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PANEL- APPLICATION

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									                                  Panel-Suite -
                                Application Manual
                                              Version 12




ANSYS, Inc.
Southpointe
275 Technology Drive
Canonsburg, PA 15317
ansysinfo@ansys.com
http://www.ansys.com
(T) 724-746-3304
(F) 724-514-9494



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Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
                Panel-Suite - Application Manual
                                    Update Sheet for Version 12
                                                      April 2009



Modifications:

The following modifications have been incorporated:

Section       Page(s)                   Update/Addition                  Explanation

All           All                       Update                            Conversion to Microsoft® Word format




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                           Table of Contents


                                                TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................ 1-3
  1.1     PREAMBLE ......................................................................................................... 1-3
  1.2     OVERVIEW OF THE PANEL PROGRAM ........................................................ 1-3
  1.3     PROGRAM SCOPE ............................................................................................. 1-4
  1.4     LIMIT STATE APPROACH................................................................................ 1-5
  1.5     SELECTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF INSPECTION POINTS ................ 1-6
  1.6     LOAD COMBINATIONS AND ENVELOPES .................................................. 1-7
  1.7     SIGN CONVENTION AND UNITS.................................................................... 1-7
  1.8     PROGRAM INPUT/OUTPUT ............................................................................. 1-8
2. SIMPLE STRENGTH ANALYSIS .............................................................................. 2-1
  2.1     INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 2-1
  2.2     DATA PREPARATION ....................................................................................... 2-1
  2.3     SAMPLE OUTPUT .............................................................................................. 2-2
     2.3.1 General .............................................................................................................. 2-2
     2.3.2 Main Output Description .................................................................................. 2-2
     2.3.3 Summary Output Description ........................................................................... 2-3
     2.3.4 Redesign and Recheck of Example Problem 1 ................................................. 2-4
3. EXTENDED I/O CONTROL ....................................................................................... 3-1
  3.1     INPUT DATA PRESENTATION ........................................................................ 3-1
  3.2     USING EXTERNAL DATA FILES .................................................................... 3-1
  3.3     DIAGNOSTIC HANDLING ................................................................................ 3-2
4. USE OF REFERENCE NODES ................................................................................... 4-1
  4.1     GENERAL THEORY ........................................................................................... 4-1
  4.2     SAMPLE PROBLEM ........................................................................................... 4-1
5. ADVANCED FACILITIES .......................................................................................... 5-1
  5.1     THE HARDING METHOD ................................................................................. 5-1
  5.2     CURVED PANELS .............................................................................................. 5-1
  5.3     LOAD REDISTRIBUTION ................................................................................. 5-2
  5.4     DISCONTINUITIES ............................................................................................ 5-3
  5.5     IMPERFECTIONS ............................................................................................... 5-3
  5.6     WELD CHECKS .................................................................................................. 5-4
  5.7     SAMPLE PROBLEM ........................................................................................... 5-4
6. POST-PROCESSING SESAM MODELS ................................................................... 6-7
  6.1     GENERAL ............................................................................................................ 6-7
  6.2     FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING ..................................................................... 6-7
  6.3     GLOBAL LOAD COMBINATIONS................................................................... 6-7
  6.4     CODE CHECKING OF BULKHEAD G30 ......................................................... 6-8
     6.4.1 General .............................................................................................................. 6-8
     6.4.2 SESAM Analysis .............................................................................................. 6-8
     6.4.3 SIF-AVERAGE ................................................................................................ 6-9
     6.4.4 PANEL-ENVELOPE ...................................................................................... 6-10
     6.4.5 PANEL-CHECK ............................................................................................. 6-12
7. UNSTIFFENED CURVED PANEL CHECKS............................................................ 7-1
  7.1     GENERAL ............................................................................................................ 7-1
  7.2     FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING AND LOAD COMBINATIONS ................ 7-1
  7.3     CODE CHECKING OF THE TOP CENTRE PANEL ........................................ 7-1
     7.3.1 PREPOST and SIF-AVERAGE ....................................................................... 7-1
     7.3.2 PANEL-ENVELOPE ........................................................................................ 7-2
     7.3.3 PANEL-CHECK ............................................................................................... 7-2
8. INTERFACE TO ASAS ............................................................................................... 8-1
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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                         Table of Contents
  8.1     GENERAL ............................................................................................................ 8-1
  8.2     FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING ..................................................................... 8-1
  8.3     GLOBAL LOAD COMBINATIONS................................................................... 8-1
  8.4     CODE CHECKING OF WALL A02NW ............................................................. 8-2
     8.4.1 ASAS POST...................................................................................................... 8-2
     8.4.2 PANEL-ENVELOPE ........................................................................................ 8-2
     8.4.3 PANEL-CHECK ............................................................................................... 8-3
9. INDEX OF COMMANDS ........................................................................................... 9-1
  9.1     SIF-AVERAGE INSTRUCTIONS ...................................................................... 9-1
  9.2     PANEL-ENVELOPE INSTRUCTIONS .............................................................. 9-1
  9.3     PANEL-ENVELOPE INCLUSION DATA ......................................................... 9-2
  9.4     PANEL-CHECK INPUT DATA .......................................................................... 9-2
     9.4.1 Input/Output Control ......................................................................................... 9-2
     9.4.2 Node Selection .................................................................................................. 9-2
     9.4.3 File Handling .................................................................................................... 9-2
     9.4.4 Basic Data ......................................................................................................... 9-3
     9.4.5 Strength/Serviceability Checks ......................................................................... 9-3
Appendix - A OUTPUT FROM EXAMPLE PROBLEM NO. 1 ................................... A-1
  A.1     MAIN OUTPUT .................................................................................................. A-2
  A.2     SUMMARY OUTPUT ...................................................................................... A-13
Appendix - B    OUTPUT FROM EXAMPLE PROBLEM NO. 2 ................................... B-1
  B.1     MAIN OUTPUT .................................................................................................. B-2
  B.2     SUMMARY OUTPUT ........................................................................................ B-7
Appendix - C    OUTPUT FROM EXAMPLE PROBLEM NO. 3 ................................... C-1
  C.1     MAIN OUTPUT .................................................................................................. C-2
  C.2     SUMMARY OUTPUT ........................................................................................ C-9
Appendix - D OUTPUT FROM EXAMPLE PROBLEM NO. 4 ................................... D-1
  D.1     SIF-AVERAGE OUTPUT................................................................................... D-2
  D.2     PANEL-ENVELOPE OUTPUT FOR NODE 68 ................................................ D-5
  D.3     SUMMARY OUTPUT (NO BLAST PRESSURE) ............................................ D-8
  D.4     SUMMARY OUTPUT (WITH BLAST PRESSURE) .................................... D-18
  D.5     MAIN OUTPUT FROM NODE 68 ................................................................... D-28
Appendix - E    OUTPUT FROM EXAMPLE PROBLEM NO. 5 ................................... E-1
  E.1     CURVED PANEL MAIN OUTPUT ................................................................... E-2
Appendix - F    OUTPUT FROM EXAMPLE PROBLEM NO. 6 .................................... F-1
  F.1     BULB FLAT AND PLATE SUMMARIES ......................................................... F-3
  F.2     PRIMARY VERTICAL STIFFENER SUMMARIES .........................................F-8
  F.3     GIRDER WEB SUMMARY .............................................................................. F-11
  F.4     SECONDARY HORIZONTAL STIFFENER SUMMARIES ........................... F-13




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Introduction



1.      INTRODUCTION

1.1     PREAMBLE

        The PANEL suite of programs is designed to allow the user to rapidly check stiffened and
        unstiffened plate panel structures against codes of practice such as BS5400, BS5500, DnV and
        the IDWR (Merrison Rules). Strength, serviceability and fatigue checks may be performed on
        the plate, stiffeners and welds.

        The PANEL suite consists of three separate, but integrated programs:

        −         PCAL - PANEL-CHECK (Standalone)

        −         PCAS - PANEL-CHECK (Integrated with ASAS)
        −       PEAS - PANEL- ENVELOPE (Integrated with ASAS)
        All the programs are fully documented in their respective User Manuals, and the underlying
        theory of the programs is detailed in the PANEL Suite Theoretical Manual. These manuals
        should also be referenced whilst reading this one.
        PANEL-ENVELOPE produces envelopes (maximum/minimum ranges) of load for selected
        locations or regions of the structure across selected load cases. These envelopes are used
        for strength and serviceability checks in PANEL-CHECK;

        PANEL-CHECK performs code-checks on selected locations or regions of the structure.
        Strength, serviceability and fatigue checks may be performed using loads provided by the user
        or transferred by PANEL-ENVELOPE.

        The purpose of this manual is to introduce the capabilities available within PANEL and to
        discuss how a user may apply the program to analyse typical plate structures. Reference should
        be made to the relevant PANEL User Manuals for a detailed description of the commands
        necessary to run the programs, and to the PANEL Theoretical Manual for details of the
        theory and equations used.

        The remaining subsections of Section 1.0 describe overall program capabilities and define
        certain terminology that is used throughout the manuals. Other sections of the manual
        introduce key features one by one and illustrate their use, often by example.

        The index at the end of the manual contains an alphabetic list of commands and keywords,
        together with the section in which they are described. This allows the reader to quickly look up
        the description of a command or keyword in this manual.

        Finally, the appendices contain selected output from the sample problems and examples
        introduced in the text.

1.2     OVERVIEW OF THE PANEL PROGRAM

        The above programs will interface with a finite element analysis via the binary interface files
        produced by certain FE systems. The PANEL programs may be used in two modes of
        operation:

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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Introduction

        −       PANEL-CHECK may be used as a stand-alone program accepting all input data and
                loading from the user. Strength, serviceability and fatigue checks may be performed.
                There is no interface with any FE system when operating in this mode;

        −       PANEL-CHECK may interface with prescribed FE systems via the PANEL-
                ENVELOPE program. PANEL-ENVELOPE should be run to scan areas of the structure
                and identify locations and loads for subsequent checking. PANEL-CHECK may then
                access the loading stored and perform strength and serviceability checks as required.
                This facility is particularly useful for producing rapid checks on large areas of a
                structure.

        Figures 1.2-1 and 1.2-2 show the last mode diagrammatically. Figure 1.2-1 illustrates the
        course of post-processing for an analysis performed by the finite element package ASAS,
        while Figure 1.2-2 illustrates the course of post-processing for the analysis obtained from the
        SESAM system. For details of these program suites, refer to the appropriate user manuals and
        technical documentation.

1.3     PROGRAM SCOPE

        When configured as a post-processor to a finite element system via PANEL-ENVELOPE,
        PANEL can derive combined plate stiffener stresses directly from the internal forces in the
        elements that make up the FE model. PANEL allows the stiffened plate structure to be
        modelled in a variety of ways and is still able to extract the necessary forces. Available
        modelling methods at this time are as illustrated in Figure 1.3-1 and as follows:

        −       stiffener not modelled, but its effective area is smeared over the plate;
        −       stiffeners modelled as beam elements in the plane of the plate with composite
                properties;
        −       stiffeners modelled as beam elements, but offset relative to the plane of the plate;
        −       stiffeners modelled with plate elements for the web and beam elements for the flange.

        In the last three cases, stiffener properties may be grouped or 'lumped' together so that
        modelled stiffener spacing is greater than actual, thus reducing the extent of the PE model.

        The PANEL-CHECK program is primarily designed to assess unidirectionally stiffened or
        unstiffened panels. However, orthogonally stiffened panels may also be handled by analysing
        each stiffener direction in turn. This approach will give reasonably accurate results when the
        stiffnesses or span of the two orthogonal stiffeners are dissimilar. The panel can then be
        handled as a series of small unidirectionally stiffened panels framing between larger
        transverse frames (Figure 1.3-2). In this case, two PANEL analyses should be performed:

            −   the smaller longitudinal stiffeners and the plate should be analysed first using dimension
                'a' as the length and 'b' as the spacing of the stiffeners;
            −   the larger transverse stiffeners may then be analysed using dimensions 'B' and 'a' as the
                length and spacing respectively. The true thickness of plate must be used to obtain the
                correct composite properties, and the plate forces perpendicular to the stiffener direction
                should be modified to allow for load in the smaller longitudinal stiffeners. It is not valid
                to check the plate in this case as the span and spacing (B and a) are not the true panel
                size.



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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Introduction


        This approach is slightly conservative as the stiffness of the smaller stiffeners is ignored in
        determining buckling and bending of the larger stiffeners, but has been shown to be quite
        accurate for typical stiffener strengths and spans. It can be extended easily to handle tertiary
        stiffening, as well as primary and secondary stiffening, and so on.

        Stiffener properties in PANEL-CHECK currently cover the following section types:

        −      tees;
        −      angles;
        −      bulb flats;
        −      flat plates.

        The stiffener-plate connection will be determined and sized by the program and may be either
        a double-sided fillet or a single- or double-sided butt weld. Stiffeners themselves may be
        single- or double-sided (the latter representing stiffeners welded to both sides of the plate).

        Panels can be flat or curved. Curved panels may be longitudinally or circumferentially
        stiffened. In the latter case, suitable curved stiffener checks may be performed. In both cases,
        the plate panel may be checked as curved using a variety of methods.

        Various limit state checks are available. These are discussed in the following section.

1.4     LIMIT STATE APPROACH

        PANEL-CHECK uses a limit state design process to assess the stiffened panel. The approach
        used is essentially that described in rules such as BS5400, DnV, etc. The following general
        equation is solved:
                                          R
                                             ≥γ D ⋅ D + γ E ⋅ E + γ L ⋅ L
                                                      γ

        where:                  R is the characteristic resistance;
                                γ is a material partial safety factor (PSF);
                                D is the force due to dead loads;
                                E is the force due to environmental loads;
                                L is the force due to live loads;
                                γD, γE and γL are load partial safety factors for each load type.

        It is therefore necessary to define load and material factors to ensure an adequate factor of
        safety against failure. The following factors may be defined in PANEL-CHECK:

        −       a material factor taken by default as 1.15 or redefined on the MATERIAL-
                PROPERTIES command. The allowable stress in the material is taken as the yield
                stress divided by this factor in strength and serviceability analysis;

        −       a partial safety factor on water pressure loading used to factor the loading prior to
                application to the structure. Separate safety factors may be applied for static and
                dynamic components of pressure.



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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Introduction


        Note that no load partial safety factors are applied in PANEL-CHECK to the envelope loads.
        It is assumed that both directly applied loads and loads passed from PANEL-ENVELOPE
        already include load factors appropriate to their origin. It is possible to use the LOAD-
        REDISTRIBUTION-NODE command to post-apply these factors, but this is not generally the
        preferred method.

        PANEL-CHECK can perform ultimate, serviceability and fatigue limit state (ULS, SLS
        and FLS) checks on a given section of stiffened panel. In the PANEL documentation, the
        term 'Strength Check' is synonymous with 'Ultimate Limit State Check', 'Service Check'
        with 'Serviceability Limit State Check' and 'Fatigue Check' with 'Fatigue Limit State
        Check'.

1.5     SELECTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF INSPECTION POINTS

        To analyse a given panel or plate, the PANEL programs should be used to assess one or more
        inspection points across the panel:

        −       when running as a stand-alone program, these inspection points are assigned arbitrary
                numbers for use in output identification only;

        −       when running as a post-processor to an FE system via PANEL-ENVELOPE, the
                inspection points must correspond to node numbers used in the analysis. Options are
                available to scan all or selected nodes, or to assess panels as a whole based on
                representative results.

        Each inspection point must be given a classification. The classification is used to identify the
        position of the inspection point on the panel and may be an integer between 1 and 8. Figure
        1.5-1 shows typical locations of nodes of varying class:

        −       Class 1 identifies all corner nodes on the panel;
        −       Class 2 identifies the end locations of all stiffeners;
        −       Class 3 identifies all edge nodes on edges that do not contain stiffeners;
        −       Class 4 identifies all intermediate nodes on the outermost two stiffeners;
        −       Class 5 identifies all intermediate nodes on internal stiffeners;
        −       Class 6 identifies all further edge nodes on stiffened edges;
        −       Class 7 identifies all remaining nodes;
        −       Class 8 is identical to Class 2, but is intended for use at a bulkhead where the flange may
                be considered fully restrained. The flange is not considered restrained at nodes of Class
                2.

        Node classification is used primarily to define whether or not a stiffener is present at a node
        (stiffeners are present for node Classes 2, 4, 5 and 8). It is also used in fatigue analysis to
        determine which S-N curves are used, and in SLS and FLS checks to determine the plate
        stresses and effective width factors for section property calculations to DnV rules.

        The following components of load per unit width are considered at each inspection point:

        -       Ns, direct load per unit width in the stiffener direction;
        -       Np, direct load per unit width perpendicular to stiffener direction;
        -       Nsp, shear force per unit width in plate.

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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Introduction


        The following components apply to node classes 2, 4, 5 and 8 only:
        −       M,      moment per unit width carried by stiffeners;
        −       S,      shear force per unit width carried by stiffener webs.

        Figure 1.5-2 shows these forces diagrammatically for a unit width of plate.


1.6     LOAD COMBINATIONS AND ENVELOPES
        It is often a lengthy and complex operation to produce all of the load combinations necessary
        for the checking of large FE models with complex operational and environmental loading.
        PANEL-ENVELOPE provides an alternative method whereby the logic of the loading is
        defined and the program automatically creates "envelopes" of load with which to check a
        given location. The two approaches are compared below and illustrated in Figure 1.6-1:

        −       Ordinary Load Case Enveloping
                Decide on a number of representative load combinations. Determine the stresses in the
                structure with these combinations and search through the results for maximum and
                minimum values;

        −       Logic Enveloping
                Build up envelopes (maximum-minimum ranges of load) directly from basic load cases
                by the use of rules which define the logic that controls combination of loading.

        Given the rules (e.g. only one wave direction at any one timc, etc.), in the form of instructions
        such as INCLude, REVErsible, CHOOse 3 from 8, etc., the program identifies worst cases for
        strength and serviceability checking purposes. Load partial safety factors for limit state code
        checking are also conveniently applied at this stage. The load factor used by the program may
        depend on whether a particular constituent load makes the envelope value better or worse.

        The program can be applied to dynamic loading given in harmonic (real and imaginary)
        terms, as well as time histories and static loading. When considering harmonic loading the
        program features a novel method of enveloping loads whilst maintaining amplitude and phase
        information.

        Full details of load enveloping may be found in the PANEL-ENVELOPE User Manual.

1.7     SIGN CONVENTION AND UNITS

        PANEL-CHECK uses the following sign convention for applied forces:
        −       COMPRESSIVE direct stresses are POSITIVE;
        −       out-of-plane bending forces are POSITIVE if they cause COMPRESSION IN
                THE PLATE;
        −       the sign of shear loading is immaterial.

        Directly specified forces must follow this convention. It is recognised, however, that the
        particular PE system in use may not use the same sign convention. Indeed, most systems
        adopt a tension-positive, compression-negative approach. To cater for this, the FE system
        units may be converted using the SIGNS command in PANEL-CHECK. See the examples in
        later Sections for details.
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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                             Introduction

        It is also possible to use the LOAD-REDISTRIBUTION matrix to invert this convention in
        PANEL-CHECK by applying negative terms in the matrix. See Section 5.0 for further details.

        A positive water pressure is assumed to act on the unstiffened (or bottom) face of the plate.
        This sign convention may be inverted using the PLATE-DIMENSIONS instruction. Water
        pressure sign is immaterial for plates stiffened symmetrically on both sides.

        All input and output for PANEL-ENVELOPE is in the units of the PE analysis to which it
        refers. For ASAS, these are the ANALYSIS units, i.e. the units stored in the backing files. For
        SESAM, they are the units of data on the SIN file. Envelopes may be factored in PANEL-
        ENVELOPE, but it is recommended that this is not used for unit conversion, so as to keep all
        backing file records in consistent units.

        PANEL-CHECK, however, uses SI units throughout and all input data, loading, etc. is
        assumed to be in these units. Data for each instruction must be input in the units specified in
        the User Manual. The basic units are as follows:

        −       forces                                                             :         MegaNewtons (MN);
        −       moments                                                            :         MegaNewton-metres (MNm);
        −       water depth, wave height, coordinates                              :         metres (m);
        −       plate and stiffener dimensions                                     :         millimetres (mm);
        −       stresses                                                           :         MegaNewtons per square
                                                                                             metre (MNm-2)

        This requirement applies to forces input directly to PANEL-CHECK as well as to forces
        transferred from PANEL-ENVELOPE. This may mean that the envelopes stored by PANEL-
        ENVELOPE need a change of units prior to use. Factors to apply to the force and length
        terms of these envelopes, to convert them to MegaNewtons and metres, may be applied in
        PANEL-CHECK via the UNITS command. Examples of the use of these factors are given in
        later Sections.

        As previously stated, it is also possible to use the LOAD-REDISTRIBUTION matrix to
        convert PANEL-CHECK forces to appropriate units, but again, this is not the preferred
        option.

1.8     PROGRAM INPUT/OUTPUT

        Input data for PANEL-CHECK and PANEL-ENVELOPE is in the form of a text file
        containing successive commands. There is an option to use external data files for part of this
        data, or for the data to exist in several physical files. This is described in detail in Section 3.0.

        The data for a PANEL program consists of the following:

        −       if necessary, a preliminary deck as required for a particular analysis package. This may
                be as little as one SUPER-ELEMENT command;

        −       instructions for running PANEL as given by the User Manual. The data may include
                any number of DO-CHECKS instructions which start calculations for the currently
                selected inspection point or points. Data may then be revised and further DO-CHECKS
                instructions entered as required;


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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Introduction

        −       the run is terminated by a STOP or END instruction.

        A DATA-CHECK-ONLY instruction may be included to reduce the analysis to a data check
        only. Other commands (ENVELOPE, CODE-CHECK) may be used to selectively enable or
        disable full stress checks at each DO-CHECKS instruction.

        Both PANEL-CHECK and PANEL-ENVELOPE produce output files containing the results
        of the analysis. These can be lengthy if certain options are set as all aspects of the internal
        checks may be reported. PANEL-CHECK also produces a summary output file that is more
        useful for first pass checking. This file may be formatted by the user.

        All of the above file formats are described in more detail in the examples to follow.




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Introduction




                                                                STRUCTURAL MODEL



                                                                FE ANALYSIS SYSTEM
                                                                     ASAS - H




                                                              BACKING FILES FROM
                                                              FE SYSTEM “10” FILE
                                                              (PROJECT FILE) “35”
                                                              FILE   (RAW   PLATE
                                                              STRESSES,      BEAM
                                                              FORCES AND MOMENTS
                                                              AND GEOMETRIC DATA)
                                                              AND “12” FILE FROM
                                                              ASASPOST (AVERAGED
                                                              PLATE         NODAL
                                                              STRESSES)
                        PANEL - ENVELOPE




                                                                    RESULTS
                                                                    OUTPUT
                             ENVELOPE
                            BACKING FILE
                              ‘21’ FILE




                        PANEL - ENVELOPE




                                                                    RESULTS
                                                                    OUTPUT




                             FIGURE 1.2-1: COURSE OF AN ASAS ANALYSIS




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Introduction



                                                                 STRUCTURAL MODEL




                                                                 FE ANALYSIS SYSTEM
                                                                       SESAM




                                                                   BACKING    FILES
                                                                   FROM FE SYSTEM
                                                                   (GEOMETRIC AND
                                                                   STRESS DATA), SIF
                                                                   FILE




                                                                        PREPOST




                          FIGURE 1.2-2: COURSE OF A SESAM ANALYSIS


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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Introduction




                          FIGURE 1.3-1: TYPES OF STIFFENER MODELLING




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Introduction




                                                                                                              CHECK 2 PRIMARY STIFFENERS
                                                                                                              CHECK 1 PLATE AND SECONDARY
                                                                                                              STIFFENERS




             FIGURE 13-2: ORTHOGONALLY STIFFENED PANEL

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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Introduction




                 FIGURE 1.5-1: STIFFENED PANEL CLASSIFICATION




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Introduction




           FIGURE 1.5-2: DIRECTLY APPLIED LOADS PER UNIT WIDTH




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Introduction




                           FIGURE 1.6-1: ENVELOPING EXAMPLES




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Simple Strength Analysis


2.      SIMPLE STRENGTH ANALYSIS

2.1     INTRODUCTION
        This section describes how to assess a simple unidirectionally stiffened panel subject to
        known structural loading. For the time being, it is assumed that there is no water pressure and
        that the plate is flat and free from discontinuities. Figure 2.1-1 shows the geometry of the
        sample panel. Strength checks only are required, based on loads provided by the user.

        For this check, consider that there has been an assessment of the stress in the panel and that
        the central stiffener line is the most heavily stressed. This reduces output for this example (in
        practice, PANEL would probably be used to check all locations on all stiffeners). Two
        locations are selected, one at mid-span and one at the end of the stiffener. Referring to the
        nodal classifications in Section 1.0, the mid-span node is seen to be Class 5 and the end node
        is seen to be Class 2.

        It is also required to check the plate. A corner location is selected as being the most heavily
        stressed. The corner node classification is 1.

        Arbitrarily, these three locations are assigned 'node numbers' of 5000, 2000 and 1000,
        respectively. Node numbers are not important unless the program interfaces with an FE
        model, but do help identify checks in the output.

2.2     DATA PREPARATION

        The data file for this sample problem is included as Figure 2.2-1.

        Data lines beginning with an exclamation mark (T) are comments and have no bearing on the
        course of the analysis. It is recommended that comments be used liberally to annotate the data
        and allow previous analyses to be understood with ease, and even more significantly, at a later
        date. The '*' symbol forces a new page and table headers to the summary file.

        The attached data file has been set up with the minimum of required data, using defaults
        wherever possible. In particular, default material property and imperfection data are assumed.
        Figure 2.2-2 tabulates the default data within PANEL-CHECK.

        Strength checking alone is enabled, with service and fatigue checks switched off by default.
        Group and envelope numbers are required, but are only used to make the output more
        readable in this example. The run title and envelope name are also for presentation purposes
        only.

        All plate checking is switched off for the stiffener checks and then switched on again for the
        plate check. This is done using the PLATE-BUCKLING and PASS commands. The IDWR
        method is used for stiffener buckling checks and this is specified using the STIFFENER-
        BUCKLING command.

        Stiffener and plate dimensions are the only data needed to define the panel in this simple case.
        In this example STIFFENER-DATA is set up for stiffener number 22




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Simple Strength Analysis
        and this STIFFENER-TYPE is selected for use. Up to fifty stiffener types may be defined
        and used in this way. A T type stiffener is defined in this example. Note that the dimensions
        given are always in millimetres and that the depth of the section is the overall depth.
        The PLATE-DIMENSIONS are relatively self explanatory giving span, spacing and
        thickness.

        Each inspection point is then selected in turn and the appropriate loading applied directly.
        The program analyses the applied data when the DO-CHECKS instruction is encountered.
        Note that the SELECT instructions are cumulative and that CLEAR-SELECT is required on
        all checks other than the first. In this way all previous selections are cancelled prior to the
        new nodes being set. As previously mentioned, input forces are in consistent units of
        MegaNewtons and metres and are specified per unit width (metre) of plate.

2.3     SAMPLE OUTPUT

2.3.1 General
        Output from the example given in this section is included as Appendix A. As noted earlier, two
        forms of output are produced by the PANEL-CHECK program:

        −       main output containing echoes of input data and detailed results of all checks performed
                on the panel, see Appendix A.1;

        −       summary output containing critical results only for each check presented in a concise
                format, see Appendix A.2.

        It is recommended that the summary output be viewed or printed first to identify regions of
        the panel or panels failing PANEL-CHECK. The main output can then be used to identify the
        reasons why these failures occur and preventive measures taken.

        Appendix A also includes detailed descriptions of the output produced by PANEL-CHECK,
        field by field. This provides useful information to describe the meaning of the output. The
        following Sections give a more general description of the results.

2.3.2 Main Output Description
        For the stiffener checks, the first page tabulates the separate and combined properties of the
        stiffener and plate. This is followed by several pages of output, each page corresponding to a
        unique position around the cross-section of the stiffener, first for class 2, then for class 5. The
        positions reported depend on the type of stiffener in use and are shown diagrammatically in
        Figure 2.3-1. This output would normally be followed by a check on the adjacent plate, using
        stresses derived from the composite stiffener/plate section. In this case, however, this has been
        turned off in the data by the PASS and PLATE-BUCKLING commands.
        For the node of Class 1, only the plate stress check is presented using direct applied stresses
        rather than calculated ones.

        The codes A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H in the stiffener and plate checks refer to the combination
        of maximum and minimum envelope of load being used. The load combinations are
        described below:

        −       for locations around the stiffener:



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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Simple Strength Analysis

                      Case        Axial              Transverse            Moment

                      A           Maximum            Maximum               Maximum
                      B           Maximum            Minimum               Maximum
                      C           Minimum            Maximum               Minimum
                      D           Minimum            Minimum               Minimum
                      E           Maximum            Maximum               Minimum
                      F           Maximum            Minimum               Minimum
                      G           Minimum            Maximum               Maximum
                      H           Minimum            Minimum               Maximum

        −       for the evaluated stress in the plate:
                       Case          Stiffener Direction                Perpendicular

                       E             Maximum                            Maximum
                       F             Maximum                            Minimum
                       G             Minimum                            Maximum
                       H             Minimum                            Minimum

        Shear stresses are not coupled to the above, as the maximum absolute value of shear alone is
        used throughout the checks.

2.3.3 Summary Output Description

        The summary output presents a brief précis of the stress check information in a highly
        concise form. One line of results is presented for each inspection point.

        At the beginning of each line of output is an echo of the node number and class, reference
        node number and class (see Chapter 4) and the stiffener and plate dimensions. This data is
        followed by derived weld sizes for the flange/web and web/plate welds.

        At the end of each line is a summary of the worst utilisation ratios for the flange, web, welds
        and plate, respectively, presented as percentages. Values over 100 indicate a code check
        failure and cause the line to be flagged with '***' to indicate an unsafe section.

        The sample summary output contains no headers or comments by default. Headers may be
        requested at any time by including a "" in the input data. Comments may be added by a '*' or
        '#' command line.




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Simple Strength Analysis

2.3.4 Redesign and Recheck of Example Problem 1

        From the main and summary output files, it can be seen that the stiffener check at inspection
        point 5000 (Class 5) has failed to pass the code requirements. High usage factors, greater than
        one, were obtained at two locations in the stiffener cross-section. These were the stiffener
        outstand (stiffener position code 1) and the web adjacent to the flange (stiffener position code
        3). The high stresses obtained at these two locations were due primarily to the applied
        negative bending moment. This moment, in addition to that from geometric imperfections,
        cause the plate to be in tension and the stiffener flange to be in compression.
        Additionally, the section is poorly balanced. The neutral axis of the effective section is much
        closer to the plate than to the stiffener flange. This results in high compressive bending stress
        in the stiffener outstand. Combination with direct compressive stress at this location is
        primarily responsible for the failure.
        To rectify this situation in the most efficient manner, the section requires to be better
        balanced and the bending section moduli for the flange needs to be increased. Four different
        strategies for redesign of the panel are considered, as follows:

        −       firstly, the panel was redesigned using five equispaced identical stiffeners, each having
                the same dimensions as the original three stiffeners;

        −       secondly, the flanges of the original stiffeners were increased in width from 350mm to
                500mm;

        −       thirdly, the webs of the original stiffeners were increased in depth from 535mm to
                800mm;

        −       lastly, stiffeners were added to the bottom of the plate forming three double-sided
                stiffeners.

        Changes in the original data file, corresponding to each solution, are given in Figure 2.3-2.
        Figure 2.3-3 shows the usage factors of each solution and the total weight (kg) of the relevant
        panel.

        All four solutions were passed through PANEL-CHECK. In the first two solutions, the
        section modulus was increased and the neutral axis of the effective section was shifted
        significantly towards the centroid of the stiffener, resulting in a reduction of the compressive
        stresses at the outstand to less than the limiting stress. In the last solution, the problem of
        plate and stiffener eccentricities was eliminated by introducing a symmetric section about the
        major and minor directions. Moreover, the section modulus was increased significantly. This
        caused a large reduction in the stresses, and consequently the usage factors, of the top and
        bottom stiffeners.

        Redesign of the panel by increasing plate thickness was not considered because of the
        inefficiency of this solution. The only advantage from increasing the plate thickness is to
        increase the moment of inertia of the effective section. In the meantime, this will result in
        shifting the NA closer to the plate, producing only a very slight increase in the section
        modulus.




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Simple Strength Analysis
        On brief inspection, it can be concluded that the most suitable and economical solution to
        redesigning the panel is the second solution. This solution involves the minimum amount of
        additional steel to make the panel pass PANEL-CHECK.

        In the above-mentioned solutions, it was assumed that the stiffened panel is a part of a
        structure being designed. The structure is then analysed to estimate the level of the different
        stresses. The design of the panel can then be altered to suit the code requirements. In a
        different situation, where the panel forms a part of an existing structure which is likely to be
        subjected to excessive stresses resulting from the addition of new loads, the fourth and last
        solution might be ideal. A further, and perhaps more economical solution is to attach separate
        plates to the stiffener flanges (doubler plates).




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Simple Strength Analysis




                                                                                   0




                 FIGURE 2.1-1: SIMPLE PROBLEM FOR STRENGTH ANALYSIS




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Simple Strength Analysis


 !
 ! PANEL APPLICATION MANUAL EXAMPLE 1
 ! **********************************
 !
 ! PANEL INPUT FILE FOR A 'STAND ALONE' RUN
 !
 ! SET STRENGTH CHECKING ON (SERVICE AND FATIGUE CHECKS OFF BY DEFAULT)
 ! GIVE ARBITRARY GROUP AND ENVELOPE NUMBERS (THESE ARE NOT USED YET)
 ! ASSIGN A RUN TITLE AND ENVELOPE NAME
 ! MATERIAL PROPERTIES AND STIFFENER IMPERFECTION DATA FROM DEFAULT DATA
 ! USE '*' TO PRINT HEADERS ON SUMMARY OUTPUT AT START OF PAGE
 !
 CODE-CHECK ON
 STRENGTH-CHECK ON
 GROUP 1
 TITLE                     PANEL APPLICATION MANUAL EXAMPLE 1
 *
 ENVELOPE-NUMBER 1
 ENVELOPE-NAME                OPERATING CASE ENVELOPE
 !
 ! CREATE AND USE DATA FOR STIFFENER TYPE 22 (TYPE.D.TW.B.TF)
 ! SELECT CLASSES 1. 2 AND 5 FOR CHECKING
 !
 STIFFENER-DATA 22 TEE 535.0 25.0 350.0 35.0
 STIFFENER-TYPE 22
 ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES 1 2 5
 !
 ! SET UP PLATE PANEL DIMENSIONS (LENGTH. SPACING. THICKNESS)
 !
 PLATE-DIMENSIONS 4150.0 780.0 32.0
 !
 ! THE FIRST TWO CHECKS ARE STIFFENER CHECKS, SO SWITCH OFF
 ! PLATE CHECK AND PLATE BUCKLING CHECK
 ! USE IDWR METHOD FOR STIFFENER BUCKLING
 !
 PASS 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
 ! PLATE-BUCKLING OFF
 STIFFENER-BUCKLING IDWR IDWR
 !
 ! SELECT INSPECTION POINT 2000 OF NODAL CLASS 2
 ! DEFINE THE NODAL ENVELOPE OF STRESSES FOR POINT 2000 AND CHECK IT
 !
 SELECT 2 2000
 NODE-ENVELOPE STRENGTH MAX 3.209 1.654 0.554 0.487 0.514
 NODE-ENVELOPE STRENGTH MIN 0.510 -0.292 -0.524 -0.781 -0.539
 DO-CHECKS
 !
 ! CLEAR PREVIOUSLY SELECTED INSPECTION POINTS AND SELECT POINT 5000
 ! OF NODAL CLASS 5
 ! DEFINE THE NODAL ENVELOPE FOR INSPECTION POINT 5000 AND CHECK IT
 !
 CLEAR-SELECT 5 5000
 NODE-ENVELOPE STRENGTH MAX 4.130                       1.654     0.628   0.024 0.654
 NODE-ENVELOPE STRENGTH MIN 0.510                       -0.292 -0.524 -2.673 -0.412
 DO-CHECKS
 !
 ! CLEAR PREVIOUSLY SELECTED INSPECTION POINTS AND SELECT POINT 1000
 ! OF NODAL CLASS 1
 ! DEFINE THE NODAL ENVELOPE FOR INSPECTION POINT 1000 AND CHECK IT
 ! NOTE THAT THERE IS NO OUT OF PLANE LOADING FOR PLATE ONLY
 !
 ! THIS CHECK IS A PLATE CHECK. SO SWITCH ON PLATE CHECK LOCATIONS
 ! AND PLATE BUCKLING CHECKS TO BS5400
 !
 PASS 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
 PLATE-BUCKLING BS5400 RESTRAINED
 !
 CLEAR-SELECT 1 1000
 N O D E - E N V EL O P E ST R E N G T H M AX 1 . 4 6 2 1. 6 5 4 0. 7 3 4
 NODE-ENVELOPE STRENGTH MIN -0.001 -0.292 -0.356
 DO-CHECKS
 !
 ! END OF DATA
 !
 END




                                FIGURE 2.2-1: PANEL-CHECK DATA FILE




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Simple Strength Analysis




        Strength checks                                                                −           off
        Service checks                                                                 −           off
        Fatigue checks                                                                 −           off
        Data echo                                                                      −           off
        Input data listing                                                             −           off
        Discontinuities                                                                −           none
        Water pressure                                                                 −           none
        Gravity                                                                        −           9.81 ms-2
        Plate fabrication imperfection                                                 −           4.8 mm
        Quality of workmanship                                                         −           3.33 (see IDWR)
        Residual stress parallel to stiffener                                          −           10% of yield
        Residual stress perpendicular to stiffener                                     −           10% of yield
        Young's modulus                                                                −           205000 MNm-2
        Shear modulus                                                                  −           78846 MNm-2
        Poisson's ratio:       strength                                                −           0.0
                               serviceability                                          −           0.3
                               fatigue                                                 −           0.3
        Yield stress                                                                   −           355.0 MNm-2
        Material safety factor                                                         −           1.15
        Stress concentration                                                           −           none
        Stiffener curvature                                                            −           none
        Curvature correction factor                                                    −           1.0
        Pressure modification factor                                                   −           1.0
        Stiffener imperfection to length ratio                                         −           0.0018
        Lower limit for stiffener imperfection                                         −           0.0 mm
        Upper limit for stiffener imperfection                                         −           18.0 mm
        Relative imperfection to length ratio                                          −           0.0048
        Lower limit for relative imperfection                                          −           3.0 mm
        Upper limit for relative imperfection                                          −           36.0 mm
        Stiffener end code                                                             −           2 (both ends continuous)
        Water density                                                                  −           1025 kgm-3
        Weld factors                                                                   −           0.38, 0.42




                            FIGURE 2.2-2: DEFAULT DATA IN PANEL-CHECK




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Simple Strength Analysis




                       FIGURE 23-1: STRESS REPORTING LOCATIONS

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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Simple Strength Analysis

RECHECKING EXAMPLE PROBLEM 1 USING FIVE STIFFENERS (SOLUTION 1)



ORIGINAL DATA : PLATE-DIMENSIONS 4150.0 780.0 32.0

NEW DATA         : PLATE-DIMENSIONS 4150.0 520.0 32.0




RECHECKING COWLS PROBLEM 1 USING STIFFENERS WITH WIDER FLANGES (SOLUTION 2)



ORIGINAL DATA       : STIFFENER-DATA 22 TEE 535.0 25.0 350.0 35.0

NEW DATA            : STIFFENER-DATA 22 TEE 535.0 25.0 500.0 35.0




RECHECKING EXAMPLE PROBLEM 1 USING STIFFENERS WITH DEEPER WEBS (SOLUTION 3)



ORIGINAL DATA      : STIFFENER-DATA 22 TEE 535.0 25.0 350.0 35.0

NEW DATA           : STIFFENER-DATA 22 TEE 800.0 25.0 350.0 35.0




RECHECEING EXAMPLE PROBLEM 1 USING THREE DOUBLE-SIDED STIFFENERS (SOLUTION 4)



ORIGINAL DATA      : STIFFENER-DATA 22 TEE 535.0 25.0 350.0 35.0

NEW DATA           : STIFFENER-DATA 22 TEE 535.0 25.0 350.0 35.0
                     STIFFENER-DATA 23 TEE 535.J 25.0 350.0 35.0
                     STIFFENER-TYPE 22 23




           FIGURE 2.3-2: CHANGES IN THE PANEL-CHECK DATA FILE

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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Simple Strength Analysis


                                                 ORIGINAL SUMMARY RESULTS OF EXAMPLE PROBLEM 1


                                                      USAGE FACTORS OF POINT 2000 (CLASS 2) :

                                                                   -    OUTSTAND = 44%
                                                                   -    WEB      = 44%

                                                      USAGE FACTORS OF POINT 5000 (CLASS 5) :

                                                                   -    OUTSTAND = 120%

                                                                   -    WEB         = 111%
                                                           TOTAL WEIGHT OF PANEL = 5671Kg




                   SUMMARY RESULTS OF SOLUTION 1                                  SUMMARY RESULTS OF SOLUTION 2


                   USAGE FACTORS OF POINT 2000 (CLASS 2) :                        USAGE FACTORS OF POINT 2000 (CLASS 2) :

                             - OUTSTAND = 33%                                                -OUTSTAND = 37%
                             - WEB      = 33%                                                -WEB      = 38%


                   USAGE FACTORS OF POINT 5000 (CLASS 5) :                         USAGE FACTORS OF POINT 5000 (CLASS 5) :

                             - OUTSTAND = 90%                                                - OUTSTAND = 93%
                             - WEB      = 83%                                                - WEB     = 87%
                   TOTAL WEIGHT OF PANEL = 7284Kg                                 TOTAL WEIGHT OF PANEL = 6185Kg




                   SUMMARY RESULTS OF SOLUTION 3                                  SUMMARY RESULTS OF SOLUTION 4


                   USAGE FACTORS OF POINT 2000 (CLASS 2) :                         USAGE FACTORS OF POINT 2000 (CLASS 2) :

                             - OUTSTAND = 40%                                                - OUTSTAND = 22%
                             - WEB      = 30%                                                - WEB      = 23%
                   USAGE FACTORS OF POINT 5000 (CLASS 5) :                         USAGE FACTORS OF POINT 5000 (CLASS 5) :
                             - OUTSTAND = 98%                                                - OUTSTAND = 56%
                             - WEB      = 72%                                                - WEB      = 54%
                   TOTAL WEIGHT OF PANEL = 6405Kg                                 TOTAL WEIGHT OF PANEL 8091Kg




                                      FIGURE 2.3-3: SUMMARY OF RESULTS




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Extended I/O Control


3.      EXTENDED I/O CONTROL

3.1 INPUT DATA PRESENTATION
        Several instructions are available to improve the presentation and echoing of input data in the
        results file of PANEL-CHECK.

        The ECHO instruction may be used to print an echo of each instruction as it is read in, and
        the LIST-INPUT-DATA instruction may be used to produce an expanded echo of the data
        after interpretation. Although producing more output than ECHO, this latter instruction
        produces a better presentation of the interpreted data and should generally be used for new
        runs.

        The LIST-REFERENCE-DATA and LIST-STIFFENER-DATA commands produce
        tabulations of current expanded data when requested. Figures 3.1-1 and 3.1-2 show typical
        reference data output, whilst Figure 3.1-3 shows corresponding stiffener data. Data input up
        to the LIST instruction will be presented. It is recommended that these instructions be used
        just prior to a DO-CHECKS command to tabulate input data that will be used in the checks.

        The DATE, TITLE, ENVELOPE-NUMBER and ENVELOPE-NAME commands are
        available to improve output presentation as required.

        The ECHO command also controls the printing of a page of calculated stiffener properties
        immediately prior to the stress checks for Classes 2, 4, 5 or 8. An example of this output is
        shown in Figure 3.1-4. Annotation for this output is provided in Appendix A.1. To obtain this
        output without a full data echo, the user should turn data echo on immediately prior to DO-
        CHECKS and turn it off immediately after.

3.2     USING EXTERNAL DATA FILES

        When analysing a number of panels throughout a structure, it may be convenient to set up a
        single reference, or external file containing all information common to each run and to use
        this file repeatedly in the analyses. Data such as wave and water loading, stiffener properties,
        material properties, etc. may be included in this file.

        The CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM instruction is available to transfer control to this external
        file and back to the original data file. To do this, a CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM command
        should be present early in the data file, referencing a stream number and the external file to
        which it should be assigned. Control will be passed to this stream when this command is
        encountered and the external data read in. At the end of the external file, a CHANGE-
        INPUT-STREAM 5 command should be present to return control to the original data file.
        This process is illustrated in Figure 3.2-1.

        In this illustration, the main data file is EXAMPLE.DAT. At some point in this data, input is
        switched to stream 54, assigned to file STIFF.DAT, presumably containing stiffener
        properties. At the end of that file, input is changed again to file LOAD.DAT on stream 55.
        The last CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM command is present in that file, returning control
        directly to the main data (although this could also have been




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Extended I/O Control
        achieved via stream 54). Data input from the main data resumes exactly where left off after
        the switch to input stream 54.

        The PANEL-CHECK User Manual further describes this facility and it is used in several of
        the latter examples.

3.3     DIAGNOSTIC HANDLING

        The MAXIMUM-ERRORS command may be used to define the point at which the run will
        be aborted after a severe data or processing error. By default, checking stops as soon as a
        severe error is encountered. The MAXIMUM-ERRORS command may be used to specify
        more than one acceptable error and therefore to continue beyond the errors encountered.

        This command should be used with care, as results after a severe error may not be
        reasonable.

        TRACE and SUBROUTINE-TRACE commands also exist to follow program logic in the
        event of an unexplained error or program bug. These commands require a knowledge of the
        internal workings of the program and should only be used on the advice of the authors.




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Extended I/O Control




               FIGURE 3.1-1: REFERENCE DATA PRINTOUT, Sheet 1 of 2



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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Extended I/O Control




               FIGURE 3.1-2: REFERENCE DATA PRINTOUT, Sheet 2 of 2

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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Extended I/O Control




                          FIGURE 3.1-3: LISTING OF STIFFENER DATA

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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Extended I/O Control




    FIGURE 3.1-4: PRINTOUT OF STIFFENER-PLATE PROPERTIES

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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                         Extended I/O Control




                       FIGURE 3.2-1: USE OF "CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM"




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Use of Reference Nodes


4.      USE OF REFERENCE NODES

4.1     GENERAL THEORY
        When analysing a stiffener or plate which demonstrates a non-uniform stress distribution, it
        is unreasonable to base the buckling behaviour of the panel on the extreme local stresses at
        any point, whether they are the highest or the lowest. Instead, it is necessary to be able to
        define a set of stresses which approximate the same buckling and imperfection effects as the
        actual non-uniform stress field. Buckling calculations may then be based on these stresses
        alone and imperfection bending caused in this way may be added to local stresses at the
        inspection point considered.

        PANEL-CHECK uses the concept of a reference node to define these reference stresses.
        The reference stresses may either be defined directly at this reference node by means of the
        REFERENCE-NODE-ENVELOPE command, or a representative REFERENCE-NODE-
        NUMBER may be selected from an FE analysis at which stresses suitable for buckling
        calculations are considered to occur. It may be considered suitable to define just one
        reference node for the entire panel if the distribution of load between stiffeners is reasonably
        uniform. Alternatively, separate reference nodes may be defined per stiffener or even per
        node checked. Note that reference stresses, if given, are used throughout the strength (ULS)
        checks on plates, as local stress concentrations are assumed to 'yield out' under ultimate load.

        If no reference node is specified, then the local stresses at the analysed node are used instead
        for the evaluation of buckling and imperfection effects. This is the approach that would be
        used in a conventional assessment.

        A detailed description of the approach used is presented in the PANEL Theoretical Manual,
        and a simple beam-column example is given.

4.2     SAMPLE PROBLEM

        Figure 4.2-1 shows a sample data file for an analysis using reference node stresses.
        Reference node envelopes are defined for 'node' 5000 of class 5 and these stresses are used
        for selected 'node' 2000 (class 2). Similar checks are performed for 'node' 1000 based on
        reference node 7000 (class 7). Other data is identical to Example 1 in Section 3.0.

        Results from this analysis are included in Appendix B. Both main and summary output are
        included.

        Comparison of the output from this run with that from Example 1 (in Appendix A) shows
        that the factors of safety against buckling have increased. This increase is expected due to the
        general reduction in applied loads from local to reference stresses. This causes corresponding
        reductions in the eccentricity bending, axial and combined stresses and in the unity check.
        Plate checks show even more dramatic reductions as the majority of plate checking is based
        on reference node stresses. The only use for local stresses in plate checks is to produce the
        bending stress from the difference in transverse local and transverse reference stress.




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Use of Reference Nodes
        Although this example does not vary the checks by much, it is clear that the use of reference
        stresses can be very important when high local stresses are involved that are not representative
        of the typical level of stress in the stiffener or plate. It is equally clear that they should be used
        with care and engineering awareness, for it is quite possible to base the stiffener buckling on
        unreasonably low reference stresses.




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                Use of Reference Nodes


    !
    ! PANEL APPLICATION MANUAL EXAMPLE 2
    ! **********************************
    ! PANEL INPUT FILE FOR A 'STAND ALONE' RUN USING REFERENCE NODE
 STRESSES
    !
    ! SET STRENGTH CHECKING ON (SERVICE AND FATIGUE CHECKS OFF BY DEFAULT)
    ! GIVE ARBITRARY GROUP AND ENVELOPE NUMBERS (THESE ARE NOT USED YET)
    ! ASSIGN A RUN TITLE AND ENVELOPE NAME
    ! MATERIAL PROPERTIES AND STIFFENER IMPERFECTION DATA FROM DEFAULT DATA
    ! USE ‘*’ TO PRINT HEADERS ON SUMMARY OUTPUT AT START OF PAGE
    !
     CODE-CHECK ON
     STRENGTH-CHECK ON
     GROUP 1
     TITLE           PANEL APPLICATION MANUAL EXAMPLE 2
     *
     ENVELOPE-NUMBER 1
     ENVELOPE-NAME OPERATING CASE ENVELOPE
     !
     ! CREATE AND USE DATA FOR STIFFENER TYPE 22 (TYPE,D,TW,B,TF)
     ! SELECT CLASSES 1, 2 AND 5 FOR CHECKING
     !
     STIFFENER-DATA 22 TEE 535.0 25.0 350.0 35.0
     STIFFENER-TYPE 22
     ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES 1 2 5 7
     !
     ! SET UP PLATE PANEL DIMENSIONS (LENGTH, SPACING, THICKNESS)
     !
     PLATE-DIMENSIONS 4150.0 780.0 32.0
     !
     ! THE FIRST CHECK IS A STIFFENER CHECK, SO SWITCH OFF
     ! PLATE CHECK AND PLATE BUCKLING CHECK
     ! USE IDWR METHOD FOR STIFFENER BUCKLING
     !
     PASS 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
     PLATE-BUCKLING OFF
     STIFFENER-BUCKLING IDWR IDWR
     REF-NODE-NUMBER 5000 5
     REF-NODE-ENVE STRENGTH MAX 2.101    1.033    0.500 0.212 0.106
     REF-NODE-ENVE STRENGTH MIN 0.703    0.010   -0.213 -0.526 -0.218
     !
     ! SELECT INSPECTION POINT 2000 OF NODAL CLASS 2
     ! DEFINE THE NODAL ENVELOPE OF STRESSES FOR POINT 2000 AND CHECK IT
     !
     SELECT 2 2000
     NODE-ENVELOPE STRENGTH MAX 3.209    1.654    0.554 0.487 0.514
     NODE-ENVELOPE STRENGTH MIN 0.510 -0.292     -0.524 -0.781 -0.539
     DO-CHECKS
     !
     ! THIS CHECK IS A PLATE CHECK, SO SWITCH ON PLATE CHECK LOCATIONS
     ! AND PLATE BUCKLING CHECKS TO BS5400
     !
     PASS 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
     PLATE-BUCKLING BS5400 RESTRAINED
     !
     ! DEFINE REFERENCE NODE AS NODE 7000 OF CLASS 7 AND ASSIGN STRESSES
     !
     REF-NODE-NUMBER 7000 7
     REF-NODE-ENVE STRENGTH MAX 1.210    1.423 0.610
     REF-NODE-ENVE STRENGTH MIN 0.223 -0.113 -0.225
     !
     ! CLEAR PREVIOUSLY SELECTED INSPECTION POINTS AND SELECT POINT 1000
     ! OF NODAL CLASS 1
     ! DEFINE THE NODAL ENVELOPE FOR INSPECTION POINT 1000 AND CHECK IT
     ! NOTE THAT THERE IS NO OUT OF PLANE LOADING FOR PLATE ONLY
     !
     CLEAR-SELECT 1 1000
     NODE-ENVELOPE STRENGTH MAX 1.462 1.654 0.734
     NODE-ENVELOPE STRENGTH MIN -0.001 -0.292 -0.356
     DO-CHECKS
     !
     ! END OF DATA
     !
     END




            FIGURE 4.2-1: PANEL-CHECK DATA FOR EXAMPLE 2




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5.     ADVANCED FACILITIES

5.1    THE HARDING METHOD
       PANEL-CHECK has the capability of checking stiffener stability under the action of lateral
       and in-plane shear loads using two different approaches:

       −       a method based on IDWR/BS5400, where shear loading is considered equivalent
               to lateral loading and the combined destabilising effect of transverse/shear loading is
               assessed using a 'saw-tooth' type buckling mode;

       −       a method based on papers by Harding and Rahal, where the destabilising effect of
               transverse and shear loads in the plane of the plate can be represented as an equivalent
               lateral distributed load. The stiffener stability can then be assessed using a beam-
               column approach.

       Refer to the Theoretical Manual for full details of both checks.

       The Harding method has been introduced because it has become increasingly apparent that the
       IDWR/BS5400 approach is based on theory that is not easy to justify and gives results that
       can be highly conservative. The Harding method for stiffener stability checks is invoked by
       means of the STIFFENER-BUCKLING command. The effects of transverse loading and plate
       shear can be independently assigned to IDWR or HARDING.

       The Harding approach is generally to be recommended as it gives a far less conservative
       estimate of the destabilisation of the stiffeners. However, care should be taken not to use it
       outside its range of applicability (the maximum aspect ratio of the plate is 2:1, for example). It
       is also not recommended when considering the larger stiffeners on orthogonally stiffened
       panels, since it does not consider the adjacent plate to be stiffened, and may give over-
       conservative results.

       The examples given later in this section show the use of the Harding method.


5.2    CURVED PANELS
       PANEL-CHECK has the option of handling curved stiffeners and plate. Inputting a stiffener
       curvature, via the PLATE-DIMENSIONS instruction has the following effect on the checks:

       −       local bending of the stiffener flange is produced (for T stiffeners only, angles are not yet
               processed). Directly calculated flange bending stresses are used for nodes of Class 2, 4
               and 5. For node Class 8, a further factor of 1.06 is used to obtain the stress in the
               constrained end of the flange. Details are again given in the Theoretical Manual;

       −       additional web stresses are produced;

       −       the distribution of bending stress across the section is revised;

       −       local behaviour of the plate is modified.



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       The global effects of curvature causing changes in overall section forces and bending
       moments cannot be evaluated in PANEL and are assumed to be present in the section loads
       (from the FE analysis).

       The PANEL Theoretical Manual describes how these effects are considered.

       The recommended method for checking curved plates for ultimate strength is that of DnV.
       Extensive graphs of curved panel resistance are given in Appendix C of that code. Details of
       their implementation are given in the Theoretical Manual. The DnV method is selected via the
       PLATE-BUCKLING command. It is also possible on that command to define a plate
       curvature that allows longitudinally stiffened panels to be checked. Refer to Example 5 in
       Section 7.0 for details of a DnV curved panel check.

       An alternative approach may be adopted that determines an equivalent pressure that acts on
       the plate to allow for curvature. As noted in the Theoretical Manual, this approach may be
       conservative as no allowance is made for additional membrane stresses generated in the
       curved panel due to out of plane load. For this reason, two plate stress correction factors are
       available to adjust the evaluated equivalent pressure as follows:

       −       the curved plate bending correction factor is used to modify the 'equivalent pressure'
               only;

       −       the curved plate pressure modification factor will modify both the equivalent pressure
               and any other applied pressure loading.

       These factors should be used if further evidence is available as to the equivalent pressure
       caused by the curvature, such as an axisymmetric ring analysis. For many practical cases,
       however, errors of less than 10% can be expected using the simple equivalent pressure
       approach.

5.3    LOAD REDISTRIBUTION

       General purpose LOAD-REDISTRIBUTION commands are available to modify the matrix of
       loads applied at a node or reference node. The data for this command is in the form of a 5 x 5
       square matrix used to pre-multiply the applied loads per unit width (Ns, Np Nsp, M, S). The
       loads can therefore be scaled, combined, inverted, etc.

       The load redistribution command may be used for the following:

       −       to modify the stresses in a given area of the structure due to resizing causing a
               modification to the load path and a redistribution of load;

       −       to allow for redistribution of loads due to plastic yielding of one area of the structure,
               shedding load to another;

       −       to scale all the loads by varying factors to convert the units or allow for errors in the
               original FE analysis;




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       −       to invert the applied loads if the FE sign convention differs from the PANEL sign
               convention, or to reorientate these loads if the axis system changes.

       Note that a LOAD-REDISTRIBUTION command is active by default when provided, but
       may be switched off using the USE command with a zero in the appropriate field (LOAD-
       REDISTRIBUTION commands may also be switched off, in effect, by specifying a unity
       matrix).

       Load redistribution is of little use in the PANEL-CHECK program running in a stand-alone
       mode except that it may be more convenient, and better for presentation, to use a matrix to
       factor stresses rather than edit the applied stresses directly.

       When PANEL is linked to an FE system, load redistribution is more likely to be of use and is
       explained further by examples in later sections.

5.4    DISCONTINUITIES

       PANEL-CHECK allows for the weakening effect of discontinuities, cut-outs, holes,
       penetrations, unsupported edges, etc. by means of a DISCONTINUITY command. The use of
       this command causes section properties to be evaluated using a reduced width of plating from
       the web to the edge of a hole. This reduced width of plating may be applied optionally on one
       or both sides of the stiffener.

       Note that the reduced section properties are used throughout the entire length of the stiffener
       for water pressure loading evaluation. An example of DISCONTINUITY is given in the
       example at the end of this section.

5.5    IMPERFECTIONS

       Fabrication imperfections can be introduced into the analysis of a stiffened panel for both the
       stiffener and the plate.

       STIFFENER-IMPERFECTIONS may be either absolute or relative. The absolute
       imperfection is taken as the mid-span eccentricity of the fabricated stiffener along its length.
       The relative imperfection is the difference in imperfection between adjacent stiffeners. These
       tolerances and their uses are described diagrammatically in the Theoretical Manual. The
       relative imperfection is generally twice the initial imperfection but this is not necessarily the
       case. The absolute imperfection governs buckling due to load in the axis of the stiffeners,
       whilst the relative imperfections govern buckling due to transverse load and shear using the
       IDWR method. Imperfections are not used for the Harding method, as this is based on initial
       imperfections from BS5400.

       Note that imperfection shapes other than a simple sinusoidal shape may be assumed for
       pressure loading and stress checks at the stiffener ends (Class 2 and 8 nodes). In these cases,
       the initial imperfection does not necessarily apply to the middle of the stiffener.

       Stiffener imperfections may be specified as a ratio of the length of the stiffener, with an
       associated upper and lower bound.




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       A single plate fabrication tolerance may be defined via the IMPERFECTIONS command.
       The use of this tolerance, and the use of residual stresses are described in detail in the
       Theoretical Manual, for SLS conditions. Note that residual stresses are not used in the
       evaluation of the stiffener buckling because they are considered to be self-equilibrating for
       the stiffener plate combination considered in the stiffener buckling calculation. Residual
       stresses are therefore only considered for SLS conditions on the plate and stiffener direct
       stresses.

       The use of imperfections is illustrated by the example at the end of this section.

5.6    WELD CHECKS

       PANEL-CHECK can evaluate the utilisation of any welds in the structure, either between the
       stiffener flange and web, or between the web and plate. Weld sizes are calculated by the
       program, based on the relative plate thicknesses, in accordance with Lloyds' rules. Some user
       control over the size of these welds is possible by using the WELD-FACTORS command.

      Stress checks are carried out on the welds for ULS and SLS conditions. This comprises an
      evaluation of the direct and shear stresses on the weld and a comparison with the allowable
      stress. For further details, refer to the Theoretical Manual and the example below.

5.7    SAMPLE PROBLEM

       A sample data file for PANEL-CHECK running in the stand-alone mode is presented in
       Figure 5.7-1. The example includes welds, discontinuity, load redistribution and imperfection
       data. A single node (2000) is checked for Class 2 and the Harding method is used for
       stiffener stability checks. Curvature is not introduced at this time as it is not valid for the
       Harding approach.

       Output corresponding to this data file is included in Appendix C. Both main and summary
       output are again presented.

       The data is basically the same as that for Example 1, except that the following has been
       added or changed:

       −       a DISCONTINUITY instruction has been added which specifies that only 50mm of the
               plate is effective to one side of the web. On the other side, the normal effective width of
               plate equal to be/2 is therefore assumed. This reduces the section properties accordingly
               and increases acting stresses;

       −       a LOAD-REDISTRIBUTION-NODE instruction has been given to invert all values of
               load (the leading diagonal is all negative);

       −       default imperfection values have been overwritten for the stiffener absolute
               imperfection (0 < 0.002L < 20), stiffener relative imperfection (5 < 0.005L < 50) and
               plate imperfection (5mm). Residual stresses are set to 40MNm-2. Most data is for
               illustration purposes. Only absolute imperfection will be used for Harding/ULS
               checks;




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       -       only 'node' 2000 of class 2 is checked. The Harding method has been selected for both
               transverse and shear instability and the PASS instruction has been set to enable weld
               checks but disable plate checks.

       The results of this analysis show the inversion of the applied loads. Factors of safety against
       buckling are much higher due to the maximum loads now being tensile, not compressive.
       Despite this, bending stresses have increased due to the reduced bending section (because of
       the discontinuity).

       It should be noted that the eccentricity bending stresses are now reduced, as all imperfection
       bending due to transverse and shear load has been moved to the Harding column.

       Weld checks have also been produced and show the Von Mises weld stress to be smaller than
       the allowable stress for both the plate/web and flange/web welds.

       The summary output reflects the changes to all of the above unity checks and resultant
       utilisations.




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!
! PANEL APPLICATION MANUAL EXAMPLE 3
! **********************************
!
! PANEL INPUT FILE FOR A 'STAND ALONE' RUN USING ADVANCED FEATURES
!
! SET STRENGTH CHECKING ON (SERVICE AND FATIGUE CHECKS OFF BY DEFAULT)
! GIVE ARBITRARY GROUP AND ENVELOPE NUMBERS (THESE ARE NOT USED YET)
! ASSIGN A RUN TITLE AND ENVELOPE NAME
! MATERIAL PROPERTIES AND STIFFENER IMPERFECTION DATA FROM DEFAULT DATA
! USE ‘*’ TO PRINT HEADERS ON SUMMARY OUTPUT AT START OF PAGE
!
CODE-CHECK ON
STRENGTH-CHECK ON GROUP 1
TITLE      PANEL APPLICATION MANUAL FXAMPLE 3
*
ENVELOPE-NUMBER 1
ENVELOPE-NAME OPERATING ENVELOPE
!
! DEFINE MATERIAL PROPERTIES WITH MILD STEEL AND A FACTOR OF SAFETY OF 1.2
! DEFINE A DISCONTINUITY AT THE INSPECTION POINT (50 MM OF PLATE REMAINS)
! USE A REDISTRIBUTION MATRIX TO INVERT THE LOADS (NEGATIVE UNIT MATRIX)
! SET THE USE FLAG TO USE JUST THE REDISTRIBUTION MATRIX
! SET UP INITIAL IMPERFECTION DATA FOR THE PLATE
! SET UP INITIAL IMPERFECTION DATA FOR THE STIFFENER
! DEFINE WELD FACTORS
!
MATERIAL-PROPERTIES 205000.0 78846.0 0.3 0.0 256.0 1.2 DISCONTINUITY 1
50.0
LOAD-REDISTRIBUTION-NODE
+                          -1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
+                           0.0 -1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
+                           0.0 0.0 -1.0 0.0 0.0
+                           0.0 0.0 0.0 -1.0 0.0
+                           0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -1.0
USE 1 0 0
IMPERFECTIONS 5.0 3.33 40.0 40.0
STIFFENER-IMPERFECTIONS 0.0020 0.0 20.0 0.005 5.0 50.0 WELD-FACTORS 0.38
0.42
!
! CREATE AND USE DATA FOR STIFFENER TYPE 22 TYPE,D.TW.B,TF)
! SELECT CLASS 2 FOR CHECKING AND DEFINE END CONDITION AS
! ENCASTRE-SIMPLY SUPPORTED
!
STIFFENER-DATA 22 TEE 535.0 25.0 350.0 35.0 STIFFENER-TYPE 22
ANALYSE-NODE-CLASS 2
STIFFENER-END-CONDITION 1
!
! SET UP THE PLATE PANEL DIMENSIONS (LENGTH, SPACING, THICKNESS)
!
PLATE-DIMENSIONS 4150.0 780.0 32.0
!
! PERFORM STIFFENER AND PLATE STRENGTH CHECKS
! USE THE HARDING METHOD FOR STIFFENER BUCKLING AND
! BS5400 METHOD(RESTRAINED CONDITION) FOR PLATE BUCKLING
!
PASS 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
PLATE-BUCKLING BS5400 RESTRAINED
STIFFENER-BUCKLING HARDING HARDING
#HARDING METHOD FOR STIFFENER STABILITY
!
! SELECT INSPECTION POINT 2000 OF NODAL CLASS 2
! DEFINE THE NODAL ENVELOPE FOR INSPECTION POINT 2000 AND CHECK IT
!
SELECT 2 2000
NODE-ENVELOPE STRENGTH MAX     3.209     1.654 0.554     0.487    0.514
NODE-ENVELOPE STRENGTH MIN     0.510    -0.292 -0.524 -0.781     -0.539
DO-CHECKS
!
! END OF DATA
!
END




                FIGURE 5.7-1: DATA FILE FOR EXAMPLE PROBLEM 3




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6.     POST-PROCESSING SESAM MODELS

6.1    GENERAL
       In this example, one of the bulkheads of an integrated deck structure has been code checked
       using the PANEL suite of programs.

       The bulkhead under consideration is called G30 and this is part of superelement SE161.
       Superelement SE161 consists of four bulkheads (G20, G30, G40 and 050), with G20 being to
       the north of the platform. The plating of three decks (lower, mezzanine and weather) is also
       included. Between bulkheads G30 and G40 and on the weather deck sits the drilling rig. The
       high loads coming from the drilling rig are carried mainly by these two bulkheads and since
       they are almost geometrically identical, only one of them is considered (bulkhead G30).

       A three-dimensional presentation of the superelement SE161 is given in Figure 6.1-1. The
       figure also shows the finite element discretisation of this superelement.

       Ultimate strength checks are required over all locations on the bulkhead for the vertical
       primary stiffeners, secondary horizontal stiffeners and plate. Applied loading is to include the
       rig loads. A subsequent check is required to assess the effect of lateral blast loading on the
       panel, in conjunction with other loads.

       Many of the features that exist in both PANEL-ENVELOPE and PANEL-CHECK have
       therefore been used in this example. Details of these features will be highlighted in the
       following sections.

6.2    FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING

       The superelement technique has been used to model the different components of the platform
       using the finite element program SESAM. In this technique, the whole structure is divided
       into smaller parts linked to each other at supernodes. This provides the engineer with a very
       powerful tool in terms of data preparation and computational time. Superelement SE161 was
       one of six first-level superelements forming part of a higher level superelement which was
       assembled subsequently to form the complete finite element model of the platform. Global
       axes of the whole structure and local axes of the superelements were chosen as follows:

       −      X in the west-east direction;
       −      Y in the south-north direction;
       −      Z positive upwards.

       Bulkhead G30 was modelled using four-noded thick shell elements for the plate, and two-
       noded coplanar beams for the double-sided primary vertical stiffeners. Single-sided secondary
       horizontal stiffeners were not modelled in the analysis. All nodes have six degrees of freedom.

       Figure 6.2-1 and 6.2-2 show the general dimensions of bulkhead G30, the finite element mesh
       and the SESAM node and element number


6.3    GLOBAL LOAD COMBINATIONS

       Thirty-three load combinations were considered in the global analysis of the platform, four of
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     which were thought to be the most critical load cases when checking the bulkhead G30 using
     PANEL-CHECK. There were:

       −          Load Combination 5                                     - due to storm wave and wind from the south
                                                                         with highest waterdepth and drilling rig
                                                                         positioned midway between G30 and G40;

       −          Load Combination 6                                     - due to storm wave and wind from the south-
                                                                         west with highest waterdepth and drilling rig
                                                                         positioned midway between G30 and G40;

       −          Load Combination 7                                     - due to storm wave and wind from the west
                                                                         with highest waterdepth and drilling rig
                                                                         positioned midway between G30 and G40;

       −          Load Combination 33                                    - due to still water condition and drilling rig
                                                                         positioned midway between G30 and G40.



6.4    CODE CHECKING OF BULKHEAD G30

6.4.1 General
       The general course of the analysis is given in Figure 6.4-1. This shows the steps required in
       running the analysis. These steps are described in detail in the following sections.

6.4.2 SESAM Analysis

       It is assumed that the SESTRA superelement analysis of the structure has been performed and
       that the plate stresses and beam forces for SE161 have been retracked.

       The first step in the post-processing is to run a program called PREPOST which reads the
       SESAM output results file (SIF file) and creates a permanent working file (SIN file). In the
       SIN file, the Gaussian plate stresses and stiffener forces and moments are stored for selected
       load cases.

       Use of PREPOST is beyond the scope of this manual and the user is referred to the
       appropriate SESAM documentation. However, an example of output from a PREPOST
       session, which was dumped from a terminal session, is shown in Figure 6.4-2. The basic
       actions are as follows:

       −           give journal file name;
       −           give SIN (permanent working) file name;
       −           read from SIF formatted file;
       −           select superelement type (e.g. Key 3, SE161).
       The example used here results in all necessary model and result data being written to a SIN
       file called GAO0R161.SIN. This file is used for all subsequent access and storage by the
       PANEL programs.




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6.4.3 SIF-AVERAGE

       Stresses used for load envelopes created by PANEL-ENVELOPE have to be nodally averaged
       rather than Gaussian stresses. PANEL also requires the structure to be subdivided into groups
       or sets for identification. The program SIF-AVERAGE is therefore used to subdivide the
       structure into groups and to extrapolate stresses from the Gauss points of an element to its
       associated nodes. The nodal stresses at a node associated to more than one element on a group
       are then averaged and stored back to the SIN file.
       Nodal averaging of stresses obviously cannot occur at discontinuities in the plate, such as:

       −            changes of thickness;
       −            abrupt corners;
       −            intersections of several plates;
       −            heavy stiffener lines.

       SIF-AVERAGE only averages stresses between elements within a group. By careful selection
       of groups to meet at the above boundaries, averaging across such discontinuities can be
       avoided.

       Figure 6.4-3 shows the SIF-AVERAGE data file for the bulkhead G30, whilst Appendix D.1
       contains sample output. It is worth mentioning the SUPER-ELEMENT command at the top of
       SIF-AVERAGE data file, as this is used to point to superelement key 14 (see PREPOST run)
       on SIN file GAO0R161. All PANEL programs start with a similar command to specify the
       source of the data.
       Remaining SIF-AVERAGE data selects the load cases to use and defines the groups to
       process. Note that three plate element groups are required, with boundaries corresponding to
       the mezzanine deck and the change in plate thickness 4.0m above. As noted previously, this
       prevents nodal averaging at these discontinuities.

       No such problems apply to the beams, which are simply selected and put into Group 4.

       Simple selection by element number has been used here. Powerful volumetric selection was
       not considered necessary for this simple model. Neither has it been necessary to use the
       concurrent superelement capability to combine results across superelement boundaries. The
       user should refer to the SIF-AVERAGE manual for details of these advanced features.
       Note, however, the use of the PLATE-AXIS commands to define the top/bottom face and
       basic stress axis for the plate. In this case, the most positive Y face is the top and the master
       stress direction is along the X-axis. The BEAM-AXIS command has no real function during
       element number selection and is set to include everything.




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6.4.4 PANEL-ENVELOPE

      The PANEL-ENVELOPE program has then been used to select load cases and to convert the
      nodal stresses stored by SIF-AVERAGE into a form suitable for PANEL-CHECK. The
      PANEL-ENVELOPE data file is given in Figure 6.4-4.

      Four envelopes are created corresponding to the four load combinations chosen for the code
      checking of bulkhead G30. These envelopes have identical maximum and minimum values as
      they were each based on one set of stresses. One additional envelope is also created to contain
      the worst stress components (maximum and minimum values) at each location/node arising
      from any of these load combinations. The program recovers plate stresses and stiffener forces
      and moments from the SIN file (defined on the SUPER-ELEMENT command). Element
      stresses at each node are converted to forces and moments per unit width of the plate. These
      are then stored back to the SIN file for later access by PANEL-CHECK.
      In the SIF-AVERAGE run, the plate of bulkhead G30 was divided into three groups each
      corresponding to a different plate thickness. Groups 1, 2 and 3 correspond to plate thicknesses
      of 12.5mm, 15mm and 20mm respectively. The primary vertical/transverse stiffeners were
      classified as Group 4.

      Each plate group is processed in turn in the PANEL-ENVELOPE run (3, 2, then 1). The
      selection of the node numbers where checks are required on these plate groups is performed
      twice, once for the secondary horizontal stiffeners, and once for the primary vertical stiffeners.

      For the horizontal stiffeners, a SMEARED simulation is selected, as these secondary stiffeners
      have not been modelled in the FE analysis. The stress orientation is standard, as the stiffener
      direction is in the same direction as the master stresses created by SIF-AVERAGE.
      For the primary stiffeners, the stiffeners are modelled as COPLANAR beams in group 4. This
      time, the stiffeners are vertical and the stiffener stresses are therefore ROTATEd relative to
      the SIF-AVERAGE stresses. Examination of the bending moments on the beams shows that
      their local axes need to be ROTATEd so that the moment about an in-plane axis is obtained. It
      is a current program restriction that the enveloping of nodal stresses of smeared stiffeners
      should precede the enveloping of any other type of stiffener model.
      The CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM command has been used extensively in the PANEL-
      ENVELOPE data file to access three external data files. These files are:

      −       G30ENV.BAS which includes the basic PANEL-ENVELOPE commands;

      −       G30.KEY which includes the keyed filing system;

      −       G30ENV.CRE which includes the necessary commands for creating the five envelopes
              mentioned above.




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      The data files G30ENV.BAS, G30.KEY and G30ENV.CRE are shown in Figures 6.4-5 to
      6.4-7 respectively.

      G30ENV.BAS defines basic parameters for PANEL-ENVELOPE, such as turning on echoing
      and listing of input data, enveloping and writing to backing file.

      The keyed filing system is most important. The definition in G30.KEY creates sufficient
      space in the storage system for all the envelope results likely to be needed. In this case:

      −       there needs to be space for storage of envelopes at node numbers up to 500;

      −       at the boundaries, each envelope may refer to one of three groups;

      −       at each node, envelopes are required for both vertical and horizontal stiffeners. A
              symbol "TYPE' is set up to distinguish between them;

      −       five envelopes need to be stored per node, group and type.

      The symbols, GROUP, ENVELOPE and NODE are automatically assigned values by
      PANEL-ENVELOPE and a key number is created accordingly. The symbol 'TYPE', however,
      is created for this analysis only and therefore needs to be defined explicitly in the data.
      Returning to the PANEL-ENVELOPE data (Figure 6.4-4), we see that TYPE is indeed set to
      correspond to the check being performed.

      It should also be noted that the NODE value is allowed to drop to zero. This is because overall
      envelopes for each class over the entire group are stored to an artificial node number of zero.

      The above filing system allows envelopes to be stored by node, group, type and envelope
      number, and provides 501 x 3 x 2 x 5 = 15,030 records in which to store them.

      Finally, the envelope inclusion data is stored in G30ENV.CRE and contains all the data
      necessary to create the five envelopes (four combinations and one worst case). Note that DO-
      CHECKS commands are provided at the end of each envelope definition so that envelopes are
      calculated and stored prior to the next being defined. G30ENV.KEY is then simply called up
      after each node selection in the main data file.

      For convenience, sample PANEL-ENVELOPE output for node 68 alone is listed in Appendix
      D.1. This shows the envelope inclusion data being expanded and the resultant envelope for
      node 68. Note that the out-of-plane shears and moments in the stiffener are all zero as the
      output is for the smeared secondary stiffeners. Since the stiffeners are not modelled, they can
      have no loading. Remaining loads come solely from the plate. The phase sector information is
      for dynamic loads only and is described in the User Manual.




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       Note that the envelopes are stored to key 13595 by the program. This is calculated as follows:

                    Field                  Range              Value                Key Calculation

                    NODE                   501                68                   (68-0)                         68
                    GROUP                    3                1                    501 x (1-1)                     0
                    TYPE                     2                2                    501 x 3 x (2-1)       =     1,503
                    ENVELOPE                 5                5                    501 x 3 x 2 x (5-1)   =    12,024

                                                                                   Total key             =    13,595

6.4.5 PANEL-CHECK

       PANEL-CHECK represents the final step in the code checking of the stiffeners and plate of
       bulkhead G30. The maximum and minimum loads of each node are recovered from the
       appropriate envelopes stored in the SIN file. Code checks are then performed on these loads
       and the results tabulated for presentation.

       The main PANEL-CHECK data file is shown in Figure 6.4-8. Three external data files were
       called from the main data file using CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM command. These files
       were:

       −       G3OPAN.BAS, which provides the basic PANEL-CHECK commands needed for this
               problem;

       −       G30.KEY, which defines the keyed filing system (the same G30.KEY data file that
               was used in PANEL-ENVELOPE to ensure consistency between programs);

       −       G30ENV5.USE, which defines the appropriate envelope (envelope 5) to be used in
               carrying out the code checks.

       A fourth external data file (G30ENV.USE) was also created to assess each of the individual
       combination envelopes (envelopes 1, 2, 3 and 4 which correspond to load combinations 33, 5,
       6 and 7). This was not used as none of the locations fail the code checking using the
       conservative envelope 5. The external data files (except G30.KEY) are shown in Figures 6.4-
       9 to 6.4-11.

       In G3OPAN.BAS, after the setting of flags to control the analysis (echo on, etc.), SIGNS and
       UNITS commands are given to convert the envelopes that have been stored in the SESAM
       convention and units, to the PANEL-CHECK system. Direct loads (Ns and Np) are converted
       to compression-positive and the analysis force units of Newtons are converted to
       MegaNewtons by applying a factor of 1.0E-6.

       Returning to the main data file (Figure 6.4-8), the following checks are provided in order:
       −             secondary horizontal stiffeners, groups 3, 2, I;
       −             plate panel, groups 3, 2, 1;
       −             primary vertical stiffeners, groups 3, 2, 1.

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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                        Post-Processing SESAM Models
      Note how the data structure of PANEL is used to update only the data which differs for each
      set of checks. The separate plate checks for the secondary stiffeners are necessary because the
      yield stresses of the materials are different (355MNm-2 and 450MNm-2). Other key features in
      the data are as follows:

      −       the symbol TYPE is used as for PANEL-ENVELOPE to distinguish between vertical
              and horizontal stiffeners and thus to ensure that the correct envelopes for the
              node/envelope/group are recalled;

      −       the Harding method is used for the secondary stiffeners and associated plate, but the
              IDWR method is selected for the primary verticals. The Harding and Rahal research
              does not cover the second case;

      −       the primary vertical stiffeners are double-sided. Two stiffener types have therefore been
              defined and assigned via the STIFFENER-TYPE instruction;

      −       discontinuities have been used extensively for nodes at the vertical edges of the
              bulkhead to reflect that the stiffener is close to the edge of the plate.

      It was initially intended to check bulkhead G30 using the FE analysis loads only. Because of
      the potential of gas explosion in the zone between bulkheads G30 and G40, it was decided to
      recheck G30 under blast pressure as well as the loads from envelope 5. Fortunately, PANEL-
      CHECK allows water pressure to be superimposed onto the checks to simulate the blast
      pressure.

      When bulkhead G30 was first checked using the envelope 5 only, all commands needed to
      define the different parameters of the applied water pressure were disabled. In the second
      code checks, these commands are re-enabled and a pressure of 1 bar was applied in addition
      to the loads recovered from envelope 5. All locations on G30 passed the two code checks with
      significantly low usage factors which indicate that this bulkhead might have been over-
      designed. The summary output from the two runs is presented and may be compared in
      Appendices D.2 and D.3

      The stress checks were so low that sample output was produced from the main PANEL-
      CHECK run to check the numbers produced. Secondary and primary stiffener results are
      presented in Appendix D.4.

      The former check has no blast pressure, whilst the latter does. Comparison of stresses with
      stress contour plots shows that the basic level of stress is low but that it is being correctly
      picked up by PANEL-CHECK. The bulkhead may therefore be accepted with the blast
      pressure of one bar.




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                                                                                                    TRUE NORTH




   WEATHER AND MEZZANINE DECKS
   NOT SHOWN FOR CLARITY.




               FIGURE 6.1-1: ISOMETRIC VIEW OF SUPERELEMENT SE161




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                        Post-Processing SESAM Models




    FIGURE 6.2-1: BULKHEAD G30 — DIMENSIONS AND NODE NUMBERS




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                        Post-Processing SESAM Models




                FIGURE 6.2-2: BULKHEAD G30 - ELEMENT NUMBERS




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                        Post-Processing SESAM Models


                                                  PANEL SUITE



                                                              SESAM



                                                       SIF FILE



                                                            PREPOST



                                                       SIN FILE
                                                   Gaussian Stresses



                                                    SiF - AVERAGE



                                                 SIN FILE
                                         Nodally Averaged Stresses



                                                PANEL - ENVELOPE



                                                      SIN FILE
                                                  Enveloped Forces



                                                    PANEL CHECK



                         Stiffener and Plate Panel Checks



FIGURE 6.4-1: FLOW CHART FOR A SESAM ANALYSIS WITH PANEL POST-
             PROCESSING

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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                        Post-Processing SESAM Models




                               FIGURE 6.4-2: TYPICAL PREPOST RUN




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                Post-Processing SESAM Models

   ECHO ON
   ! DATA-CHECK-ONLY
   SUPER-ELEMENT GA00 R161 14 LOADCASES
   5 6 7 33
   ! *********************************************
   ! PLATE ELEMENTS WITH A PLATE THICKNESS OF 20mm
   ! *********************************************
   GROUP PLATE 1
   PLATE-AXIS 0 -1000 0 1 0 0
   ADD ELEMENTS                     356 357 358 359 360
   ADD ELEMENTS 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370
   ADD ELEMENTS 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380
   ADD ELEMENTS 381 382 383 384 385 386 387
   AVERAGE
   ! *********************************************
   ! PLATE ELEMENTS WITH A PLATE THICKNESS OF 15mm
   ! *********************************************
   GROUP PLATE 2
   PLATE-AXIS 0 -1000 0 1 0 0
   ADD ELEMENTS                             388 389 390
   ADD ELEMENTS 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400
   ADD ELEMENTS 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410
   ADD ELEMENTS 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419
   AVERAGE
   ! ***********************************************
   ! PLATE ELEMENTS WITH A PLATE THICKNESS OF 12.5mm
   ! ***********************************************
   GROUP PLATE 3
   PLATE-AXIS 0 -1000 0 1 0 0
   ADD ELEMENTS                                      420
   ADD ELEMENTS 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430
   ADD ELEMENTS 431 432 433 434 435
   AVERAGE
   ! *********************************************
   ! PRIMARY VERTICAL/TRANSVERSE STIFFENERS
   ! *********************************************
   GROUP BEAM1 4
   BEAM-AXIS 0 0 1 90.0
   ADD ELEMENTS    22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
   ADD ELEMENTS 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
   ADD ELEMENTS 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
   ADD ELEMENTS 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
   ADD ELEMENTS 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70
   ADD ELEMENTS 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80
   ADD ELEMENTS 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88
   AVERAGE END




                    FIGURE 6.4-3: SIF-AVERAGE DATA FILE FOR G30




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                Post-Processing SESAM Models

    SUPER-ELEMENT GA00 R161 14
    !
    CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 55 G30ENV.BAS
    !
    CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 56 G30.KEY
    !
    ! ****************************************************
    ! PANEL-ENVELOPE RUN FOR G30/SE161 BULKHEAD
    ! TYPE 2 COMPONENTS (SECONDARY HORIZONTAL/LONGITUDINAL
    ! STIFFENERS)
    ! ****************************************************
    !
    SYMBOL-VALUE TYPE 2
    !
    ! PLATE GROUPS 1, 2 AND 3
    ! ***********************
    !
    STIFFENER-MODEL SMEARED
    STANDARD
    !
    GROUP 3
    CLEAR-SELECT 2 33 34 39 40 403 380 45 46 51 52 55 56 61 62 65 66
    SELECT        2 71 72 75 76 81 82 85 86 91 92 97 98 404 382 103 104
    SELECT        2        109        110
    CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 57 G30ENV.CRE
    !
    GROUP 2
    CLEAR-SELECT 2 31 32 33 37 38 39 328 401 403 43 44 45 49 50 51 53
    SELECT        2 54 55 59 60 61 63 64 65 69 70 71 73 74 75 79 80 81
    SELECT        2 83 84 85 89 90 91 95 96 97 329 402 404 101 102 103
    SELECT        2    107     108    109
    CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 57 G30ENV.CRE
    !
    GROUP 1
    CLEAR-SELECT 2 29 30 31 35 36 37 279 391 328 41 42 43 47 48 49
    SELECT        2 87 88 89 93 94 95 280 400 329 89 100 101 105 106 107
    SELECT        2 393 392 53 57 58 59 395 394 63 67 68 69 397 396 73
    SELECT        2 77 78 79 399 398 83
    CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 57 G30ENV.CRE
    !
    ! ****************************************************
    ! PANEL-ENVELOPE RUN FOR G30/SE161 BULKHEAD
    ! TYPE 1 COMPONENTS (PRIMARY VERTICAL/TRANSVERSE
    ! STIFFENERS)
    ! ****************************************************
    !
    SYMBOL-VALUE TYPE 1
    !
    ! PLATE GROUPS 1, 2 AND 3
    ! ***********************
    !
    STIFFENER-MODEL COPLANAR 4
    ROTATE
    BEAM ROTATED
    !
    GROUP 3
    F-E-STIFFENER-SPACING 2.25
    CLEAR-SELECT 2 34 40 46 52 56 62 66 72 76 82 86 92 98 104 110
    SELECT 2 33 39 45 51 55 61 65 71 75 81 85 91 97 103 109
    CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 57 G30ENV.CRE
    !
    GROUP 2
    F-E-STIFFENER-SPACING 2.25
    CLEAR-SELECT 2 31 37 43 49 53 59 63 69 73 79 83 89 95 101 107
    SELECT 2 32 38 44 50 54 60 64 70 74 80 84 90 96 102 108
    SELECT 2 33 39 45 51 55 61 65 71 75 81 85 91 97 103 109
    CHANGE-INPUT- STREAM 57 G30ENV.CRE
    !
    GROUP 1
    F-E-STIFFENER-SPACING 2.25
    CLEAR-SELECT 2 29 31 35 37 41 43 93 95 99 101 105 107
    SELECT 5 30 36 42 94 100 106
    CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 57 G30ENV.CRE




   FIGURE 6.4-4: PANEL-ENVELOPE DATA FILE FOR G30


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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                Post-Processing SESAM Models




             !
             F-E-STIFFENER-SPACING     3.375
             CLEAR-SELECT 2 47 49 87 89
             SELECT        5 48 88
             CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 57 GMENV.CRE
             !
             F-E-STIFFENER-SPACING 4.5
             CLEAR-SELECT 2 57 59 67 69 77             79
             SELECT        5 58 68 78
             CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 57 G30ENV.CRE
             !
             ! END OF DATA
             ! ***********
             !
             STOP




                                              FIGURE 6.4-4 (cont)


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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                Post-Processing SESAM Models




               ! *************************************
               ! THE BASIC ENVELOPE DATA FOR G30/SE161
               ! *************************************
               ECHO ON
               LIST-INPUT-DATA ON
               LIST-INCLUSION-DATA    ON
               ENVELOPE ON
               CHART OFF
               WRITE ON
               NUMBER-OF-PHASES       2
               CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 5




                              FIGURE 6.4-5: ‘G30ENV.BAS’ DATA FILE




               ! **********************************************
               ! DEFINE THE KEYING STORAGE SYSTEM FOR G30/SE161
               ! **********************************************
               ! ENVELOPE : ENVELOPE NUMBER
               !            1 FOR STILL WATER CONDITION, DRILL RIG AT
               !              MID POSITION (LOAD COMBINATION 33)
               !            2 FOR HIGHEST WATERDEPTH, DRILL RIG AT MID
               !              POSITION, STROM WAVE AND WIND DIRECTION
               !              SOUTH (LOAD COMBINATION 5)
               !            3 FOR HIGHEST WATERDEPTH, DRILL RIG AT MID
               !              POSITION, STORM WAVE AND WIND DIRECTION
               !              SOUTHWEST (LOAD COMBINATION 6)
               !            4 FOR HIGHEST WATERDEPTH, DRILL RIG AT MID
               !              POSITION, STORM WAVE AND WIND DIRECTION
               !              WEST (LOAD COMBINATION 7)
               !            5 FOR WORST OVERALL ENVELOPE
               ! TYPE    : TYPE OF STIFFENER/PLATE CHECKS
               !            1- PRIMARY VERTICAL/TRANSVERSE STIFFENERS
               !            2- SECONDARY HORIZONTAL/LONGITUDINAL STIFFENERS
               !            AND MAIN PLATE
               ! NODE    : LOCATION OF CHECKING (NODE NUMBER. 0 FOR CLASS ENVELOPES)
               ! ***********************************************
               NEW-SYMBOL TYPE
               KEY-FIELDS ENVELOPE    TYPE   GROUP NODE
               KEY-RANGES 1 5         1 2    1 3   0   500
               CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 5




                               FIGURE 6.4-6: 'G30.KEY' DATA FILE


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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                Post-Processing SESAM Models

! **************************
! DEFINE AND CREAT ENVELOPES
! **************************
!
! ENVELOPE 1 - INCLUDE STATIC LOAD COMBINATION 33
!
READ-INCLUSION-DATA
ENVELOPE 1 LOAD COMBINATION 33 STATIC
INCL S B 33 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
DYNAMIC
COMBINED END
DO-CHECKS
!
! ENVELOPE 2 INCLUDE STATIC LOAD COMBINATION 5
!
READ-INCLUSION-DATA
ENVELOPE 2 LOAD COMBINATION 5 STATIC
INCL S B 5 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 DYNAMIC
COMBINED
END
DO-CHECKS
!
! ENVELOPE 3 - INCLUDE STATIC LOAD COMBINATION 6
!
READ-INCLUSION-DATA
ENVELOPE 3 LOAD COMBINATION 6 STATIC
INCL S B 6 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
DYNAMIC
COMBINED END
DO-CHECKS
!
! ENVELOPE 4 - INCLUDE STATIC LOAD COMBINATION 7
!
READ-INCLUSION-DATA
ENVELOPE 4 LOAD COMBINATION 7 STATIC
INCL S B 7 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
DYNAMIC COMBINED
END
DO-CHECKS
!
!
! ENVELOPE 5 - CHOOSE THE WORST LOAD COMBINATION
READ-INCLUSION-DATA
ENVELOPE 5 WORST LOAD COMBINATION STATIC
CHOO S B 1 1 CHOOSE ONLY 1 LOAD S B 33
1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 LOAD S B 5 1.0 1.0 1.0
0.0 LOAD S B 6 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 LOAD S
B 7 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 DYNAMIC
COMBINED
END
DO-CHECKS
!
CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 5




                             FIGURE 6.4-7: 'G30ENV.CRE' DATA FILE




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                Post-Processing SESAM Models

SUPER-ELEMENT GA00 R161 14
!
CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 55 G3OPAN.BAS
!
CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 56 G30.KEY
!
CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 57 G30ENV5.USE
*
# ***********************************************************
# PANEL-CHECK - G30/SE161 - SECONDARY HORIZONTAL/LONGITUDINAL
# STIFFENERS AND MAIN PLATE
# ***********************************************************
#
SYMBOL-VALUE TYPE 2
STIFFENER-DATA 1 TEE 229.0 9.1 191.0 14.5 STIFFENER-TYPE 1
STIFFENER-END-CONDITION 2
STIFFENER-MODEL SMEARED
STIFFENER-BUCKLING HARDING HARDING
!
# STIFFENER CHECKS
# ****************
#
ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES 2 4 5
PLATE-BUCKLING OFF
PASS 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
MATERIAL-PROPERTIES 205000.0 78846.0 0.3 0.0 355.0 1.15
!
# GROUP 3
#
GROUP 3
PLATE-DIMENSIONS 2250.0 700.0 15.0
!!!!!!!PLATE-DIMENSIONS 2250.0 700.0 15.0 1.0
CLEAR-SELECT 2 33 34 39 40 403 380 45 46 51 52 55 56 61 62 65 66
SELECT           2 71 72 75 76 81 82 85 86 91 92 97 98 404 382 103 104
SELECT           2 109 110
SELECT           5 33 34 39 40 403 380 45 46 51 52 55 56 61 62 65 66
SELECT           5 71 72 75 76 81 82 85 86 91 92 97 98 404 382 103 104
SELECT           5         109        110
DO-CHECKS
*
# GROUP 2
#
GROUP 2
PLATE-DIMENSIONS 2250.0 700.0 15.0
!!!!!!!
        PLATE-DIMENSIONS 2250.0 700.0 15.0 1.0
CLEAR-SELECT 2 31 32 33 37 38 39 328 401 403 43 44 45 49 50 51 53
SELECT           2 54 55 59 60 61 63 64 65 69 70 71 73 74 75 79 80 81
SELECT           2 83 84 85 89 90 91 95 96 97 329 402 404 101 102 103
SELECT           2 107 108 109
SELECT           5 31 32 33 37 38 39 328 401 403 43 44 45 49 50 51 53
SELECT           5 54 55 59 60 61 63 64 65 69 70 71 73 74 75 79 80 81
SELECT           5 83 84 85 89 90 91 95 96 97 329 402 404 101 102 103
SELECT           5      107      108      109
DO-CHECKS
*
# GROUP 1
#
GROUP 1
PLATE-DIMENSIONS 2250.0 700.0 12.5
!!!!!!!PLATE-DIMENSIONS 2250.0 700.0 12.5 1.0
CLEAR-SELECT 2 29 30 31 35 36 37 279 391 328 41 42 43 47 48 49
SELECT          2 87 88 89 93 94 95 280 400 329 89 100 101 105 106 107
SELECT          5 29 30 31 35 36 37 279 391 328 41 42 43 47 48 49
SELECT          5 87 88 89 93 94 95 280 400 329 89 100 101 105 106 107
DO-CHECKS
PLATE-DIMENSIONS 4500.0 700.0 12.5
!!!!!!! PLATE-DIMENSIONS 4500.0 700.0 12.5 1.0
CLEAR-SELECT 2 47 48 49 393 53 57 58 59 395 63 67 68 69 397 73
SELECT          2 77 78 79 399 83 87 88 89
SELECT          5 47 48 49 393 53 57 58 59 395 63 67 68 69 397 73
SELECT          5 77 78 79 399 83 87 88 89
SELECT          5 392 394 396 398
DO-CHECKS




               FIGURE 6.4-8: PANEL-CHECK DATA FILE FOR G30



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 Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                Post-Processing SESAM Models

*
# PLATE CHECKS
# ************
#
ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES 1 3 6 7
PLATE-BUCKLING BS5400 RESTRAINED
PASS 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
MATERIAL-PROPERTIES 205000.0 78846.0 0.3 0.0 430.0 1.15
!
# GROUP 3
#
GROUP 3
PLATE-DIMENSIONS 2250.0 700.0 15.0
!!!!!!!PLATE-DIMENSIONS 2250.0 700.0 15.0 1.0
CLEAR-SELECT 2 33 34 39 40 403 380 45 46 51 52 55 56 61 62 65 66
SELECT       2 71 72 75 76 81 82 85 86 91 92 97 98 404 382 103 104
SELECT       2 109 110
SELECT       5 33 34 39 40 403 380 45 46 51 52 55 56 61 62 65 66
SELECT       5 71 72 75 76 81 82 85 86 91 92 97 98 404 382 103 104
SELECT       5 109 110
DO-CHECKS
!
*
# GROUP 2
#
GROUP 2
PLATE-DIMENSIONS 2250.0 700.0 15.0
!!!!!!!PLATE-DIMENSIONS 2250.0 700.0 15.0 1.0
CLEAR-SELECT 2 31 32 33 37 38 39 328 401 403 43 44 45 49 50 51
SELECT       2 53 54 55 59 60 61 63 64 65 69 70 71 73 74 75 79
SELECT       2 80 81 83 84 85 89 90 91 95 96 97 329 402 404
SELECT       2 101 102 103 107 108 109
SELECT       5 31 32 33 37 38 39 328 401 403 43 44 45 49 50 51
SELECT       5 53 54 55 59 60 61 63 64 65 69 70 71 73 74 75 79
SELECT       5 80 81 83 84 85 89 90 91 95 96 97 329 402 404
SELECT       5 101 102 103 107 108 109
DO-CHECKS
!
*
# GROUP 1
#
GROUP 1
PLATE-DIMENSIONS 2250.0 700.0 12.5
!!!!!!!PLATE-DIMENSIONS 2250.0 700.0 12.5 1.0

CLEAR-SELECT 2 29 30 31 35 36 37 279 391 328 41 42 43 47 48            49
SELECT       2 87 88 89 93 94 95 280 400 329 89 100 101 105            106 107
SELECT       5 29 30 31 35 36 37 279 391 328 41 42 43 47 48            49
SELECT       5 87 88 89 93 94 95 280 400 329 89 100 101 105            106 107
DO-CHECKS
!
PLATE-DIMENSIONS 4500.0 700.0 12.5
!!!!!!!PLATE-DIMENSIONS 4500.0 700.0 12.5 1.0
CLEAR-SELECT 2 47 48 49 393 53 57 58 59 395 63 67 68 69 397            73
SELECT       2 77 78 79 399 83 87 88 89
SELECT       2 392 394 396 398
SELECT       5 47 48 49 393 53 57 58 59 395 63 67 68 69 397            73
SELECT       5 77 78 79 399 83 87 88 89
SELECT       5 392 394 396 398
DO-CHECKS
*
# ****************************************************
# PANEL-CHECK – G30/SE161 – PRIMARY VERTICAL STIFFNERS
# ****************************************************
#
SYMBOL-VALUE TYPE 1
STIFFENER-DATA 1 TEE 450.0 15.0 400.0 35.0
STIFFENER-DATA 2 TEE 450.0 15.0 400.0 35.0
STIFFENER-TYPE 1 2
STIFFENER-END-CONDITION 2
STIFFENER-MODEL COPLANAR 4
STIFFENER-BUCKLING IDWR EDWR




                                                FIGURE 6.4-8 (cont)



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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                Post-Processing SESAM Models


    !
    # STIFFENER CHECKS
    # ****************
    #
    ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES 2 4 5
    PLATE-BUCKLING OFF
    PASS 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
    MATERIAL-PROPERTIES 205000.0 78846.0 0.3 0.0 430.0            1.15
    !
    # GROUP 3
    #
    GROUP 3
    PLATE-DIMENSIONS 7000.0 2250.0 15.0
    !!!!!!!PLATE-DIMENSIONS 7000.0 2250.0 15.0 1.0
    CLEAR-SELECT 2 40 46 52 56 62 66 72 76 82 86 92 98            104
    SELECT        5 39 45 51 55 61 65 71 75 81 85 91 97           103
    DO-CHECKS
    !
    DISCONTINUITY 1 0.0
    CLEAR-SELECT 2 34 110
    SELECT        5 33 109
    DO-CHECKS
    DISCONTINUITY 0 0.0
    *
    # GROUP 2
    #
    GROUP 2
    PLATE-DIMENSIONS 7000.0 2250.0 15.0
    !!!!!!!PLATE-DIMENSIONS 7000.0 2250.0 15.0 1.0
    CLEAR-SELECT 2 37 43 49 53 59 63 69 73 79 83 89 95            101
    SELECT        5 38 39 44 45 50 51 54 55 60 61 64 65
    SELECT        5 70 71 74 75 80 81 84 85 90 91 96 97
    SELECT        5 102 103
    DO-CHECKS
    !
    DISCONTINUITY 1 0.0
    CLEAR-SELECT 2 31 107
    SELECT        5 32 33 108 109
    DO-CHECKS
    DISCONTINUITY 0 0.0
    *
    # GROUP 1
    #
    GROUP 1
    PLATE-DIMENSIONS 6000.0 2250.0 12.5
    !!!!!!!PLATE-DIMENSIONS 6000.0 2250.0 12.5 1.0
    CLEAR-SELECT 2 35 37 41 43 93 95 99 101
    SELECT        5 36 42 42 94 100
    DO-CHECKS
    !
    DISCONTINUITY 1 0.0
    CLEAR-SELECT 2 29 31 105 107
    SELECT        5 30 106
    DO-CHECKS
    DISCONTINUITY 0 0.0
    !
    PLATE-DIMENSIONS 6000.0 3375.0 12.5
    !!!!!!!PLATE-DIMENSIONS 6000.0 3375.0 12.5 1.0
    CLEAR-SELECT 2 47 49 87 89
    SELECT        5 48 88
    DO-CHECKS
    !
    PLATE-DIMENSIONS 6000.0 4500.0 12.5
    !!!!!!!PLATE-DIMENSIONS 6000.0 4500.0 12.5 1.0
    CLEAR-SELECT 2 57 59 67 69 77 79
    SELECT        5 58 68 78
    DO-CHECKS
    !
    ! END OF DATA
    ! ***********
    !
    STOP




                                             FIGURE 6.4-8 (cont)


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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                Post-Processing SESAM Models

              ! **********************
              ! BASIC PANEL-CHECK DATA
              ! WITHOUT WATER PRESSURE
              ! **********************
              !
              ECHO ON
              LIST-INPUT-DATA ON
              CODE-CHECK ON
              STRENGTH-CHECK ON
              PLATE-BUCKLING OFF
              ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
              SIGNS -1.0 -1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
              UNITS 1.0 1.0E-6
              IMPERFECTIONS 4.8 3.33 34.5 34.5
              STIFFENER-IMPERFECTIONS 0.0018 0.0 18.0 0.0048 3.0 36.0
              !
              ! STRENGTH-CHECK ON 1
              ! WATER-PRESSURE-ENVELOPE 1 0.1
              ! EXTREME-WAVE-PRESSURE-FACTORS STATIC 1.0
              ! CALCULATE-STIFFENER-FORCES
              CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 5




                             FIGURE 6.4-9: 'G3OPAN.BAS' DATA FILE




             ! ***********************************
             ! SELECT ENVELOPE 5 ONLY FOR CHECKING
             ! ***********************************
             ENVELOPE-NUMBER 5
             ENVELOPE-NAME OVERALL WORST LOAD COMBINATION
             CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 5




                        FIGURE 6.4-10: ‘G30ENV5.USE' DATA FILE

            ! ************************************************
            ! SELECT ALL LOAD CASES INDIVIDUALLY FOR CHECKING
            ! ************************************************
            !
            ENVELOPE-NUMBER 1
            ENVELOPE-NAME LOAD COMBINATION 33
            DO-CHECKS
            !
            ENVELOPE-NUMBER 2
            ENVELOPE-NAME LOAD COMBINATION 5
            DO-CHECKS
            !
            ENVELOPE-NUMBER 3
            ENVELOPE-NAME LOAD COMBINATION 6
            DO-CHECKS
            !
            ENVELOPE-NUMBER 4
            ENVELOPE-NAME LOAD COMBINATION 7
            DO-CHECKS
            !
            CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 5




                        FIGURE 6.4-11: ‘G30ENV.USE’ DATA FILE



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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                         Unstiffened Curved Panel Checks


7.      UNSTIFFENED CURVED PANEL CHECKS

7.1 GENERAL
        This example demonstrates the code checking of unstiffened curved panels and provides
        another demonstration of the use of PANEL as a post-processor to SESAM.
        The deck structure is as shown in Figure 7.1-1. It consists of a grillage of box and plate
        girders supported on four concrete shafts/legs (Cl, C2, C3 and C4) via transition pieces.

        It was found from finite element results that the von Mises stresses were high in the outer
        wall of the southern half of leg node and transition, C4. The top centre panel of the outer wall
        was chosen as an example of code checking of an unstiffened curved plate panel. A three-
        dimensional representation of this node and its outer wall is shown in Figure 7.1-2 (a) and
        (b). The contour plot of von Mises stresses of the top centre panel of the outer wall is shown
        in Figure 7.1-2 (c).

7.2     FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING AND LOAD COMBINATIONS

        The finite element package SESAM was used to carry out a global linear-elastic static analysis of the
        integrated platform structure by means of the superelement technique. The different superelements
        used to assemble the deck are shown in Figure 7.1-1.

        The superelement under consideration (superelement 150) represented a first level component in
        the integrated deck structure. The unstiffened outer wall of this superelement was modelled using
        four—noded shell elements with six degrees of freedom at each node. The global axes of
        superelement 150 are as follows:
        −       X in the west-east direction;
        −       Y in the south-north direction;
        −       Z positive upwards.

        Forty-five load combinations were considered in the global finite element analysis; 8 were calm
        sea cases, 21 were storm cases and 16 were operating cases. All of these load combinations need
        to be considered for the code check of the outer wall of superelement 150.

7.3     CODE CHECKING OF THE TOP CENTRE PANEL


7.3.1 PREPOST and SIF-AVERAGE
        As mentioned in Section 6, post-processing of SESAM finite element results requires the creation
        of permanent working file (SIN file) using the program PREPOST. This having been achieved,
        the Gaussian stresses are extrapolated to the nodes where they are averaged by assigned groups
        using the program SIF-AVERAGE. The SIF-AVERAGE data file for the top central panel of the
        outer wall is shown in Figure 7.3-1. The top central panel consists of eight shell elements
        which are given the group number 224.




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                         Unstiffened Curved Panel Checks
        In addition to the forty-five global load combinations, eighty-two basic load cases were also
        included in the SIF-AVERAGE data file using the LOADCASE command. This allows the
        load combination capability of PANEL-ENVELOPE to be demonstrated, but is not normally
        required in a production run. The averaged nodal stresses from SIF-AVERAGE are stored
        back to the SIN file for later access by PANEL-ENVELOPE.

7.3.2 PANEL-ENVELOPE

        Figure 7.3-2 shows the PANEL-ENVELOPE data file for the top central panel of the outer
        wall (Group 224). Only one envelope (envelope 128) has been created for which the worst
        loads (minimum and maximum values) arising from the forty-five global load combinations
        at each node were stored.

        Other key points in this data are as follows:

        −       an identification number is not required for this superelement since it is the only one in
                SIN file CAO0S150;

        −       envelopes are stored by ENVELOPE number, GROUP and NODE. Space is reserved
                for 171 envelopes, 952 groups and 749 nodes, including the class envelope, node 0;

        −       the stiffener model is specified as 'SMEARED' to extract plate only stresses for the
                unstiffened panel;

        −       the stress orientation is STANDARD, so the 'stiffener direction' stresses (were there
                any stiffeners) are that of SIF-AVERAGE. Figure 7.3-1 shows this to be vertically
                upwards (PLATE-AXIS command);

        −       SWEEP is specified, so that all nodes on the group will be identified, classed and
                processed.

7.3.3 PANEL-CHECK

        Code checking of Group 224 is performed using PANEL-CHECK. The PANEL-CHECK
        data file of the top centre panel (Group 224) is given in Figure 7.3-3. For the sake of
        comparison, two methods were used to assess the buckling stability of the top centre panel
        of the outer wall of superelement 150.

        The first approach uses BS5400. The curved panel is, in fact, treated as a flat panel with a
        transverse pressure load to represent the circumferential stresses. However, this approach
        generally ignores the beneficial effect of curvature resisting buckling for longitudinal
        stresses.

        In the second method, based on DnV, this curvature stiffening effect is treated more
        accurately. However, DnV does not handle circumferential stresses in curved panels
        correctly, and therefore it is difficult to combine part of the DnV check with part of BS5400.
        However, it is generally accepted that the DnV method is the most suitable for code
        checking curved plate panels.




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                         Unstiffened Curved Panel Checks
        Other key points in the data are as follows:

        −       SIGNS and UNITS are again used to convert the sign convention and units in SESAM
                to those of PANEL;

        −       the definition of the keyed filing system is identical to that in PANEL-
                ENVELOPE;

        −       only envelope 128, the worst envelope, is used;

        −       the radius for the DnV checks is 5,735mm;

        −       checks on nodes of class 2, 4 and 5, although specified, will not be checked, as
                the ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSFS prohibits this.

        Sample output of one node only (node 275) is given in Appendix E.1 for both methods.

        The summary output file presented for BS5400 shows a significantly higher usage factor at
        most of the checked nodes than does the DnV method. The utilisation to BS5400 is 42.1%,
        but to DnV it is 34.4%. Note the slightly different output format of the DnV check which
        shows the reference node stresses, buckling coefficients and critical buckling stresses to
        Appendix C of DnV.




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                         Unstiffened Curved Panel Checks




                         FIGURE 7.1-1: PLAN VIEW OF DECK STRUCTURE

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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                         Unstiffened Curved Panel Checks




       FIGURE 7.1-2:                    THREE-DIMENSIONAL     PRESENTATION
                                        OF SUPERELEMENT '150'




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                         Unstiffened Curved Panel Checks


                   ECHO ON
                   SUPER-ELEMENT CA00 S150
                   !
                   ! SELECT ALL LOAD CASES – 1 TO 82 ARE BASIC – 83 TO 127 ARE COMBINED
                   !
                   LOADCASE    1   2   3   4   5   6   7  8   9 10
                   LOADCASE   11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
                   LOADCASE   21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
                   LOADCASE   31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
                   LOADCASE   41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
                   LOADCASE   51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
                   LOADCASE   61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70
                   LOADCASE   71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80
                   LOADCASE   81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90
                   LOADCASE   91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
                   LOADCASE 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110
                   LOADCASE 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120
                   LOADCASE 121 122 123 124 125 126 127
                   !
                   ! GROUP 224     - OUTER WALL, TOP CENTRE
                   !                 OUTER SURFACE IS TOP
                   !                 SXX STRESS ORIENTATION IS UPWARDS
                   !
                   GROUP PLATE 224
                   ADD      ELEMENTS       215       216      219     220   223     224                  227     228
                   PLATE-AXIS 0.0 0.0 6000.0      0.0                      0.0                                   1.0
                   AVERAGE
                   !
                   ! END OF FILE
                   !
                   STOP




                               FIGURE 7.3-1: SIF-AVERAGE DATA FILE


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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                            Unstiffened Curved Panel Checks

                     SUPER-ELEMENT CA00 S150
                     !
                     ! SE150 - OUTER WALL
                     ! ******************
                     !
                     ! BASIC DATA
                     !
                     ECHO ON
                     LIST-INPUT-DATA ON
                     LIST-INCLUSION-DATA ON
                     ENVELOPE ON
                     CHART OFF
                     WRITE ON
                     NUMBER-OF-PHASES 2
                     !
                     ! KEYED FILING SYSTEM
                     !
                     KEY-FIELDS ENVELOPE GROUP NODE
                     KEY-RANGES 1 177 1 952 0 748
                     !
                     ! GROUP 224 - UPPER CENTRAL PANEL
                     !       - SMEARED PLATE (IN FACT THERE ARE NO STIFFENERS)
                     !       - STANDARD TO CONSIDER SXX (VERTICAL) AS ALONG PLATE
                     !       - STIFFENER SPACING IMMATERIAL (SET TO 1M)
                     !       - SWEEP TO SELECT ALL NODES IN GROUP
                     !       - SET UP ENVELOPE TO CHOOSE WORST COMBINED CASE (ENVELOPE 128)
                     !
                     GROUP 224
                     STIFFENER-MODEL SMEARED
                     STANDARD
                     F-E-STIFFENER-SPACING 1000
                     SWEEP
                     READ-INCLUSION-DATA
                     ENVELOPE 128 OVERALL WORST CASE
                     STATIC
                 CHOO   S   B     1   1 CHOOSE ONLY 1
                 LOAD   S   B    83          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    8
                 LOAD   S   B    84          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    8
                 LOAD   S   B    85          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    8
                 LOAD   S   B    86          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    8
                 LOAD   S   B    87          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    8
                 LOAD   S   B    88          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    8
                 LOAD   S   B    89          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    8
                 LOAD   S   B    90          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    9
                 LOAD   S   B    91          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    9
                 LOAD   S   B    92          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    9
                 LOAD   S   B    93          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    9
                 LOAD   S   B    94          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    9
                 LOAD   S   B    95          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    9
                 LOAD   S   B    96          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    9
                 LOAD   S   B    97          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    9
                 LOAD   S   B    98          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    9
                 LOAD   S   B    99          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    9
                 LOAD   S   B   100          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    1
                 LOAD   S   B   101          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    1
                 LOAD   S   B   102          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    1
                 LOAD   S   B   103          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    1
                 LOAD   S   B   104          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    1
                 LOAD   S   B   105          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    1
                 LOAD   S   B   106          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    1
                 LOAD   S   B   107          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    1
                 LOAD   S   B   108          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    1
                 LOAD   S   B   109          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    1
                 LOAD   S   B   110          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    1
                 LOAD   S   B   111          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    1
                 LOAD   S   B   112          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    1
                 LOAD   S   B   113          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    1
                 LOAD   S   B   114          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    1
                 LOAD   S   B   115          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    1
                 LOAD   S   B   116          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    1
                 LOAD   S   B   117          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    1
                 LOAD   S   B   118          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE   #    1
                 LOAD   S   B   119          1.00000000     1.0    1.0   0.0CASE       #1
                                                                            #




                            FIGURE 7.3-2: PANEL-ENVELOPE DATA FILE



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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                           Unstiffened Curved Panel Checks



                 LOAD S B 120                 1.00000000   1.0    1.0   0.0   CASE   #   120
                 LOAD S B 121                 1.00000000   1.0    1.0   0.0   CASE   #   121
                 LOAD S B 122                 1.00000000   1.0    1.0   0.0   CASE   #   122
                 LOAD S B 123                 1.00000000   1.0    1.0   0.0   CASE   #   123
                 LOAD S B 124                 1.00000000   1.0    1.0   0.0   CASE   #   124
                 LOAD S B 125                 1.00000000   1.0    1.0   0.0   CASE   #   125
                 LOAD S B 126                 1.00000000   1.0    1.0   0.0   CASE   #   126
                 LOAD S B 127                 1.00000000   1.0    1.0   0.0   CASE   #   127
                 DYNAMIC
                 COMBINED
                 END
                 DO-CHECKS
                 !
                 ! END OF DATA
                 !
                 STOP




                                                FIGURE 7.3-2 (cont)


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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                         Unstiffened Curved Panel Checks

            SUPER-ELEMENT CAOO 5150
            TITLE CA SE 150 - OUTER WALL - TOP CENTRE PANEL
            !      *****************************************
            !
            ! BASIC DATA
            *
            ECHO ON
            LIST-INPUT-DATA ON
            CODE-CHECK ON
            SIGNS -1.0 -1.0 1.0 -1.0 1.0
            UNITS 0.001 1.0E-6
            STRENGTH-CHECK ON
            !
            ! DEFINE KEYED FILING SYSTEM
            !
            KEY-FIELDS ENVELOPE GROUP NODE
            KEY-RANGES     1 177 1 952 0 748
            !
            # ENVELOPE 128 - OVERALL WORST CASE
            #
            ENVELOPE-NUMBER 128
            ENVELOPE-NAME OVERALL WORST CASE
            !
            ! GEOMETRIC DATA
            !
            DISCONTINUITY     0 0.0
            STIFFENER-END-CONDITION 0
            STIFFENER-TYPE 0
            IMPERFECTIONS 4.8 3.33 34.5 34.5
            MATERIAL-PROPERTIES 205000 78846 0.3 0.0 345.0 1.15
            PLATE-DIMENSIONS 4085.00 1450.00 30.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00
            WELD-FACTORS 0.34 0.34
            !
            # PLATE BUCKLING TO BS5400
            #
            GROUP 224
            ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES 1 3 6 7
            PLATE-BUCKLING BS5400 RESTRAINED
            CLEAR-SELECT 1 275 277 297 299
            SELECT        2 281 283 286 15 291 293
            SELECT        3 276 298
            SELECT        4 282 292
            SELECT        5 287
            DO-CHECKS
            #
            # PLATE BUCKLING TO DNV
            #
            GROUP 224
            ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES 1 3 6 7
            PLATE-BUCKLING DNV 5735.0
            CLEAR-SELECT 1 275 277 297 299
            SELECT        2 281 283 286 15 291 293
            SELECT        3 276 298
            SELECT        4 282 292
            SELECT        5 287
            DO-CHECKS
            !
            ! END OF DATA
            !
            STOP




                      FIGURE 7.3-3: PANEL-CHECK DATA FILE

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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS


8.      INTERFACE TO ASAS

8.1     GENERAL
        This section demonstrates another practical example in which the topsides loads on an
        existing platform have to be increased significantly, and the integrity of the plated structure
        needs to be demonstrated.

        The deck reanalysis for these additional loads has been carried out using the finite element
        package ASAS. The aim of this reanalysis is to determine any strengthening needed before
        these loads are applied to the platform. The additional loads were applied to specified areas
        of the deck, resulting in highly stressed components lying directly under or close to the
        applied loads.

        An isometric view of the primary deck structure under consideration is shown in Figure 8.1-
        1. The stiffened steel plate walls are 10m high and separate the deck into fifteen areas. Upper
        and lower decks at 33.5m and 23.5m complete the structure. The figure also shows the
        bulkhead that has been chosen for this example, Area 02 North Wall (A02NW).

8.2     FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING

        A linear static stress analysis of the full deck model has been carried out using the ASAS
        finite element package. The analysis has been facilitated by the component method to divide
        the deck structure into manageable components or sub-structures. Each wall, floor or roof is
        generally represented by one component. A02NW forms a first level superelement and its
        plate stresses and stiffener forces and moments have been recovered from the global stress
        analysis of the higher level superelements which form the whole platform structure.

        Eight-noded thick shell elements with six degrees of freedom at each node were chosen to
        model the plate and the webs of the primary T-stiffeners of A02NW. Three-noded compatible
        beam elements with offsets were used to represent primary (vertical) stiffener flanges and
        secondary (horizontal) angle stiffeners. Sniped back tertiary bulb-flat plate stiffeners (parallel
        to the primary/vertical stiffeners) were not modelled. Figure 8.2-1 shows the general
        arrangement of the component and its node numbers.

        Unlike SESAM, ASAS permits elements to be allocated to groups. In this case, since the
        plate is all of one thickness, only one group represents it, group 101. Other groups for the
        vertical webs (301), flanges (302) and horizontal stiffeners (203) are shown in Figure 8.2-1.

8.3     GLOBAL LOAD COMBINATIONS

        Sixteen global load combinations have been considered for the strength and buckling checks
        of A02NW. The load combinations comprise eight DnV ordinary/operating cases and eight
        DnV extreme cases with wave/wind directions as shown in Figure 8.3-1.




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS

8.4     CODE CHECKING OF WALL A02NW

8.4.1 ASAS POST
        ASAS produces nodal stresses in each of the elements that form the plate and stiffeners of the
        component.
        These nodal stresses usually differ slightly even for elements coincident at any given node.
        The reason for this is that the stresses associated with the nodes of each element are
        extrapolated (separately for each element) from the Gauss points. This is only an approximate
        process and causes discrepancies in the stresses obtained at a particular node associated with
        more than one element.
        To overcome this problem and produce the best estimate of stresses, the ASAS POST
        program is used to average the stresses at nodes lying on the interfaces of adjacent elements.
        After running ASAS POST, a '12' file is created where averaged plate stresses are stored.
        This supplements the '10' and '35' files already used by ASAS to store project data, geometry
        and elemental stresses. It is accessed by PANEL-ENVELOPE to create a new '21' file which
        stores the different envelopes for the different load cases. Figure 8.4-1 demonstrates the
        sequence of the analysis and the post-processing of a typical ASAS component.
        ASAS POST is also used to define the reference directions for the nodally averaged stresses.
        It is obviously not desirable to average stresses in different axis systems at the node.
        Elemental nodal stresses are therefore converted to a common system prior to averaging.

8.4.2 PANEL-ENVELOPE

        As mentioned previously, PANEL-ENVELOPE is used to recover element stresses from the
        appropriate post-processing backing files and combine these stresses together to form
        equivalent loads per unit width of plate at specified locations around the structure under
        consideration. In this example, four main data files for PANEL-ENVELOPE were created,
        each of which was concerned with the checking of different structural elements of the panel.
        These four data files are included in Figures 8.4-2 to 8.4-5 and are:
        −       A02ENV1.DAT, which produces envelopes for all bulb flats and adjacent plate;

        −       A02ENV2.DAT, which produces envelopes for all primary vertical stiffeners;

        −       A02ENV4.DAT, which produces envelopes for all web plate nodes;

        −       A02ENV6.DAT, which produces envelopes for all secondary horizontal stiffeners.
        Much data is common across these data files, and some is even common with the PANEL-
        CHECK data to be described later. It therefore makes sense, and reduces possible errors, to
        provide this data in one source file only. The four main data files were accompanied by three
        external data files. These were:




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS
        −       a data file containing the keyed filing system (A02.KEY);

        −       a data file containing basic PANEL-ENVELOPE commands for every run
                (A02ENV.BAS);

        −       a data file containing the envelope definitions corresponding to the sixteen load
                combinations and producing an overall worst load envelope (A02ENV.CRE).

        The three external files are referenced from the main data using the CHANGE-INPUT-
        STREAM command. Listing of the external data files is given in Figures 8.4-6 to 8.4-8
        respectively.

        Data unique to ASAS or of prime significance is as follows:

        −       each data file starts with an ASAS-style preliminary deck to select the required
                component and set options;

        −       the stiffener modelling reflects the part of the model being checked. The bulb flats
                are not modelled specifically, and so are classed as 'SMEARED', as are the web
                plate checks. The primary stiffeners are 'WEB-PLATE' and the secondary stiffeners are
                'OFFSET';

        −       the keyed filing system is almost identical to the SESAM example in Section 6.0.
                Envelopes are referenced, stored and recovered by NODE, SGROUP, TYPE and
                ENVELOPE. TYPE is an integer from 1 to 6 corresponding to the part of the
                structure being checked. One novel feature is SGROUP. If the group number was
                used directly for storage, a large range would need to be specified to cover the plate
                and web groups. Much of this would be unused. SGROUP is therefore a sequential
                version of GROUP to reduce this storage requirement. Whenever a new group is
                specified, SGROUP must also be reset. Group subdivision is actually unnecessary for
                this particular example (there is only one plate and web group), but it is provided for
                consistency with other panels which have more complex groups;

        −       note the use of the FE stiffener spacing and effective width factors in the OFFSET
                and WEB-PLATE stiffener types. These are used to apportion the degree of bending in
                the plate. See the User Manual for details.

8.4.3 PANEL-CHECK

        The PANEL-CHECK program carries out the actual code checks on the stiffeners and plate
        of AO2NW, using combinations of maximum and minimum loads stored by PANEL-
        ENVELOPE in the '21' file.

        In a similar fashion to the PANEL-ENVELOPE data structure, four main data files were
        created for PANEL-CHECK. These correspond to the code checking of the following:




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                         Interface to ASAS
                    Structural Elements                                    Types             Data File

                    Bulb Flats and Adjacent Plate                          TYPE 1            A02PAN1.DAT

                    Primary Vertical Stiffness                             TYPE 2            A02PAN2.DAT

                    Web Plates of the Primary Stiffeners                   TYPE 4            A02PAN4.DAT

                    Secondary Horizontal Stiffeners                        TYPE 6            A02PAN6.DAT
            These files are listed in Figures 8.4-9 to 8.4-12.

            As with the PANEL-ENVELOPE data, several external data files were used by means of the
            CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM command. The first is the keyed filing system data file which
            is described in the PANEL-ENVELOPE section (A02.KEY). The second is a data file
            containing the basic PANEL-CHECK commands (A02PAN.BAS) while the third and fourth
            contained the selection of envelopes (A02ENV.USE and A02ENV17.USE). The external
            data files (except A02.KEY) are listed in Figures 8.4-13 to 8.4-15.

        The strategy adopted in checking the different types of structural element forming AO2NW
        was based on performing a first pass code check over all locations in the wall using
        conservative loads (envelope 17) and conservative geometry (worst spans, etc.). Locations
        that fail this preliminary check were rechecked in second and subsequent passes using less
        conservative data and assessing each envelope (corresponding to load combinations 1 to 16)
        separately.

        Only nodes which failed the first pass checks were rechecked. This approach is illustrated by
        Figure 8.4-16, which shows a recheck data file for the bulb flats and plate. This may be
        compared with Figure 8.4-12, which controlled the original checks. Checks failing the first
        pass have been separated out; each is assigned an individual span and individual load
        combinations have been checked to remove the conservatism of the enveloping process.

        Further options exist for reducing possible conservatism in the first pass checks. These
        include:

        −       use of reference loads for the evaluation of buckling;

        −       use of mill certificate yield stresses (when available) to replace minimum design values;

        −       incorporation of other geometric features, such as tripping brackets etc., into the data;

        −       rationalisation of effective width factors used in enveloping;

        −       identification and removal of any inaccuracies in the FE model, if this is possible.




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS
        One useful facility in the provision of reference node stresses is the AVERAGE command in
        PANEL-ENVELOPE. This may be used to create dummy 'nodes' whose envelopes of load can
        be based on the average of adjacent nodes. This is useful for plate panels represented by just
        one element, as the element node envelopes can be averaged to give the representative loads at
        the dummy 'node'. This dummy 'node' can then be selected as the reference node for PANEL-
        CHECK. This approach is of particular use, as above, where no single node is obvious as a
        reference node. Care should be taken, however, to leave space in the key filing system for
        these dummy nodes if it is likely that they will be needed.

        The following paragraphs describe the checking of each structural element in turn.


        TYPE 1 - Bulb Flats and Plate

        The ends of the bulb flats on AO2NW were snipped back, therefore a STIFFENER-END-
        CONDITION of zero was used. Bulb flats are the lowest level of stiffening and the Harding
        method was considered to be the most appropriate. Note that the stiffeners and plate were
        checked separately because they have different yield values. For checking the plate, the
        BS5400 method was used and the plate panels were assumed to be restrained (according to
        BS5400, a panel is assumed to be restrained if three or more open-section stiffeners, or two or
        more closed-section stiffeners are used). The first pages of the summary output file for these
        checks is shown in Appendix F.1. Two nodes failed the code checks; one was lying at the
        middle span of a stiffener primary while the other was lying at a wall corner. The two nodes
        were rechecked using individual envelopes and stiffener spans and passed the code checks
        safely. The summary output for this recheck is also given in Appendix F.1.

        TYPE 2 - Primary Vertical Stiffeners

        The IDWR method was adopted for checking the buckling stability of these stiffeners. It is
        more appropriate for checking panels stiffened in two perpendicular directions (panels
        stiffened transversely and longitudinally). The Harding method would be conservative in this
        case. All nodes on the stiffeners were checked. Group 301 represents the web plates while
        Group 302 represents the flange/offset beams. The summary output (the first page of which is
        given in Appendix F.2) shows that two nodes of class 2 and one of class 5 fail to pass the code
        checks. Again, these nodes were rechecked by assessing envelopes 1 to 16 separately and
        were proved to pass the code checks successfully. This output is again shown in Appendix
        F.2.

        TYPE 4 - Primary Stiffener Webs

        The slenderness ratio of the primary stiffener webs (950/14 = 68) exceeds the limits stated in
        DnV Appendix C for unstiffened construction. Buckling calculations therefore need to be
        provided for these.

        The BS5400 method was used to examine the buckling resistance of the webs. According to
        BS5400, the web plates were assumed to be unrestrained as the flange connection is a free
        edge. All checks were performed for class 7 locations only (centre of plate). This has been
        indirectly achieved by performing a class 5 check, but only analysing class 7. The first page of
        the summary output is listed in Appendix F.3. All nodes pass the code checking safely. No
        rechecks are therefore needed.


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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS
        TYPE 6 - Secondary Horizontal Stiffeners

        The last components to be checked using PANEL-CHECK were the secondary horizontal
        stiffeners. The stiffeners were modelled by offset beams which were given the Group number
        '203'. Similar to the primary vertical stiffeners, the horizontal stiffeners were checked against
        buckling using the IDWR method.

        A listing of the first page of the summary output is given in Appendix F.4. Minor holes or
        cut-outs are usually ignored in the finite element analysis. However, they can be accounted
        for by means of reduced effective plate widths in the PANEL-CHECK. It was necessary to
        recheck some nodes on the secondary stiffeners at particular locations with a reduced width
        of plating using the DISCONTINUITY command. The code recheck data file for these nodes
        is given as Figure 8.4-17. From the summary output in Appendix F.4, it can be seen that, in
        this particular case, cut-outs had very little effect in reducing the load carrying capacity of
        associated stiffeners, and all locations pass the checks safely.




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.               8-6
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS




                FIGURE 8.1-1: ISOMETRIC VIEW OF THE DECK STRUCTURE



Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.               8-7
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS




                  FIGURE 8.2-1: FINITE ELEMENT MESH OF ‘A02NW’



Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.               8-8
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS




                    FIGURE 8.3-1: GLOBAL LOAD COMBINATIONS




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS




    FIGURE 8.4-1: FLOWCHART FOR PANEL AS A POST-PROCESSOR TO ASASH




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.              8-10
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS

         SYSTEM DATA AREA 100000
         JOB POST ALPH Q02B
         TITLE DECK - AREA 02 - NORTH WALL - BULB FLATS AND PLATE
         TEXT *******************************************************************
         TEXT                 PANEL-ENVELOPE RUN FOR AREA 02, NORTH WALL
         TEXT                RUN 1 - PRODUCE ENVELOPES FOR ALL BULB FLATS
         TEXT                               *******************************************************************
         STRUCTURE Q02B
         COMPONENT Q02B CWST B02B
         OPTIONS NOBL END
         END
         !
         CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 55 A02ENV.BAS
         !
         CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 56 A02.KEY
         SYMBOL-VALUE TYPE 1
         !
         ! PLATE GROUP IS 101
         ! ******************
         STIFFENER-MODEL SMEARED
         STANDARD
         !
         GROUP 101
         SYMBOL-VALUE SGROUP 101
         F-E-STIFFENER-SPACING 860
         CLEAR-SELECT       5 16 2812 4
         SELECT             2 17 2423 9 5
         SELECT             5 41 4936 29
         SELECT             2 46 5554 39 34
         SELECT             5 69 7764 57
         SELECT             2 74 8382 67 62
         SELECT             5 97 105 92 85
         SELECT             2 18 2625 10 6
         SELECT             2 42 4847 35 30
         SELECT             2 70 7675 63 58
         SELECT             2 98 104 103 91 86
         CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 57 A02ENV.CRE
         !
         F-E-STIFFENER-SPACING        645
         CLEAR-SELECT 5 97 105        92 85
         SELECT             2 102 111 110 95 90
         SELECT             5 125 133 120 113
         SELECT             2 130 139 138 123 118
         SELECT             5 152 157 150 141
         SELECT             2 154 159 158 151 143
         SELECT             5 165 172 161 144
         SELECT             2 98 104 103 91 86
         SELECT             2 126 132 131 119 114
         SELECT             2 143 156 155 149 142
         SELECT             2 166 171 170 160 145
         CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM        57A02ENV.CRE
         !
         ! END OF DATA
         ! ***********
         !
         STOP




    FIGURE 8.4-2:                    DATA FILE FOR PANEL-ENVELOPE - BULB FLATS AND
                                     PLATE




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.              8-11
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS
SYSTEM DATA AREA 100000
JOB POST ALPH Q02B
TITLE DECK - AREA 02 - NORTH WALL - PRIMARY VERTICAL STIFFENERS
TEXT ****************************************************************************
TEXT                  PANEL-ENVELOPE RUN FOR AREA 02, NORTH WALL
TEXT            RUN 2 - PRODUCE ENVELOPES FOR ALL PRIMARY VERTICAL STIFFENERS
TEXT                               ****************************************************************************
STRUCTURE Q02B
COMPONENT Q02B CWST B02B
OPTIONS NOEL END
END
!
CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 55 A02ENV.BAS
!
CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 56 A02.KEY
SYMBOL-VALUE TYPE 2
!
! PLATE GROUP IS 101
! ******************
STIFFENER-MODEL WEB-PLATE 301 302
STANDARD
WEB-STRESS-ORIENTATION 0
!
GROUP 101
SYMBOL-VALUE SGROUP 101
!
!
!
 FLANGE-NODE 145 1
 FLANGE-NODE 144 1
 FLANGE-NODE 160 1
 FLANGE-NODE 161 1
 FLANGE-NODE 170 1
 FLANGE-NODE 172 1
 FLANGE-NODE 171 1
 FLANGE-NODE 165 1
 FLANGE-NODE 166 1
 !                1
 FLANGE-NODE 142 1
 FLANGE-NODE 141 1
 FLANGE-NODE 149 1
 FLANGE-NODE 150 1
 FLANGE-NODE 155 1
 FLANGE-NODE 157 1
 FLANGE-NODE 156 1
 FLANGE-NODE 152 1
 FLANGE-NODE 153 1
 !                8
 FLANGE-NODE 114 9
 FLANGE-NODE 113 8
 FLANGE-NODE 119 9
 FLANGE-NODE 120 9
 FLANGE-NODE 131 1
 FLANGE-NODE 133 1
 FLANGE-NODE 132 1
 FLANGE-NODE 125 9
 FLANGE-NODE 126 1
 !                6
 FLANGE-NODE   86 1
 FLANGE-NODE   85 6
 FLANGE-NODE   91 6
 FLANGE-NODE   92 6
 FLANGE-NODE 103 8
 FLANGE-NODE 105 8
 FLANGE-NODE 104 8
 FLANGE-NODE   97 7
 FLANGE-NODE   98 7
 FLANGE-NODE   58 3
 FLANGE-NODE   57 3
 FLANGE-NODE   63 3
 FLANGE-NODE   64 4
                  0




 FIGURE 8.4-3:                    DATA FILE FOR PANEL-ENVELOPE- PRIMARY VERTICAL
                                  STIFFENERS


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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS


                FLANGE-NODE 75 52
                FLANGE-NODE 77 56
                FLANGE-NODE 76 53
                FLANGE-NODE 69 43
                FLANGE-NODE 70 45
                !
                FLANGE-NODE 30 3
                FLANGE-NODE 29 2
                FLANGE-NODE 35 8
                FLANGE-NODE 36 11
                FLANGE-NODE 47 21
                FLANGE-NODE 49 27
                FLANGE-NODE 48 22
                FLANGE-NODE 41 13
                FLANGE-NODE 42 15
                !
                F-E-STIFFENER-SPACING 2580
                EFFECTIVE-WIDTH-FACTORS 0.28 0.28
                CLEAR-SELECT 2 30 42 58 70 86 98 114 126 142 153 145 166
                SELECT    5 29 35 36 47 49 48 41
                SELECT    5 57 63 64 75 77 76 69
                SELECT    5 85 91 92 103 105 104 97
                SELECT    5 113 119 120 131 133 132 125
                SELECT    5 141 149 150 155 157 156 152
                CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 57 A02ENV.CRE
                !
                F-E-STIFFENER-SPACING 1935
                EFFECTIVE-WIDTH-FACTORS 0.37 0.37
                CLEAR-SELECT 2 145 166
                SELECT    5 144 160 161 170 172 171 165
                CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 57 A02ENV.CRE
                !
                ! END OF DATA
                ! ***********
                !
                STOP




                                                     FIGURE 8.4.3 (cont)




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.              8-13
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS


SYSTEM DATA AREA 100000
JOB POST ALPH Q02B
TITLE DECK - AREA 02 - NORTH WALL GIRDER PLATE CHECK
TEXT *************************************************************************
TEXT                     PANEL-ENVELOPE RUN FOR AREA 02, NORTH WALL
TEXT                  RUN 4 - PRODUCE ENVELOPES FOR ALL WEB PLATE NODES
TEXT                 *************************************************************************
STRUCTURE Q02B
COMPONENT Q02B CWST B02B
OPTIONS NOBL END
END
!
CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 55 A02ENV.BAS
!
CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 56 A02.KEY
SYMBOL-VALUE TYPE 4
!
! PLATE GROUP IS 301
! ******************
STIFFENER-MODEL SMEARED
STANDARD
!
GROUP 301
SYMBOL-VALUE SGROUP 101
SWEEP
CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 57 A02ENV.CRE
!
! END OF DATA
! ***********
!
STOP




            FIGURE 8.4-4: DATA FILE FOR PANEL-ENVELOPE - WEB PLATES


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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS

     SYSTEM DATA AREA 100000
     JOB POST ALPH Q02B
     TITLE DECK - AREA 02 - NORTH WALL - SECONDARY HORIZ. STIFFENERS
     TEXT *************************************************************************
     TEXT                   PANEL-ENVELOPE RUN FOR AREA 02. NORTH WALL
     TEXT             RUN 6 - PRODUCE ENVELOPES FOR ALL SECONDARY HORIZ. STIFFENERS
     TEXT           *************************************************************************
     STRUCTURE Q02B
     COMPONENT Q02B CWST B02B
     OPTIONS NOEL END
     END
     !
     CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 55 A02ENV.BAS
     !
     CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 56 A02.KEY
     SYMBOL-VALUE TYPE 6
     !
     ! PLATE GROUP IS 101
     ! ******************
     STIFFENER-MODEL OFFSET 203
     ROTATE
     BEAM ROTATED
     F-E-STIFFENER-SPACING 2500
     EFFECTIVE-WIDTH-FACTORS 0.29 0.29
     !
     GROUP 101
     SYMBOL-VALUE SGROUP 101
        CLEAR-SELECT 26 48 76 104 132 156 1
        SELECT       5 24 55 83 111 139 159
        SELECT       2 25 47 75 103 131 155 1
        SELECT       5 23 54 82 110 130 158
        SELECT       2 10 35 63    91 119 149 1
        SELECT       5 9 39 67     95 123 151
     CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 57 A02ENV.CRE
     !
     ! END OF DATA
     ! ***********
     !
     STOP




        FIGURE 8.4-5:                    DATA FILE FOR PANEL-ENVELOPE - SECONDARY
                                         HORIZONTAL STIFFENERS


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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS



                    ! DEFINE KEYED FILING SYSTEM
                    ! **************************
                    !
                    ! DEFINE NEW SYMBOL 'TYPE' TO DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN ENVELOPES FOR DIFFERENT CHECKS
                    ! SET KEY FIELDS AND RANGES AS FOLLOWS :
                    ! ENVELOPE        :      ENVELOPE NUMBER
                    !                        1 - 8 FOR ORDINARY LOAD CASES 1 TO 8
                    !                        9 - 16 FOR EXTREME LOAD CASES 9 TO 16
                    !                        17 FOR WORST OVERALL ENVELOPE
                    ! TYPE            :      TYPE OF STIFFENER/PLATE CHECKS
                    !                        1 - BULB FLATS AND MAIN PLATE
                    !                        2 - PRIMARY VERTICAL/TRANSVERSE GIRDERS
                    !                        3 - PRIMARY HORIZONTAL/LONGITUDINAL GIRDERS
                    !                        4 - WEB PLATES
                    !                        5 - SECONDARY VERTICAL/TRANSVERSE STIFFENERS
                    !                        6 - SECONDARY HORIZONTAL/LONGITUDINAL STIFFENERS
                    !
                    ! SGROUP          :      SEQUENTIAL GROUP NUMBER TO AVOID GAP IN GROUP NUMBERING BETWEEN
                    !                        PLATE AND WEB GROUPS. PLATE GROUPS MAP DIRECTLY AND WEB GROUPS
                    !                        FOLLOW SEQUENTIALLY.
                    !
                    ! NODE            :      LOCATION (NODE NUMBER) FOR CHECKING (0 FOR CLASS ENVELOPES)
                    !
                    NEW-SYMBOL TYPE
                    NEW-SYMBOL SGROUP
                    KEY-FIELDS ENVELOPE TYPE SGROUP NODE
                    KEY-RANGES   1 17     1 6 101 101 0 180
                    CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 5




                                      FIGURE 8.4-6: 'A02.KEY' DATA FILE




            !
            ! BASIC DATA
            ! **********
            !
            ! ALL DATA ECHOS/LISTINGS ON
            ! ENVELOPING ENABLED
            ! ENVELOPING LOGIC MAP AND ENVELOPE OUTPUT NOT REQUIRED
            ! WRITE TO DATABASE ENABLED
            ! DYNAMIC LOAD CASES NOT AVAILABLE, SO SET NUMBER OF PHASES TO 2 (MINIMUM)
            !
            ECHO ON
            LIST-INPUT-DATA ON
            LIST-INCLUSION-DATA ON
            ENVELOPE ON
            CHART NONE
            WRITE ON
            NUMBER-OF-PHASES 2
            CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 5




                                   FIGURE 8.4-7: 'A02ENV.BAS' DATA FILE


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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS



             !
             ! DEFINE ENVELOPES AND PERFORM ENVELOPING
             ! ***************************************
             !
             ! ENVELOPE 1 - INCLUDE STATIC ORDINARY LOAD COMBINATION             41
             !
             READ-INCLUSION-DATA
             ENVELOPE 1 ORDINARY LOAD CASE 41
             STATIC
             INCL S B 41 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
             DYNAMIC
             COMBINED
             END
             DO-CHECKS
             !
             ! ENVELOPE 2 - INCLUDE STATIC ORDINARY LOAD COMBINATION             42
             !
             READ-INCLUSION-DATA
             ENVELOPE 2 ORDINARY LOAD CASE 42
             STATIC
             INCL S B 42 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
             DYNAMIC
             COMBINED
             END
             DO-CHECKS
             !
             ! ENVELOPE 3 - INCLUDE STATIC ORDINARY LOAD COMBINATION             43
             !
             READ-INCLUSION-DATA
             ENVELOPE 3 ORDINARY LOAD CASE 43
             STATIC
             INCL S B 43 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
             DYNAMIC
             COMBINED
             END
             DO-CHECKS
             !
             ! ENVELOPE 4 - INCLUDE STATIC ORDINARY LOAD COMBINATION             44
             !
             READ-INCLUSION-DATA
             ENVELOPE 4 ORDINARY LOAD CASE 44
             STATIC
             INCL S B 44 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
             DYNAMIC
             COMBINED
             END
             DO-CHECKS
             !
             ! ENVELOPE 5INCLUDE STATIC ORDINARY LOAD COMBINATION 45
             !
             READ-INCLUSION-DATA
             ENVELOPE 5 ORDINARY LOAD CASE 45
             STATIC
             INCL S B 45 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
             DYNAMIC
             COMBINED
             END
             DO-CHECKS
             !
             ! ENVELOPE 6 - INCLUDE STATIC ORDINARY LOAD COMBINATION             46
             !
             READ-INCLUSION-DATA
             ENVELOPE 6 ORDINARY LOAD CASE 46
             STATIC
             INCL S B 46 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
             DYNAMIC
             COMBINED
             END
             DO-CHECKS




                                FIGURE 8.4-8: 'A02ENV.CRE' DATA FILE


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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS




                 !
                 ! ENVELOPE 7 - INCLUDE STATIC ORDINARY LOAD COMBINATION 47
                 !
                 READ-INCLUSION-DATA
                 ENVELOPE 7 ORDINARY LOAD CASE 47
                 STATIC
                 INCL S B 47 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
                 DYNAMIC
                 COMBINED
                 END
                 DO-CHECKS
                 !
                 ! ENVELOPE 8 - INCLUDE STATIC ORDINARY LOAD COMBINATION 48
                 !
                 READ-INCLUSION-DATA
                 ENVELOPE 8 ORDINARY LOAD CASE 48
                 STATIC
                 INCL S B 48 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
                 DYNAMIC
                 COMBINED
                 END
                 DO-CHECKS
                 !
                 ! ENVELOPE 9 - INCLUDE STATIC EXTREME LOAD COMBINATION 49
                 !
                 READ-INCLUSION-DATA
                 ENVELOPE 9 EXTREME LOAD CASE 49
                 STATIC
                 INCL S B 49 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
                 DYNAMIC
                 COMBINED
                 END
                 DO-CHECKS
                 !
                 ! ENVELOPE 10 - INCLUDE STATIC EXTREME LOAD COMBINATION 50
                 !
                 READ-INCLUSION-DATA
                 ENVELOPE 10 EXTREME LOAD CASE 50
                 STATIC
                 INCL S B 50 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
                 DYNAMIC
                 COMBINED
                 END
                 DO-CHECKS
                 !
                 ! ENVELOPE 11 - INCLUDE STATIC EXTREME LOAD COMBINATION 51
                 !
                 READ-INCLUSION-DATA
                 ENVELOPE 11 EXTREME LOAD CASE 51
                 STATIC
                 INCL S B 51 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
                 DYNAMIC
                 COMBINED
                 END
                 DO-CHECKS
                 !
                 ! ENVELOPE 12 - INCLUDE STATIC EXTREME LOAD COMBINATION 52
                 !
                 READ-INCLUSION-DATA
                 ENVELOPE 12 EXTREME LOAD CASE 52
                 STATIC
                 INCL S B 52 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
                 DYNAMIC
                 COMBINED
                 END
                 DO-CHECKS




                                                    FIGURE 8.4-8 (cont)




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Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS




          !
          ! ENVELOPE 13 - INCLUDE STATIC EXTREME LOAD COMBINATION 53
          !
          READ-INCLUSION-DATA
          ENVELOPE 13 EXTREME LOAD CASE 53
          STATIC
          INCL S B 53 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
          DYNAMIC
          COMBINED
          END
          DO-CHECKS
          !
          ! ENVELOPE 14 - INCLUDE STATIC EXTREME LOAD COMBINATION 54
          !
          READ-INCLUSION-DATA
          ENVELOPE 14 EXTREME LOAD CASE 54
          STATIC
          INCL S B 54 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
          COMBINED
          END
          DO-CHECKS
          !
          ! ENVELOPE 15 - INCLUDE STATIC EXTREME LOAD COMBINATION 55
          !
          READ-INCLUSION-DATA
          ENVELOPE 15 – EXTREME LOAD CASE 55
          STATIC
          INCL S B 55 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
          DYNAMIC
          COMBINED
          END
          DO-CHECKS
          !
          ! ENVELOPE 16 INCLUDE STATIC EXTREME LOAD COMBINATION 56
          !
          READ-INCLUSION-DATA
          ENVELOPE 16 EXTREME LOAD CASE 56
          STATIC
          INCL S B 56 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
          DYNAMIC
          COMBINED
          END
          DO-CHECKS
          !
          ! ENVELOPE 17 - CHOOSE THE WORST LOAD COMBINATION
          !
          READ-INCLUSION-DATA
          ENVELOPE 17 OVERALL LOAD ENVELOPE
          STATIC
          CHOO S B   1 1 CHOOSE JUST 1
          LOAD S B 41 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
          LOAD S B 42 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
          LOAD S B 43 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
          LOAD S B 44 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
          LOAD S B 45 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
          LOAD S B 46 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
          LOAD S B 47 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
          LOAD S B 48 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
          LOAD S B 49 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
          LOAD S B 50 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
          LOAD S B 51 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
          LOAD S B 52 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
          LOAD S B 53 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
          LOAD S B 54 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
          LOAD S B 55 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
          LOAD S B 56 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0
          DYNAMIC
          COMBINED
          END
          DO-CHECKS
          !
          CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 5




                                                 FIGURE 8.4-8 (cont)


Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.              8-19
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS
     TITLE CODE CHECK OF DECK - AREA 02 - NORTH WALL - BULB FLATS AND PLATE
     !
     SUPER-ELEMENT 100000 ALPH Q02B 37
     !
     CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 55 A02PAN.BAS
     !
     CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 56 A02.KEY
     SYMBOL-VALUE TYPE 1
     !
     CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 57 A02ENV17.USE
     !
     STIFFENER-DATA 1 BULB 200.0 9.0 28.0 2360
     STIFFENER-TYPE 1
     STIFFENER-END-CONDITION 0
     STIFFENER-MODEL SMEARED
     STIFFENER-BUCKLING HARDING HARDING
     !
     ! STIFFENER CHECKS (101)
     ! **********************
     #    STIFFENER CHECKS (NVA 235 YIELD)
     # HARDING METHOD FOR STIFFENER BUCKLING
     #
     ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES 2 4 5
     PLATE-BUCKLING OFF
     PASS 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1
     MATERIAL-PROPERTIES 205000.0 78846.0 0.3 0.0 235.0 1.15
     !
     GROUP 101
     SYMBOL-VALUE SGROUP 101
     PLATE-DIMENSIONS 2500.0 860.0 18.0
     CLEAR-SELECT   5 16 28 12 4
     SELECT         2 17 24 23 9 5
     SELECT         5 41 49 36 29
     SELECT         2 46 55 54 39 34
     SELECT         5 69 77 64 57
     SELECT         2 74 83 82 67 62
     SELECT         5 97 105 92 85
     SELECT         2 18 26 25 10 6
     SELECT         2 42 48 47 35 30
     SELECT         2 70 76 75 63 58
     SELECT         2 98 104 103 91 86
     DO-CHECKS
     !
     PLATE-DIMENSIONS 2500.0 645.0 18.0
     CLEAR-SELECT 5    97 105 92 85
     SELECT        2 102 111 110 95 90
     SELECT        5 125 133 120 113
     SELECT        2 130 139 138 123 118
     SELECT        5 152 157 150 141
     SELECT        2 154 159 158 151 143
     SELECT        5 165 172 161 144
     SELECT        2   98 104 103 91 86
     SELECT        2 126 132 131 119 114
     SELECT        2 143 156 155 149 142
     SELECT        2 166 171 170 160 145
     DO-CHECKS
     !
     ! PLATE CHECKS (101)
     ! ******************
     *
     # PLATE CHECKS NVD36 (365# YIELD)
     #
     ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES 3 6 7
     PLATE-BUCKLING BS5400 RESTRAINED
     PASS 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
     MATERIAL-PROPERTIES 205000.0 78846.0 0.3 0.0 365.0 1.15
     !




          FIGURE 8.4-9:                   DATA FILE FOR PANEL-CHECK - BULB FLATS AND
                                          PLATE




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.              8-20
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS



                 PLATE-DIMENSIONS   2500.0 860.018.0
                 CLEAR-SELECT 5 1628 12 4
                 SELECT        2 17 24 23 9 5
                 SELECT        5 41 49 36 29
                 SELECT        2 46 55 54 39 34
                 SELECT        5 69 77 64 57
                 SELECT        2 74 83 82 67 62
                 SELECT        5 97 105 92 85
                 SELECT        2 18 26 25 10 6
                 SELECT        2 42 48 47 35 30
                 SELECT        2 70 76 75 63 58
                 SELECT        2 98 104 103 91 86
                 DO-CHECKS
                 !

                 PLATE-DIMENSIONS    2500.0   645.0
                 18.0 CLEAR-SELECT 5 97 105 92 85
                 SELECT        2 102 111 110 95 90
                 SELECT        5 125 133 120 113
                 SELECT        2 130 139 138 123 118
                 SELECT        5 152 157 150 141
                 SELECT        2 154 159 158 151 143
                 SELECT        5 165 172 161 144
                 SELECT        2 98 104 103 91 86
                 SELECT        2 126 132 131 119 114
                 SELECT        2 143 156 155 149 142
                 SELECT        2 166 171 170 160 145
                 DO-CHECKS
                 !
                 ! END OF DATA
                 ! ***********
                 !
                 STOP




                                                   FIGURE 8.4-9 (cont)




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.              8-21
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS

           TITLE CODE CHECK OF DECK - AREA 02 - NORTH WALL - PRIMARY VERTICAL STIFFENERS
           !
           SUPER-ELEMENT 100000 ALPH Q02B 37
           !
           CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 55 A02PAN.BAS
           !
           CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 56 A02.KEY
           SYMBOL-VALUE TYPE 2
           !
           CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 57 A02ENV17.USE
           !
           STIFFENER-DATA   1   TEE   950.0  14.0   200.0  30.0
           STIFFENER-TYPE 1
           STIFFENER-END-CONDITION 2
           STIFFENER-MODEL WEB-PLATE 301 302
           STIFFENER-BUCKLING IDWR IDWR
           !
           ! STIFFENER CHECKS (101)
           ! **********************
           # STIFFENER CHECKS (NVA 275 YIELD)
           # IDWR METHOD FOR STIFFENER BUCKLING
           #
           ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES 2 4 5
           PLATE-BUCKLING OFF
           PASS 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1
           MATERIAL-PROPERTIES 205000.0 78846.0 0.3 0.0 275.0 1.15
           !
           GROUP 101
           SYMBOL-VALUE SGROUP 101
           PLATE-DIMENSIONS 10000.0 2580.0 18.0
           CLEAR-SELECT 2 30 42 58 70 86 98 114 126 142 153 145 166
           SELECT         5 29 35 36 47 49 48 41
           SELECT         5 57 63 64 75 77 76 69
           SELECT         5 85 91 92 103 105 104 97
           SELECT         5 113 119 120 131 133 132 125
           SELECT         5 141 149 150 155 157 156 152
           DO-CHECKS
           !
           PLATE-DIMENSIONS 10000.0 1935.0 18.0
           CLEAR-SELECT 2 145 166
           SELECT         5 144 160 161 170 172 171 165
           DO-CHECKS
           !
           ! END OF DATA
           ! ***********
           !
           STOP




         FIGURE 8.4-10:                    DATA FILE FOR PANEL-CHECK - PRIMARY
                                           VERTICAL STIFFENERS




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.              8-22
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS
 TITLE CODE CHECK OF DECK - AREA 2 - NORTH WALL - GIRDER WEB CHECKS
 !
 SUPER-ELEMENT 100000 ALPH Q02B 37
 !
 CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 55 A02PAN.BAS
 !
 CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 56 A02.KEY
 SYMBOL-VALUE TYPE 4
 !
 CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 57 A02ENV17.USE
 !
 #
 # WEB PLATE CHECKS (NVD 275 YIELD)
 #
 STIFFENER-TYPE 0
 STIFFENER-END-CONDITION 0
 STIFFENER-MODEL SMEARED
 !
 ! PLATE CHECKS (301)
 ! ******************
 ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES 1 3 6 7
 PLATE-BUCKLING BS5400 UNRESTRAINED
 PASS 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
 MATERIAL-PROPERTIES 205000.0 78846.0 0.3 0.0 275.0 1.15
 !
 GROUP 301
 SYMBOL-VALUE SGROUP 101
 !
 PLATE-DIMENSION 2500.0 950.0 14.0
 !
 CLEAR-SELECT 5 42 41 48 49 47 36 35 29 30
 SELECT       5 14 20 19 7 1
 SELECT       5 15 13 22 27 21 11 8 2 3
 DO-CHECKS
 !
 CLEAR-SELECT 5 70 69 76 77 75 64 63 57 58
 SELECT       5 44 51 50 37 31
 SELECT       5 45 43 59 56 52 40 38 32 33
 DO-CHECKS
 !
 CLEAR-SELECT 5 98 97 104 105 103 92 91 85 86
 SELECT       5 72 73 78 65 59
 SELECT       5 79 71 81 84 88 68 66 60 61
 DO-CHECKS
 !
 CLEAR-SELECT 5 126 125 132 133 131 120 119 113 114
 SELECT       5 100 107 106 98 87
 SELECT       5 101 99 109 112 108 96 94 98 89
 DO-CHECKS
 !
 CLEAR-SELECT 5 153 152 156 157 155 150 149 141 142
 SELECT       5 128 135 134 121 115
 SELECT       5 129 127 137 140 136 124 122 116 117
 DO-CHECKS
 !
 CLEAR-SELECT 5 166 165 171 172 170 161 160 144 145
 SELECT       5 168 174 173 162 146
 SELECT       5 169 167 176 177 175 164 163 147 148
 DO-CHECKS
 !
 ! END OF DATA
 ! ***********
 !
 STOP




         FIGURE 8.4-11: DATA FILE FOR PANEL-CHECK - WEB PLATES



Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.              8-23
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS



     TITLE CODE CHECK OF DECK - AREA 02 - NORTH WALL - SECONDARY HORIZ STIFFENERS
     !
     SUPER-ELEMENT 100000 ALPH Q02B 37
     !
     CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 55 A02PAN.BAS
     !
     CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 56 A02.KEY
     SYMBOL-VALUE TYPE 6
     !
     CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 57 A02ENV17.USE
     !
     STIFFENER-DATA 1 ANGL 400.0 11.5 120.0 23.0
     STIFFENER-TYPE 1
     STIFFENER-END-CONDITION 2
     STIFFENER-MODEL OFFSET 203
     STIFFENER-BUCKLING IDWR IDWR
     !
     ! STIFFENER CHECKS (101)
     ! **********************
     # STIFFENER CHECKS (NVD27 275 YIELD)
     # IDWR METHOD FOR STIFFENER BUCKLING
     #
     ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES 2 4 5
     PLATE-BUCKLING OFF
     PASS 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1
     MATERIAL-PROPERTIES 205000.0 78846.0 0.3 0.0 275.0 1.15
     !
     GROUP 101
     SYMBOL-VALUE SGROUP 101
     PLATE-DIMENSIONS 2580.0 2500.0 18.0
     CLEAR-SELECT 2 26 48 76 104 132 156 171
     SELECT        5 24 55 83 111 139 159
     SELECT        2 25 47 75 103 131 155 170
     SELECT        5 23 54 82 110 130 158
     SELECT        2 10 35 63 91 119 149 161
     SELECT        5 9 39 67 95 123 151
     DO-CHECKS
     !
     ! END OF DATA
     ! ***********
     !
     STOP




        FIGURE 8.4-12:                   DATA FILE FOR PANEL-CHECK - SECONDARY
                                         HORIZONTAL STIFFENERS




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.              8-24
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS



                  !
                  ! BASIC PANEL DATA
                  ! ****************
                  !
                  ! SET ALL DATA ECHOS/LISTINGS ON
                  ! CODE CHECKING ENABLED AND STRENGTH CHECKS ON
                  ! PLATE BUCKLING NOT AUTOMATICALLY PERFORMED
                  ! PROVIDE PAGE THROW FOR SUMMARY OUTPUT
                  ! BY DEFAULT. CHECK NODES OF ALL CLASSES (CAN BE RESET LATER)
                  ! SIGNS COMMAND CONVERTS FROM ASAS SIGN CONVENTION TO PANEL SYSTEM (NS,NP,NSP,M,S)
                  ! UNITS COMMAND CONVERTS FROM ASAS UNITS TO PANEL UNITS (LENGTH. FORCE)
                  ! SET UP BASIC (DEFAULT) IMPERFECTION DATA FOR PLATE AND STIFFENER
                  ! CHANGE BACK TO MAIN INPUT STREAM
                  !
                  ECHO ON
                  LIST-INPUT-DATA ON
                  CODE-CHECK ON
                  STRENGTH-CHECK ON
                  PLATE-BUCKLING OFF
                  ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
                  SIGNS -1.0 -1.0 1.0 -1.0 1.0
                  UNITS 0.001 9.807E-3
                  IMPERFECTIONS 4.8 3.33 34.5 34.5
                  STIFFENER-IMPERFECTIONS 0.0018 0.0 18.0 0.0048 3.0 36.0
                  CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 5




                                FIGURE 8.4-13: 'A02PAN.BAS' DATA FILE




                 !
                 ! SELECT ENVELOPE 17 ONLY FOR CHECKING
                 ! *************************************
                 !
                 ! SELECT AND NAME ENVELOPE NUMBER 17 (OVERALL ENVELOPE)
                 !
                 ENVELOPE-NUMBER 17
                 ENVELOPE-NAME OVERALL WORST CASE
                 CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 5




                                FIGURE 8.4-14: 'A02ENV17.USE' DATA FILE


Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.              8-25
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS




        !
        ! SELECT ALL LOAD CASES INDIVIDUALLY FOR CHECKING
        ! ************************************************
        !
        ENVELOPE-NUMBER 1
        ENVELOPE-NAME ORDINARY LOAD CASE 41
        DO-CHECKS
        !
        ENVELOPE-NUMBER 2
        ENVELOPE-NAME ORDINARY LOAD CASE 42
        DO-CHECKS
        !
        ENVELOPE-NUMBER 3
        ENVELOPE-NAME ORDINARY LOAD CASE 43
        DO-CHECKS
        !
        ENVELOPE-NUMBER 4
        ENVELOPE-NAME ORDINARY LOAD CASE 44
        DO-CHECKS
        !
        ENVELOPE-NUMBER 5
        ENVELOPE-NAME ORDINARY LOAD CASE 45
        DO-CHECKS
        !
        ENVELOPE-NUMBER 6
        ENVELOPE-NAME ORDINARY LOAD CASE 46
        DO-CHECKS
        !
        ENVELOPE-NUMBER 7
        ENVELOPE-NAME ORDINARY LOAD CASE 47
        DO-CHECKS
        !
        ENVELOPE-NUMBER 8
        ENVELOPE-NAME ORDINARY LOAD CASE 48
        DO-CHECKS
        !
        ENVELOPE-NUMBER 9
        ENVELOPE-NAME EXTREME LOAD CASE 49
        DO-CHECKS
        !
        ENVELOPE-NUMBER 10
        ENVELOPE-NAME EXTREME LOAD CASE 50
        DO-CHECKS
        !
        ENVELOPE-NUMBER 11
        ENVELOPE-NAME EXTREME LOAD CASE 51
        DO-CHECKS
        !
        ENVELOPE-NUMBER 12
        ENVELOPE-NAME EXTREME LOAD CASE 52
        DO-CHECKS
        !
        ENVELOPE-NUMBER 13
        ENVELOPE-NAME EXTREME LOAD CASE 53
        DO-CHECKS
        !
        ENVELOPE-NUMBER 14
        ENVELOPE-NAME EXTREME LOAD CASE 54
        DO-CHECKS
        !
        ENVELOPE-NUMBER 15
        ENVELOPE-NAME EXTREME LOAD CASE 55
        DO-CHECKS
        !
        ENVELOPE-NUMBER 16
        ENVELOPE-NAME EXTREME LOAD CASE 56
        DO-CHECKS
        !
        CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 5




                              FIGURE 8.4-15: 'A02ENV.USE' DATA FILE


Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.              8-26
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS



          TITLE CODE CHECK OF DECK - AREA 02 - NORTH WALL - BULB FLATS AND PLATE
          !
          ! RECEHCK FAILED NODES WITH INDIVIDUALCASES
          !
          SUPER-ELEMENT 100000 ALPH Q02B 37
          !
          CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 55 A02PAN.BAS
          !
          CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 56 A02.KEY
          SYMBOL-VALUE TYPE 1
          !
          !
          STIFFENER-DATA    1  BULB   200.0   9.0 28.0   2360
          STIFFENER-TYPE 1
          STIFFENER-END-CONDITION 0
          STIFFENER-MODEL SMEARED
          STIFFENER-BUCKLING HARDING HARDING
          !
          ! STIFFENER CHECKS (101)
          ! **********************
          #
          # RE-CHECK FAILED NODES WITH INDIVIDUAL CASES
          #
          #    STIFFENER CHECKS (NVA 235 YIELD)
          # HARDING METHOD FOR STIFFENER BUCKLING
          #
          ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES 2 4 5
          PLATE-BUCKLING OFF
          PASS 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1
          MATERIAL-PROPERTIES 205000.0 78846.0 0.3 0.0 235.0 1.15
          !
          GROUP 101
          SYMBOL-VALUE SGROUP 101
          PLATE-DIMENSIONS 2500.0 860.0 18.0
          CLEAR-SELECT 2 18
          CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 57 A02ENV.USE
          !
          PLATE-DIMENSIONS 2500.0 645.0 18.0
          CLEAR-SELECT 5 165
          CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 57 A02ENV.USE
          !
          ! PLATE CHECKS (101)
          ! ******************
          *
          # PLATE CHECKS NVD36 (365# YIELD)
          #
          ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES 3 6 7
          PLATE-BUCKLING BS5400 RESTRAINED
          PASS 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
          MATERIAL-PROPERTIES 205000.0 78846.0 0.3 0.0 365.0 1.15
          !
          PLATE-DIMENSIONS 2500.0 860.0 18.0
          CLEAR-SELECT 2 18
          CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 57 A02ENV.USE
          !
          PLATE-DIMENSIONS 2500.0 645.0 18.0
          CLEAR-SELECT 5 165
          CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 57 A02ENV.USE
          !
          ! END OF DATA
          ! ***********
          !
          STOP




       FIGURE 8.4-16:                    SECOND PASS PANEL-CHECK - BULB FLATS AND
                                         PLATE



Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.              8-27
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                        Interface to ASAS


     TITLE CODE CHECK OF DECK - AREA 02 - NORTH WALL - SECONDARY HORIZ STIFFENERS
     !
     ! RECHECK STIFFENERS AT CUT-OUT WITH REDUCED EFFECTIVE PLATE FLANGE
     !
     SUPER-ELEMENT 100000 ALPH Q02B 37
     !
     CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 55 A02PAN.BAS
     !
     CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 56 A02.KEY
     SYMBOL-VALUE TYPE 6
     !
     CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 57 A02ENV17.USE
     !
     STIFFENER-DATA 1 ANGL 400.0 11.5 120.0 23.0
     STIFFENER-TYPE 1
     STIFFENER-END-CONDITION 2
     STIFFENER-MODEL OFFSET 203
     STIFFENER-BUCKLING IDWR IDWR
     !
     ! STIFFENER CHECKS (101)
     ! **********************
     #
     # RECHECK STIFFENERS AT CUT-OUT WITH REDUCED EFFECTIVE PLATE FLANGE
     # (25MM PLATE ASSUMED AT ONE SIDE OF STIFFENER WEB)
     #
     # STIFFENER CHECKS (NVD27 275 YIELD)
     # IDWR METHOD FOR STIFFENER BUCKLING
     #
     ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES 2 4 5
     PLATE-BUCKLING OFF
     PASS 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1
     MATERIAL-PROPERTIES 205000.0 78846.0 0.3 0.0 275.0 1.15
     !
     DISCONTINUITY 1 25.0
     GROUP 101
     SYMBOL-VALUE SGROUP 101
     PLATE-DIMENSIONS 2580.0 2500.0 18.0
     CLEAR-SELECT 2 10 35
     SELECT        5 9
     SELECT        2 76 104
     SELECT        5 83
     DO-CHECKS
     !
     ! END OF DATA
     ! ***********
     !
     STOP




         FIGURE 8.4-17:                   DISCONTINUITY CHECKS - SECONDARY
                                          HORIZONTAL STIFFENERS



Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.              8-28
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                            Index of Commands


9.      INDEX OF COMMANDS

9.1     SIF-AVERAGE INSTRUCTIONS

          ADD .      .                  .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 7.3
          AVERAGE .                     .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 7.3
          BEAM-AXIS .                   .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4
          END .      .                  .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 7.3
          GROUP .    .                  .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 7.3
          LOADCASES .                   .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 7.3
          PLATE-AXIS .                  .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 7.3
          STOP .     .                  .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 7.3
          SUPER-ELEMENT                 .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 7.3



9.2     PANEL-ENVELOPE INSTRUCTIONS

          DATA-CHECK-ONLY      .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     . 1.8
          AVERAGE .       .    .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     8.4
          BEAM .      .   .    .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4
          CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM                             .        .        .        .        .         .     . 6.4, 8.4
          CHART .     .   .    .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          CLEAR-SELECT .       .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          DO-CHECKS .     .    .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     1,8, 6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          ECHO .      .   .    .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 8.4
          SUPER-ELEMENT .      .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 7.3
          END .       .   .    .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     1.8, 6.4, 8.4
          ENVELOPE .      .    .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     1.8, 6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          F-E-STIFFENER-SPACING                           .        .        .        .        .         .     . 8.4
          FLANGE-NODE     .    .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     8.4
          GROUP .     .   .    .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          KEY-FIELDS .    .    .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          KEY-RANGES      .    .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     . 6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          LIST-INCLUSION-DATA .                           .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 8.4
          LIST-INPUT-DATA .    .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 8.4
          NEW-SYMBOL      .    .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     . 6.4, 8.4
          READ-INCLUSION-DATA                             .        .        .        .        .         .     . 6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          ROTATE      .   .    .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     . 6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          SELECT      .   .    .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     . 6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          STANDARD .      .    .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          STIFFENER-MODEL      .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     . 6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          STOP .      .   .    .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          SUPER-ELEMENT .      .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     1.8, 6.4
          SWEEP .     .   .    .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     7.3
          SYMBOL-VALUE .       .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          WEB-STRESS-ORIENTATION                          .        .        .        .        .         .     8.4
          WRITE .     .   .    .                          .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 7.3, 8.4



Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.                       9-1
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                            Index of Commands

9.3     PANEL-ENVELOPE INCLUSION DATA

          CHOOSE     .                  .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     . 1.6, 6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          END .      .                  .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          ENVELOPE .                    .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          INCLUDE    .                  .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     1.6, 6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          LOAD .     .                  .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          STATIC .   .                  .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          REVERSIBLE .                  .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     1.6

9.4     PANEL-CHECK INPUT DATA

9.4.1 Input/Output Control

          #      .    .   .   .                           .        .        .        .        .         .     5.7, 6.4, 8.4
          !      .    .   .   .                           .        .        .        .        .         .     2.2, 6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          *      .    .   .   .                           .        .        .        .        .         .     2.2, 6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM                             .        .        .        .        .         .     . 3.2, 6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          CODE-CHECK      .   .                           .        .        .        .        .         .     . 1.8, 2.2, 4.2, 5.7
          DATA-CHECK-ONLY     .                           .        .        .        .        .         .     1.8
          DATE .      .   .   .                           .        .        .        .        .         .     3.1
          DO-CHECKS .     .   .                           .        .        .        .        .         .     1.8, 2.2, 3.1, 4.2, 5.7
          ECHO .      .   .   .                           .        .        .        .        .         .     3.1
          END .       .   .   .                           .        .        .        .        .         .     1.8, 2.2, 4.2
          LIST-INPUT-DATA .   .                           .        .        .        .        .         .     3.1
          LIST-REFERENCE-DATA .                           .        .        .        .        .         .     3.1
          LIST-STIFFENER-DATA .                           .        .        .        .        .         .     3.1
          MAXIMUM-ERRORS      .                           .        .        .        .        .         .     . 3.3
          STOP .      .   .   .                           .        .        .        .        .         .     1.8
          SUBROUTINE-TRACE .                              .        .        .        .        .         .     3.3
          SUPER-ELEMENT .     .                           .        .        .        .        .         .     1.8, 6.1, 6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          TITLE .     .   .   .                           .        .        .        .        .         .     2.2, 3.1, 4.2, 5.7, 6.4
                                                                                                              7.3, 8.4
          TRACE .              .        .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     3.3

9.4.2 Node Selection

          ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES                            .        .        .        .        .         .     1.6, 2.2, 4.2, 5.7, 6.4
                                                                                                              7.3, 8.4
          CLEAR-SELECT                  .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     2.2, 4.2, 6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          GROUP .   .                   .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     2.2, 4.2, 5.7, 7.3, 6.4
                                                                                                              8.4
          SELECT               .        .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     . 2.2, 4.2, 6.4, 7.3,
          8.4

9.4.3 File Handling

          KEY-FIELDS .                  .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          KEY-RANGES                    .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     . 6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          NEW-SYMBOL                    .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     . 6.4, 8.4
          SYMBOL-VALUE                  .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .     6.4, 8.4
Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.                           9-2
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                                             Index of Commands

9.4.4 Basic Data

          DISCONTINUITY .    .    .   .   .                                          .        .         .      5.4, 5.7, 8.4
          IMPERFECTIONS .    .    .   .   .                                          .        .         .      5.5, 5.7
          LOAD-REDISTRIBUTION-NODE.   .   .                                          .        .         .      1.4, 1.7, 5.3, 5.7
          LOAD-REDISTRIBUTION-REFERENCE-NODE                                         .        .         .      1.4, 1.7, 5.3, 5.7
          MATERIAL-PROPERTIES     .   .   .                                          .        .         .      . 1.4, 6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          PLATE-BUCKLING.    .    .   .   .                                          .        .         .      . 2.2, 2.3, 4.2, 5.2, 5.7
                                                                                                               6.4
          PLATE-DIMENSIONS   .                            .        .        .        .        .         .      2.2, 4.2, 5.2, 5.7, 6.4
          SIGNS .    .   .   .                            .        .        .        .        .         .      1.7, 6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          STIFFENER-BUCKLING .                            .        .        .        .        .         .      2.2, 4.2, 5.1, 6.4, 7.3
                                                                                                               8.4
          STIFFENER-DATA .                       .        .        .        .        .        .         .      2.2, 4.2, 5.7, 6.4, 7.3
                                                                                                               8.4
          STIFFENER-END-CONDITION                         .        .        .        .        .         .      5.7, 6.4, 8.4
          STIFFENER-IMPERFECTIONS                         .        .        .        .        .         .      5.5, 5.7
          STIFFENER-MODEL     .                           .        .        .        .        .         .      . 6.4, 7.3, 8.4
          STIFFENER-TYPE .    .                           .        .        .        .        .         .      2.2, 6.4, 4.2, 5.7, 7.3
                                                                                                               8.4
          UNITS .   .                   .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .      1.7, 6.4, 4.2, 5.7, 7.3
          USE   .   .                   .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .      5.7
          WELD-FACTORS                  .        .        .        .        .        .        .         .      5.6, 5.7


9.4.5 Strength/Serviceability Checks

          ENVELOPE-NAME .   .     .                                .        .        .        .         .      2.2, 3.1, 4.2, 5.7
          ENVELOPE-NUMBER   .     .                                .        .        .        .         .      2.2, 3.1, 4.2, 5.7
          NODE-ENVELOPE .   .     .                                .        .        .        .         ..     2.2
          PASS .    .   .   .     .                                .        .        .        .         .      2.2, 2.3, 4.2, 5.7
          REFERENCE-NODE-ENVELOPE.                                 .        .        .        .         .      . 4.1, 4.2
          REFERENCE-NODE-NUMBER..                                  .        .        .        .         .      . 4.1, 4.2
          STRENGTH-CHECK.   .     .                                .        .        .        .         .      . 2.2,     4.2,       5.7




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.                          9-3
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                      Output from Example Problem No.1




             Appendix - A                    OUTPUT FROM EXAMPLE PROBLEM NO. 1




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.             A-1
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                      Output from Example Problem No.1




                                                  A.1 MAIN OUTPUT




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.             A-2
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                      Output from Example Problem No.1




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.             A-3
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                      Output from Example Problem No.1




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.             A-4
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                      Output from Example Problem No.1




                                                                c




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.             A-5
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                      Output from Example Problem No.1




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.             A-6
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                      Output from Example Problem No.1




      ti




                                                                                                          ZZ




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.             A-7
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                      Output from Example Problem No.1




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.             A-8
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                      Output from Example Problem No.1




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.             A-9
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                      Output from Example Problem No.1




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.            A-10
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                      Output from Example Problem No.1




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.            A-11
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                         Output from Example Problem No.1




                                                                                     •




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.               A-12
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                      Output from Example Problem No.1




                                                A.2 SUMMARY OUTPUT




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.            A-13
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                      Output from Example Problem No.1




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.            A-14
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                      Output from Example Problem No.1




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.        A-15
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 2




                Appendix - B                     OUTPUT FROM EXAMPLE PROBLEM NO. 2




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       B-1
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 2




                                                     B.1 MAIN OUTPUT




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       B-2
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 2




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       B-3
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 2




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       B-4
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 2




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       B-5
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 2




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       B-6
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 2




                                                B.2 SUMMARY OUTPUT




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       B-7
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 2




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       B-8
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 3




                Appendix - C                     OUTPUT FROM EXAMPLE PROBLEM NO. 3




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       C-1
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 3




                                                    C.1 MAIN OUTPUT




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       C-2
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 3




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       C-3
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 3




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       C-4
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 3




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       C-5
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 3




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       C-6
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 3




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       C-7
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 3




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       C-8
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 3




                                               C.2 SUMMARY OUTPUT




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       C-9
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 3




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      C-10
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




                Appendix - D                    OUTPUT FROM EXAMPLE PROBLEM NO. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       D-1
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




                                             D.1 SIF-AVERAGE OUTPUT




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       D-2
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       D-3
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       D-4
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




                             D.2 PANEL-ENVELOPE OUTPUT FOR NODE 68




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       D-5
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       D-6
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       D-7
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




                         D.3 SUMMARY OUTPUT (NO BLAST PRESSURE)




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       D-8
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.       D-9
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-10
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-11
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-12
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-13
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-14
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-15
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-16
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-17
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




                                            D.4 SUMMARY OUTPUT
                                           (WITH BLAST PRESSURE)




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-18
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-19
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-20
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-21
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-22
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-23
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-24
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-25
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-26
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-27
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




                                       D.5 MAIN OUTPUT FROM NODE 68




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-28
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-29
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-30
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-31
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-32
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-33
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-34
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-35
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-36
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-37
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-38
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-39
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-40
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-41
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-42
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-43
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-44
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-45
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-46
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-47
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-48
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-49
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                               Output from Example Problem No. 4




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.      D-50
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                   Output from Example Problem No. 5




                Appendix - E                    OUTPUT FROM EXAMPLE PROBLEM NO. 5




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.         E-1
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                   Output from Example Problem No. 5




                                      E.1 CURVED PANEL MAIN OUTPUT




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.         E-2
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                   Output from Example Problem No. 5




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.           E-3
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                   Output from Example Problem No. 5




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.           E-4
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                   Output from Example Problem No. 6




                Appendix - F                    OUTPUT FROM EXAMPLE PROBLEM NO. 6




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.         F-1
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                   Output from Example Problem No. 6




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.         F-2
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                   Output from Example Problem No. 6




                                 F.1 BULB FLAT AND PLATE SUMMARIES




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.         F-3
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                   Output from Example Problem No. 6




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.         F-4
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                   Output from Example Problem No. 6




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.         F-5
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                   Output from Example Problem No. 6




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.         F-6
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                   Output from Example Problem No. 6




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.         F-7
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                   Output from Example Problem No. 6




                         F.2 PRIMARY VERTICAL STIFFENER SUMMARIES




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.         F-8
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                   Output from Example Problem No. 6




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.         F-9
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                   Output from Example Problem No. 6




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.        F-10
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                   Output from Example Problem No. 6




                                            F.3 GIRDER WEB SUMMARY




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.        F-11
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                   Output from Example Problem No. 6




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.        F-12
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                   Output from Example Problem No. 6




                    F.4 SECONDARY HORIZONTAL STIFFENER SUMMARIES




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.        F-13
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                   Output from Example Problem No. 6




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.        F-14
Panel Suite – Application Manual                                                   Output from Example Problem No. 6




Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.        F-15

								
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