters)

Example


         TEXT      THIS EXAMPLE OF THE TEXT
         TEXT      COMMAND IS SPREAD
         TEXT      OVER THREE LINES


A.10 OPTIONS Command
To define the control options for this run. Optional.




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            OPTIONS                    option




Parameters

OPTIONS         :        keyword

option        : 4 character option name or a list of option names. See Appendix .C for details of each option

Example


        OPTIONS         DATA        GOON       NODL



A.11 GOTP Command
Defines the point about which the resultants of the loads are calculated (the Global Overturning Point). This
command is not utilised in WAVE but may be required for subsequent ASAS analyses. In WAVE the
overturning moments are calculated about both the global origin and the seabed.


           GOTP                xcoord              ycoord             zcoord




Parameters

GOTP          : keyword

xcoord        : The coordinates of the point about which the resultant forces and moments of the applied loads are
                ycoord                     calculated. (Real)
                zcoord

Note


If the GOTP command is omitted then the global origin (0, 0, 0) is used to calculate the resultants in a
subsequent ASAS-H run.

Example


        GOTP         27.6         0.0        15.9


A.12 FREQUENCY Command




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This command is specified if a harmonic wave analysis is to be undertaken. The data supplied on the
FREQUENCY command is not used directly by WAVE but may be required for a subsequent natural frequency
analysis. Must be used in conjunction with a JOB FREQ analysis.
                             HOQL

                                   HOSS
    FREQUENCY                                          norm         modes           (lmode)             (hmode)
                                   JAC0

                                   SPIT



                                                               (subspace)                 (cutoff)           (shift)




Parameters

FREQUENCY              : keyword

HOQL                   : keyword for Householder QL solution

HOSS                   : keyword for Householder - Sturm Sequence solution

JACO                   : keyword for Jacobi solution

SPIT                   : keyword for Subspace Iteration solution

norm                   : normalisation of Eigenvectors. (Integer)
                                  Values:           0 - Maximum component is 1.0.
                                                    1 - Euclidean norm
                                                    3 - No normalisation

modes                  : to request frequencies or mode shapes for printing. (Integer)
                                  Values:           0 - frequency and mode shapes
                                                    1 - frequency only

lmode                  : lowest mode number required. (Integer)

hmode                  : the highest mode number required. Compulsory for SPIT, defaults to all frequencies if
                         blank. (Integer)

subspace               : size of subspace (the number of frequencies to iterate over). For SPIT only. (Integer)

cutoff                 : upper limit to the calculated frequencies (Hertz). For SPIT only. (Real)

shift                  : Frequency shift (Hertz). For SPIT only (Real). See Notes below.




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Notes


1.       If HOSS is selected and the number of frequencies is greater than 25% of the number of dynamic
         freedoms (or 40% if no modes are requested), then HOQL is substituted.

2.       If subspace is omitted, it defaults to the lesser of 2n or n+8 where n is the number of frequencies
         requested.

3.       If SPIT and no suppression data is supplied in the run, the shift is applied. If no shift is supplied, the
         program calculates a suitable value. If the run is a substructure assembly and all suppressions are in the
         substructures, a very small value for shift must be supplied to prevent the program from calculating an
         unsuitable value.

Examples

(i).     A simple frequency command using HOSS to select all frequencies. Mode shapes are normalised to a
         maximum value of 1.0, frequencies and mode shapes are to be printed.


         FREQUENCY          HOSS        0    0

(ii).    A frequency command using SPIT requesting 8 frequencies, a subspace of 14 and a cutoff of 100 Hertz.


         FREQUENCY          SPIT        0    0     1     8    14      100.0



A.13 SAVE Command
To define which files are to be saved for a subsequent analysis. This command is not utilised in WAVE but may
be required for subsequent ASAS analyses.


                 SAVE                            set                     (FILES)




Parameters

SAVE          : keyword

set           : one or more mnemonics to define the sets of files to be saved for use in subsequent analyses. For a
                list of permitted values see the ASAS User Manual.

FILES         : keyword. (Optional)

Note


If several sets of files are to be saved, they may be specified on one or several SAVE commands.




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Examples


          SAVE     LOCO       ADLD       FILES

          SAVE     LOCO       FILES
          SAVE     ADLD       FILES



A.14 UNITS Command
Recommended.

This command allows the user to define the units to be employed in the analysis and the default units for the
input data. Facilities exist to specify the results units for output if they are required to be different from those
supplied for input (see Section A.14.2). The defined unit set will appear on each page of the printout as part of
the page header. If this command is omitted then no units information will be reported and the units of all data
supplied must be consistent.

If the UNITS command is employed, facilities exist to locally modify the input data units within each main data
block. See the ASAS User Manual for further details.

For a list of valid unit names, see the UNITS command in the ASAS User Manual, Preliminary data.

A.14.1 Global UNITS Definition
This specifies the units to be employed for the analysis and provides the default units for input and printed
output.

                 UNITS                       unitnm




Parameters

UNITS                  : keyword

unitnm                 : name of unit to be utilised


The units of force and length must be supplied. Temperature is optional and defaults to centigrade. A time unit
of seconds is assumed. A default angular unit of radians is used for results reporting. The default input angular
unit varies according to the data block and must not be specified on the basic UNITS command.

Restriction


The program calculates a consistent unit of MASS based upon the length and force units supplied. The
permitted combinations of force and length are given in Appendix .D.




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Note


For substructure analyses, all components to be assembled together must use the same global units definition.
Similarly, the resulting structure must also use the same global units. If parts of the overall structure are required
to be modelled using different units, the local UNITS commands within the main data should be employed.

A.14.2 Results UNITS Command
This permits the displacements and/or stresses to be reported in different units from those supplied for the input
data. This can only be used if a global units definition has been supplied.

                 UNITS                  resultnm                     unitnm




Parameters

UNITS             : keyword

resultnm          : keyword to identify results units to be modified. The following keywords are available

                     DISP         displacement printing
                     STRE         stress or force printing

unitnm            : name of unit to be utilised

Notes


1.      For the results units, the angular term may be specified. (Default is radians).
        Valid names are

                     RADIAN(S)                  RAD
                     DEGREE(S)                  DEG


2.      Only those terms which are required to be modified need to be specified, undefined terms will default to
        those supplied on the global units definition. For example:

                     UNITS N M
                     UNITS STRE            MM

            will provide stresses in terms of N/mm2

Examples


1.      Input data units and results units to be in units of Kips and feet

        UNITS          KIPS       FEET

        The derived consistent unit of mass will be 3.22x104 lbs.




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2.     The S.I. system is to be used for input, but the displacements are to be printed in mm and the stresses in
       KN/mm2

       UNITS           N            M
       UNITS           DISP         MM
       UNITS           STRE         KN       MILLIMETRES

       Note that the reactions printed in the displacement report will be in Newtons and Millimetres.

        The derived consistent unit of mass will be 1 kg.



A.15 LIBRARY Definition
This command is used to provide the name of an external file which contains beam section information for use in
the geometric property data. The library file may be standard steel section library, as supplied with the software,
or may contain user supplied sections generated using program SECTIONS. Only one such command line may
appear in the preliminary data. See Appendix A of the ASAS User Manual.

                LIBRARY                     filename




Parameters

LIBRARY           : keyword

filename          : up to 6 character name of an external (physical) file which contains section library information
                     for beam type elements. The file must either be one of the standard section libraries supplied
                     with the software (listed below) or user generated using program SECTIONS.

Standard Libraries


AISCLB       AISC wide flange (I/H) sections



A.16 END Command
To terminate the preliminary data. Compulsory.

Parameters

END           : compulsory keyword




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                                             Appendix. B Running Instructions


B.1 Files Required/Created by WAVE/MASS
WAVE and MASS are both pre-processors to the structural analysis program ASAS and only require input data
files to be supplied. If the run is part of an overall project then the project file (pname10) should be present in
the user’s directory (see Appendix A.3).
WAVE/MASS will create a new data file containing the structural topology and boundary conditions, together
with the generated loading or mass. The updated file is utilised in a subsequent ASAS analysis. The name of the
resulting data file is given by appending either WA (in the case of an WAVE run) or MA (for an MASS run) to
the four character file name. Thus, if the file name for a run is RUN1, WAVE will create a new data file called
RUN1WA, and MASS will generate a file called RUN1MA. In the following examples, the generated data files
                         STRUWA
are indicated thus

For static analyses, WAVE will not create any backing files since all information required for subsequent
processing is transferred via the data file. This is shown in Figure B.1 below.


                                                        Structural and
                                                        Environmental
                                                        Data




                                                             WAVE


                                                            STRUW A
                                                          Structural and
                                                          Environmental
                                                          Loading



                                                               ASAS



                                                              STR135




                                                             BEAMST




                           Figure B.1 File utilisation for time history/simple static analyses




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For harmonic analyses, WAVE will create an ASAS backing file for use in a subsequent dynamic analysis using
RESPONSE. If a static harmonic analysis is being undertaken then the backing file may be discarded but it
should be noted that an entry in the index file will remain with the appropriate STRUCTURE/COMPONENT
name. For single shot analyses i.e. only one run of WAVE/ASAS then the index file (the 10 file) may be deleted
between the WAVE and ASAS runs. Where the wave run forms part of a larger analysis the index file should be
preserved but a new name assigned to the STRUCTURE or COMPONENT being analysed. This is shown

                 Single shot                                                                                  Multiple run
                                                       Structural and
                                                       Environmental
                                                       Data




                                                             WAVE                                           PROJ10
             PROJ10




             STRU35                                                                                         STRU35
                                                             STRUW A
                                                                                  Change FILE
                                                          Structural and
                                                          Environmental           name from
   Delete after                                           Loading                                       Delete after
                                                                                  STRU to STR1
   running WAVE                                                                                         running WAVE




             PROJ10                                           ASAS                                          STR135




             STRU35




                                                          FATJACK2

diagrammatically in Figure B.2.


                 Figure B.2 Alternative examples of file utilisation for static harmonic analyses




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For dynamic harmonic analyses both MASS and WAVE are normally run utilising the same project name. Files
created by each of the programs are shown diagrammatically in Figure B.3.




             Structural and                                                                             Structural and
             Environmental                                                                              Additional Mass
             Data                                                                                       Data
                                                                           PROJ10




                  WAVE                                                                                      MASS


                 W AVEW A                                                                                  MASSMA
             Structural and                                                                               Structural and
             Environmental                                                                                Mass Data
             Loading



                                                                                                             ASAS


                                       WAVE35




                                                                                                            ASAS35




            Response Related                                            RESPONSE
            Data




                                                                            RESP35




            Fatigue Related
            Data                                                         FATJACK2




                               Figure B.3 File utilisation for dynamic harmonic analyses




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B.2 Transfer of Wave Loads to ASAS Using Option STG3
Section B.1 describes the transfer of the Wave Loading from WAVE to ASAS using the formatted file (the WA
file). An alternative method is available for use in simple static analyses, stress history analyses and static
harmonic analyses but must not be used for dynamic harmonic analyses. In this method use is made of the
Option STG3 in the wave data. Option STG3 will cause WAVE to save the backing files in a form which
enables ASAS to be run starting at Stage 3 (using the RESTART command). The advantage of this method is
that reading and checking of the WA file, which can be very long, is avoided.
                                                       Structural and
                                                       Environmental
                                                       Data




             STRUW A
                                                             WAVE
           Structural and                                                                               PROJ10
           Environmental
           Loading


                                                                                                        STRU35
                                                              ASAS




                                       BEAMST                                FATJACK2



                                Figure B.4 File Utilisation when using the Option STG3




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B.3 Running Instructions for WAVE and MASS
See the appendices in the ASAS User Manual for details on how to run any of the programs in the ASAS suite.




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    WAVE User Manual                                                                                                 Appendix C



                                                   Appendix. C Valid Options



This appendix describes the user options available in WAVE and MASS. User options are specified on the
OPTIONS command in the preliminary data as a series of 4 character names (see Appendix A.10).

In addition to the options listed below, which affect the WAVE or MASS run, options which are valid for ASAS
will also be accepted but no action will be taken. For further details see the ASAS User Manual.

   Option Name                        Application

   DATA                               Perform data checking only. This should be used to carefully check all the data
                                      before proceeding on to the analysis.

   GOON                               Proceed even after printed WARNINGS.                       This Option allows the run to
                                      continue despite doubtful data. It should only be used after a run in which the
                                      WARNINGS have been noted and rejected as unimportant.

   NOBL                               Do not print the ASAS banner page.

   PRNO                               Print only selected input data images (see ASAS User Manual).

   NODL                               Print only selected expanded data (see ASAS User Manual).

   HYDR                               Requests detailed elemental hydrodynamic information for each wave case.
                                      This is useful for ensuring that complex data assignments have been correctly
                                      applied (see Section 3.9).

   APIW/AP20                          Selects analysis to the requirements of API RP2A (see Section 2.3.3).

   MCON                               For current loads (CURR, TIDE, PCUR) vary the current profile within a wave
                                      cycle to maintain mass conservation. The input current profile must relate to
                                      the still water. The velocities are scaled with depth to give a constant transfer
                                      of mass, for the instantaneous surface height, whilst retaining the overall shape
                                      of the profile (see Section 2.3.5). This option has no effect in MASS.
                                      This is not recommended for use with API analyses.

   RELC                               For current loads (CURR, TIDE, PCUR) vary the current profile within a wave
                                      cycle such that the velocities are not at absolute depths, but relative depths.
                                      This does not give mass conservation. The current velocities at x% of the water
                                      depth are the same for still water as for water with waves (see Section 2.3.5).
                                      This option has no effect in MASS.




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   APIC                               For current loads (CURR, TIDE, PCUR) vary the current profile within a wave
                                      cycle using non-linear stretching as recommended in the API RP2A Code of
                                      Practice. The relationship is given by

                                                                       sinh (2π (z′ + d) / λ n )
                                                        z = z′ + η
                                                                          sinh (2π d/ λ n )
                                      where      z           is the elevation of the point of interest
                                                 z’          is the effective elevation corresponding to z
                                                 d           is the still water depth
                                                 λn          is the wave length
                                                 η           is the wave surface elevation above the point of interest
                                                 z, z’, η are measured from the mean still water level

                                      This is the default option when APIW is selected (see Section 2.3.52.3.5).




   VEXT                               For current loads (CURR, TIDE, PCUR) the current profile is not modified in
                                      the presence of a wave, simple vertical extrapolation is used above still water
                                      level.
                                      This is the default option for all non-APIW analyses, and is provided to
                                      override the standard non-linear stretching when APIW is active (see Section
                                      2.3.5).

   BRIG                               The default method of calculating buoyancy loads in WAVE is to determine the
                                      volume of fluid displaced by a member and to apply the equivalent force as a
                                      distributed load in an upward direction ( z - water ). An alternative approach is
                                      available using the BRIG option. With this more rigorous approach the
                                      hydrostatic forces are calculated at the member ends and are applied as nodal
                                      forces in the direction of the member. Thus all components of hydrostatic force
                                      are included. This option has no effect in MASS.

   CONV                               API RP2A states that the convective acceleration components of the wave
                                      kinematics should be ignored.               If APIW option is selected the convective
                                      acceleration terms are removed by default. The CONV option allows these
                                      terms to be included when APIW is operative. For all non-APIW analyses this
                                      is the default.

   WIND                               Calculate loads for a WINDSPEC analysis - requests generation of loadcases
                                      by subtraction of base cases from base + gust cases as required for a
                                      WINDSPEC analysis.

   WASP                               To split the wave load output file (the WA file) into two parts. Part 1 consists
                                      of the structure data and boundary conditions. Part 2 consists of the generated




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                                      wave loading. The file containing part 1 has the letters WA appended, the file
                                      containing part 2 has the letters WL appended. The WA file automatically
                                      references the WL by means of an @ command immediately before the STOP
                                      command.
                                      For MASS, the corresponding files are MA and ML.




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WAVE User Manual                                                                                                        Appendix D


                                                  Appendix. D Consistent Units
                                                     1 Kip = 1000 pounds force
                                                      All times are in seconds
                                               Assumed specific gravity of steel = 7.85
                                              Assumed specific gravity of air = 0.00123
                                          Assumed specific gravity of sea water = 1.025

       The kinematic viscosity of sea water varies significantly with temperature. Typical values are as follows
                                     νsea water     = 1.828x10-6 metres2/sec at 0ºC
                                                    = 1.431x10-6 metres2/sec at 8ºC

 Unit of force     Unit of       Typical            g          Consistent          Density (mass/unit volume)
                   length        value of E                    unit of
                                 for steel                     mass                 Steel               Sea Water         Air

 Newton            metre         2.1x1011           9.81       1Kg                  7850                1025              1.23
                                          7                                                  -5                    -5
 Newton            cm            2.1x10             981        100Kg                7.85x10             1.025x10          1.23x10-8
 Newton            mm            2.1x105            9810       1000Kg               7.85x10-9           1.025x10-9        1.23x10-12
 Kilopond          metre         2.14x1010          9.81       9.81Kg               800                 104.6             0.1255
 Kilopond          cm            2.14x106           981        981Kg                8.00x10-6           1.046x10-6        1.255x10-9
 Kilopond          mm            2.14x104           9810       9810Kg               8.00x10-10          1.046x10-10       1.255x10-13
 KNewton           metre         2.1x108            9.81       103Kg                7.85                1.025             1.23x10-3
 KNewton           cm            2.1x104            981        105Kg                7.85x10-8           1.025x10-8        1.23x10-11
 KNewton           mm            2.1x102            9810       106Kg                7.85x10-12          1.025x10-12       1.23x10-15
 MNewtons          metre         2.1x105            9.81       106Kg                7.85x10-3           1.025x10-3        1.23x10-6
 MNewtons          cm            2.1x101            981        108Kg                7.85x10-11          1.025x10-11       1.23x10-14
 MNewtons          mm            2.1x10-3           9810       109Kg                7.85x10-15          1.025x10-15       1.23x10-18
 Tonne (f)         metre         2.14x107           9.81       9.81x103Kg           0.800               0.1046            1.255x10-4
 Tonne (f)         cm            2.14x103           981        9.81x105Kg           8.00x10-9           1.046x10-9        1.255x10-12
 Tonne (f)         mm            2.14x101           9810       9.81x106Kg           8.00x10-13          1.046x10-13       1.255x10-16
 Poundal           foot          1.39x1011          32.2       1lb                  491                 64.11             7.69x10-2
 Poundal           inch          9.66x108           386        12lbs                2.37x10-2           3.095x10-3        3.71x10-6
 Pound (f)         foot          4.32x109           32.2       32.2lbs              15.2                1.985             2.38x10-3
                                                               (1 slug)
 Pound (f)         inch          3.0x107            386        386lbs               7.35x10-4           9.597x10-5        1.15x10-7
 Kip               foot          4.32x106           32.2       3.22x104lbs          1.52x10-2           1.985x10-3        2.38x10-6
 Kip               inch          3.0x104            386        3.86x105lbs          7.35x10-7           9.597x10-8        1.15x10-10
 Ton (f)           foot          1.93x106           32.2       7.21x104lbs          6.81x10-3           8.88x10-4         1.066x10-6
 Ton (f)           inch          1.34x104           386        8.66x105lbs          3.28x10-7           4.27x10-8         5.124x10-11




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WAVE User Manual                                                                                              Appendix E



                                                     Appendix. E References


1.     CIRIA report UR8, October 1978. ‘Dynamics of Marine Structures: Methods of Calculating the Dynamic
       Response of Fixed Structures Subject to Wave and Current Action’.

2.     Ippen, A.T. (Ed.), 1966. ‘Estuary and Coastline Hydrodynamics’, Engineering Societies Monograph,
       McGraw-Hill (New York).

3.     Bretschneider, C.L., 1960. ‘A Theory for Waves of Finite Height’, Proceedings 7th Conference on
       Coastal Engineering, The Hague.

4.     Dean, R.G., September 1975. ‘Stream Function Representation of Non-linear Ocean Waves’, Journal of
       Geophysical Research, Vol. 70, No. 18.

5.     Chaplin, J.R., 1980. ‘Developments of Stream Function Wave Theory’, Coastal Engineering, Vol. 3, pp.
       179-205.

6.     Department of Energy, November 1989. ‘Fluid Loading on Fixed Offshore Structures, Background to a
       Proposed Revision of Offshore Installations: Guidance on Design and Construction’.

7.     Barltrop, N.D.P. and Adams, A.J., 1991. ‘Dynamics of Fixed Marine Structures’, Third Edition.

8.     American Petroleum Institute, API RP2A-WSD. ‘Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and
       Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms - Working Stress Design’, Twentieth Edition, July 1993.

9.     American Petroleum Institute, API RP2A-LRFD. ‘Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and
       Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms - Load and Resistance Factor Design’, First Edition, July 1993.

10.    WS Atkins Engineering Software, ‘Shell New Wave’, Engineering Software Report No. ESR 960611.




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     WAVE User Manual                                                                 Appendix F - Superseded Commands



                                          Appendix. F Superseded Commands


F.1 BEAM Element Command
The BEAM command is used to introduce marine loading on structural beam elements. As for tube elements, all
beams have an associated geometric property number, user element number, and pair of node numbers. Two
dimensions must be input on this command to define the size of the beam cross-section which will be subject to
fluid drag and inertia forces (i.e. dy and dz need not represent true physical dimensions).
                                                     ELEM              elem

                                                               GROU                 group
        BEAM                dy           dz
                                                               PROP                 prop

                                                               ALL




BEAM          : keyword

dy            : dimension in element local y direction. (Real)

dz            : dimension in element local z direction. (Real)

ELEM          : keyword to indicate element selection

elem          : list of user element numbers. (Integer)

GROU          : keyword to indicate group selection

group         : list of group numbers. (Integer)

PROP          : keyword to indicate geometric property selection

prop          : list of geometric property numbers. (Integer)

ALL           : keyword to indicate selection of all elements




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      Page F-1
       WAVE User Manual                                                               Appendix F - Superseded Commands



Notes


1.      dy and dz are used in place of diameter and dydz in place of cross-sectional area in Morison’s equation.

2.      The dimensions supplied are given in terms of the local axes of the element, as shown below.




F.2 NOBM Command
The NOBM command specifies beam elements for which wave loads are excluded. The command overrides any
previous BEAM command for the specified elements. The wave loading may be reactivated at any later stage by
using another BEAM command.

                                             ELEM                  elem

                                             GROU                  group
              NOBM
                                             PROP                  prop

                                             ALL




Parameters

NOBM          : keyword

ELEM          : keyword to indicate element selection

elem          : list of user element numbers. (Integer)

GROU          : keyword to indicate group selection

group         : list of group numbers. (Integer)

PROP          : keyword to indicate geometric property selection

prop          : list of geometric property numbers. (Integer)

ALL           : keyword to indicate selection of all elements

Note


Any number of BEAM and NOBM commands may be used to activate and deactivate loading for different wave
(EXEC) cases. The commands are processed in user input order.




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      Page F-2
     WAVE User Manual                                                                 Appendix F - Superseded Commands




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      Page F-3

				
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