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					                          Concrete-Check
                           User Manual

                                    Version 12




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                 Concrete-Check - User Manual
                                Update Sheet for Version 12
                                        April 2009



Modifications:

The following modifications have been incorporated:
Section           Page(s)            Update/Addition             Explanation

All               All                Update                      Conversion to Microsoft® Word format

3.5               3-03               Update                      Unsupported platforms removed

3.6               3-04, 3-05         Update                      Unsupported platforms removed

Ch 5              5-78               Update                      Add note on line segments to
                                                                 STEEL-S-N-CURVE command

Ch 5              5-80               Addition                    Add STRENGTH-CRITERIA command

Ch 5              5-96               Update                      Add note on NS3473 to
                                                                 WATERTIGHTNESS command




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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                                                                Table of Contents
                                                            TABLE OF CONTENTS



1.   INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................................1-1
2.   PROGRAM DESCRIPTION ...........................................................................................................................2-1
  2.1   OVERVIEW OF THE CONCRETE SUITE............................................................................................2-1
  2.2   METHODS OF SLAB ANALYSIS .........................................................................................................2-2
  2.3   ULTIMATE STRENGTH CHECKS .......................................................................................................2-3
  2.4   SERVICEABILITY CHECKS .................................................................................................................2-4
  2.5   FATIGUE CHECKS ................................................................................................................................2-4
  2.6   IMPLOSION AND PANEL STABILITY CHECKS...............................................................................2-5
  2.7   HANDLING OF PRESTRESS LOADS ..................................................................................................2-5
  2.8   DEFORMATION LOADS .......................................................................................................................2-7
  2.9   PROGRAM LIMITATIONS....................................................................................................................2-8
3. RUNNING THE PROGRAM ..........................................................................................................................3-1
  3.1   INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................3-1
  3.2   COMMAND LINE...................................................................................................................................3-1
  3.3   CHANGED INPUT STREAMS ..............................................................................................................3-2
  3.4   INPUT AND OUTPUT CHANNELS ......................................................................................................3-2
  3.5   BATCH FILES .........................................................................................................................................3-2
4. DATA PREPARATION ..................................................................................................................................4-1
  4.1   INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................4-1
  4.2   UNITS ......................................................................................................................................................4-1
  4.3   SIGN CONVENTION AND SLAB AXES .............................................................................................4-2
  4.4   FORMAT OF INSTRUCTIONS .............................................................................................................4-2
  4.5   ABBREVIATION OF INSTRUCTIONS ................................................................................................4-2
  4.6   CONTINUATION LINES .......................................................................................................................4-3
  4.7   COMMENT LINES .................................................................................................................................4-3
  4.8   SUMMARY FILE COMMENTS ............................................................................................................4-4
  4.9   RECOVERY OF ENVELOPES...............................................................................................................4-4
  4.10 SECTION DEFINITION .........................................................................................................................4-6
5. COMMAND FORMATS .................................................................................................................................5-1
Appendix - A  Summary of Commands ..............................................................................................................A-1
  A.1   INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................A-1
  A.2   RUN CONTROL COMMANDS ............................................................................................................A-1
  A.3   NODE, SET AND LOCATION SELECTION .......................................................................................A-1
  A.4   BASIC DATA COMMANDS .................................................................................................................A-2
  A.5   ULTIMATE & SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES ...........................................................................A-2
  A.6   FATIGUE LIMIT STATES ....................................................................................................................A-3
  A.7   IMPLOSION CHECKS ..........................................................................................................................A-3
  A.8   PANEL STABILITY CHECKS ..............................................................................................................A-3
  A.9   FILE HANDLING ..................................................................................................................................A-4
Appendix - B  Sample Output ............................................................................................................................. B-1
  B.1   DATA ECHO AND PRINTING ............................................................................................................. B-1
  B.2   CODE CHECK OUTPUT ....................................................................................................................... B-1
  B.3   PLOT OUTPUT ...................................................................................................................................... B-2
Appendix - C  SESAM FE Interface ................................................................................................................... C-1
  C.1   INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................... C-1
  C.2   AVAILABLE ELEMENT TYPES ......................................................................................................... C-1
  C.3   STRESS EXTRACTION ........................................................................................................................ C-2
  C.4   SYSTEM DEPENDENT COMMANDS ................................................................................................ C-2
  C.5   FILE HANDLING .................................................................................................................................. C-4
Appendix - D  ASAS FE Interface ......................................................................................................................D-5
  D.1   INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................D-5
  D.2   AVAILABLE ELEMENT TYPES .........................................................................................................D-5
  D.3   STRESS EXTRACTION ........................................................................................................................D-6
  D.4   SYSTEM DEPENDENT COMMANDS ................................................................................................D-6
  D.5   FILE HANDLING ..................................................................................................................................D-7




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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                            Introduction



1.     INTRODUCTION

       CONCRETE-CHECK is part of the CONCRETE suite of programs that also includes
       CONCRETE-ENVELOPE and CONCRETE-PLOT. The suite is designed to allow the
       user to rapidly check concrete structures against codes of practice such as BS8110,
       BS5400, Det norske Veritas (DnV) Rules, Norwegian Standards (NS3473), the
       CEB/FIP model code (MC78) and Department of Energy (D.En) guidelines to assess
       their strength, serviceability and fatigue performance.

       CONCRETE-CHECK performs the following tasks, it:

       −     allows the user to select areas of an existing FE model to check given results
             extracted by CONCRETE-ENVELOPE or available on backing file directly from
             the FE System;

       −     optionally runs in a stand-alone mode letting the user input geometry and loads
             directly;

       −     performs ultimate limit state calculations to determine the strength of
             reinforced/prestressed concrete under selected loads. These calculations may be
             performed using simple strip theory to BS8110, or by a more rigorous layered
             approach under general loading. A simple redesign facility is also available.

       −     performs shear cheeks to a variety of the above codes;

       −     performs serviceability limit state crack width stress check and watertightness
             calculations given the above loading and methods;

       −     performs deterministic cumulative damage calculations based on Miner's
             hypothesis for the fatigue limit state;

       −     stores the results of the above checks to file for subsequent plotting via
             CONCRETE-PLOT;

       −     performs implosion calculations in accordance with DnV and other rules;

       −     performs panel stability calculations for flat panels under combined loading.

       This manual should be read in conjunction with the CONCRETE suite Theory Manual,
       which contains details of the calculations, algorithms and references used in the
       program. The CONCRETE-ENVELOPE and CONCRETE-PLOT User Manuals will
       also be of assistance. Instructions to new users and examples of program use may be
       found in the Application Manual.

       The CONCRETE suite can interface with FE analysis programs, currently ASAS and
       SESAM. Both CONCRETE-ENVELOPE and CONCRETE-CHECK can be configured
       to run with any one of these programs. CONCRETE-CHECK can also be set up to run
       only in stand-alone mode Details of the interface to FE systems for which this version
       of the program is available may be found in appendices at the end of this manual.


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       When in use as an FE system post-processor, the CONCRETE programs can be
       configured to process FE models analysed using either shell or solid elements, or both.
       The availability of these options on a particular site will depend on the licence
       arrangements. The user should ensure that the program is capable of handling the
       required modelling before proceeding further.

       For versions capable of handling only shell element models, all references to solid
       elements should be ignored and the following commands are not available:

       DATUM, ORIGIN, RECTANGULAR-AXES, SECTION, SURFACE, STRESS -
       INTEGRATION.

       For versions capable of handling only solid element models, all references to shell
       elements should be ignored and the following commands are not available:

       CLEAR-SELECT, PANEL, SELECT.




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2.     PROGRAM DESCRIPTION


2.1    OVERVIEW OF THE CONCRETE SUITE


       The CONCRETE suite comprises three separate but integrated programs:

        −        CONCRETE-ENVELOPE: this produces envelopes (maximum/minimum ranges)
                 of load for selected locations or regions of the structure across selected load cases.
                 These envelopes are used for strength and serviceability checks in CONCRETE-
                 CHECK;

        −        CONCRETE-CHECK: this performs code-checks on selected locations or regions
                 of the structure. Strength, serviceability and fatigue checks may be performed
                 selectively using loads provided by the user, obtained directly from the FE analysis,
                 or transferred by CONCRETE-ENVELOPE. Additional cylinder implosion and
                 panel buckling calculations may be provided using direct input data;

        −        CONCRETE-PLOT: this program will extract results of the enveloping or code
                 checking process that have been stored by CONCRETE-ENVELOPE or
                 CONCRETE-CHECK. These results will then be formatted into selected plot file
                 format for proprietary graphics presentation packages.

       Both of the above programs will interface with a finite element analysis via the binary
       interface files produced by the FE system in use. The suite of programs may be used in three
       modes of operation:

       −        CONCRETE-CHECK may be used as a stand-alone program accepting all input data
                and loading from the user. Strength, serviceability, fatigue, implosion and panel
                stability checks may be performed. There is no interface with any FE system when
                operating in this mode. No plotting of results via CONCRETE-PLOT is available in
                this mode;

       −        CONCRETE-CHECK may be used as a direct post-processor to the FE system,
                obtaining loads directly from the binary interface file produced by the analysis.
                When operating in this mode, the user provides geometry data and selects individual
                locations and load combinations for post-processing to strength, serviceability and
                fatigue limit states;

       −        CONCRETE-CHECK may interface with the FE system via the CONCRETE-
                ENVELOPE program. CONCRETE-ENVELOPE should be run to scan areas of the
                structure and identify locations and loads for subsequent checking. CONCRETE-
                CHECK may then access the loading stored and perform strength and serviceability
                checks as required. This facility is particularly useful for rapidly producing checks
                on large areas of a structure.

       Figure 2.1-1 shows the latter two modes diagrammatically. This figure illustrates the course
       of post-processing for an FE analysis. The use of CONCRETE-CHECK in a stand-alone
       mode and for implosion and panel stability checks is not illustrated, neither is the interface
       to CONCRETE - PLOT.

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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                            Program Description


       Details of the CONCRETE-ENVELOPE and CONCRETE-PLOT programs may be found
       in separate user manuals. The remainder of this manual describes the CONCRETE-CHECK
       program only.

2.2    METHODS OF SLAB ANALYSIS


       CONCRETE-CHECK has two methods for solving a reinforced/prestressed concrete slab
       under general loading to obtain concrete strains and reinforcement and prestress stresses.
       These methods are as follows:

       −          a simple strip theory approach using the simplified stress block approach in
                  BS8110: Part 1: Figure 3.3 for ULS or elastic theory for SLS and FLS;

       −          a general solution using a layered approach that is an extension of those proposed
                  by Morley and Gupta.

       The theory for both approaches is found in the Theory Manual for the CONCRETE suite.
       The following description merely serves to indicate when to select a particular method.

       The strip theory approach is capable only of checking a concrete section under the action of
       loads perpendicular to the section. Simplifying assumptions are made to work out the
       effective area of reinforcement and prestress that is not normal to the section. The method
       should therefore only generally be used to check regions of the structure under
       unidirectional load or where loads from the two principal directions are uncoupled by shear
       loads, torsion or skew reinforcement.

       The layered method is a general solution for a concrete slab and is capable of handling
       loading in either principal direction, torsion and in plane shear. The approach allows the
       assessment of skew reinforcement stresses and evaluates concrete crack directions and
       principal stress orientation. The method further allows a variety of concrete and steel stress-
       strain relationships and is applicable in regions with general state of stress.

       From the above, it is evident that the layered method is technically preferable in all
       instances, treats uncoupled stresses at least as accurately as the strip method and has far
       greater applicability. However, it is generally more time consuming than the strip theory
       approach and it is possible that the iteration procedure may be unstable under some
       combinations of load. In instances where a large number of checks are to be performed, or
       where convergence is difficult to obtain, the simple strip theory approach may be
       considered, at least as a first approach.

       Either method may be used for strength, serviceability and fatigue checks. The methods
       require some control over the iterations performed. In general, the user should use the
       default values of these control parameters unless the program indicates that they are
       insufficient, when the analysis should be rerun with revised values.




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       Shear checks may be performed when using either the strip theory and layered approaches
       under strength level (ultimate) loading. The strip theory approach considers only that
       component of shear perpendicular to its section, whilst the layered method scans for the
       worst direction of shear, Once again, the strip theory method is quicker and perfectly
       acceptable for unidirectional loading, but the layered method offers a more general
       solution,



2.3    ULTIMATE STRENGTH CHECKS


       CONCRETE-CHECK can perform ultimate strength                                      checks         on     a   given
       reinforced/prestressed concrete section under ultimate load.

       Ultimate loads are defined as envelopes for each component of load on the concrete section
       or block being checked. Envelopes are the maximum to minimum ranges that a particular
       load component can take. These envelopes may be input by hand, or may be obtained from
       backing files created by CONCRETE-ENVELOPE.

       CONCRETE-CHECK can also take load values directly from the FE analysis. In this case,
       'envelopes' are still created, but the maximum and minimum values will be identical.

       CONCRETE-CHECK will check the section using selected critical combinations of
       maximum and minimum load component. The only exception to this will be when the
       maximum and minimum values are the same (or nearly so). In this case, the maximum
       absolute value only will be used in the analysis, thus reducing the number of combinations
       of maximum and minimum values to check.

       For each combination of load, either the strip theory or layered approach may be used to
       solve the section, The approach to this solution is slightly different in each case:

       −      for the strip theory approach, the ultimate moment of resistance of the section under
              given normal load is calculated using an iterative approach, and this is compared with
              the applied moment to identify failure;

       −      for the layered method, the concrete block is strained incrementally until the
              resistance of the section matches the applied loads, or until the block fails, whichever
              is sooner.

       In either case, if the section proves to be acceptable as a result of the checks, then the results
       are output and the next load combination considered. However, if the section fails, then the
       program may proceed to redesign certain layers of steel in the section that had been
       prespecified by the user. This redesign will continue for a finite number of redesign loops or
       until the section passes. The newly redesigned section is then used for the next and
       succeeding load combinations.

       CONCRETE-CHECK will also assess the resistance of the slab to out-of-plane shear loads.
       Slightly different checks are performed for the strip theory and layered methods as
       described in Section 2.2. However, either method will assess the minimum

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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                            Program Description



        requirement for links and compare this with a user specified value. These shear checks use
        empirical formulae based on selected codes. Currently available rules are BS8110,
        BS5400, DnV and NS3473.

2.4    SERVICEABILITY CHECKS


       CONCRETE-CHECK allows the user to perform serviceability limit state checks on the
       concrete slab to determine if the structure is adequate in service. Three checks are
       performed:

       −          a limit state of cracking will be checked by evaluating crack widths and
                  comparing these with acceptable levels provided in the data;

       −          a limit state of permanent damage will be assessed by evaluating the steel and
                  concrete stresses at working load and ensuring that these do not exceed allowable
                  limits;

       −          a limit state of watertightness will be checked to DnV criteria.

       Both the BS8110 strip theory and layered approaches may be used to obtain the strains
       necessary to evaluate crack widths and stresses. The user may select either approach, taking
       guidance from the comments in Section 2.2.

       The limit state of serviceability checks will be performed for envelopes of load in an
       identical fashion to the ultimate strength checks (see Section 2.3). However, the number of
       load combinations may be reduced as crack width evaluation need only be performed for
       combinations of envelope values showing maximum tensile stress in each fibre.

       Crack width calculations may be based on BS8110, B55400, CEB/FIP MC78 or NS3473
       formulae.

2.5    FATIGUE CHECKS


       CONCRETE-CHECK will perform fatigue checks on concrete slab locations specified by
       the user. Checks will be performed on the concrete extreme fibres and on each
       reinforcement layer in the slab.

       Load combinations for fatigue analysis may be specified by user input or may be obtained
       directly from the FE analysis. Load combinations may be provided in one of two forms:

       −          for each load cycle such as wave (height, period, direction), a time history of load
                  combinations through the cycle may be provided as individual load combinations.
                  As few as two such combinations are required (at maximum and minimum load),
                  but more may be specified to be sure of obtaining a realistic range of stress for
                  each location to be checked;




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       −          for each load cycle, load data can be represented in complex form as real and
                  imaginary load combinations. A static combination must be associated with each
                  cycle as concrete fatigue is affected by absolute stresses, not just stress range. The
                  program will scan through the complex representation of the loading to determine
                  the maximum/minimum stresses.

       Given the above loading, a detailed cumulative fatigue assessment will be carried out on
       locations selected by the user. The fatigue assessment will use a deterministic approach to
       provide the fatigue life for the slab location being checked based on yearly occurrences
       given in the data.

       Concrete and steel stresses for each load condition (wave height, period, direction, phase)
       may again be evaluated using either the BS8110 strip theory or layered approaches, at the
       discretion of the user, Again, the strip theory method is quicker, but should only be used in
       areas where the shear and torsion loads are not critical and where in-plane shear and torsion
       are small throughout the wave cycle.

2.6    IMPLOSION AND PANEL STABILITY CHECKS


       CONCRETE-CHECK also has the capability to perform implosion and panel stability
       calculations. The implosion checks are intended for cylinders or curved panels, while the
       panel stability checks are restricted to flat panels.

       Neither of the above checks require or receive geometric or stress data from an FE analysis.
       In both cases, the cylinder or panel geometry and the in-plane and pressure loading are
       obtained from hand input data only.

       In both cases, the program evaluates the critical buckling capability of the cylinder or panel
       and compares this with applied loads to yield a factor of safety against buckling, The
       methods used are described in the Theory Manual.

       If the cylinder implosion factor of safety is greater than one, the program can proceed to
       calculate imperfection bending moments in the cylinder. One single imperfection bending
       moment is produced for the cylinder (which may be positive or negative). This moment may
       then be fed back into a limit state analysis in conjunction with the prebuckling loads using
       direct input.

2.7    HANDLING OF PRESTRESS LOADS


       Prestressing may be modelled in three ways in CONCRETE-CHECK:

       −     option (i) is for prestress tendons to be represented within the slab and be allocated a
             prestress force;

       −     option (ii) is for prestress forces to be included as load cases from the FE analysis,
             either directly or via CONCRETE-ENVELOPE;




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       −      option (iii) is for a combination of the above to be provided by explicitly representing
              tendons and providing a prestress load case.

       In the following discussion, it is useful to make two definitions:

       −      PRIMARY PRESTRESS is prestress on a section caused directly by the prestress
              tendons within the section. Axial compression and bending in the direction of the
              tendon are primary effects. Primary prestress is affected by other loads on the section
              due to the requirement of strain compatibility between the tendons and the concrete;


       −      SECONDARY PRESTRESS is loading on a section due to prestress on other parts of
              the structure, or in other directions. As far as a given section is concerned, secondary
              prestress can effectively be considered as a constant external load and is considered
              unaffected by strains within the section itself.

       Option (i), above, represents the primary effects of prestress alone and may safely be used
       where the secondary effects of prestress are small. The method provides full strain
       compatibility between prestress tendons and the concrete.

       Option (ii), provides the effects of secondary prestress only and may be used where the
       effects of strain compatibility are not important, or where no primary prestress is provided.

       Option (iii), allows for both the primary and secondary effects of prestress as follows:

       −      primary prestress loads are evaluated from the stress in all tendons in the section;

       −      total or secondary prestress loads are obtained from prestress load cases;

       −      if total prestress has been provided, primary prestress is subtracted from total to yield
              secondary prestress loads. If secondary prestress has been provided, primary prestress is
              added to secondary to yield total prestress loads;

       −      secondary prestress loads are factored and added to other external loads to form part of
              the constant loading on the section;

       −      the section is then analysed under the action of primary prestress (which is strain
              compatible) and external loads (which are not).

       The choice of which option to use is up to the designer/analyst. If prestress tendons are
       modelled, but no prestress load cases are provided, then option (i) is assumed. Option (ii) is
       simulated by providing only prestress load cases. Any combination of modelled prestress and
       prestress loading is handled as for option (iii), above.

       It is important that prestress is provided as separate load cases and not built in to other
       applied loading. The reason for this is that prestress loading will in general




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       have a different safety factor for different types of check (ULS, shear, SLS). These prestress
       factors may be specified in CONCRETE-CHECK, so that unfactored stresses should be
       obtained from the FE analysis.

2.8    DEFORMATION LOADS


       The analysis of deformational (thermal, settlement, etc) loadcases for concrete structures by
       linear elastic analysis methods can lead to gross over estimates of the loads that will be
       developed. This occurs because the cracking and softening of concrete under load and
       possible yield of steel will act to limit the load at a given strain (i.e deformation).

       CONCRETE-CHECK allows for a separate deformation loading to be defined. Internal to the
       program the deformation loads are converted to equivalent strains before inclusion in the
       analysis of the concrete section. The adoption of deformation strains enables the layered
       method to allow for the effects of cracking, yielding, etc across the section. No such
       allowance is possible for the strip method which simply adds the deformational loads to other
       applied loads (see discussion in the Theory Manual).

       The load-deformation relationship for the section is non-linear, therefore the sequence of
       loading is important, CONCRETE-CHECK allows for a simple loading sequence by
       permitting the definition of non-deformational loadcases (ENVELOPE and POST-
       DEFORMATION-LOADS) either side of the application of the deformational
       (DEFORMATION-LOADS) case. For example, the dead load on a structure might be applied
       as an ENVELOPE load, a thermal case as a DEFORMATION-LOAD and environmental
       load as a POST-DEFORMATIONLOAD. In the above example CONCRETE-CHECK
       would perform the following sequence of calculations:

       −     pre-deformation strains resulting from the dead load are calculated;

       −     equivalent thermal strains are added to the pre-deformational strains enabling
             dead+thermal load to be derived;

       −     finally the environmental load is added to the dead+thermal load so that the final section
             strains and stress distribution in all items in the section can be calculated.

       To permit the conversion of deformation loads to strains, the modulus of elasticity and
       Poissons ratio used in the linear stress analysis must be specified using the DEFORMATION-
       PROPERTIES command.

       As for ENVELOPE loads, DEFORMATION-LOADS and POST-DEFORMATIONLOADS
       can both be specified from three distinct sources:

       −     direct from a command in the input file;
       −     by reference to a load envelope created by CONCRETE-ENVELOPE;
       −     by reference to a load case and location in an FE analysis model.




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2.9    PROGRAM LIMITATIONS


       The following limitations are set within CONCRETE-CHECK:


         -        maximum        rebar layers at a section                                16
         -        maximum        tendon layers at a section                               10
         -        maximum        number of rebar types                                  9999
         -        maximum        number of tendon types                                 9999
         -        maximum        number of rebar materials                                10
         -        maximum        number of tendon materials                               10
         -        maximum        number of concrete layers                                50
         -        maximum        number of fatigue cycles                                100
         -        maximum        number of steps per cycle                                10
         -        maximum        number of fatigue combinations                          250
         -        maximum        number of words on instruction line                      30
         -        maximum        number of elements in group                            1000
         -        maximum        number of nodes in a class                             1500
         -        maximum        common elements at a node                                16
         -        maximum        fields in a key                                          10
         -        maximum        key symbols                                              20



       The following limits apply to solid element models:



         -         maximum       number of locations on section                          100
         -         maximum       number of stress points at location                     100
         -         maximum       number of intersected elements                           50
         -         maximum       number of nodes on these elements                       100


       The following limits apply to plate element models:



         -        maximum number of boundary (edge) nodes                                200
         -        maximum number of corner nodes                                          20




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                       FIGURE 2.1-1: USE OF CONCRETE PROGRAMS



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3.     RUNNING THE PROGRAM


3.1    INTRODUCTION

       CONCRETE-CHECK operates by taking data from a text data file and writing results to an
       output file and a summary file. Optionally, plot results may be written to several plot files
       and data input may be redirected to other input files. Each of these facilities will be
       described in the following sections.

3.2    COMMAND LINE


       All programs in the CONCRETE suite contain a command line interpreter so that input,
       output and other file names can be entered after the program name as a single command on
       all machine types (e.g. program name file1 file2 ...). File names on the command line must
       be specified in the following order:

       1)        data file name and location:

       2)        output file name and location;

       3)        summary file name and location;

       4)        plot file stem.

       The data file name must always be specified, although it need not be given an extension if it
       is ‘.dat’ (or ‘.DAT’ on machines that are not case specific or require upper case).

       Other file names are optional. If not given, the last specified file name on the command line
       is used as a basis with a new extension defined by the program. The following default
       extensions are given to file types:

       −          output files are ‘.out’ or ‘.OUT’;

       −          summary files are ‘.sum’ or ‘.SUM’;

       −         plot files should never be given an extension, as the stem is suffixed with ‘nnnn.plt’
                 or ‘nnnn.PLT’, where nnnn is a sequential number starting at 0001. The default plot
                 stem is ‘plot’.

       Examples of the use of the command line will follow for specific platforms/operating
       systems.

       Existing output and plot files of the names specified are always deleted by the program at the
       start of execution. A suitable message is given, but the user should ensure that required
       results are not lost in this way.




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3.3    CHANGED INPUT STREAMS


       All CONCRETE programs feature a CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM command that allows
       data input to be redirected to another input file on another unit or stream. This is achieved
       by specifying in the data the unit number and file name to be used for future data input.
       Input may be redirected as required to other files or returned to an original file as required.
       This is a useful facility that allows repetitive data to be located in separate files and accessed
       when needed from several different runs.

       Refer to the CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM command in Section 5.0 for more details.

3.4    INPUT AND OUTPUT CHANNELS

       Several units, streams or channels are used by the program for input/output. These are listed
       here as they should not be used for CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM input file redirection:

       −    Unit 5                         data input
       −    Unit 6                         main output
       −    Unit 52                        summary files
       −    Unit 53                        plot file
       −    Units 1 and 99                 screen output

       When an FE package is used to provide stress and geometry data, it may use additional
       units. Refer to the appropriate appendix for details.

3.5    BATCH FILES


       A convenient method of running the program is to create a batch file that includes the
       necessary instructions for program execution, and perhaps echoes back information on the
       program version and data files that are in use.

       A sample batch file is given below. This example includes echoing of data to the screen,
       checking to see if a plot file is specified and running the program as required. Output and
       summary file extensions are set to be .LIS and .SUM.

       No directory path to the executable is specified; the batch file assumes that the executable is
       located    in    the    default    installation     directory     C:\Program     Files\ANSYS
       Inc\vvvv\asas\bin\win32 (where ‘vvvv’ is the version number), or that the directory is
       included in the path. See the ANSYS Installation Guide for more details.
                  @ECHO OFF
                  ECHO.
                  ECHO Running CONCRETE-CHECK
                  ECHO.
                  ECHO Data file = %1.DAT
                  ECHO Results file = %1.LIS
                  ECHO Summary file = %1.SUM
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                  IF “%2A”==“A” GOTO NOPLOT
                  ECHO Plot file stem = %2
                  ECHO.
                  CCAS %1 %l LIS %1 %2
                  GOTO END
                  :NOPLOT
                  ECHO.
                  CCAS %1 %1.LIS
                  :END
                  ECHO.
                  ECHO Problem Complete
                  ECHO.
                  ECHO ON



       If this file were called CHECK.BAT and were located on the path, then a run using
       EXAMPLE.DAT as input would be started as follows:

                 > CHECK EXAMPLE

       If plots were required (called PLOT0001.PLT, etc), then the command format would be
       simply changed to:

                 > CHECK EXAMPLE PLOT




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4.     DATA PREPARATION


4.1    INTRODUCTION

       Input data for the CONCRETE-CHECK program is used to control the execution of the
       program, organise file handling, provide data values, select results, etc.

       Input data is initially read from the data file assigned via the command line. This input may
       subsequently be redirected to other physical files using the CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM
       command (see Section 3.2 and Section 5.0).

       The input data file, and any other redirected input files, contain consecutive instructions,
       each occupying one or more physical lines in the file. Each instruction consists of a
       keyword and a variable number of parameters. Keywords are described, in alphabetical
       order, in Section 5.

       Instructions are executed consecutively, but the majority of commands simply set up
       internal data and perform no checking functions. Only when a DO-CHECKS instruction is
       encountered are code checks performed, and then only if code checking has been selected
       to one or more limit states.

       Each use of an instruction overwrites settings created by default or by previous uses of that
       instruction. When a DO-CHECKS command is reached, the latest settings are used.
       Exceptions to this, such as SELECT, FATIGUE-CYCLES, TOP-STEEL, BOTTOM-
       STEEL and DEBUG are so noted in Section 5.0.

4.2    UNITS


       Several commands in CONCRETE-CHECK require values to be input in specific units.
       The program expects input data units which have been chosen to follow standard
       engineering practice:

       -      slab dimensions (thickness, cover, diameters, spacing) in millimetres (mm); panel and
              cylinder dimensions in metres (m);
       -      section data in FE analysis units;
       -      stresses and pressures in MNm-2 (or Nmm-2);
       -      forces per unit width in MN per m (MNm-1);
       -      moments per unit width in MNm per m. (MN);
       -      times in seconds (s);
       -      angles in degrees (deg).

       CONCRETE-CHECK works internally in units of Newtons and mm. When obtaining
       results from an FE system (either directly or via CONCRETE-ENVELOPE), the data will
       have the units of the FE analysis. The UNITS card may be used to change the analysis units
       to the CONCRETE-CHECK system.

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4.3    SIGN CONVENTION AND SLAB AXES


       The entire CONCRETE suite, including CONCRETE-CHECK, uses a compression-
       negative, tension-positive sign convention for all stresses. This is generally the same as the
       FE system in use, but exceptions are noted in the appropriate appendix and are converted
       automatically.

       CONCRETE-CHECK will also convert shear, bending and torsional loads into a consistent
       sign convention, if so required. The CONCRETE sign convention is illustrated in Figure
       4.3-1 and described below:

       −     direct stresses are tension-positive;

       −     positive shear causes elongation in both the (X>0, Y>0) quadrant and the (X<0, Y<0)
             quadrant;

       −     bending moments, including torsion, are positive if they cause positive direct stresses
             in the BOTTOM fibre. This means that sagging moments are positive and hogging
             moments are negative.

       The slab axis system is also illustrated in Figure 4.3-1. The X" and Y" axes are the stress
       reference directions in the plane of the slab. The Z" axis is the slab normal. The X", Y" and
       Z" axes form a right handed system. The orientation of these axes within a shell element
       structure generally follows the FE system axes at each node. Exceptions are noted in the FE
       system appendix. Stress orientations in a solid element model are defined by the surface 1
       location definition in accordance with Section 4.10.

       Note that the NX and MX loads cause stresses in the X" direction, NY and MY cause Y"
       stresses and NXY and MXY cause shear. The MX and MY designation for moments should
       not be confused with the more conventional MXX and MYY designation for beams, which
       are defined as moments ABOUT each axis, not as moments which CAUSE stress in each
       axis.

4.4    FORMAT OF INSTRUCTIONS


       Each instruction consists of a keyword, generally followed by additional data (which may
       be numeric or text). Each instruction starts on a new line and the items of data are separated
       from the instruction keyword and from each other by blank spaces.

       Each instruction line must be 80 characters or less in length, including embedded blank
       characters. For some instructions which require substantial amounts of data, continuation
       lines may be used as described below.

       Note that upper case letters are used throughout for keywords, both for instructions and in
       the data.

4.5    ABBREVIATION OF INSTRUCTIONS


       Most of the instruction keywords are quite long, generally comprising several words
       separated by dashes, such as DATA-CHECK-ONLY. Although it is recommended that the

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       instruction be entered in full (as this renders most data files reasonably legible without extra
       comments), the keyword may be abbreviated subject to certain conditions:

       −     the first letter, all dashes and the letters immediately followed dashes must be included;

       −     the remaining letters must be in the correct order;

       −     the resulting abbreviation must not be ambiguous, in that two different instructions
             could both be abbreviated in the same way (for example, SE is not an acceptable
             abbreviation for SELECT because it is also a possible abbreviation of SURFACE. This
             restriction of non-ambiguity extends to all instructions in CONCRETE-ENVELOPE
             and CONCRETE-CHECK regardless of which programs are actually installed.

       Keywords in the data following an instruction keyword may also be abbreviated subject to
       the same rules, provided that the abbreviation is not ambiguous with respect to any other
       keyword that could be used with the particular instruction.

       If an ambiguous instruction is supplied in the input data, CONCRETE-CHECK will print a
       warning and arbitrarily choose which instruction to execute.

4.6    CONTINUATION LINES


       There is, as described above, a limit of 80 characters for any line of data, The following
       instructions require more data than can be easily fitted within this limit and so allow the use
       of continuation lines:

                 COMBINATION, CONCRETE-PROPERTIES, ENVELOPE, PRESTRESS-
                 LOADS, STATIC-COMBINATION, SECTION

       A continuation line is denoted by a plus (‘+’) character in the first column of the line.
       Comment lines (see below) may be included before each continuation line. Individual data
       fields may not be split over two separate lines, so, for example:

                 INSTRUCTION 12 +34

       would be interpreted as INSTRUCTION 12 34 not as INSTRUCTION 1234. Where
       continuation lines are allowed, this is clearly demonstrated in the description of the
       command.

4.7    COMMENT LINES


       Comment lines may be included in the input data file. These are denoted by an exclamation
       mark (‘!’) in column one of the line. All text following the exclamation mark is echoed, but
       otherwise ignored.

       It is recommended that comment lines are used liberally to indicate, for example, the source
       of the input data, assumptions that are being made, etc., as they prove invaluable when it is
       necessary to rerun an old analysis.




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4.8    SUMMARY FILE COMMENTS


       The comments described in the previous section have no effect beyond being listed in the
       main data echo. However, comments may also be included for echoing in the summary
       output file. Such comments are indicated by a hash sign (‘#’) in the first column of a data
       line. These comments are copied to the summary file and to the main data echo (if
       appropriate), but are otherwise ignored.

       The user also has control over the headings for the summary file. An asterisk (‘*’) results in
       a new page and new column headings. Any comments following the ‘*’ will also be copied
       to the summary file.

       These facilities give the user considerable control over the format of the summary file so
       that report quality output can be produced.

4.9    RECOVERY OF ENVELOPES


       When used as a post-processor to CONCRETE-ENVELOPE, CONCRETE-CHECK
       recovers its envelopes from backing file. The CONCRETE suite uses a keyed filing system
       for storage of envelopes on backing file. This keyed filing system is a flexible system that
       allows the user full control over the storage of results and later retrieval by CONCRETE-
       CHECK. However, due to the flexibility, the system requires careful explanation to fully
       describe its capabilities. That explanation is provided here.

       Each envelope produced by CONCRETE-ENVELOPE may be stored on backing file for
       subsequent access by CONCRETE-CHECK. Panel node envelopes will be produced per
       node in a set and per class over an entire set. Class envelopes are distinguished by a node
       number of zero. Section location envelopes will be produced per location around the
       section and for the entire section. These overall envelopes are distinguished by a location
       number of zero. Global envelopes may also be stored.

       Each envelope stored by the program is allocated a ‘key’ so that it can be recalled directly
       by CONCRETE-CHECK. Instead of the user specifying this key directly, CONCRETE-
       ENVELOPE will internally calculate the key given a user specified key definition. The
       same definition should be provided in CONCRETE-CHECK to access these envelopes.

       Each key is defined by a set of ‘fields’. Up to fifteen are allowed currently. Each field is
       allocated a 'symbol' and a 'range' by the KEY-FIELDS and KEY-RANGES instructions,

       The symbol may be a user defined symbol (see the NEW-SYMBOL and SYMBOL-
       VALUE commands) which can have a user defined value, Alternatively the symbol in any
       field may be one of the following:

                  NODE, LOCATION, GROUP, SET, CLASS, SECTION, ENVELOPE

       These symbols are automatically updated by the program for a given node, set, class, etc.
       when each envelope is stored.




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       The range of a field must be defined by the user and must enclose all possible values that
       the symbol may take. Note that the range for a NODE or LOCATION field must start at
       zero as the symbols will be given the value of zero for a class envelope. Similarly, the
       GROUP, SET and SECTION symbols may also be zero if global envelopes are used. For a
       given key definition, the maximum key that can be produced will be the product of all of
       the individual key ranges, i.e.:

              . MAXKEY = (max1 – min1 + 1)*(max2 - min2 + 1)*…..*(maxn - minn + 1)

       where max and min define the ranges of each of 1 to n keys.

       The actual value of a given key will depend on the current values of each of the symbols
       that occupy the key fields at the time that the key is evaluated (when an envelope is to be
       stored). This is best demonstrated by example.

       Suppose a key definition comprises three key fields as follows:

                            Field 1:          Symbol ‘CASE’ range 1 to 4
                            Field 2:          Symbol ‘GROUP’, range 1 to 10
                            Field 3:          Symbol ‘NODE’, range 0 to 100

       CASE is a user defined symbol, GROUP and NODE are reserved symbols. The maximum
       key value is given by:

                  MAXKEY = (4-1+1)*(10-1+1)*(100-0+1) = 4040

       Suppose the symbol values are as follows for the storage of a particular envelope:


              CASE = 2, GROUP = 3, NODE = 35


       The key evaluation for this data would be as follows:

              KEY = (2-1)*(10-1+1)*(100-0+1)+(3-1)*(100-0+1)+(35-0)
                  = 1010 + 202 + 35
                  = 1247

       It is clear that there is therefore one unique key value for each combination of the values of
       the symbols as long as each value stays within the specified range.

       The following should be noted:

       −     once a keying system is defined, it may not be changed without the risk of overwriting
             all previously stored envelopes, so care should be taken to ensure that the keying
             system is correctly defined at the start (particularly that the ranges are large enough for
             all eventualities);

       −     the keying system should therefore generally be the same between different
             CONCRETE-SUITE runs on the same structure;



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       −    the reserved symbols are of great use in setting keys for all nodes across a set, all sets,
            etc, and should be included in the key definition where possible. The above example is
            a very simple use of this;

       −    the user defined symbols allow other parameters to be used to govern keys, such as
            loadcase, superelement number, etc.;

       −     the key system defined in CONCRETE-ENVELOPE should generally be the same as
             that defined in CONCRETE-CHECK to allow the required envelopes to be recovered
             by using the same key calculation;

       −     however, it is possible to change key structures as long as care is taken. In particular, it
             is possible to use a single key field to allow a key to be defined directly via the
             SYMBOL-VALUE command. Experienced users may attempt this.

4.10 SECTION DEFINITION


       Load components may be recovered directly from the FE analysis either at specified nodes,
       across entire panels, or using the section definition approach common to CONCRETE-
       ENVELOPE. The section definition approach is described here.

       Sections may currently be defined in structures modelled using solid elements only, and the
       rest of this section refers only to models of this type.

       A 'section' is defined by the intersection of a ‘surface’ with a given ‘subset’ of elements.
       The following commands are therefore obligatory to define a section:

       −          SET or GROUP to define the subset of elements;

       −          SURFACE to define the PLANE, CYLINDER or CONE used to intersect with
                  the elements.

       Locations may be specified on the section for calculation of stresses:

       −          SECTION allocates a number to the section for storage of envelopes and defines
                  locations along or around the section at which envelopes are required.

       The following optional commands may also be used in the definition of sections:

       −          ORIGIN to define the origin of a surface;

       −          DATUM to define the datum relative to which locations for enveloping are
                  required.

       Figure 4.10-1 illustrates the full definition of a PLANE surface and shows how the datum
       command is used in this case to define the axis of the through-thickness direction and to
       provide a datum relative to which locations along the section are defined (by loci, loc2,
       etc). The following procedure is adopted to define these locations:

       −          the PLANE is defined by its normal vector and origin;

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       −          the SECTION is defined by the intersection of the surface and the subset of
                  elements;

       −          the datum vector is projected into the PLANE and defines the local surface Z' axis;

       −          the surface Y' axis is in the direction of the normal vector;

       −          the surface X' axis forms a right handed system with Y' and Z';

       −          the locations for enveloping are identified by the values given on the SECTION
                  command. For a PLANE, X co-ordinates in millimetres are expected;

       −          the location axes at each location for a PLANE are identical to the surface axes.

       Similar methods are used to define the locations to be enveloped for CYLINDER and
       CONE surfaces, as illustrated by Figures 4.10-2 and 4.10-3, but the through-thickness
       direction is taken to be axial and radial from the origin, respectively. The following revised
       procedure is used:

       −          the surface is defined by the centroidal axis, origin and a surface value. For a
                  cylinder, the value is a radius in millimetres, for a cone, an angle to the axis is
                  required;

       −          the section is defined as the intersection between the subset of elements and the
                  cylinder or cone;

       −          the datum vector and axis together define a datum plane;

       −          the surface Y' axis is in the axial direction;

       −          the surface Z' axis is also in the datum plane towards the datum vector; the
                  surface X' axis forms a right handed system with Y' and Z'; section locations
                  are measured around Y' from the Z' axis;

       −          for the CYLINDER, the location Z" axis is in the axial direction; for the CONE, it
                  is radial from the origin to the location;

       −          the location X" axis is measured around the section (positive sense); the
                  location Y" axis forms a right handed system.

       A further reorientation of stresses may be achieved by use of the RECTANGULAR-AXES
       command. This optionally allows loads per unit width recovered for solid element models
       to be orientated to a consistent set of axes before any further processing.

       This is particularly useful for sections defined by cylinder or cone section intersections
       where the reinforcement pattern is rectangular. This is illustrated by Figure 4.10-4. Without
       RECTANGULAR-AXES, loads at each location identified would normally be related to
       different local axes. Use of the RECTANGULAR-AXES command forces these into a
       consistent system. This allows a much simpler single definition for reinforcement in the
       CONCRETE-CHECK analysis,


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    MEMBRANE LOADS




                                                                                           Ny




                                                                           My

                                                    Mx




                                                                                                  SLAB AXIS SYSTEM
                 FIGURE 4.3-1: SIGN CONVENTION FOR CONCRETE SUITE




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                                 FIGURE 4.10-1: DEFINITION OF PLANE




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                       FIGURE 4.10-2: DEFINITION OF CYLINDER SECTION

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                                        SURFACE AXES                                GLOBAL AXES
           LOCATION AXES




                           FIGURE 4.10-3: DEFINITION OF CONE SECTION




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                                    WITHOUT RECTANGULAR-AXES




                                       WITH RECTANGULAR-AXES


                 FIGURE 4.10-4: USE OF RECTANGULAR-AXES

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5.       COMMAND FORMATS


         The following pages describe the commands available within the input data file for
         CONCRETE-CHECK. Commands are presented on individual pages, in alphabetical order.

         The following convention is used to describe the instructions in the syntax:

         −      keywords are presented in capital letters;

         −      other text/numerical data is represented by lower case words; optional

                data is enclosed in brackets, ‘( )’;

         −      choices of keywords or data are separated by slashes, ‘/’;

         −      lists of data are indicated thus ‘----‘. The logic of the repetition list is often self-
                explanatory but may be augmented in the command description.

         A summary of the commands available is presented in Appendix 'A'. The summary is useful
         to remind experienced users of the instruction formats, but includes no description of the
         data.




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         Command                :        ADDITIONAL-STIFFNESS


         Syntax                 :        ADDITIONAL-STIFFNESS (cstiff(rstiff(tstiff)))

         Applicable to :                 All limit state checks using layered method

         Examples               :        ADDITIONAL-STIFFNESS 10000
                                         ADDITIONAL-STIFFNESS
                                         ADDITIONAL-STIFFNESS 8000 50000 100000

         Description:

         The ADDITIONAL-STIFFNESS command allows the definition of further linear elastic
         moduli for concrete, reinforcement and prestress tendons. If any stiffness is not specified, it is
         assumed to be zero. Zero is also the default at program start up. Units of stiffness are Nmm-2.

         When additional stiffnesses are in use, the stress-strain curves for concrete, rebars or tendons
         are modified to give the greater numerical stress from either the original curve or from the
         above linear relationships. If the above stiffnesses are set relatively low, this has the effect of
         not changing the stress strain curve through working strains, but providing residual stiffness
         at high strain (a form of strain hardening). The main use of this facility is to prevent
         divergence in the layered method by providing stiffness for both concrete and steel after
         crushing/yielding. Resultant stresses will be artifically high, but this will be evident from the
         utilisations and will give an indication of why the sections if failing.

         the following rules apply to additional stiffness:

         −        the concrete stiffness applies only to compression, never to tensile strains;

         −        reinforcement compressive stresses are unaltered (at zero) if compression steel is
                  ineffective;

         −        tendon compressive stresses are unaltered if the compressive modulus and strength
                  have not been specified;

         −        the specified stiffnesses will be reduced by the appropriate material partial safety factor
                  prior to use by a particular limit state. This allows the additional stiffness to become
                  effective at a predetermined strain, irrespective of limit state;




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         Command                :        ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES


         Syntax                 :        ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES classl(class2{class3{class4)))

         Applicable to :                 All limit state checks

         Examples               :        ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES 1 2 3 4 (default)
                                         ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES 3 2

         Description:

         The ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES instruction is used to indicate which classes of location
         are to be analysed. The concept of node class is described below.

         The instruction is followed by a list of class numbers, each between 1 and 4 inclusive,
         indicating the classes to be analysed. Classes not listed will not be checked. These
         instructions are not cumulative and apply to succeeding DO-CHECKS instructions until the
         next ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES instruction is encountered.

         This command is most useful when code checking global envelopes {set or group of zero)
         as it is the only way to suppress checks on specific classes of set envelope. It may also be
         used in conjunction with PANEL SAMPLE and PANEL SWEEP to suppress checks on
         unwanted classes of node. In all other events, it is sensible to activate all classes of node or
         location. This latter condition is, in fact, the default.

         The current classes allowed in the CONCRETE suite are as follows:
                  Class 1:      Panel Corner Nodes;
                  Class 2:      Panel Edge Nodes;
                  Class 3:      Panel Interior Nodes;
                  Class 4:      Section Locations.

         See also the SELECT, CLEAR-SELECT, SET, GROUP, PANEL and SECTION
         commands for further details.




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         Command                :        BEGIN-PLOT

         Syntax                 :        BEGIN-PLOT

         Applicable to :                 All limit state checks
         Examples               :        BEGIN-PLOT

         Description :

         The BEGIN-PLOT command is used to start the writing of CONCRETE-CHECK results to
         plot file for subsequent plotting by the PLOTIT utility program. It should not be confused
         with the plotting capability via CONCRETE-PLOT, which uses results stored by the
         WRITE command.

         The following results will be written to the plot files (if available) when DO-CHECKS
         commands are encountered:

                  ULS - Total Main Steel Areas ULS - Link Steel Areas

                  SLS - Maximum Crack Width SLS - Maximum Rebar Stress

                  FLS - Concrete Fatigue Life
                  FLS - Minimum Rebar Fatigue Life
                  FLS - Minimum Tendon Fatigue Life

         The writing of plot results is ended when a FINISH-PLOT command is encountered but
         may be restarted as required later in the data check by another BEGIN-PLOT command.

         Note that this command is only really useful when used in conjunction with the SECTION
         command used to define positions at which checks are to be performed. The appropriate
         results from above may then be plotted against this position. When running in stand-alone
         mode, the following example shows how sensible plots can be obtained;

                  SET 1
                  .
                  .
                  BEGIN-PLOT
                  ENVELOPE envelope values
                  SECTION 1 LIST 0.0.
                  DO-CHECKS
                  ENVELOPE envelope values
                  SECTION 1 LIST 1.0
                  DO-CHECKS
                  .
                  .
                  FINISH-PLOT




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         Command                 :       BOTTOM-STEEL


         Syntax                  :       BOTTOM-STEEL REBARS/TENDONS type cover angle (resize)
         Applicable to :                 All checks

         Examples                :       BOTTOM-STEEL TENDONS 3 100.0 0.0
                                         BOTTOM-STEEL REBARS 6 30.0 90.0 0.05

         Description :

         The BOTTOM-STEEL command allows the definition of reinforcement layers and tendon
         layers relative to the bottom face of the concrete slab being checked. The command is
         similar to TOP-STEEL, which allows definition relative to the top face.

         The bottom face of the slab is defined as the face with the lower slab normal (Z") co-
         ordinate. Refer to Section 4.3 for details of the slab axis system.

         Both reinforcement steel (REBARS) and prestress tendons (TENDONS) can be defined
         with this command. The following additional data is required:

                  type       -         an integer referencing a REINFORCEMENT-BARS or PRESTRESS-
                                       TENDONS card with details of the diameter, spacing, material, etc. for
                                       the steel. The appropriate type integer must have been set up when a DO-
                                       CHECKS instruction is encountered;

                  cover -              the steel cover in millimetres. For rebars, this is the cover from the
                                       bottom face to the closest point of the steel bars. For tendons, this is the
                                       distance from the bottom face to the tendon centre line;

                  angle -              the orientation in degrees of the steel in the plane of the slab, relative to
                                       the slab X" axis. Refer to Section 4.3 for details of the slab axes;

                  resize -             for ultimate limit state checks, the resize rate per resize step. This item is
                                       only valid for REBARS, and defaults to zero if not given. During
                                       ultimate limit state checks, CONCRETE-CHECK will automatically
                                       resize any rebar layers with a nonzero 'resize' rate. Refer to the
                                       REDESIGN command for more information.

         Rebars and tendons may be created by successive BOTTOM-STEEL and TOP-STEEL
         cards. Up to siten layers of rebars and ten layers of tendons are allowed. These layers may
         be defined at the same or different depths, entirely at the discretion of the user. When a
         reinforcement/ prestress arrangement must be changed, the RESET command should be
         used to cancel all previous definitions.




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         There is no restriction that steel should be closer to the bottom face for the BOTTOM-
         STEEL command to be used. All steel may be created by either the TOP-STEEL or
         BOTTOM-STEEL commands. The only restriction is that the final steel lies within the
         section.




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         Command                :        CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM


         Syntax                 :        CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM (stream (file))

         Applicable to :                 All checks

         Example                :        CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM 55
                                         CHANCE-INPUT-STREAM 60 basic.dat

         Description :

         When a CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM command is issued, input of data immediately
         switches to the stream number and file specified on some computers, this stream number
         may be assigned to a file name in the CONCRETE-CHECK run control file (see Section
         3.0). Alternatively, the filename may be specified as an argument to the instruction.

         Input starts by default on stream 5. When a CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM command is
         encountered, input switches to the new file associated with the new stream. Input may be
         returned to the original file with a further CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM command with no
         argument given (or with a stream number of 5). Processing will recommence at the line after
         the original CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM instruction.

         The above procedure allows input from two or more files. At least one of these files may be
         a 'reference file' common to a number of different runs of CONCRETE-CHECK. The data
         files for each of these runs will contain a CHANGE-INPUTSTREAM command to switch
         input to the reference file, which will end with a CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM command
         (with no argument) to return control to the original input file. Stream 5 is always the initial
         input stream.

         Some FE systems place restrictions on the stream numbers that are available to the user.
         When using a version of CONCRETE-CHECK that is interfaced in this way, refer to the
         appropriate appendix. Streams 6, 51, 52 and 53 are always reserved by CONCRETE-
         CHECK.

         The file parameter may be used to directly specify an eighty-character filename, rather than
         by external assignment. For some operating systems, this is the only way of using the
         instruction since external assignments are not possible (see Section 3.0 for further details).
         In any case, the filename (which may include a directory path) should follow the syntax
         required by the system in use.




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         Command                :        CLASS


         Syntax                 :        CLASS (class)

         Applicable to :                 BS5400 shear checks

         Examples               :        CLASS
                                         CLASS 2

         Description :
         This command allows the specification of a class of prestress structure used to define the
         type of shear capacity calculation to be performed to BS5400 : Part 4 : 6.3.4.3.

         The 'class' parameter may be set to 1, 2 or 3, If not given, or outside this range, a value of 3
         will be used. The default at program start up will be 3.




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         Command                :        CLEAR-SELECT


         Syntax                 :        CLEAR-SELECT class nodel (node2 ----)

         Applicable to :                 All

         Examples               :        CLEAR-SELECT 1 0 11 12 13 14

         Description

         This command allows the selection of nodes on a panel and therefore applies only to
         concrete substructures modelled using thick and thin shell elements, It may also be used to
         identify output when used in the stand-alone mode.

         The CLEAR-SELECT command operates in a similar way to the SELECT command,
         except that all previous selections of nodes and classes over a panel are cleared before the
         new selection is added. The command should be used when a new group has been selected.
         The action will be to clear the selection of nodes for the previous group, and start selection
         for the new group. The following example data file illustrates this:

          
          CLEAR-SELECT 1 1 2 3 SELECT 2
          10 11 12

          
          DO-CHECKS
          (Nodes 1,2,3,10,11,12 checked)

          
          CLEAR-SELECT 1 101 102 103 104
          SELECT 2 110 111

         
         DO-CHECKS
         (Nodes 101,102,103,104,110,111 checked)

         Note that all previous selections of nodes for all classes are cleared by this command, not
         just the selection for the given class.

         Node selection is cancelled by the PANEL and SECTION commands, which allow
         alternative methods of selection.

         A selected node number of zero signifies that a class envelope is to be recovered but is only
         appropriate when CONCRETE-CHECK interfaces with CONCRETE-ENVELOPE.




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         Command                :        CODE-CHECK

         Syntax                 :        CODE-CHECK (ON/OFF)

         Applicable to :                 All checks

         Examples               :        CODE-CHECK
                                         CODE-CHECK OFF

         Description :

         The CODE-CHECK command allows code checking to be enabled or disabled for
         succeeding DO-CHECKS instructions throughout the data file.

         CODE-CHECK ON, or CODE-CHECK with no arguments, enables code checking, the
         default condition at program start up. CODE-CHECK OFF disables this checking and is
         synonymous with DATA-CHECK-ONLY.

         With code checking switched off, the program will only perform data checks when a DO-
         CHECKS instruction is reached, and will then proceed to input further data.




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         Command                :        COMBINATION


         Syntax                 :        COMBINATION number DIRECT nx ny nxy nxz     nyz
                                         COMBINATION number ANALYSIS data --COMBINATION
                                         number NONE

         Applicable to :                 Fatigue Checks

         Examples               :        COMBINATION 3 NONE
                                         COMBINATION 21 DIRECT 1.361 -2.293 6.611 -5.282
                                           +                 2.163     4.218    -5.963                     3.218
                                         COMBINATION 16 ANALYSIS 12

         Description :

         The COMBINATION command specifies the source of load combination data for a fatigue
         analysis and optionally allocates values for user-defined direct input combinations.

         The combination 'number' given is the reference by which this loading is known in the
         FATIGUE-CYCLE instruction. Existing combinations may be overwritten by successive
         uses of this command with the same 'number'.

         DIRECT specifies that combination data is to be provided by direct input on this command.
         These user-defined combinations may then be available for subsequent FATIGUE-CYCLE
         instructions. Continuation lines may be used to specify the data. Direct loads (NX, NY, NXY,
         NXZ, NYZ) are input in MN per metre width, while moments (MX, MY, MXY) are input in
         MNm per metre.

         ANALYSIS may be used to specify that load combination data is to be taken from FE
         analysis backing files. Extra data is required on each line, but this is dependent on the FE
         system in use and is described in the appropriate appendix.

         NONE may be used to signify a null (zero) load combination. Up to two hundred and fifty
         unique combinations may be defined in the data.




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         Command                :        COMPRESSION-STEEL


         Syntax                 :        COMPRESSION-STEEL EFFECTIVE/INEFFECTIVE

         Applicable to :                 All limit state checks

         Examples               :        COMPRESSION-STEEL EFFECTIVE
                                         COMPRESSION-STEEL INEFFECTIVE

         Description :

         The COMPRESSION-STEEL command allows control over the effectiveness of
         reinforcement bars subject to compression loading. Such bars may be EFFECTIVE (using
         the REBAR-PROPERTIES compression curve) or INEFFECTIVE (compressive strain
         causes no stress). The command should be used to prevent compressive stress in rebars
         considered to be inadequately tied in.

         The command does not affect prestress tendons, which normally do not allow compression
         anyway, but which may simulate compression using options in the TENDON-PROPERTIES
         command.

         The default at program start-up is EFFECTIVE.




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         Command                :        CONCRETE-DENSITY


         Syntax                 :        CONCRETE-DENSITY density

         Applicable to :                 All limit state checks.

         Examples               :        CONCRETE-DENSITY 2150

         Description:
         The CONCRETE-DENSITY command is used to specify the value for concrete density to
         be used in determining concrete strength. A single parameter is required which defines the
         density of plain (unreinforced) concrete in kg/m3. The default, if this command is not given,
         is 2400 kg/m3.

         At present, concrete density is used only for the calculation of the cracking strength of
         concrete in accordance with CSA S474-94, Clause 6.4.2. This is further described under the
         CONCRETE-PROPERTIES instruction. No other properties are currently changed by the
         use of CONCRETE-DENSITY, although it is intended to use this command for the
         definition of lightweight concrete in the future.




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         Command                :        CONCRETE-DEPTH


         Syntax                 :        CONCRETE-DEPTH depth (VERIFY)

         Applicable to :                 All checks

         Example                :        CONCRETE-DEPTH 600.0
                                         CONCRETE-DEPTH 500 VERIFY

         Description :

         The CONCRETE-DEPTH command allows the user to specify a depth of concrete slab in
         millimetres for use in the various checks. Specifying a CONCRETE-DEPTH is obligatory
         for analyses that do not interface with an FE system, either directly or through CONCRETE-
         ENVELOPE.

         When CONCRETE-CHECK is being interfaced with an FE system or with CONCRETE-
         ENVELOPE, the slab depth can be defined in one of three ways:

         −        if no CONCRETE-DEPTH instruction is specified, then the depth will be derived from
                  the thickness of the FE model elements (or obtained from CONCRETE-ENVELOPE,
                  which performs similar calculations). It is not permitted to use the TOP-STEEL
                  command in this instance, since the program is unaware of the section depth in the
                  analysis at the time it locates the reinforcement;

         −        if a CONCRETE-DEPTH is defined, the user defined depth value will override any
                  values obtained from the FE analysis or CONCRETE-ENVELOPE backing files and
                  will be used consistently throughout the analysis;

         −        if the VERIFY option is included in the CONCRETE-DEPTH command, a mixture of
                  FE/ENVELOPE and user-defined depths will be used. The program will obtain a
                  thickness from the analysis backing files for use in calculations as the slab depth, but
                  will position any TOP-STEEL defined within the section using the user supplied value
                  of depth. Since it is important that these depths/thicknesses are similar, CONCRETE-
                  CHECK prints a warning if they differ by more than 1%.

         The principal advantage of specifying a depth value is that it permits the definition of TOP-
         STEEL, which is always located relative to the user supplied depth. The advantage of the
         VERIFY option is that the depth relative to which this TOP-STEEL is defined is checked
         against the slab thickness obtained from the analysis.




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         Command                :        CONCRETE-MODULUS


         Syntax                 :        CONCRETE-MODULUS (ulsmod (slsmod (flsmod)))

         Applicable to :                 All limit state checks

         Example                :        CONCRETE-MODULUS 30000
                                         CONCRETE-MODULUS 0 25000 25000

         Description :

         The CONCRETE-MODULUS command is used to define the modulus of concrete for SLS
         and FLS checks as many codes require that these checks be based on linear-elastic properties.
         The modulus to use is determined as follows:

         −        for layered method checks, the stress-strain properties defined on the CONCRETE-
                  PROPERTIES command are used unless the concrete modulus for the required limit
                  state is non-zero. If this is the case, linear-elastic properties are assumed using the
                  appropriate modulus from above as the compressive modulus of the concrete. If a
                  tensile modulus is also required, this is defined, as usual, via the CONCRETE-
                  PROPERTIES TENSION command;

         −        for ULS checks using the strip theory method, the CONCRETE-MODULUS command
                  has no impact and the BS8 110 type section check producing ultimate moments
                  remains the same;

         −        for SLS and FLS checks using the strip theory method, however, and for ULS shear
                  checks, the above moduli, if non-zero, are used for the compressive stiffness of the
                  concrete. If any is defined as zero, the compressive modulus used is that from the
                  CONCRETE-PROPERTIES instruction stress-strain curve at zero strain.

         Note that the above moduli are affected by material partial safety factors (i.e. divided by the
         relevant mpsf value prior to use). The default at the start of the program is for all moduli to
         be set to zero (so that CONCRETE-PROPERTIES stress-strain characteristics will be used).

         The command CONCRETE-MODULUS on its own resets all three values to zero.




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         Command                :        CONCRETE-PROPERTIES

         Syntax                 :        CONCRETE-PROPERTIES                                    BS8110 fcu pr
                                         CONCRETE-PROPERTIES                                    BS5400 fcu pr
                                         CONCRETE-PROPERTIES                                    DNV89 fck pr
                                                                                                (fcck (fcn (ftk (ftn))))
                                         CONCRETE-PROPERTIES                                    DNV77 fcu pr (fck)
                                         CONCRETE-PROPERTIES                                    NS3473 fck pr
                                                                                                (fcck (fcn (ftk ( ftn))))
                                         CONCRETE-PROPERTIES                                    S474 fcu pr fc' (eu (ec))
                                         CONCRETE-PROPERTIES                                    PARABOLIC fcu pr em0
                                                                                                fmax (e2)
                                         CONCRETE-PROPERTIES                                    LINEAR fcu pr em0 fmax
                                                                                                (e2)
                                         CONCRETE-PROPERTIES                                    RIGOROUS fcu pr em0
                                                                                                (fmax (e1 (e2)))
                                         CONCRETE-PROPERTIES                                    DEFINED fcu pr eda fda edb
                                                                                                fdb (edc fdc ...)
                                         CONCRETE-PROPERTIES                                    TENSION emt (S474) (ftmax)

         Applicable to :                 All checks
         Examples               :        CONCRETE-PROPERTIES                                    BS8110 50.0 0.2
                                         CONCRETE-PROPERTIES                                    S474 50.0 0.2 40.0
                                         CONCRETE-PROPERTIES                                    RIGOROUS 40 0.2 23000 21
                                         CONCRETE-PROPERTIES                                    TENSION 20000.0 1.5 S474
                                         CONCRETE-PROPERTIES                                    DEFINED 50 0.2 -1 0 -0. 0035 0
                                         + -0.0035 -30 -0.0020 –20 0 0                         0.0010 1.5 0.0010 0 1 0

         Description :

         The CONCRETE-PROPERTIES command allows property data for the unreinforced
         concrete material to be created. Such data may be redefined as required, the latest being used
         when a DO-CHECKS command is encountered. The default, if no CONCRETE-PROPERTY
         command is included in the data, is to define a Grade 50 BS8110 curve with a Poisson’s ratio
         of 0.2 and no tension properties.

         The first parameter on the instruction is a stress/strain curve type which may be BS8110,
         BS5400, DNV77, DNV89, NS3473, S474, PARABOLIC, LINEAR, RIGOROUS,
         DEFINED or TENSION. The first ten of these are mutually exclusive and will overwrite
         previous compression curve characteristics. The TENSION parameter allows an optional
         tension curve to be added or removed (the latter when emt is set to zero), without affecting
         the compression curve.




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         The following parameters are common to several compression curves:

                  fcu           -        concrete grade or characteristic strength of a cube specimen
                                         (MNrn-2);
                  pr            -        Poisson's ratio of the concrete slab;
                  em0           -        elastic compression modulus at zero strain (MNm'2);
                  fmax          -        maximum compressive stress in the concrete (MNm'2);
                  e1            -        strain beyond which no increase occurs in stress (start of
                                         rectangular section);
                  e2            -        failure (crushing) strain of concrete.

         The BS8110, BS5400, DNV77 and PARABOLIC curves all create parabolic/rectangular
         compressive stress strain curves. For the PARABOLIC case, if e2 is not given, it defaults to
         0.0035. The BS8110, BS5400 and DNV77 curves are created in accordance with BS8110:
         Part 1: Figure 2.1 BS5400: Part 4: Figure 1 and DNV(1977): Figure 7.1, respectively. For the
         DNV77 curve, fck is taken to be the characteristic cylinder strength. If not given, it defaults
         to 0.8 fcu.

         The DNV89 and NS3473 curves are linear-parabolic-rectangular in accordance with DNV
         (1989); Part 3: Chapter 1: Section 8: C301 (with errata, 1991) and NS3473: 11.3.1. The fck
         parameter is the concrete grade or characteristic cube strength. It is equivalent to fcu for
         other curves. Other parameters, if not given, are taken from Tables C1 and 5 respectively.

         The S474 curve is defined by the expression given in Clause 6.2.2 of S474-94, based on the
         value of fc’ on the CONCRETE-PROPERTIES instruction. An ultimate or maximum
         crushing strain, eu, may optionally be specified. If not given, this is taken to be 0.003 in
         accordance with S474-M1989. Refer to the Theory Manual for more details. The elastic
         modulus of concrete, ec, is also optional and is calculated in accordance with Clause 6.2.7 of
         the standard if not otherwise specified.

         The LINEAR curve is a simplification of the parabolic case with e1 calculated from
         (fmax/em0/gamma). The RIGOROUS curve is in accordance with BS8110: Part 2: Figure
         2.1. If fmax, el and e2 are not given, they default to 0.8 fcu, 0.0022 and 0.0035, respectively.

         The DEFINED curve type allows the user to create his own curve from a series of straight
         line segments. These segments connect up to fifty (50) strain/stress (ed/fd) points defined on
         the CONCRETE-PROPERTIES command and its continuations. Stresses and strains must be
         input using a compression-negative sign convention (see example). The curve should start
         from the most compressive (negative) point and become increasingly tensile. Stresses at
         strains beyond the first and last defined points are linearly extrapolated from the first and last
         segments, respectively.

         As mentioned earlier, the TENSION curve is an addition to the above compression curves.
         The parameters emt and ftmax represent the tension modulus and maximum tensile (cracking)
         strength of the concrete in tension. The TENSION curve is ignored when the compression
         curve is DEFINED. By default ftmax 1.0 MNm-2.




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         If the S474 option is set for TENSION properties, then the influence of tensile stress in the
         concrete between cracks is included in accordance with S474-94, Clause 9.3.4. In this
         instance, ftmax is taken to be the cracking strength of concrete and defaults to 0.4λ√fc'. The
         value of λ depends on concrete density in accordance with Clause 6.4.2 of the standard.
         Concrete density may be specified by the CONCRETE-DENSITY instruction. For more
         details, refer to the Theory Manual.

         None of the above parameters contain any reference to material partial safety factors, which
         should be entered on a separate MATERIAL-PARTIAL-SAFETY-FACTORS command.
         Values of working stress, etc will be reduced accordingly for any factors given. The
         definition of these factors need not precede the definition of the curve so that MATERIAL-
         PARTIAL-SAFETY-FACTORS and CONCRETE-PROPERTIES commands may be input
         in any order.




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         Command                :        CONCRETE-S-N-CURVE


         Syntax                 :        CONCRETE-S-N-CURVE cccycles ctcycles

         Applicable to :                 Fatigue Checks

         Example                :        CONCRETE-S-N-CURVE

         Description :

         The CONCRETE-S-N-CURVE command allows the creation of S-N curves for the concrete
         of the slab.

         Two curves are used for concrete as follows:

         −        for concrete cycling in compression - compression:

                              Log10N = cccycles * (1-Smax/(α.fc/γc)) / (1-S min/(α.fc//γc))

         −        for concrete cycling in compression - tension:

                             Log10N = ctcycles * (1- Smax /(α.fc/γc))

         where all symbols are as given in the Theory Manual.

         At program start up, cccycles and ctcycles default to 10.0 and 8.0 respectively. Concrete
         cycling in tension-tension is considered not to accumulate damage.




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         Command                :        CONCRETE-STRESS-REDUCTION


         Syntax                 :        CONCRETE-STRESS-REDUCTION (ON / OFF / NS3473 / S474)

         Applicable to :                 All Checks

         Examples               :        CONCRETE-STRESS-REDUCTION ON
                                         CONCRETE-STRESS-REDUCTION S474

         Description

         When this option is enabled, the design compressive stress-strain curve for concrete is
         adjusted in accordance with the equations defined in either Norwegian Standards or Canadian
         Standards.

         Option NS3473 adjusts the stress-strain curve using the following equation, which is taken
         from NS3473: Section 12.52:

                                         f = 1 / ( 0.8 + 100 ε)                ≤             1.0

         where                  f        is a factor to apply to the stress ordinates of the compressive part of the
                                         curve;
                                ε        is the principal tensile strain.

         If instead, option S474 is selected, the curve is modified using the equation defined in CSA
         S474 - 94: Section 6.3.4:

                                         f = 1 / ( 0.8 + 170 ε)                ≤             1.0

         where f and s are as above.

         Use of this command also causes a greater number of envelope extreme combinations to be
         analysed. Refer to the Theory Manual for further details.

         The two options ON/OFF enable/disable adjustment of the stress-strain curve, whilst
         maintaining a record of the currently selected code. The command with no parameters is
         equivalent to ON. In the case where no code has been defined previously, the ON instruction
         defaults to the NS3473 equation.

         The default at the start of the program is for no reduction of the stress-strain curve, i.e OFF.
         This reduction capability may be used irrespective of the type of concrete curve selected
         using the CONCRETE-PROPERTIES command (i.e. an NS3473 curve is not required).




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         Command                :        CRACK-WIDTHS


         Syntax                 :        CRACK-WIDTHS (ON/OFF)

         Applicable to :                 Serviceability Checks

         Example                :        CRACK-WIDTHS
                                         CRACK-WIDTHS OFF

         Description :

         The CRACK-WIDTHS command controls whether or not crack width calculations will be
         performed in accordance with the selected SERVICE-CHECK code or standard. When this
         command is ON and serviceability code checks are enabled, crack width calculations will be
         performed and compared with acceptable limits at the same time as other selected checks.

         The default for CRACK-WIDTHS is ON. CRACK-WIDTHS with no parameters is taken as
         CRACK-WIDTHS ON.




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         Command                :        DATA-CHECK-ONLY


         Syntax                 :        DATA-CHECK-ONLY

         Applicable to :                 All Checks

         Example                :        DATA-CHECK-ONLY

         Description :

         The DATA-CHECK-ONLY command is identical to the CODE-CHECK-OFF instruction
         and disables code checking of stresses when a DO-CHECKS instruction is encountered.
         Only data checking will be performed when a DO-CHECKS command is encountered while
         this command is current.

         Checking may be switched back on with the CODE-CHECK or CODE-CHECK ON
         commands. The default at program start up is to enable code-checks.




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         Command                :        DATUM


         Syntax                 :        DATUM vectorx vectory vectorz

         Applicable to :                 All limit state checks

         Example                :        DATUM 1.0 1.0. 0.0

         Description :

         The DATUM command is used to specify a datum relative to which locations around or
         along a section may be defined. The command is therefore currently only available for
         structures modelled using solid elements where load components are to be obtained directly
         from an FE analysis.

         The command is optional. If given, it requires a vector to be specified by inputting the
         projections of the vector on the global structure (or substructure) X, Y and Z axes. For
         example, the vector 0.0, 1.0, 0.0 specifies a vector in the Y direction.

         The above vector is used along with the normal or axis definition for a surface (see
         SURFACE command) to define a datum plane. For this reason, the only restraint on the
         specification of a datum vector is that it should not be collinear with the normal or axis
         definition of the current surface.

         The datum and surface definition define the reference axes relative to which locations on a
         section may be defined. Refer to the SECTION command for the definition of locations and
         to Section 4.10 for general details of section definition.

         If the DATUM card is not given, the default vector is in the global X direction (1.0, 0.0, 0.0).

         In the current version of the program, for cylindrical and conic surface definitions, there is a
         restriction that the datum plane should not intersect any elements. All elements can therefore
         be defined as being on the positive side of the datum.




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         Command : :                     DEBUG


         Syntax                 :        DEBUG OFF/(level routine (values ---))

         Applicable to :                 All checks
         Examples               :        DEBUG OFF
                                         DEBUG OFF STRULS
                                         DEBUG 2 LAYSOL 2A 2.2 2.9 -1.6

         Description :

         The DEBUG command may be used to force the program to monitor progress through
         selected routines. It is only of use to users who are familiar with the internal operation of the
         program and should be used with care, as it can produce a considerable amount of output.

         The debug level has different effects depending on the routine to be checked. A debug level
         over ninety-nine forces the routine to overwrite certain arguments with the debug values
         specified on the end of the line. DEBUG OFF cancels all debugging for all routines.
         DEBUG OFF with a routine name cancels debugging for that routine only.




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       Command                :        DEFORMATION-LOADS


       Syntax                 :        DEFORMATION-LOADS type (1state) nx ny nxy nyz
                                       DEFORMATION-LOADS RECOVER number
                                       DEFORMATION-LOADS ANALYSIS data
                                       DEFORMATION-LOADS OFF

       Applicable to :                 All limit state checks.

       Examples               :        DEFORMATION-LOADS MAXIMUM STRENGTH 1.0 1.1 0.5
                                       + -0.15 0.4 -0.1 0.008 0.001
                                       DEFORMATION-LOADS RECOVER 503
                                       DEFORMATION-LOADS ANALYSIS 3
                                       DEFORMATION-LOADS OFF

       Description :

       The DEFORMATION-LOADS command is used to define forces and moments on a
       concrete section resulting from deformation type loadings, e.g. thermal, settlement, etc.
       The eight load components (NX, NY, NXY, MX, MY, MXY, NXZ, NYZ) are converted
       directly to equivalent strains and superimposed onto the equilibrium strain field
       produced by other loadings input via ENVELOPE and PRESTRESS commands. This is
       explained in more detail in Section 2.8 and the Theory Manual.

       To enable the deformational strains to be evaluated, the concrete modulus and Poisons
       ratio of the original analysis must be specified using the associated DEFORMATION-
       PROPERTIES command.

       The type of the loads can be one of the following:

                MAXIMUM                     specifies the maximum envelope of direct deformational loads
                                            NX, NY, NXY, deformational moments MX, MY, MXY and
                                            deformational shear loads NXZ, NYZ;
                MINIMUM                     defines the corresponding minimum envelope for the eight load
                                            components;
                DIRECT                      specifies that both the maximum and minimum envelope are to
                                            assume the accompanying values.

       If only a. maximum or minimum envelope is specified, the other extreme defaults to the
       same value. The units of direct force, moment and shear for this form of the command
       are MN per metre width, MNm per metre width and MN per metre width respectively.

       Separate deformational loads can be associated with the ULS and SLS limit states by
       specifying STRENGTH or SERVICE for the optional parameter lstate. If lstate is
       omitted, the specified loads will apply to checks for both limit states.




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       The command takes a different form when the loads are to be obtained from the backing files
       of an FE system. This can be achieved in two ways:

       RECOVER                     this is used when the load envelopes are to be obtained from an FE analysis
                                   post-processed using CONCRETE-ENVELOPE. The parameter number
                                   specifies the envelope number to use for deformation loads i.e. the value
                                   for the ENVELOPE field of the keyed filing system (see section 4.9);

       ANALYSIS                    is used when the loads are to be obtained directly from the FE analysis
                                   results. The accompanying data is specific to the FE system and is
                                   described in the appropriate appendix. In addition a SUPER-ELEMENT
                                   command and some form of panel or section definition, to identify the
                                   location, will also be required.

       The final form of the command, DEFORMATION-LOADS OFF, is used to terminate the
       imposition of deformational loading on the section under consideration. This command resets
       the maximum and minimum deformational load envelopes for all eight components and both
       limit states to zero. If at a later stage deformational loads are again required, then the relevant
       envelopes will have to be redefined (redefinition of the DEFORMATION-PROPERTIES is
       not necessary)




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       Command                :        DEFORMATION-PROPERTIES


       Syntax                 :        DEFORMATION-PROPERTIES eval mu

       Applicable to :                 All limit state checks.

       Examples               :        DEFORMATION-PROPERTIES 30000 0.2

       Description:

       The DEFORMATION-PROPERTIES command is used to specify the values for Young's
       modulus and Poison's ratio used during the analysis of the deformational loadings being input
       via the DEFORMATIONAL-LOADS command. This command must be present if
       DEFORMATION-LOADS are specified. There is no default for this command.

       The command requires two parameters, eval specifies the Young's modulus value (in MNm-
       2
         ) and mu defines Poisson's ratio. The use of these parameters in generating equivalent
       deformational strain is described in the Theory Manual.




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       Command                :        DO-CHECKS

       Syntax                 :        DO-CHECKS

       Applicable             :        All checks

       Example                :        DO-CHECKS

       Description :

       The DO-CHECKS command instructs the program to temporarily stop reading input data and
       to start performing code checks using data defined by previous instructions.

       CONCRETE-CHECK will initially perform a data check on the input data to check that it is
       consistent. The requested checks will then be performed if;

       −        there have been no errors in the data input or cross check;

       −        a DATA-CHECK-ONLY or CODE-CHECK OFF command has not been issued;

       −        the appropriate class checks have been enabled using ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES.


       When the DO-CHECKS command is complete, the program returns to input further
       commands from the current input device.




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       Command                :        ECHO


       Syntax                 :        ECHO (ON/OFF)

       Applicable to :                 All checks

       Examples               :        ECHO

       ECHO OFF

       Description :

       The ECHO command controls echo of input commands to the output stream or file. When
       this command is ON, each input instruction is attributed a line number and printed as it is
       encountered.

       The default for ECHO is ON. The LIST-INPUT-DATA command may be used to control the
       output of interpreted data in addition to the simple command echo. ECHO with no
       parameters is taken as ECHO ON.




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       Command                :        END

       Syntax                 :        END

       Applicable to :                 All checks

       Examples               :        END

       Description
       The END command is identical to the STOP command and has the action of terminating the
       current run (even if further data exists in the input file), closing all files and returning to the
       operating system.




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       Command                :        ENVELOPE

       Syntax                 :        ENVELOPE                    MAXIMUM (STRENGTH/SERVICE)
                                                                   nx ny nxy ---- nxz nyz
                                       ENVELOPE                    MINIMUM (STRENGTH/SERVICE)
                                                                   nx ny nxy ---- nxz nyz
                                       ENVELOPE                    DIRECT (STRENGTH/SERVICE)
                                                                   nx ny nxy --- nxz nyz
                                       ENVELOPE                    RECOVER number
                                       ENVELOPE                    ANALYSIS data ----
       Applicable to :                 Ultimate Strength checks
                                       Serviceability checks

       Examples               :        ENVELOPE MAXIMUM 1.0 2.0 0.3 0.15 0.14 0.06
                                       + 0.02 -0.01
                                       ENVELOPE RECOVER 13
                                       ENVELOPE DIRECT SERVICE
                                       + -1.31 -0.22 0.05 0.162 -0.381 -0.011 0.03 0.04

       Description :

       The ENVELOPE command is used to recover or create envelopes of the eight basic
       load components (NX, NY, NXY, MX, MY, MXY, NXZ, NYZ) for use in the ultimate
       strength and service limit state checks.

       ENVELOPE with a MAXIMUM, MINIMUM or DIRECT parameter allows the user to
       directly input maximum and minimum load envelopes. Direct loads (NX, NY, NXY, NXZ,
       NYZ) are input in MN per metre width. Moments are applied as MNm per metre width.
       Maximum and minimum envelopes may be defined separately. However, if only one
       envelope (maximum or minimum) is defined in the data, the other will be made the
       same. Specifying DIRECT will always create both maximum and minimum values
       irrespective of whether previous MAXIMUM or MINIMUM envelopes have been
       given. The program will rectify cases where the minimum envelope for any load
       component is greater than the maximum. Continuation lines can be used as necessary.
       Input envelopes may be associated with STRENGTH or SERVICE checks by means of
       the second parameter. If this keyword is omitted, the envelope will apply to both
       strength and service checks.

       A parameter of RECOVER causes envelopes to be recovered from backing files written
       by the CONCRETE-ENVELOPE program. The next item of data specified is the
       envelope 'number' as used in CONCRETE-ENVELOPE when the envelopes were
       created. A keyed filing system must be defined if envelopes are to be recovered. Refer
       to Section 4.9 for details. A SUPER-ELEMENT command must also be present.




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       Use of the ANALYSIS parameter signifies that an envelope is to be created using load
       components taken directly from the FE system to which CONCRETE is interfaced.
       Subsequent data is dependent on this FE system and is described in the appropriate appendix.
       The SUPER-ELEMENT command and some form of panel or section definition must be
       given in the data if this option is to be used.

       Problems may arise in the layered solution if all of NX, NY amd NXY, are zero. If this is the
       case, very small values should be substituted.




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       Command                :        ENVELOPE-NAME


       Syntax                 :        ENVELOPE-NAME (description)
       Applicable to :                 Ultimate strength checks
                                       Serviceability checks

       Example                :        ENVELOPE-NAME SURVIVAL CONDITION

       Description :

       The ENVELOPE-NAME instruction is used to associate a description with the envelope
       being analysed. This description will appear in the main output when referring to the
       envelope.

       The envelope description may be up to thirty characters long, including embedded blanks.

       When used as a post-processor to an FE system via CONCRETE-ENVELOPE, an envelope
       name will be picked up from the backing files. In the stand-alone mode or when used to
       directly post-process FE analysis results, there is no such default envelope name.

       Whichever mode of operation is current, this command will overwrite any default setting
       until switched off with an ENVELOPE-NAME command with no arguments.




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       Command                :        ENVELOPE-NUMBER


       Syntax                     :          ENVELOPE-NUMBER number
       Applicable to              :          Ultimate strength checks
                                             Serviceability checks

       Example                    :          ENVELOPE-NUMBER 6

       Description :

       The ENVELOPE-NUMBER command is used to identify the envelope in the main output.
       The command should be used for identification purposes only when CONCRETE--CHECK
       is being used as stand-alone program or is being interfaced directly with an FE analysis.
       When used as a post-processor via CONCRETE-ENVELOPE, the envelope number on the
       ENVELOPE command defines the current envelope and is used both to recover envelopes
       from the backing files and to identify output.




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       Command                :        FATIGUE-CHECK


       Syntax                 :        FATIGUE-CHECK (OFF/ON)

       Applicable to :                 Fatigue Checks

       Example                :        FATIGUE-CHECK OFF
                                       FATIGUE-CHECK

       Description :


       The FATIGUE-CHECK command specifies whether fatigue checking is to be performed or
       not. By default, at program start up, fatigue checking is off.

       FATIGUE-CHECK or FATIGUE-CHECK ON may be used to switch on fatigue checking
       at the next DO-CHECKS command. Fatigue checking may be switched back OFF with a
       FATIGUE-CHECK OFF command.




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       Command                :        FATIGUE-CYCLE

       Syntax                 :        FATIGUE-CYCLE occurs COMPLEX steps scase
                                                     (rcase(icase))
                                       FATIGUE-CYCLE occurs STEPPED casel case2 ----

       Applicable to :                 Fatigue checks

       Examples               :        FATIGUE-CYCLE 2006213 COMPLEX 3 12                                    10012
                                       FATIGUE-CYCLE 6211 STEPPED 201 202 203 204

       Description :

       The FATIGUE-CYCLE command is used to specify which load combinations are used in the
       fatigue checks to represent a single load cycle, and how many occurrences of this cycle are
       expected in a single year. At least one command of this type must be specified for any fatigue
       checking run. Subsequent commands add further cycles to the cumulative damage
       calculations until a FATIGUE-RESET command is encountered.

       Each command represents one cycle. The 'occurs' parameter specifies how many occurrences
       of this cycle will be considered IN ONE YEAR.

       There are two ways of defining a cycle:

       −        the cycle may be represented in COMPLEX form as static, real and imaginary
                components. For load combinations obtained directly from a particular FE system, the
                exact input data is explained in the appropriate appendix. Depending on the FE system
                in use, up to three individual load case numbers may be required. If loads are defined
                by direct input in the data file, then the user should provide static, real and imaginary
                combinations and will require all three case numbers. The complex representation will
                be used to develop loads at a user-specified number of 'steps' through the load cycle.
                The 'steps parameter should be an integer greater than one;

       −        the cycle may be STEPPED signifying a time history definition of loading by providing
                individual load combinations at each step through the cycle. Each step is represented by
                one combination. Between two and twenty-five individual combinations may be
                specified.

       The user should also refer to the STATIC-COMBINATION command which permits a
       further static load combination to be applied to all cycles. The COMBINATION card defines
       the source of all combinations to use in CONCRETE-CHECK.




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       Command                :          FATIGUE-DATA


       Syntax                 :          FATIGUE-DATA ccsum (rbsum (ON/OFF))

       Applicable to :                   Fatigue checks

       Examples               :          FATIGUE-DATA 0.33 0.33
                                         FATIGUE-DATA 0.2 1.0 ON

       Description :

       The FATIGUE-DATA command allows the specification of parameters used in the fatigue
       limit state checks. The following may be specified:

                ccsum                -               the miner's sum to be used for concrete, defaults to
                                                     0.2;

                rbsum                -               the miner's sum to be used for reinforcement, defaults
                                                     to 1.0;

                ON/OFF               -               ON if low amplitude, high cycle fatigue is to be modified in
                                                     accordance with DnV (1989) or NS 3473 (1989). OFF if it is
                                                     not be modified. If it is set ON, the number of cycles to failure
                                                     is modified in accordance with the Theory Manual. The default
                                                     for this parameter is OFF.




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       Command                :        FATIGUE-LIFE

       Syntax                 :        FATIGUE-LIFE years

       Applicable to :                 Fatigue checks

       Examples               :        FATIGUE-LIFE 30.0

       Description :
       The FATIGUE-LIFE command specifies the required fatigue life in years which the
       structure is expected to endure.

       By default, the required fatigue life is sixty years.




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       Command                :        FATIGUE-RESET


       Syntax                 :        FATIGUE-RESET

       Applicable to :                 Fatigue checks

       Examples               :        FATIGUE-RESET

       Description :

       The FATIGUE-RESET command resets all load cycles created so far and allows the user to
       restart their entry from scratch.

       This card cancels the occurrence and load combination references made on all previous
       FATIGUE-CYCLE commands. The command does not affect the STATIC-
       COMBINATION or any data set up on COMBINATION commands. Combinations created
       on any COMBINATION commands will still be available for later FATIGUE-CYCLES.




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       Command                :        FINISH-PLOT

       Syntax                 :        FINISH-PLOT

       Applicable to :                 All limit states checks

       Examples               :        FINISH-PLOT

       Description :

       The FINISH-PLOT command is used to terminate the writing of CONCRETE-CHECK
       results to plot file and to close this file so that it can subsequently be accessed by the utility
       plot program (PLOTIT). Use of this command should not be confused with the more
       general capabilities of the CONCRETE-PLOT program, which requires that results be
       stored using the WRITE command.

       Refer to the BEGIN-PLOT command for more details of the plot facility and to Section B.3
       for sample output.




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       Command                :        GROUP


       Syntax                 :        GROUP set

       Applicable to :                 All limit states checks

       Examples               :        GROUP 31

       Description
       The GROUP command is used to specify the FE analysis group or set number containing all
       elements on which checks are to be based. The SET instruction is identical to GROUP and
       either may be used freely.

       The GROUP or SET commands are used if CONCRETE-CHECK is to access the results
       from an FE analysis, either directly or indirectly via a CONCRETE-ENVELOPE analysis. It
       is not used if data is input directly to the data file, but should be specified anyway, for
       identification of output.

       When CONCRETE-CHECK takes loads directly from the FE analysis, the set specified
       should contain all shell or solid elements needed to define the panel or section under
       analysis. The command must be present even if a single node or location is to be processed.

       When CONCRETE-CHECK recovers envelopes from CONCRETE-ENVELOPE, the set
       number is important if it was used in the definition of the key system for storage of
       envelopes. Furthermore, a set or group number of zero may be used to specify that a global
       envelope is to be recovered.




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       Command                :        IMPLOSION-CHECK


       Syntax                 :        IMPLOSION-CHECK (OFF/ON)

       Applicable to :                 Implosion checks

       Example                :        IMPLOSION-CHECK
                                       IMPLOSION-CHECK OFF

       Description

       The IMPLOSION-CHECK instruction is used to specify that cylinder implosion checks are
       to be performed at subsequent DO-CHECKS instructions until overridden by an
       IMPLOSION-CHECK OFF instruction.

       IMPLOSION-CHECK with no following data is equivalent to IMPLOSION-CHECK ON.

       If no IMPLOSION-CHECK instruction is used, IMPLOSION checks will not be
       performed.




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       Command                :        IMPLOSION-CYLINDER.


       Syntax                 :        IMPLOSION-CYLINDER length radius (width(fixity))

       Applicable to :                 Implosion checks

       Examples               :        IMPLOSION-CYLINDER 150.0 15.0
                                       IMPLOSION-CYLINDER 95.0 12.0 15.621 1.0

       Description :

       The IMPLOSION-CYLINDER command allows the specification of a cylinder geometry
       for subsequent implosion checks.

       The cylinder 'length' and mean 'radius' should always be input. The cylinder 'width' is used
       to define a curved panel (partial cylinder) and should be less than the cylinder
       circumference. If 'width' is not given, a full cylinder is assumed.

       The edge 'fixity' parameter is only required if 'width' is non-zero. It references the edge
       fixity of a curved panel required by Chrapowicki to determine the modified buckling
       strength under pressure loading. The program will interpolate between edge fixity of 0.0
       (simple supported) and 1.0 (fixed).

       The cylinder length, width and radius should be input in metres. For the purposes of
       reinforcement orientation, the slab X" direction is considered to be along the axis of the
       cylinder, whilst the Y" direction is circumferential.




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       Command                :        IMPLOSION-IMPERFECTIONS


       Syntax                 :        IMPLOSION-IMPERFECTIONS eo

       Applicable to :                 Implosion checks
       Example                :        IMPLOSION-IMPERFECTIONS 75.0

       Description :

       The IMPLOSION-IMPERFECTIONS command allows the input of a maximum
       imperfection in mm for the evaluation of imperfection bending moments from a cylinder
       implosion check.

       By default, if this command is not given, an imperfection of radius/200 is assumed.




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       Command                :        IMPLOSION-LOADS


       Syntax                 :        IMPLOSION-LOADS pressure (axial(bending(shear(torsion))))

       Applicable to :                 Implosion Checks
       Examples               :        IMPLOSION-LOADS 0.232
                                       IMPLOSION-LOADS 0.232 -1.263 -3.121 0282 0.211

       Description :

       The IMPLOSION-LOADS command allows the specification of a set of loads to apply to
       the cylinder in a cylinder implosion check.

       The following loads may be applied:

                pressure               -                  acting external pressure (MNm-2);
                axial                  -                  longitudinal load per unit width due to axial load on
                                                          cylinder (MN per metre);
                bending                -                  longitudinal load per unit width due to bending
                                                          moment on cylinder (MN per metre);
                shear                  -                  shear flow due to shear load on cylinder (MN per
                                                          metre);
                torsion                -                  shear flow due to torsion on cylinder (MN per metre).

       Any values not given are taken as zero. The 'axial' and 'bending' loads are compression-
       negative, but the pressure is positive for external pressure. The sign of the shear loads is
       irrelevant.




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       Command                :        INTERACTIVE


       Syntax                 :        INTERACTIVE

       Applicable to :                 All Checks

       Example                :        INTERACTIVE

       Description :

       The INTERACTIVE command allows the user to switch to interactive input and causes
       CONCRETE-CHECK to issue an

                INSTRUCTION??

       prompt when processing of the previous instruction is complete. The command is of use on
       systems that cannot sense that the program is being run interactively.

       This command is not available on most computer types. Its use should be checked with the
       authors.




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       Command                :        KEY-FIELDS


       Syntax                 :        KEY-FIELDS keyl (key2                             ----          keyn)

       Applicable to :                 All Checks
       Examples               :        KEY-FIELDS KEY1
                                       KEY--FIELDS CASE GROUP NODE

       Description :

       The KEY-FIELDS instruction allows the definition of an index system for recovery of
       envelope results. Up to fifteen KEY-FIELDS may be defined. These fields may be
       previously defined symbols (via NEW-SYMBOL), or may be any of the following reserved
       symbols:
          NODE             -       node number or location
          LOCATION         -       node number or location
          GROUP            -       group/set number
          SET              -       group/set number
          CLASS            -       class number
          SECTION          -       section number
          ENVELOPE         -       envelope number.

       For the keyed filing system to be fully defined, a set of ranges must be defined for each
       field on this card. The KEY-RANGES card is provided for this purpose and it is normal
       that a KEY-RANGES command will immediately follow KEY-FIELDS,

       A full description of the keyed filing system in use by the CONCRETE suite is given in
       Section 4.9.

       Note that there is no default for this command. It must be present in the input data if
       envelopes are to be retrieved from a CONCRETE-ENVELOPE backing file or written to a
       CONCRETE-CHECK results backing file.




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       Command                :        KEY-RANGES


       Syntax                 :        KEY-RANGES min1 max1 (min2 max2 -----minn maxn)

       Applicable to :                 All Checks

       Examples               :        KEY-RANGES 1 100
                                       KEY-RANGES 1 4 1 50 0 10000

       Description :

       The KEY-RANGES command allows numerical ranges to be assigned to the fields created
       by a KEY-FIELDS instruction. Together, these two cards are used to define a keyed filing
       system for the storage of CONCRETE-ENVELOPE results.

       Ranges are specified by minimum and maximum values for each field. The number and
       order of the ranges must correspond to those given on a KEY-FIELDS instruction. A KEY-
       FIELDS instruction must precede KEY-RANGES.

       Note that if the reserved symbols NODE or LOCATION are used on a KEY-FIELDS
       instruction, then the corresponding range should start at zero, to allow storage of class
       envelopes (node 0) as well as node or location envelopes. The SET, GROUP and CLASS
       reserved symbols should also have minimum values of 0, if global envelopes are required.

       A full description of the keyed filing system is included in Section 4.9 of this manual.

       The default range is zero to zero for each field giving a trivial maximum key of one. In
       general, therefore, a KEY-RANGES card is always required if KEY-FIELDS have been
       specified.




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       Command                :        LIST-INPUT-DATA


       Syntax                 :        LIST-INPUT-DATA (ON/OFF)

       Applicable to :                 All checks

       Examples               :        LIST-INPUT-DATA
                                       LIST-INPUT-DATA OFF

       Description :

       The LIST-INPUT-DATA instruction allows selective printing of interpreted input data as
       commands are read in. The printout produced by this command is rather more detailed than
       the simple data echo produced by the ECHO command,

       The default for LIST-INPUT-DATA is ON.

       LIST-INPUT-DATA with no parameters is taken as meaning LIST-INPUT-DATA ON.




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       Command                :        MATERIAL-PARTIAL-SAFETY-FACTORS

       Syntax                 :        MATERIAL-PARTIAL-SAFETY-FACTORS (lstate) gammac
                                                               gammar gammap (gammas)

       Applicable to :                 All checks
       Examples               :        MATERIAL-PARTIAL-SAFETY-FACTORS 1.50 1,15 1.15
                                                                                  1.25
                                       MATERIAL-PARTIAL-SAFETY-FACTORS STRENGTH
                                                                        1.90 1,20 1.20

       Description :

       The MATERIAL-PARTIAL-SAFETY-FACTORS command allows partial safety factors to
       be specified for concrete (gammac), reinforcement bars (gammar), prestress tendons
       (gammap) and for shear checks (gammas). The shear check value is only applicable to
       codes that require it (currently BS8110 and BS5400). It may be omitted for other rules.

       The lstate parameter may be used to define the limit state for which these factors apply.
       lstate may take the value STRENGTH, SERVICE or FATIGUE, restricting the command to
       modifying only the ULS, SLS or FLS values respectively. If not given, the accompanying
       m.p.s.f values are applied to all three limit states.

       The command may be used repeatedly within a data file, The stress-strain curves for each
       material are re-calculated when a DO-CHECKS instruction is encountered. This ensures
       that the current m.p.s.f values and material properties are used. There is no restriction on the
       order of MATERIAL-PARTIAL-SAFETY-FACTORS and REBAR-PROPERTIES
       commands.

       At program start up, the following factors are set for all three limit states by default,:

                gammac = 1.00, gammar = 1,00, gammap = 1.00, gammas = 1.00

       IMPLOSION-CHECK and PANEL-STABILITY-CHECK use the values currently
       specified for STRENGTH (ULS).




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       Command                :        MAXIMUM-ERRORS

       Syntax                 :        MAXIMUM-ERRORS maxerr

       Applicable to :                 All checks

       Examples               :        MAXIMUM-ERRORS 10

       Description :

       The MAXIMUM-ERRORS command is used to control the number of input errors that are
       allowed before further efforts to process input data are abandoned. By default, the
       maximum number of errors is set to twenty.

       This command allows input data with errors to be processed up to an acceptable level of
       error before input is terminated. It does not control code checks. If there are any input errors
       when a DO-CHECKS instruction is encountered, code checking will be abandoned (but
       further input data will subsequently be processed up to the maximum error count).




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       Command                :        METHOD


       Syntax                 :        METHOD STRIP (angle (miter (contol)))
                                       METHOD LAYER (nlayers (miter (contol (nskip
                                                    (stiff1---- stiff6 (weight1 ---- weight6
                                                    (stiff7---- stiff9 (weight7----weight9))))))))

       Applicable to :                 All limit state checks
       Examples               :        METHOD STRIP 45.0
                                       METHOD LAYER 10 200 0.02 5 1 1 1 0 0 0

       Description

       The METHOD command instructs the program to use a specified method to analyse the
       reinforced/prestressed slab locations being checked. Refer to Section 2.3 for details of the
       BS8110 strip theory and the more general layered approaches. Both methods accept a
       number of parameters:

                 angle            -    the angle (default zero) of the BS8110 strip theory section relative to
                                       the slab axes. Refer to Section 4.3 for the sign convention.

                miter             -    the maximum number of iterations allowed in either method. By
                                       default, this is set to fifty, but may be changed by the user if the
                                       program indicates that convergence was not obtained after this number
                                       of iterations;

                nlayers           -    the discrete number of layers into which the concrete slab is divided for
                                       the layered method. By default, this is ten, which should be acceptable
                                       for most purposes;

                contol            -    convergence tolerance for the strip or layered methods. See the Theory
                                       Manual for full details. Set to 0.01 by default;

               nskip              -    a skip parameter for the layered method set to five by default. Refer to
                                       the Theory Manual for more details;

               stiffn             -    for the layered method, stiffness weights to adjust the initial stiffness
                                       for each load component, NX, NY, NXY, MX, MY, MXY (also NXZ, NYZ,
                                       NZ, if triaxial shear checks are requested) in the iteration procedure.
                                       Refer to the Theory Manual for a more detailed explanation. These
                                       values default to unity;

               weightn            -    for the layered method, weights to be applied for each load component
                                       in the calculation of convergence. By default, all values are one. Refer
                                       to the Theory Manual for details.




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       Command                :        NEW-SYMBOL


       Syntax                 :        NEW-SYMBOL symbol (value)

       Applicable to :                 All checks

       Examples               :        NEW-SYMBOL KEY1
                                       NEW-SYMBOL KEY2 31


       Description :

       The NEW-SYMBOL command is used to create symbols for use in the KEY-FIELDS
       instruction to define the keyed filing system. Numerical values may optionally be defined
       by this command or by the SYMBOL-VALUE instruction. The default value for a symbol
       is zero.

       The following symbols are reserved and should not be used:

                NODE, GROUP, LOCATION, SET, CLASS, SECTION, ENVELOPE.

       Apart from the reserved symbols, the NEW-SYMBOL command must be used to define a
       symbol before it can be referenced by a KEY-FIELDS instruction, or be assigned a value by
       SYMBOL-VALUE.

       Section 4.9 contains a full description of the CONCRETE suite keyed filing system.




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       Command                :        ORIGIN


       Syntax                 :        ORIGIN x y z

       Applicable to :                 All checks

       Example                :        ORIGIN 3.0 3.0 -10.0

       Description :

       The ORIGIN command defines the origin of a surface used to locate a section. The
       command is therefore currently only available for structures modelled using solid elements
       and where load components are to be obtained directly from the FE analysis.

       By default, the origin of any surface is 0.0, 0.0, 0.0 at program start up. This is the origin of
       the structure (or superelement if a substructured analysis is being used). The ORIGIN
       command may be used, however, to move the origin of a surface from the global origin to a
       new position. The command is optional.

       ORIGIN commands are not cumulative. When a DO-CHECKS command is encountered, the
       latest origin (if any) is used in the surface and hence section definition.

       The units of the ORIGIN command should be the same as those of the FE model.




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       Command                :        OUTPUT-LEVEL

       Syntax                 :        OUTPUT-LEVEL SUMMARY/BRIEF/INTERMEDIATE/
                                                               DETAILED(BRIEF/FULL)

       Applicable to :                 All limit state checks

       Examples               :        OUTPUT-LEVEL SUMMARY
                                       OUTPUT-LEVEL DETAILED BRIEF

       Description                :

       The OUTPUT-LEVEL command allows control over the level of printout produced by
       CONCRETE-CHECK for the limit state checks. The first parameter may be any of the
       following:

                SUMMARY:                             produces summary file output only, no main output per check.

                BRIEF:                               produces only the check header and results, no details of the
                                                     actual checks in the output.

                INTERMEDIATE:                        for fatigue limit state, restricts the printout to damage
                                                     cumulation per cycle only.

                DETAILED:                            provides maximum output. In this case, the second parameter
                                                     may be used to control the level of output from the individual
                                                     section checks. BRIEF shows only whether the check was
                                                     successful or not. FULL provides detailed information about
                                                     the check.

       The output levels remain in force until redefined. Output levels do not affect the writing of
       results to backing file for subsequent access by CONCRETE-PLOT.




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       Command                :        PANEL


       Syntax                 :        PANEL SWEEP/SAMPLE (angtol)

       Applicable to :                 All checks

       Examples               :        PANEL SWEEP

                                       PANEL SAMPLE

       Description :

       This command applies only to structures where the concrete substructure is modelled using
       thick or thin shell elements and where load components are to be obtained directly from an
       FE analysis.

       SWEEP selects all nodes in a set for future processing. When a DO-CHECKS instruction is
       encountered, the program will scan the currently selected plate element set (SET or
       GROUP) and identify and classify (see ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES) all nodes on the
       plate. If checking is enabled (CODE-CHECK ON), the program will proceed to check and
       report these nodes.

       SAMPLE is similar to SWEEP in that it causes CONCRETE-CHECK to scan the current
       SET or GROUP when a DO-CHECKS instruction is encountered. However, whereas
       SWEEP will then classify and select all nodes found for checking, SAMPLE will select
       only a small subset of the classified nodes, namely:

                          -       all corner nodes;
                          -       mid edge nodes.

       If checking is enabled (CODE-CHECK ON), the program will proceed to evaluate and
       store envelopes for this sample of nodes.

       The optional angular tolerance is used when finding corner nodes on the panel. Most
       corners are identified topologically (by element connectivity). However, inside corners and
       other complex geometries may not be identified this way and are found by checking the
       angular change around the boundary. When this angular change exceeds angtol, a further
       corner is recorded.

       This command is overwritten by the SECTION, SELECT and CLEAR-SELECT
       commands, which allow other methods of node selection.




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       Command                :        PANEL-DIMENSIONS


       Syntax                 :        PANEL-DIMENSIONS length width (fixity)

       Applicable to :                 Panel stability checks

       Examples               :        PANEL-DIMENSIONS 15.0 10.0
                                       PANEL-DIMENSIONS 20.0 7.5 1.0

       Description :

       The PANEL-DIMENSIONS command allows the specification of a flat panel geometry for
       subsequent panel stability checks.

       The 'length' and 'width' should always be input. The remaining parameter is an edge 'fixity'
       that may vary between 0.0 (simply supported) and 1.0 (clamped). If not given, 'fixity' is
       taken as 0.0.

       The panel length and width should be specified in metres. The panel is assumed to be
       'length' long in the X" direction, and 'width' long in the Y" direction. The Z" direction is
       therefore assumed to be the through-thickness direction. This definition is of use when
       defining loads. These directions are important in the definition of loads and reinforcement.




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       Command                :        PANEL-IMPERFECTIONS


       Syntax                 :        PANEL-IMPERFECTIONS eo

       Applicable to :                 Panel Stability checks

       Example                :        PANEL-IMPERFECTIONS 75.0

       Description :

       The PANEL-IMPERFECTIONS command allows the input of a maximum imperfection in
       mm for the evaluation of imperfection bending moments from a panel stability check,

       By default, if this command is not given, an imperfection of the panel diagonal/200 is
       assumed,

       THIS COMMAND IS NOT CURRENTLY USED.




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       Command                :        PANEL-LOADS


       Syntax                 :        PANEL-LOADS pressure (nx(ny(nxy)))

       Applicable to :                 Panel Stability checks
       Examples               :        PANEL-LOADS 0.202
                                       PANEL-LOADS 0.517 -2,621 -3202 1.516

       Description :

       The PANEL-LOADS command allows the input of prebuckling loads on a flat panel to be
       subjected to a panel stability check.

       The following loads may be applied:
                pressure           -        uniform pressure loading (MNn-2);
                nx                 -        X direction load per unit width (MN per metre);
                ny                 -        Y direction load per unit width (MN per metre);
                nxy                -        shear flow (MN per metre).

       The nx and ny loads follow the usual compression-negative sign convention. The pressure
       load, however, is defined as being positive if it acts on the top face of the panel.

       Refer to the PANEL-DIMENSIONS command for a definition of the X and Y panel stress
       directions.




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       Command                :        PANEL-STABILITY-CHECK


       Syntax                 :        PANEL-STABILITY-CHECK(OFF/ON)

       Applicable to :                 Panel Stability checks

       Example                :        PANEL-STABILITY-CHECK
                                       PANEL-STABILITY-CHECK OFF

       Description :
       The PANEL-STABILITY-CHECK instruction is used to specify that panel stability checks
       are to be performed at subsequent DO-CHECKS instructions until overridden by a PANEL-
       STABILITY-CHECK OFF instruction.

       PANEL-STABILITY-CHECK with no following data is equivalent to PANEL-
       STABILITY-CHECK ON.

       If no PANEL-STABILITY-CHECK instruction is used, panel stability checks will not be
       performed.




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       Command                :        POST-DEFORMATION-LOADS

       Syntax                 :        POST-DEFORMATION-LOADS type (Istate) nx ny nxy… nyz
                                       POST-DEFORMATION-LOADS RECOVER number (ulsfac (slsfac))
                                       POST-DEFORMATION-LOADS ANALYSIS data
                                       POST-DEFORMATION-LOADS OFF

       Applicable to :                 All limit state checks.
       Examples               :        POST-DEFORMATION-LOADS MINIMUM SERVICE 1.0 1.1 0.5
                                       +                          -0.15 0.4 -0.1 0.008 0.001
                                       POST-DEFORMATION-LOADS RECOVER 1001 1.4
                                       POST-DEFORMATION-LOADS ANALYSIS 3
                                       POST-DEFORMATION-LOADS OFF

       Description:

       The POST-DEFORMATION-LOADS command is used to define forces and moments on a
       concrete section to be applied after the imposition of deformation type load cases. The eight
       load components (NX, NY, NXY, MX, MY, MXY, NXZ, NYZ) specified by this command are
       applied to the section after the strain field has been updated by any deformational loadings.
       In conjunction with ENVELOPE and DEFORMATION-LOADS this command permits the
       sequence of load application to the structure to be represented.


       The type of the loads can be one of the following:

                MAXIMUM specifies the maximum envelope of direct post-deformational loads NX,
                        NY, NXY, post-deformational moments MX, MY, MXY and post-
                        deformational shear loads NXZ, NYZ;
                MINIMUM defines the corresponding minimum envelope for the eight load
                        components;
                DIRECT  specifies that both the maximum and minimum envelope are to assume
                        the accompanying values.

       If only a maximum or minimum envelope is specified, the other extreme defaults to the
       same value. The units of direct force, moment and shear for this form of the command are
       MN per metre width, MNm per metre width and MN per metre width respectively.

       Separate deformational loads can be associated with the ULS and SLS limit states by
       specifying STRENGTH or SERVICE for the optional parameter lstate. If Istate is omitted,
       the specified loads will apply to checks relating to both limit states.

       The command takes a different form when the loads are to be obtained from the backing
       files of an FE system. This can be achieved in two ways:




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                RECOVER                this is used when the load envelopes are to be obtained from an FE
                                       analysis post-processed using CONCRETE-ENVELOPE. The
                                       parameter number specifies the envelope number to use for post-
                                       deformation loads, i.e. the value for the ENVELOPE field of the keyed
                                       filing system (see section 4.9).

                                       The ULS and SLS loadings in the recovered envelope may be
                                       independently factored by specifying the optional parameters ulsfac and
                                       sisfac respectively. If only ulsfac is specified both loadings are factored
                                       by the specified value.

                ANALYSIS is used when the loads are to be obtained directly from the FE analysis
                         results. The accompanying data is specific to the FE system and is
                         described in the appropriate appendix. In addition a SUPER-ELEMENT
                         command and some form of panel or section definition, to identify the
                         location, will also be required.

       The final form of the command, POST-DEFORMATION-LOADS OFF, is used to terminate
       the imposition of post-deformation loading on the section under consideration. This
       command resets the maximum and minimum deformational load envelopes for all eight
       components and all three limit states to zero. If at a later stage post-deformational loads are
       required, then the relevant envelopes will have to be redefined.




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       Command                :          PRESTRESS-FACTORS


       Syntax                 :          PRESTRESS-FACTORS (lstate) pmax pmin smax smin

       Applicable to :                   Strength checks only

       Examples               :          PRESTRESS-FACTORS 1.25 0.80 1.10 0.90
                                         PRESTRESS-FACTORS SERVICE 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0

       Description :

       The PRESTRESS-FACTORS command is used to allocate load partial safety factors for
       prestress load cases. These are applied in CONCRETE-CHECK rather than CONCRETE-
       ENVELOPE as they are allowed to differ for primary and secondary prestress and for shear
       checks.

       By default, at the start of the program, all such factors are unity (1.0). The following may
       be set by this command:

       pmax and pmin                 -       the maximum and minimum factors to apply to primary prestress;

       smax and smin                 -       the maximum and minimum factors to apply to secondary prestress;

       The lstate parameter is used to define the limit state for which these factors are to apply.
       lstate may take the value STRENGTH, SERVICE or FATIGUE, restricting the command
       to modifying only the ULS, SLS or FLS values respectively. If not given, the
       accompanying prestress factors are applied to all three limit states.




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       Command s :                     PRESTRESS-LOADS


       Syntax                 :        PRESTRESS-LOADS TOTAL/SECONDARY DIRECT
                                                          nx ny nxy ---- nxz nyz
                                       PRESTRESS-LOADS TOTAL/SECONDARY RECOVER
                                                                 number
                                       PRESTRESS-LOADS TOTAL/SECONDARY ANALYSIS
                                                                 data ----
                                       PRESTRESS-LOADS TOTAL/SECONDARY NONE

       Applicable to :                 All limit state checks
       Examples               :        PRESTRESS-LOADS TOTAL DIRECT -1.267 -3.612 -2.076
                                       + 1.611 0.282 0.316 -2.621 1.011
                                       PRESTRESS-LOADS SECONDARY RECOVER 3

       Description :

       The PRESTRESS-LOADS command specifies the source of prestress load case loading for
       all limit state checks, and optionally allows load data to be input directly.

       DIRECT specifies that prestress loading is to be provided by direct input, and specifies the
       values to use, Continuation lines may be used to specify all the data. NX, NY, NXY, NXZ and
       NYZ loads are input in units of MN per metre width, Moments (MX, MY, MXY) are input as
       MNm per metre (MN).

       The ANALYSIS, and RECOVER keywords may be used to indicate that prestress data is to
       be read directly from an FE analysis results file, or from CONCRETE-ENVELOPE
       backing files. Other data is required on the ANALYSIS commands, but this is dependent on
       the FE system to which CONCRETE-CHECK is interfaced. The user should refer to the
       appendix appropriate to his FE system. The RECOVER command requires the number of
       the envelope to be recovered as its argument. CONCRETE-CHECK will take the average
       of the max/min service envelope for prestress.

       At program start-up, there is no prestress loading. A PRESTRESS-LOADS SECONDARY
       NONE command returns to this state.

       Either TOTAL or SECONDARY prestress may be created by this command. Refer to
       Section 2.7 for a description of the use of prestress in CONCRETE-CHECK.




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       Command                :        PRESTRESS-TENDONS

       Syntax                 :        PRESTRESS-TENDONS type material sndata strands
                                                              diameter spacing prestress
       Applicable to :                 All checks

       Examples               :        PRESTRESS-TENDONS 5 1 0 10 25.0 300.0 1.0
                                       PRESTRESS-TENDONS 9 6 3 5 25.0 500.0 1.0

       Description :

       The PRESTRESS-TENDONS command allows a table of prestress tendon geometries to be
       created for reference by TOP-STEEL and BOTTOM-STEEL instructions,

       The 'type' parameter refers to the entry in the tendon geometry table. Tendon entries may be
       added in any order and may be overwritten by successive PRESTRESS-TENDON
       commands as required. There is no facility to delete tendon geometries, but they will not be
       used if they are not referenced by TOP-STEEL and BOTTOM-STEEL instructions, Up to
       9999 tendon geometries may be created and used,

       The 'material' parameter refers to an entry in the tendon material property list created by a
       TENDON-PROPERTIES command. It is not necessary that the TENDON-PROPERTIES
       command should precede any PRESTRESS-TENDONS command, only that correctly cross-
       referenced entries be current when a DO-CHECKS instruction is encountered.

       The 'sndata' parameter may be used to reference a steel S-N curve set up by a STEEL-S-N-
       CURVE instruction. Comments similar to those for 'material' apply to 'sndata'. The
       command is only of use for fatigue limit state checks and will be ignored in other cases.

       The 'strands', 'diameter' and 'spacing' parameters define the number and size of strands and
       the spacing of the prestress tendon. The diameter and spacing should be input in mm.

       The 'prestress' parameter is the prestress load in an individual tendon (MN). The program
       checks that this prestress is possible given the tendon size and material stress-strain curve.




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       Command                :        PRINT-DATA

       Syntax                 :        PRINT-DATA

       Applicable to :                 All checks

       Example                :        PRINT-DATA

       Description :
       The PRINT-DATA command causes a summary of all current input data to be printed to the
       current main output before any further instructions are interpreted. It is intended that PRINT-
       DATA be used as required immediately prior to a DO-CHECKS instruction to force printing
       of input data to be used in the check. The command is particularly useful in conjunction with
       DATA-CHECK-ONLY but may be removed to reduce output levels in final production runs.




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       Command                :        RATIO


       Syntax                     :    RATIO (ratio)

       Applicable to              :    BS5400 serviceability limit state checks
       Examples                   :    RATIO
                                       RATIO 0.5

       Description :

       The RATIO instruction permits the user to specify the ratio of live load moment (Mq) to
       permanent load moment (Mg) for use in the evaluation of the tension stiffening effect for
       crack width checks to BS5400. The use of this ratio is described in the Theory Manual.

       The default value of 'ratio' is 0.0, signifying that there is no live load. This is also the value
       assumed if the command is issued with no parameters.




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       Command                :        REBAR-PROPERTIES


       Syntax                 :        REBAR-PROPERTIES material fy (code) (es (strn (f1)))

       Applicable to :                 All checks

       Examples               :        REBAR-PROPERTIES 10 410.0
                                       REBAR-PROPERTIES 7 410.0 BS8110 210000.0
                                       REBAR-PROPERTIES 5 410.0 BS5400 210000.0 0.0025
                                       REBAR-PROPERTIES 6 410 DNV 200000.0 0.002 380.0

       Description :

       The REBAR-PROPERTIES command allows a table of material properties to be created for
       reinforcing bars. Material properties can then be referenced by TOP-STEEL and BOTTOM-
       STEEL commands via the REINFORCEMENT-BARS instruction.

       The material parameter refers to the entry in this material table. Rebar entries may be added in
       any order and may be overwritten by successive REBAR-PROPERTIES commands as
       required. There is no facility to delete rebar materials, but they will not be used if they are not
       referenced by REINFORCEMENT-BARS instructions. Up to ten rebar materials may be
       created.

       The rebar yield stress is specified by fy. This value should be specified in units of MNm-2.
       The optional code parameter can take the values BS8110, BS5400, DNV, NS3473, MC78 or
       S474, defining the type of stress-strain curve, as follows:

                A.            BS8110,MC78 (default)                              - bi-linear, type 1;
                B.            BS5400                                             - tri-linear, type 1;
                C.            DNV                                                - tri-linear, type 2;
                D.            NS3473,S474                                        - bi-linear, type 2.

       Full details of each stress-strain curve type are given in the CONCRETE Theory Manual.
       Depending on which code is chosen, other parameters may also be specified, although all
       parameters assume the default values from the relevant code if no value is specified. The
       defaults are summarised in the following table:

                                code                     es (MNm-2)                strn (MNm-2)            fl (MNm-2)
                               BS8110                     200000.0                      N/A                    N/A
                               BS5400                     200000.0                     0.002                   N/A
                                DNV                       200000.0                     0.002                   0.8fy
                               NS3473                     200000.0                      N/A                    N/A
                                MC78                      200000.0                      N/A                    N/A
                                S474                      200000.0                      N/A                    N/A




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       The f1 stress value enables the user to define the point at which the DNV stress-strain curve
       changes from linear to parabolic. A default value is not explicitly embodied in the rules, so a
       stress of 0.8fy is assumed by default, resulting in a curve similar to the BS5400 tri-linear
       curve.

       All the above codes define a compression curve, but this will be ignored if the
       COMPRESSION-STEEL command has been used to define it as INEFFECTIVE.

       The data does not contain any reference to material partial safety factors, which should be
       entered by a separate MATERIAL-PARTIAL-SAFETY-FACTOR command. The yield
       stress will then be reduced by the appropriate factor for the BS8110, BS5400, DNV and
       MC78 curve types. Both the yield stress and the elastic modulus will be reduced for NS3473
       and S474 curves. There is no restriction to the order in which REBAR-PROPERTIES and M-
       P-S-F commands are input. The stored values will always reflect the latest entry of each type.




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       Command                :        RECTANGULAR-AXES

       Syntax                 :        RECTANGULAR-AXES OFF
                                       RECTANGULAR-AXES vectx vecty vectz

       Applicable to :                 All checks
       Examples               :        RECTANGULAR-AXES OFF
                                       RECTANGULAR-AXES 1.0 0.0 0.0

       Description :

       The RECTANGULAR-AXES command is used with solid element models to specify
       whether or not the stress axes used for the recovery of section forces follow the section being
       defined, or conform to a fixed set of reference axes. The former option is the default (see
       Section 4.10) and may also be achieved by RECTANGULAR-AXES OFF. The latter option
       is selected by specifying a vector direction, which, when projected onto the surface being
       defined, fixes the orientation of the X direction stresses and loads. The procedure for this is
       as follows:

       −             loads per unit width are calculated at the location required in accordance with
                     Section 4.10. These loads are designated Nx, Ny, Nxy, Mx, My, Mxy, Nxy and Nyz.
                     They correspond to the location axes, X", Y" and Z";

       −             the reference vector given on the RECTANGULAR-AXES command is projected
                     into the plane of the slab at this location and forms the axis X"'. An error results if
                     the reference vector is parallel to Z", the through thickness axis;

       −             a right-handed cartesian system is defined using X"', Z"' and defining ZY"'. Z is
                     defined as being identical to Z";

       −             the load components are reorientated from X", Y", Z" to the new system (X'", Y"',
                     Z"') prior to use in subsequent code checks.

       The above approach is most useful for sections that have been defined using cylindrical or
       conic surfaces, yet where the reinforcement pattern is rectangular. Use of RECTANGULAR-
       AXES allows the stresses to be converted ?? this reinforcement pattern prior to use. If this
       were not done, reinforcement would have to be reorientated for each location checked
       around the section.

       This command is only of use when loads from an FE system are being used directly for code
       checks. It has no action when previously enveloped loads are recovered or for stand alone
       checks.




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       Command                :        REDESIGN


       Syntax                 :        REDESIGN (OFF/mloop)

       Applicable to :                 Ultimate strength checks
       Examples               :        REDESIGN
                                       REDESIGN OFF
                                       REDESIGN 20
       Description :

       The REDESIGN command enables or disables the redesign facility for ultimate strength
       checks.

       The command may be used to switch redesign of reinforcement steel off (REDESIGN OFF)
       or to turn it on (REDESIGN or REDESIGN 'mloop'). By default, redesign is disabled at
       program start up.

       The 'mloop' parameter is the maximum number of times that the program will progress
       through the redesign loop before accepting that no solution may be found. Each loop
       consists of resizing all rebar layers by an amount given by the 'resize' parameter in the TOP-
       STEEL and BOTTOM-STEEL commands. Only those rebars with a non-zero 'resize'
       parameter will be resized in this way on each loop. The default value of 'mloop' is ten.

       The resizing process will only be performed at locations where the initial section fails the
       ultimate strength check. There is no facility to resize steel sizes down, Resizing will
       continue until the section becomes acceptable or 'mloop' is exceeded. On each redesign
       loop, each rebar layer area will be resized thus:

                     Area' = Area * (1 + resize)

       If redesign is successful in finding an acceptable size of steel, then subsequent checks,
       including shear checks, will all use this redesigned steel area.




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       Command                :        REDISTRIBUTION-MATRIX

       Syntax                 :        REDISTRIBUTION-MATRIX f11 f12 f13------fl8
                                                             f21 f22 f23------f28
                                                             f31 f32 f33------f38
                                                              . . .             .
                                                             f81 f82 f83------f88

       Applicable to :                 All limit state checks


       Example                REDISTRIBUTION-MATRIX                              0.9    0.1   0.1    0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0
                              +                                                  0.1    0.9   0.1    0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0
                              +                                                  0.0    0.0   1.0    0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0
                              +                                                  0.0    0.0   0.0    1.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0
                              +                                                  0.0    0.0   0.0    0.0   1.0   0.0   0.0   0.0
                              +                                                  0.0    0.0   0.0    0.0   0.0   1.0   0.0   0.0
                              +                                                  0.0    0.0   0.0    0.0   0.0   0.0   2.0   0.0
                              +                                                  0.0    0.0   0.0    0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   2.0

       Description :

       The REDISTRIBUTION-MATRIX command is used to premultiply all load envelopes and
       load combinations in CONCRETE-CHECK immediately prior to their use in the code
       checks.

       The multiplication is of the form:

                 F'           =         M F

       where:                 -        F' is the modified load array to be used in the checks;

                              -        M is the redistribution matrix;

                              -        F is the input load array (NX, NY, NXY, MX, MY, MXY, NXZ, NYZ)

       There is no reset for this command. It is turned off by specifying a unity matrix. The default
       at program start up is also a unity matrix.




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       Command                :        REINFORCEMENT-BARS

       Syntax                 :        REINFORCEMENT-BAR type mat sndata diameter
                                                          spacingl (spacing2) (finish)

       Applicable to :                 All checks

       Examples               :        REINFORCEMENT-BARS 6 2 0 25.0 180.0
                                       REINFORCEMENT-BARS 2 9 1 32.0 32.0 200.0
                                       REINFORCEMENT-BARS 12 6 0 20.0 150.0 HIBOND

       Description :

       The REINFORCEMENT-BARS command allows a table of reinforcement bar geometries
       to be created for reference by TOP-STEEL and BOTTOM-STEEL instructions.

       The 'type' parameter refers to the entry in the rebar geometry table. Rebar entries may be
       added in any order and may be overwritten by successive REINFORCEMENT-BARS
       commands as required. There is no facility to delete rebar geometries, but they will not be
       used if they are not referenced by TOP-STEEL and BOTTOM-STEEL instructions. Up to
       9999 rebar geometries may be created and used.

       The 'mat' parameter refers to an entry in the rebar material property list created by a
       REBAR-PROPERTIES command. It is not necessary that the REBARPROPERTIES
       command should precede any REINFORCEMENT-BARS command, only that correctly
       cross-referenced entries be current when a DO-CHECKS instruction is encountered,

       The 'sndata' parameter may be used to reference a steel S-N curve set up by a STEEL-S-N-
       CURVE instruction. Comments similar to those for 'material' apply to 'sndata'. The
       command is only of use for fatigue limit state checks and will be ignored in other cases.

       The 'diameter', 'spacingl' and 'spacing2' parameters define the size and centreline spacing of
       the rebars. If 'spacing2' is zero or not given, then the rebars are assumed to be evenly spaced
       at 'spacing 1' centres. If 'spacing2' is given, then the bars are assumed to be alternately
       spaced at 'spacingl', 'spacing2', 'spacingl', etc. This enables bundled bars to be defined. If
       given, 'spacingl' and 'spacing2' may not be less than the bar diameter. The diameter and
       both spacings should be given in mm.

       The 'finish' parameter is used to specify the surface finish of the reinforcement bar and may
       be HIBOND, RIBBED, INDENT or PLAIN. This data is used in the CEB/FIP MC78 and
       NS3473 crack width calculations. The default value is HIBOND.




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       Command                :        RESET

       Syntax                 :        RESET
       Applicable to :                 All checks

       Example                :        RESET

       Description :
       The RESET command cancels all current reinforcement and prestress definitions set up by
       means of TOP-STEEL and BOTTOM-STEEL instructions. It is intended that this command
       be used after a DO-CHECKS instruction when the reinforcement/prestress is to be changed
       for subsequent checks. Without this command, TOP-STEEL and BOTTOM-STEEL
       commands are cumulative.

       RESET does not cancel reinforcement/prestress geometry and materials set up by the
       REINFORCEMENT-BARS, REBAR-PROPERTIES, PRESTRESS-TENDONS and
       TENDON-PROPERTIES commands, Only the reference to these cards by TOP-STEEL and
       BOTTOM-STEEL is cancelled. Subsequent steel definition may reference previously
       created properties/materials quite freely.




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       Command                :        SECTION


       Syntax                 :        SECTION numsec LIST ALL/loc1 (loc2 ----locn)
                                       SECTION numsec (FULL)
                                       SECTION numsec LIST valuel (value2---valuen)

       Applicable to :                 All limit state checks
       Examples               :        SECTION 5 LIST ALL
                                       SECTION 6 LIST 3 5 7 9
                                       SECTION 7
                                       SECTION 31 LIST 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0
                                       + 40.0 45.0 50.0 55,0 60.0

       Description :
       The SECTION command is currently only available for structures modelled using solid
       elements. The CLEAR-SELECT, SELECT and PANEL commands should be used for shell
       element models.

       A 'section' is defined as the intersection between a 'surface' (defined on the SURFACE card)
       and a set or group of elements (defined on the SET or GROUP cards). The SECTION
       command assigns a number to this 'section' and optionally specifies locations along or
       around the section at which checks are to be performed. Only one section may be defined in
       the data for each DO-CHECKS. Successive definitions will overwrite the last, If more than
       one section requires to be processed, each must be separated by DO-CHECKS instruction,

       The SECTION command in CONCRETE-CHECK has two functions. If load data is to be
       obtained directly from an FE analysis, then it is used in conjunction with the SURFACE,
       SET/GROUP and optional DATUM and ORIGIN cards to define a section in the model
       where load data is to be recovered. If load data is to be obtained from results stored by
       CONCRETE-ENVELOPE, then the SECTION command alone is used to reference which
       section is to be recovered, and which locations are to be recovered for it.

       When obtaining results from CONCRETE-ENVELOPE the parameter 'numsec' identifies
       the section to be recovered.

       When accessing FE analysis results directly, the 'numsec' parameter is used to calculate the
       position in the keyed filing system where check results are to be stored. If the storage of
       check results is switched OFF then the 'numsec' parameter is simply used to aid
       identification of the results in the output listing.

       If the 'LIST' option is used when recovering results from an FE analysis, a list of unique
       values is expected defining locations along/around the section. For CONE and CYLINDER
       surface definitions, these values are angles in degrees relative to the base axes. For PLANE
       surfaces, the values are distances in analysis units along the section.




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       The 'LIST' option takes a different form when recovering results from CONCRETE-
       ENVELOPE. It is followed either by 'ALL' (to recover all locations previously stored)
       or by a list of the location numbers actually required.

       Up to 100 locations may be identified or recovered by this command, which may
       require a long list, therefore continuations are permitted when using the LIST option.

       If the 'FULL' option, or no option, is used, then the program will recover a class
       envelope (an envelope over all locations along/around the section). Refer to the
       CONCRETE-ENVELOPE manual for more details of class envelopes.




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       Command                :        SELECT


       Syntax                 :        SELECT class node1 (node2----)
       Applicable to :                 All limit state checks

       Examples               :        SELECT 1 0 11 12 13 14

       Description :
       This command allows the selection of nodes across a panel and therefore applies only to
       concrete substructures modelled using thick and thin shell elements where stress results are
       to be recovered directly from an FE analysis. Solid models should use the section definition
       (4.10). The command may also be used in a stand-alone mode to identify output.

       The SELECT command allows nodes to be selected by node number for checking when a
       DO-CHECKS command is encountered. The first field is the class number for the following
       nodes and should be an integer number from 1 to 3. Refer to the ANALYSE-NODE-
       CLASSES command for details.

       SELECT commands are cumulative. CLEAR-SELECT should be used to cancel previous
       selections and start again. Refer to the CLEAR-SELECT command for more details.

       Node selection is only cancelled when the program encounters a PANEL or SECTION
       command.

       A node number may be zero, signifying that a set envelope is to be recovered. This is only
       valid when using the results of a previous CONCRETE-ENVELOPE run.




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       Command                :        SERVICE-CHECK


       Syntax                 :        SERVICE-CHECK (OFF/ON)
                                       SERVICE-CHECK (BS5400/BS8110/MC78/NS3473/S474)
                                                     (CITO14) (NS3473/MC78/CLARK)
       Applicable to :                 Serviceability limit state checks
       Example                :        SERVICE-CHECK OFF
                                       SERVICE-CHECK
                                       SERVICE-CHECK S474 NS3473
                                       SERVICE-CHECK MC78 CITO14 NS3473

       Description :

       The SERVICE-CHECK instruction is used to specify that serviceability checks are to be
       performed at subsequent DO-CHECKS instructions and to specify the type of check to
       apply.

       Available serviceability crack width checks are BS8110:Part 2, BS5400, the CEB/FIP Model
       Code (MC78), CSA S474-94 or NS3473. SERVICE-CHECK ON initiates SLS checks using
       the previously selected method (BS8110 is the initial default method). Tension stiffening
       may be set on or off with a further command of that name. The SERVICE-CRITERIA
       command allows the setting of limiting crack widths and stresses. Full details of the checks
       provided may be found in the Theory Manual.

       SERVICE-CHECK with no following data is equivalent to SERVICE-CHECK ON.
       SERVICE-CHECK ON has the effect of switching on service checking with the last
       specified method, or BS8110 if none have been specified. If no SERVICE-CHECK
       instruction is given, serviceability checks will not be performed (the default is therefore
       OFF).

       When defining reinforcement for use in crack width evaluation to MC78, CSA S474 or
       NS3473, certain rules must be observed if the program is to correctly select groups of
       reinforcement. The methodology of the rebar selection procedure is detailed in the Theory
       Manual.

       The NS3473/MC78/CLARK flag is used to modify the method for calculating crack widths
       when the crack direction is not perpendicular to the rebars. The following options are further
       described in the Theory Manual.

       −                  the NS3473 option causes crack spacing to be calculated as follows;
                                                          1
                                                 S=
                                                        Cos θ
                                                     ∑ S i
                                                            i




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       −                  the MC78 option considers each reinforcement group in turn and introduces a K3
                          term to allow for orientation, retaining the minimum spacing at cracks so
                          obtained.

       −                  the CLARK option follows the nearest bar approach suggested by Clark.

       NS3473 and MC78 are the default options for their respective codes. NS3473 is also the
       default for CSA S474. The CLARK option is only valid for British Standards and is currently
       the only valid option for these codes. Consequently, it is also the default for these checks.

       The CITO14 flag optionally permits the calculation of crack widths using the Concrete-in-
       the-Oceans Report No.14 approach. Again, refer to the Theory Manual for details. This
       option is valid for MC78, CSA S474 and NS3473 checks.




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       Command                :        SERVICE-CRITERIA


       Syntax                 :        SERVICE-CRITERIA width (rstress (cstress) )
       Applicable to :                 Serviceability limit state checks
       Examples               :        SERVICE-CRITERIA 0.2
                                       SERVICE-CRITERIA 0.3 150.0

       Description :

       The SERVICE-CRITERIA command sets up data pertinent to the serviceability limit state of
       cracking.

       The following data may be created:

                width              -        this is the allowable crack width in mm against which calculated
                                            cracks are compared. If not given, width defaults to 0.1mm;

                rstress            -        the maximum allowable reinforcement stress in MNm-2 for the
                                            serviceability limit state of permanent damage. If not given, it
                                            defaults to 140 MNm-2.

                cstress            -        the maximum allowable concrete compressive stress in MNm-2 for
                                            the serviceability limit state. If not specified the value defaults to 20
                                            MNm-2.




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       Command                :        SET

       Syntax                 :        SET set
       Applicable to :                 All limit state checks

       Examples               :        SET 31

       Description :
       The SET command is used to specify the FE analysis group or set number containing all
       elements on which the checks are based. The GROUP instruction is identical to SET and
       either may be used freely.

       The GROUP or SET commands are needed if the checks require results from an FE
       analysis, either directly or indirectly via a CONCRETE-ENVELOPE analysis. It is not used
       if data is input directly to the data file.

       When CONCRETE-CHECK takes loads directly from the FE analysis, the set specified
       should contain all shell or solid elements needed to define the panel or section required to be
       analysed. The command must be present even if a single node or location is to be processed.

       When CONCRETE-CHECK recovers envelopes from CONCRETE-ENVELOPE, the set
       number is important if it was used as part of the keyed filing system for storage of
       envelopes.

       Additionally, a set or group number of zero tells CONCRETE-CHECK to recover global
       envelopes.




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       Command                :        SHEAR-CHECKS

       Syntax                 :        SHEAR-CHECKS DNV/DEN/MC78/BS8110/BS5400/
                                                    NS3473/TRIAXIAL (options --- )
                                       SHEAR-CHECKS (OFF/ON)

       Applicable to :                 Ultimate Strength Checks

       Examples               :        SHEAR-CHECKS BS8110 NOVCO NOLIMIT
                                       SHEAR-CHECKS OFF

       Description :

       The SHEAR-CHECKS command controls whether shear checks are performed on the section
       under ULS loads, and if so, what method and extent of checking is performed.

       The 'method' parameter may be 'BS8110', 'BS5400', 'DNV', 'DEN' 'MC78', 'NS3473',
       'TRIAXIAL', 'ON' or 'OFF'. The majority of these specify the method that will be used for
       shear capacity checks. Included are two British Standards, Det norske Veritas Rules,
       Department of Energy Guidance, the CEB/FIP Model Code MC78 and Norwegian Standards.
       TRIAXIAL specifies that checks are to be performed using a detailed evaluation of stress and
       strain at the mid plane of the section, based on methodology by Collins et al. The TRIAXIAL
       option is only available when the layered method is being used to solve the section (see the
       METHOD command).

       The 'ON' and 'OFF' parameters switch shear checks on or off, as required. SHEAR-CHECKS
       ON re-enables the last selected method, if previously turned off. The default code at program
       start up is 'BS8110' with no options.

       Full details of the checks performed when any of these options are selected may be found in
       the Theory Manual.

       The following shear check options are available:


            'NOLIMIT' -                     the numerical limits on shear stress (5.0 Nmm-2 in BS8110, 4.75
                                            Nmm2 in BS5400 assuming γ=1.25) are not applied, only the variable
                                            limit (0.8 √ fcu or 0.75 √ fcu);

            'NOVCO'               -         in BS8110 checks, the shear capacity for a cracked, prestressed
                                            section is not limited to Vco, as suggested by 4.3.8.3 (b);




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            'TENSION' -                     specifies that shear capacity should be calculated even for sections
                                            fully in tension (both extreme fibres). This option is not yet
                                            implemented;

            'EXVCO'             -           expands the calculation of Vco. in BS8110 and BS5400 to include the
                                            effects of axial loading and prestress;

            'NORMAL' -                      includes the effect of normal load on shear capacity. This is set by
                                            default in BS8110 but is optional for BS5400;

            'STRICTM0' -                    calculate the Mo/M term directly in accordance with empirical code
                                            equations (therefore not applicable to the TRIAXIAL option), by
                                            including prestress moment in the derivation of M0, rather than as part
                                            of the applied moment M;

            'ADDTEND' -                     specifies that any prestress tendons are to be included in the
                                            calculation of steel area (As) and effective depth (d) in DNV, NS3473
                                            and MC78 checks. The default for these checks is to consider
                                            reinforcement steel only. Other rules always include tendons in
                                            appropriate checks;

            'INCLUDEP'-                     in DNV checks, optionally adds the prestressing force (Pfd) to the axial
                                            load (Nfd) for the calculation of the limiting value of Vcr+ Vpr. The
                                            default is the strict code interpretation. Pfd is factored by its load
                                            partial safety factor prior to inclusion in Nfd. In NS3473, when this
                                            options is switched on, prestress is included with axial load in all
                                            shear calculations, even though this is not strictly stated in the rules;

            'USEPEQ'            -           in BS8110 and BS5400 code checks, use formulae for prestress load
                                            on section rather than axial load for the calculation of shear capacity
                                            in the presence of normal load, N, on the section;

            'NOAXIAL' -                     base calculation of effective tensile steel area on section properties
                                            evaluated for moment loads (applied plus prestress) only, not the axial
                                            components of these loads;
                                -
            'LIMITM0'                       in NS3473, limit the calculated value of Mo by restricting the axial
                                            load to a compression of 0.4hfcn/γc;

            'OVER40'            -           in BS8110 and BS5400 code checks, this option permits shear
                                            capacity to be evaluated without fcu being restricted to 40 Nmm-2 in
                                            the calculation of Vc;




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            'AVERAGE' -                     in TRIAXIAL checks, use average of water pressures on opposing
                                            faces as the through-thickness loading;

            'MAXIMUM' -                     in TRIAXIAL checks, use the maximum water pressure from
                                            opposing faces as the through-thickness loading;

            'MINIMUM' -                     in TRIAXIAL checks, use the minimum water pressure from
                                            opposing faces as the through-thickness loading;

            'NONE'                 -        in TRIAXIAL checks, ignore the effect of water pressures from either
                                            opposing face on through-thickness stresses (negates AVERAGE,
                                            MAXIMUM or MINIMUM).
       The following table summarises which options are available for each different type of shear
       check:


                             Method                              Available Options
                               DNV                               STRICTM0, ADDTEND, INCLUDEP, NOAXIAL
                               DEN                               N/A
                              MC78                               N/A
                             BS8110                              NOLIMIT,  NOVCO,    EXVCO,                 STRICTM0,
                                                                 USEPEQ, NOAXIAL, OVER40
                             BS5400                              NOLIMIT, EXVCO, NORMAL,                    STRICTM0,
                                                                 USEPEQ, NOAXIAL, OVER40
                             NS3473                              STRICTM0, ADDTEND, INCLUDEP, NOAXIAL,
                                                                 LIMITM0
                          TRIAXIAL                               AVERAGE, MAXIMUM, MINIMUM, NONE




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       Command                :        SHEAR-REINFORCEMENT


       Syntax                 :        SHEAR-REINFORCEMENT (diam material xspacing yspacing)

       Applicable to :                 Ultimate Strength checks

       Example                :        SHEAR-REINFORCEMENT 12.0 6 200.0 250.0
                                       SHEAR-REINFORCEMENT

       Description :

       The SHEAR-REINFORCEMENT command allows the definition of shear steel for ultimate
       strength shear resistance checks. The program will determine the required shear steel for
       each load condition considered and compare it with the amount specified on this card,
       showing a section failure if inadequate steel is provided.

       The parameters on the instruction line are self explanatory. The diameter and spacings
       should be given in mm. Bars of given diameter are spaced in each of the X and Y slab axes
       as indicated. Refer to Section 4.10 for a description of the slab axes. The 'material' item
       references a reinforcement bar material property set up by a REBAR-PROPERTIES
       command.

       SHEAR-REINFORCEMENT with no parameters will turn off any previously defined shear
       steel. This is the default at program start up.

       If no SHEAR-REINFORCEMENT command is issued, or shear steel is turned off, then the
       program will use the yield stress from the first reinforcement material (created by default or
       by REBAR-PROPERTIRS 1---) to determine the area of links required by the shear checks,
       if any.




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       Command                :        SIGNS

       Syntax                 :        SIGNS factnx factny factnxy ---- factnxz factnyz

       Examples               :        SIGNS -1.0 -1.0 1.0 -1.0 -1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

       Description :
       The SIGNS command may be used to change the sign of selected load components obtained
       from the FE system whether they have been produced by CONCRETE-ENVELOPE or
       extracted directly from the FE model. The command is intended to allow the user to change
       from an FE analysis specific sign convention to the CONCRETE suite convention where
       these differ. Refer to the appropriate appendix to see if this is necessary.

       The SIGNS command can also be used to alter the sign convention and/or scaling of
       DIRECT/MAXIMUM/MINIMUM input of envelope, prestress, deformational and post-
       deformational loading.

       By default, at program start-up, the eight factors (for NX, NY, NXY, MX, MY, MXY, NXZ and
       NYZ) loads are all unity. CONCRETE-CHECK uses the factors to multiply the load
       components prior to use. It is possible to factor the loads by non unit values as well as by
       changing signs, if this is so required.

       The CONCRETE-CHECK sign convention for loads is given in Section 4.3.




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       Command                :        STATIC-COMBINATION


       Syntax                 :        STATIC-COMBINATION DIRECT nx ny nxy nyz
                                       STATIC-COMBINATION ANALYSIS data STATIC-
                                       COMBINATION NONE
       Applicable to :                 Fatigue checks
       Examples               :        STATIC-COMBINATION DIRECT      100.0 2000.0 300.0
                                       +                  500.0 1000.0 200.0 200.0 400,0
                                       STATIC COMBINATION ANALYSIS 12

       Description :

       The STATIC-COMBINATION command specifies the loading to be used as a constant static
       loading for all fatigue load conditions.

       By default, at program start up, no static combination is considered. STATIC-
       COMBINATION NONE with no other arguments returns to this state.

       A keyword of DIRECT specifies that the static loads are to be read from this input line (and
       any continuation lines). Eight components of load (NX to NYZ) should be given. Direct loads
       (NX, NY, NXY, Nxz, NYZ) should be specified in units of MN per metre width. Moments (MX,
       MY, MXY) should be given in MNm per metre width.

       The ANALYSIS keyword signifies that stresses are to be recovered directly from the backing
       files for an FE analysis. A SUPER-ELEMENT command and some form of location selection
       (SECTION, PANEL, SELECT) must be present in the data for this command to execute
       properly. The data on this line is dependent on the FE system in use, refer to the appropriate
       appendix.

       The static combination defined here should reference all truly static loads such as dead load
       and operating weights carried by the structure during all wave conditions. Static offsets that
       vary with wave condition, such as current effects, are entered on the FATIGUE-CYCLE
       commands.

       Static conditions are required for concrete fatigue as the material endurance limit depends on
       the acting stresses, not just a stress range.




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       Command                :        STEEL-S-N-CURVE

       Syntax                 :        STEEL-S-N-CURVE sndata stressl cycles1 slope1 ----
       Applicable to :                 Fatigue checks
       Example                :        STEEL-S-N-CURVE 3 300.0 2E6 3.0 200.0 2E7 1.7
                                       +    50.0 1E9 3.0

       Description :
       The STEEL-S-N-CURVE command may be used to create S-N curves for reinforcement
       steel bars and prestress tendons.

       Up to ten steel S-N curves may be created in this way and may be referenced by the
       PRESTRESS-TENDONS and REINFORCEMENT-BARS commands in the same way that
       material properties are referenced. For fatigue checks, when a DO-CHECKS instruction is
       encountered, each referenced 'sndata' curve must have been defined on a STEEL-S-N-
       CURVE command.

       The remainder of the parameters on the STEEL-S-N-CURVE command permit a multi-
       linear S-N curve to be defined containing up to ten linear segments when plotted on log-log
       axes. For each segment, the following is required:

              stress n             -          the stress at a point on the line segment
              cycles n             -          the corresponding number of cycles
              slope n              -          the positive inverse logS/logN slope

       For the first line segment, any stress on the line may be used. For subsequent segments, the
       stress should be at the intersection with the previous segment.

       By default, on program start up, the first curve type (sndata = 1) is a trilinear curve defined
       as follows:


                   Segment                           1                      2                         3

                   stress n                 400.0                 235.0                     65.0
                   cycles n               10177.5              251773.5                8831122.1
                   slope n                    6.0                   2.8                      4.8

       Continuation lines may be used to specify data that exceeds the available space on just one
       line.




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       Command                :        STOP

       Syntax                      :        STOP
       Applicable to               :        All checks

       Example                     :        STOP

       Description
       The STOP command is synonymous with END and immediately terminates the current run.
       Any further commands in the data file are ignored, all files are closed and control is
       returned to the operating system.




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       Command                :        STRENGTH-CHECK


       Syntax                 :        STRENGTH-CHECK (OFF/ON)

       Applicable to :                 Ultimate strength checks

       Example                :        STRENGTH-CHECK
                                       STRENGTH-CHECK OFF

       Description
       The STRENGTH-CHECK instruction is used to specify that ultimate strength checks are to
       be performed at subsequent DO-CHECKS instructions until overridden by a STRENGTH-
       CHECK OFF instruction.

       STRENGTH-CHECK with no following data is equivalent to STRENGTH-CHECK ON.

       If no STRENGTH-CHECK instruction is used, ultimate strength checks will not be
       performed.




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       Command                :        STRENGTH-CRITERIA


       Syntax                 :        STRENGTH-CRITERIA ( maxrs ( maxts ))

       Applicable to :                 Strength checks only

       Example                :        STRENGTH-CRITERIA
                                       STRENGTH-CRITERIA 0.001

       Description
       The STRENGTH-CRITERIA instruction is used to specify the maximum permissible rebar
       and tendon layer strains for ultimate limit state (strength) checks.

       The maxrs value is taken as the maximum strain in the rebar layer. If this value is omitted,
       it defaults to the maximum elastic strain in each rebar layer with due allowance for material
       partial safety factors and possible bi-linear stress strain curves.

       The maxts value is taken as the maximum strain in the tendon layer. If this value is
       omitted, it defaults to the maximum elastic strain in each tendon layer, as for rebars.


        Strength criteria can be reset to the default by specifying this command with no parameters.
        If given, the maxrs and maxts values apply to ALL rebar or tendon layers.




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       Command                :        STRESS-AXES


       Syntax                 :        STRESS-AXES (dx dy dz (x y z))

       Applicable to :                 ALL checks
       Examples               :        STRESS-AXES
                                       STRESS-AXES 1.0 -1.0 2.3
                                       STRESS-AXES 0.0 1.0 0.0 100.0 200.0 -5.0

       Description :

       The STRESS-AXES command is used to force CONCRETE-CHECK to perform nodal
       stress averaging from elemental stress results from the ASAS finite element system, prior to
       using these stresses to derive section forces for stress checks. This command is currently
       not available when CONCRETE is used as a post-processor to SESAM.

       The default at program start-up is for no averaging to be performed. CONCRETE-CHECK
       will expect to find nodally averaged stresses on backing file (produced by ASASPOST).
       Once a STRESS-AXES command has been issued, the program will no longer search for
       averaged stresses, but will revert to looking for element stress results, which it will nodally
       average, and then use in exactly the same way as averaged stresses recovered from file.
       Nodal averaging cannot be turned off. Once specified, subsequent STRESS-AXES
       commands can only be used to redefine the reference direction and reference point,

       The STRESS-AXES command with no parameters is used to force averaging of solid
       element stresses. These will be converted to the global axis system prior to averaging at a
       node.

       The reference direction (defined by components dx, dy and dz) and reference point (defined
       by co-ordinates x, y and z) are used for averaging shell element stresses. If not given,
       reference point co-ordinates at the origin (0, 0, 0) are assumed. The reference direction and
       reference point are used as follows:

       −        a Cartesian axes system is used to specify directional stresses on general flat or
                curved structures, including hoop and longitudinal stresses in straight cylinders. These
                are defined in terms of a reference direction and a reference point. Firstly, the top and
                bottom surfaces of the shell are defined. This is done by drawing a vector from the
                reference point towards the node in question. This is called the control vector. The
                first surface cut by the control vector is defined as the bottom surface, and the second
                as the top surface. The new Z-axis at this node is normal to the shell and positive in
                the direction from the bottom surface towards the top surface;

       −        the new X-axis lies in the plane containing the new Z-axis and the reference direction:
                note that the reference direction is specified by direction cosines with respect to the
                global axis system. The X-axis is positive on the side of the Z-axis containing the
                positive reference direction. The new Y-axis forms a right-handed set with the new X-
                and Z-axes;


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       −        the above rules break down in two cases. The first is where the control vector and the
                reference direction are parallel and the second is where the control vector is tangential
                to the shell surface. In both cases, warnings are printed when the control vector is
                within 5° of the shell surface tangent. Errors are printed should the angle be less than
                1°. In the case of an error, the node in question is omitted from the checks.

       Stresses for all elements in the given group present at the node being checked are converted
       to the above axis system prior to averaging and use in the code checks.

       The STRESS-AXES command is currently implemented only for the ASAS finite element
       system. Other FE programs should average the stresses prior to analysis using
       CONCRETE-CHECK.




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       Command                :        STRESS-INTEGRATION

       Syntax                 :        STRESS-INTEGRATION option
       Applicable to :                 All checks

       Example                :        STRESS-INTEGRATION SIMPLE

       Description

       This instruction allows the accuracy of stress extraction from a solid element FE model to be
       set. The following options are available:

                ACCURATE                  -      stresses are extracted at every intersection between an element
                                                 face and the location being specified. This includes internal faces
                                                 of higher order elements.

                MODERATE -                       stress    are    only                   extracted         at   intersections     with
                                                 external element faces.

                SIMPLE                    -      stresses are only extracted at the top and bottom surfaces of the
                                                 slab, where these intersect the required location.

       Section forces (NX, NY, NXY, MX, MY, MXY, NXZ, NYZ) are then evaluated by integrating
       these stresses across the depth of the section, as described in the Theory Manual. The
       accuracy of this integration depends on the option chosen.

       The default accuracy is ACCURATE. This provides the most detailed stress integration and,
       in general, should be used in all cases where stress are expected in all directions.

       A stress accuracy of MODERATE is intended to be used where the slab is represented by
       many higher order elements across its depth. The extra computation involved in calculating
       mid-face stresses is unnecessary in this case. Note that there is no difference between
       ACCURATE and MODERATE for lower order elements.

       The SIMPLE option is useful in reducing computation time by considering only surface
       stresses. This option should only be used where the stress distribution across the section is
       known to be close to linear. Note that out-of-plane shear is rarely linear (probably parabolic)
       so this option should be avoided where there is significant out-of-plane load.




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       Command                :        SUBROUTINE-TRACE


       Syntax                 :        SUBROUTINE-TRACE (ON/OFF)

       Applicable to :                 All checks

       Examples               :        SUBROUTINE-TRACE
                                       SUBROUTINE-TRACE OFF

       Description :

       Like the DEBUG command, SUBROUTINE-TRACE may be used to monitor progress
       through the program and is intended only for users with a knowledge of the internal
       operations of CONCRETE-CHECK. The list of subroutine entries and exits produced is
       extremely lengthy, so this command should be used with care.

       SUBROUTINE-TRACE with no parameters is taken as SUBROUTINE-TRACE ON.




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       Command                :        SUMMARISE

       Syntax                 :        SUMMARISE
       Applicable to :                 All checks

       Example                :        SUMMARISE

       Description
       The SUMMARISE instruction causes CONCRETE-CHECK to print maximum code checks
       obtained for each concrete face, rebar layer, etc to the summary file. The instruction also
       causes such maxima to be reinitialised (as at the beginning of the data), so that the next
       SUMMARISE command only refers to checks performed since the last such command.

       Separate maxima are maintained for ULS, SLS and FLS checks and each will be printed
       when a SUMMARISE is requested as long as there have been checks of the appropriate type
       performed since the last SUMMARISE instruction (or the beginning of run).

       Issuing a SUMMARISE command before the first DO-CHECKS instruction has no effect.
       Maximum values are always printed after the last results check, irrespective of whether there
       is a SUMMARISE command in the data or not.




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       Command                :        SUPER-ELEMENT

       Syntax                 :        SUPER-ELEMENT data --
       Applicable to :                 All limit state checks

       Examples               :        SUPER-ELEMENT CA00 T113

       Description :

       The SUPER-ELEMENT instruction allows the user to specify the FE analysis model that is
       to be used for the recovery of geometry and loads in subsequent limit state checks.

       The data specified on the instruction line is very much dependent on the actual FE system in
       use. The user should refer to the appendix appropriate to this system for details.

       Some FE systems allow multiple SUPER-ELEMENT entries in one data file, so that the
       model for which stresses are recovered can be changed. Once again, reference should be
       made to the appropriate appendix.

       A valid SUPER-ELEMENT instruction must be present in the data if limit state loads are to
       be recovered directly from an FE system, or recovered from CONCRETE-ENVELOPE.




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       Command                :        SURFACE


       Syntax                 :        SURFACE PLANE normalx normaly norrmalz
                                       SURFACE CYLINDER axisx axisy axisz radius
                                       SURFACE CONE axisx axisy axisz angle
       Applicable to :                 All limit state checks
       Examples               :        SURFACE PLANE 0.0 0.0 1.0
                                       SURFACE CYLINDER 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.500
                                       SURFACE CONE 0.0 0.0 1.0 12.25

       Description :

       The SURFACE command is currently only required for structures modelled using solid
       elements where stress results are to be obtained directly from an FE analysis. Models
       using shell elements should use other means of location selection, such as PANEL and
       SELECT.

       Load components for solid models are evaluated at specific locations around or along
       structural sections. Sections are defined as the intersection of a defined surface with a
       given subset of elements. When a DO-CHECKS instruction is encountered and a
       SECTION command is current, the latest SURFACE, ORIGIN, DATUM and SET or
       GROUP commands are used to define locations around the section for use in stress
       recovery.

       The creation of sections is described in Section 4.10 and under the SECTION
       command. The definition of the surface used to create each section is provided by this
       command and optionally by the ORIGIN and DATUM commands,

       Three types of surface may be defined as below:

                  PLANE                     -        a general flat plane. This plane is defined by specifying a
                                                     vector which is normal to the required plane;

                  CYLINDER                  -        a cylindrical surface defined by a centroidal axis vector
                                                     and a radius (input in the units of the analysis);

                  CONE                      -        a conic surface defined by an axis of revolution and an
                                                     angle in degrees between this axis and the conic surface.

       The surface normal for PLANEs and the axes for CYLINDERS and CONEs are
       defined as vectors using projections onto the structure (or super-element) global X, Y
       and Z axes. For example, the vector (0.0 1.0 0.0) defines a vector in the global Y
       direction, Together with an origin defined on an ORIGIN command (or defaulting to
       0.0 0.0 0.0), the surfaces are then fully defined in three dimensions.

       Apart from the ORIGIN command mentioned above, the other optional command
       relating to surface definition is the DATUM instruction, which specifies a datum
       relative to which locations along or around the section may be defined. The user should
       refer to this command description for more details.

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       Command                :        SYMBOL-VALUE

       Syntax                 :        SYMBOL-VALUE symbol value
       Applicable to :                 All checks

       Examples               :        SYMBOL-VALUE KEY1 23

       Description :

       The SYMBOL-VALUE command is used to allocate or reallocate values to symbols set up
       by NEW-SYMBOL and used by KEY-FIELDS to define part or all of the keyed filing
       system. The value assigned to a symbol should be within the range specified for that field
       via the KEY-RANGES instruction,

       The following reserved symbols are automatically updated by the program and should not
       be assigned values by SYMBOL-VALUE:

                NODE, LOCATION, GROUP, SET, CLASS, SECTION, ENVELOPE


       Section 4.9 gives a full description of the CONCRETE keyed filing system.




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       Command                :        TENDON-PROPERTIES


       Syntax                 :        TENDON-PROPERTIES material fpu et (cs (ec fyc) )
                                                         (ALTERNATE)
       Applicable to :                 All checks

       Examples               :        TENDON-PROPERTIES 3 410.0 200000.0
                                       TENDON-PROPERTIES 2 650.0 165000.0 0.0 ALTERNATE

       Description

       The TENDON-PROPERTIES command allows a table of material properties to be created
       for prestress tendons. Material properties can then be referenced by TOP-STEEL and
       BOTTOM-STEEL commands via the PRESTRESS-TENDON instruction.

       The 'material' parameter refers to the entry in this material table. Tendon entries may be
       added in any order and may be overwritten by successive TENDON-PROPERTIES
       commands as required. There is no facility to delete tendon materials, but they will not be
       used if they are not referenced by PRESTRESS-TENDON instructions. Up to ten tendon
       materials may be created.

       The remaining items on the line define the stress-strain curve for the tendon material being
       created.

       In tension, a trilinear curve based on that shown in BS8110: Part 1: Figure 2.3 is defined. The
       characteristic strength of prestressing tendons 'fpu' and the tensile modulus 'et' must be
       specified (in MNm-2). If the critical strain 'cs' is not specified, it defaults to the value 0.005.
       Setting 'cs' to zero reduces the curve to bi-linear.

       A compressive bi-linear curve may also be defined using the compressive modulus, 'ec' and
       the compressive yield stress, 'fyc' in MNm-2. This facility is included for generality only and
       by default, no compressive capability is assumed for the prestress.

       The material strengths given here do not contain any reference to material partial safety
       factors. These should be entered on a separate MATERIAL-PARTIAL-SAFETY-FACTOR
       command. Specification of mpsfs will automatically adjust the tendon stress-strain curves.
       There is no restriction on the order of TENDON-PROPERTIES and M-P-S-F commands.
       The most current will be in effect when DO-CHECKS is encountered.

       The ALTERNATE parameter, if given, reduces the entire stress-strain curve (not just the
       maximum stresses) by dividing by the material partial safety factor for prestressing. This
       capability allows the use of codes such as CSA 5474 and NS3473. Refer to the Theory
       Manual for more details.




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       Command                :        TENSION-STIFFENING


       Syntax                 :        TENSION-STIFFENING (ON/OFF/LIMITED)
       Applicable to :                 Serviceability Limit State Checks
       Example                :        TENSION-STIFFENING
                                       TENSION-STIFFENING OFF

       Description :

       The TENSION-STIFFENING command is used to control whether the extreme fibre strain,
       used in the evaluation of serviceability crack widths, is reduced by the effect of tension
       stiffening.

       The default at program start-up is ON. TENSION-STIFFENING with no parameters is
       equivalent to TENSION-STIFFENING ON. The LIMITED option also turns tension
       stiffening on (if not already), but modifies the calculation of strains as well when using
       BS8110 equations. Refer to the Theory Manual for more details. These alternative
       calculations are disabled again by a further issue of this command without the LIMITED
       option.

       Note that tension stiffening is permitted for crack width calculations to BS8110 and most
       other codes, but is not allowed for checking to Department of Energy Guidelines.

       Tension stiffening calculations are never performed by the program when tensile behaviour
       of concrete has been defined via the CONCRETE-PROPERTIES TENSION or
       CONCRETE-PROPERTIES DEFINED commands, irrespective of the setting of TENSION-
       STIFFENING. It is assumed that the user specified tensile properties make provision for the
       action of concrete between cracks.




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       Command                :        TITLE

       Syntax                 :        TITLE title
       Applicable to :                 All checks

       Example                :        TITLE CORMORANT ALPHA : COLUMN Cl

       Description :
       The TITLE instruction is used to specify a title which will be included in the heading of
       each page of tabular output. The title may be up to eighty characters long, including
       embedded blanks. It may be changed several times during the run, if so required.

       If no TITLE instruction is used, a blank title line will be printed.




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       Command                :        TOP-STEEL


       Syntax                 :        TOP-STEEL REBARS/TENDONS type cover angle (resize)

       Applicable to :                 All checks

       Examples               :        TOP-STEEL TENDONS 3 100.0 0.0
                                       TOP-STEEL REBARS 6 30.0 90.0 0.05

     Description

     The TOP-STEEL command allows the definition of reinforcement layers and tendon layers
     relative to the top face of the concrete slab being checked. The command is similar to
     BOTTOM-STEEL, which allows definition relative to the bottom face.

     The top face of the slab is defined as the face with the larger slab normal (Z") coordinate.
     Refer to Section 4.3 for details of the slab axis system.

     Both reinforcement steel (REBARS) and prestress tendons (TENDONS) can be defined with
     this command. The following additional data is required:

       -           type            an integer referencing a REINFORCEMENT-BARS or PRESTRESS-
                                   TENDONS card with details of the diameter, spacing, material, etc. for the
                                   steel. The appropriate type integer must have been set up when a DO-
                                   CHECKS instruction is encountered;

       -           cover,          the steel cover in millimetres. For rebars, this is the cover from the top face
                                   to the closest point of the steel bars. For tendons, this is the distance from
                                   the top face to the tendon centre line;

       -           angle,          the orientation in degrees of the steel in the plane of the slab, relative to the
                                   slab X axis. Refer to Section 4.3 for details of the slab axes;

       -           resize, for ultimate limit state checks, the resize rate per iteration. This item is only
                              valid for REBARS, and defaults to zero if not given. During ultimate limit
                              state checks, CONCRETE-CHECK will automatically resize any rebar
                              layers with a non-zero 'resize' rate. Refer to the REDESIGN command for
                              more information.

       Rebars and tendons may be created by successive BOTTOM-STEEL and TOP-STEEL
       cards. Up to sixteen layers of rebars and ten layers of tendons are allowed. These layers may
       be defined at the same or different depths entirely at the discretion of the user. When a
       reinforcement/ prestress arrangement must be changed, the RESET command should be used
       to cancel all previous definitions.

       There is no restriction that steel should be closer to the top face for the TOP-STEEL
       command to be used. All steel may be created by either the TOP-STEEL or BOTTOM-
       STEEL commands. The only restriction is that the final steel lies within the section. Note,
       however, that the TOP-STEEL command cannot be used to

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       specify the position of the steel in the slab until the CONCRETE-DEPTH is specified. If
       TOP-STEEL is to be used, a CONCRETE-DEPTH command must be present in the data. It
       is possible to run CONCRETE-CHECK using slab depths extracted from an FE analysis; in
       this case, BOTTOM-STEEL should be used throughout.




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       Command                :        UNITS

       Syntax                 :        UNITS faclen facfor

       Applicable to :                 All limit state checks

       Examples               :        UNITS 1000.0 1.0

       Description

       The purpose of the UNITS command is to specify the multiplication factors to convert from
       the units of the FE analysis to those of the CONCRETE-CHECK program.

       The UNITS command can also be used to alter the sign convention and/or scaling of
       DIRECT/MAXIMUM/MINIMUM input of envelope, prestress, deformational and post-
       deformational loading.

       CONCRETE-CHECK assumes the following units:

       −        length in millimetres;
       −        force in newtons.

       If the analysis units are different from the above, the UNITS command may be used to
       specify 'faclen' and 'facfor' to factor lengths and forces from the analysis prior to enveloping
       and storage.

       If no UNITS command is given, length and force factors of unity will be assumed. If non-
       zero values are given, the loads and dimensions from the analysis will be multiplied by these
       factors prior to use in the various checks.




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       Command                :        WATER-PRESSURE-IN-CRACKS


       Syntax                 :        WATER-PRESSURE-IN-CRACKS ptop (pbot) (method)
                                       WATER-PRESSURE-IN-CRACKS OFF

       Applicable to :                 All limit states

       Examples               :        WATER-PRESSURE-IN-CRACKS OFF
                                       WATER-PRESSURE-IN-CRACKS 2.511
                                       WATER-PRESSURE-IN-CRACKS 0.0 1.50 BASIC

       Description

       This command is used to specify the values of water pressure considered to be present in any
       cracks found in the structure, or to switch off this effect. The default at program start up is
       for no water pressure to be considered in cracks.

       Different external fluid pressure can be specified for top and bottom faces of the slab using
       the parameters ptop and pbot. If only one value is specified it is assumed to apply to both
       faces. A pressure of zero is used to indicate that there is no fluid on a particular face. The
       external pressure should be specified in units of Nmm-2.

       WATER-PRESSURE-IN-CRACKS simulates the additional pressure acting on the open
       faces of the cracks, which tends to open the cracks further and increases tensile strains in the
       reinforcement. The way in which water pressure is used in the various checks is described in
       appropriate sections of the Theory Manual.

       For the layered METHOD, rather than add water pressure to external loads acting on the
       section (and adjust it to reflect varying crack depths), the effect is simulated by modifying
       the stress-strain curve for cracked concrete to include the additional compression caused by
       the water. This modification to the stress-strain curve is governed by the method parameter
       as follows:

       EXACT                       This is the default. Cracked concrete (beyond zero strain or the cracking
                                   strain, if the latter is defined by appropriate CONCRETE-PROPERTIES
                                   data) is assumed to be at a compressive stress equal to the water pressure. If
                                   the 5474 option for CONCRETE-PROPERTIES TENSION is active,
                                   allowance is made for stress transfer by bond into the concrete between
                                   cracks. EXACT will produce a sudden change in stress at the cracking
                                   strain, and can lead to poor convergence.

       BASIC                       A simplified stress strain curve is defined whereby no stresses are
                                   permitted that are more tensile than the water pressure, irrespective of
                                   strain. This smoothed curve generally improves convergence.

       EXTENDED                    As for EXACT, but the effect of bond transfer in accordance with S474 is
                                   increased by an enhancement factor. See the Theory Manual for a detailed
                                   explanation.




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       Command                :        WATERTIGHTNESS


       Syntax                 :        WATERTIGHTNESS                                      (DNV) dpres
                                       WATERTIGHTNESS                                      S474 (stress)
                                       WATERTIGHTNESS                                      OFF / NS3473
       Applicable to :                 SLS Checks
       Examples               :        WATERTIGHTNESS OFF
                                       WATERTIGHTNESS 0.1

       Description :

       This command is used to specify whether or not watertightness checks are to be performed
       and to what code of practice. If a valid code is specified or a non-zero differential pressure
       given, the section will be assessed for watertightness, as part of the serviceability checks (see
       Theory Manual for more details).

       Watertightness checks to DnV rules require the differential pressure to be specified. The
       code name in this special instance is optional. The default differential pressure at startup is
       zero, and this state can be reinstated later by a WATERTIGHTNESS DNV 0.0,
       WATERTIGHTNESS 0.0 or WATERTIGHTNESS OFF instruction. The differential
       pressure should be specified in units of Nmm-2.
       When WATERTIGHTNESS S474 is selected, watertightness is evaluated using the criteria
       specified in Canadian Standards Association 5474 - 94: Section 9.5.1. By default, the
       limiting tensile stress used in watertightness calculations to CSA S474 is 0.25ftmax, where
       ftmax is given on the CONCRETE-PROPERTIES TENSION command. If ftmax is not so
       specified, then 0.4λ√/fc' is used instead, where λ depends on the specified CONCRETE-
       DENSITY and fc’ is the cylinder strength for whichever concrete properties are current. Both
       of these defaults can be overwritten if a value of stress is specified on the
       WATERTIGHTNESS command. The value of stress may be zero.
       Watertightness checks to NS3473 are in accordance with Table A.8 of the 4th edition and are
       for Class b) structures.




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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                               Command Formats



       Command                :        WRITE


       Syntax                 :        WRITE (ON/OFF)

       Applicable to :                 All limit state checks

       Examples               :        WRITE
                                       WRITE OFF

       Description :

       The WRITE command controls the writing of unity check results to backing file for
       subsequent access by CONCRETE-PLOT. The precise information written to file depends
       on the limit state checks being performed and may include the following:

       General                -        concrete thickness

       ULS Checks -                    concrete utilisation (top/bottom)
                                       corresponding critical angles (top/bottom)
                                       rebar redesign loops and utilisations
                                       tendon utilisations
                                       shear utilisation
                                       shear steel areas

       SLS Checks             -        crack widths (top/bottom)
                                       corresponding angles (top/bottom) rebar
                                       utilisation
                                       concrete utilisation

       FLS Checks             -        concrete lives (top/bottom)
                                       corresponding critical angles (top/bottom)
                                       rebar lives
                                       tendon lives

       Full details of the code check results that are available for plotting may be found in the
       CONCRETE-PLOT User Manual.

       The default at program start-up is not to write results to file. Thus, a WRITE ON command
       must be present in the data if CONCRETE-PLOT is to be used with code check results.
       WRITE with no parameters is equivalent to WRITE ON.

       One record is written to file for every node (shell element models) and location (solid
       element models) for which code check results are produced. The key number used for this
       record is in accordance with the KEY-FIELDS and KEY-RANGES commands. If other limit
       state checks have already been stored for this node/location, these are recovered prior to
       rewriting the record. Results for limit state checks in the current run will overwrite any
       previous results.




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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                     Summary of Commands


Appendix - A                Summary of Commands
A.1 INTRODUCTION

       The following is a summary of the commands available within CONCRETE-CHECK. Items
       in upper case are keywords, those in lower case are text/numerical values required by the
       program. Brackets indicate optional values, whilst slashes ('/') represent optional data. Lists
       of data are indicated thus (----). Section 5.0 includes a full description of these instructions.


A.2 RUN CONTROL COMMANDS

       ANALYSE-NODE-CLASSES class1 (class2 (class3 (class4)))
       BEGIN-PLOT
       CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM (stream (file))
       CODE-CHECK (ON/OFF)
       DATA-CHECK-ONLY
       DEBUG OFF/(level routine (values ----))
       DO-CHECKS ECHO
       (ON/OFF) END
       FINISH-PLOT
       INTERACTIVE
       LIST-INPUT-DATA (ON/OFF)
       MAXIMUM-ERRORS maxerr
       OUTPUT-LEVEL SUMMARY/BRIEF/INTERMEDIATE/DETAILED (BRIEF/FULL)
       PRINT-DATA STOP
       SUBROUTINE-TRACE (ON/OFF)
       SUMMARISE
       SUPER-ELEMENT data --
       TITLE title
       WRITE (ON/OFF)


A.3 NODE, SET AND LOCATION SELECTION

       CLEAR-SELECT class node1 (node2 ----)
       DATUM vectorx vectory vectorz
       GROUP set
       ORIGIN x y z
       PANEL SAMPLE/SWEEP (angtol)
       RECTANGULAR-AXES OFF/vectx (vecty vectz)
       SECTION numsec (FULL)/(LIST valuel (value2 ----))
       SECTION numsec LIST ALL/loc1 (loc2---)
       SELECT class nodel (node2 ----)
       SET set
       STRESS-AXES (dx dy dz (x y z))
       STRESS-INTEGRATION ACCURATE/MODERATE/SIMPLE
       SURFACE PLANE/CYLINDER/CONE x y z (radius/angle)




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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                     Summary of Commands

A.4 BASIC DATA COMMANDS

       ADDITIONAL-STIFFNESS (cstiff (rstiff (tstiff)))
       BOTTOM-STEEL REBARS/TENDONS type cover angle (resize)
       COMPRESSION-STEEL EFFECTIVE/INEFFECTIVE CONCRETE-
       DEPTH depth (VERIFY)
       CONCRETE-DENSITY density
       CONCRETE-MODULUS (ulsmod (slsmod (flsmod)))
       CONCRETE-PROPERTIES3S8110/BS5400/DNV77/DNV89/NS3473/PARABOLIC
                             /S474/LINEAR/RIGOROUS/DEFINED/TENSION values ---
       CONCRETE-STRESS-REDUCTION (ON/OFF/NS3473/S474)
       DEFORMATION-PROPERTIES eval mu
       MATERIAL-PARTIAL-SAFETY-FACTORS (lstate) gammac gammar gammap
                                                           (gammas)
       METHOD STRIP (angle (miter (control)))
       METHOD LAYER (nlayers (miter(contol(nskip(stiffl --- stiff6(weightl---
                                                                               weight6))))))
       PRESTRESS-FACTORS (Istate) pmax pmin smax smin
       PRESTRESS-LOADS TOTAL/SECONDARY DIRECT nx ny nxy ---- nxz nyz
       PRESTRESS-LOADS TOTAL/SECONDARY ANALYSIS/RECOVER/NONE
                                                                    (number/data ---)
       PRESTRESS-TENDONS type material sndata strands diameter spacing prestress REBAR-
       PROPERTIES material fy (BS8110/BS5400/MC78/DNV/NS3473/S474)
                                  (es(strn (fl)))
       REDISTRIBUTION-MATRIX f11 f12 f13               f18
       +                                      f21 f22 f23      f28
       +                                      f3I f32 f33      f38
       .                                        . . .           .
       +                                      f81 f82 f83      f88
       REINFORCEMENT-BARS type material sndata diameter spacingl (spacing2)
                               (HIBOND/RIBBED/INDENT/PLAIN)
       RESET
       SHEAR-REINFORCEMENT (diameter material xspacing yspacing)
       SIGNS factnx--- ---factnyz
       TENDON-PROPERTIES material fpu et(es(ec fyc )) (ALTERNATE) TOP-
       STEEL REBARS/TENDONS type cover angle (resize)
       UNITS faclen factor
       WATER-PRESSURE-IN-CRACKS topp/OFF (botp) (BASIC/EXACT/EXTENDED)


A.5 ULTIMATE & SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES

       CLASS (class)
       CRACK-WIDTHS (ON/OFF)
       DEFORMATION-LOADS MAXIMUM/MINIMUM/DIRECT (STRENGTH/SERVICE)
                               nx ny nxy --- nyz
       DEFORMATION-LOADS ANALYSIS/RECOVER number/data ---
       DEFORMATION-LOADS ON/OFF
       ENVELOPE MAXIMUM/MINIMUM/DIRECT (STRENGTH/SERVICE) nx ny nxy
                                            ---- nxz nyz


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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                     Summary of Commands




       ENVELOPE ANALYSIS/RECOVER number/data ---
       ENVELOPE-NAME (description)
       ENVELOPE-NUMBER number
       POST-DEFORMATION-LOADS MAXIMUM/MINIMUM/DIRECT
                                  (STRENGTH/SERVICE) nx ny nxy --- nyz
       POST-DEFORMATION-LOADS ANALYSIS/RECOVER number/data ---
       POST-DEFORMATION-LOADS ON/OFF
       RATIO (ratio)
       REDESIGN (OFF/mloop)
       SERVICE-CHECK (ON/OFF/S474/MC78/NS3473/BS8110/BS5400) (options---)
       SERVICE-CRITERIA width (stress)
       SHEAR-CHECKS DNV/DEN/MC78/BS8110/BS5400/NS3473/TRIAXIAL
                     (options---)
       SHEAR-CHECKS (OFF/ON)
       STRENGTH-CHECK (ON/OFF)
       TENSION-STIFFENING (ON/OFF/LIMITED)
       WATERTIGHTNESS (DNV) diffpress
       WATERTIGHTNESS S474/OFF (stress)


A.6 FATIGUE LIMIT STATES

       COMBINATION number DIRECT nx ny nxy ---- nxz nyz
       COMBINATION number ANALYSIS/NONE (data ---)
       CONCRETE-S-N-CURVE cccycles ctcycles
       FATIGUE-CHECK (OFF/ON)
       FATIGUE-CYCLE occurs COMPLEX/STEPPED steps/cases —
       FATIGUE-DATA ccsum (rbsum (ON/OFF))
       FATIGUE-LIFE years
       FATIGUE-RESET
       STATIC-COMBINATION DIRECT nx ny nxy ---- nxz nyz
       STATIC-COMBINATION ANALYSIS ANALYSIS/NONE (data) ----
       STEEL-S-N-CURVE curve stressl cyclesl slopel


A.7 IMPLOSION CHECKS

       IMPLOSION-CHECK (ON/OFF)
       IMPLOSION-CYLINDER length radius (width (fixity))
       IMPLOSION-IMPERFECTIONS eo
       IMPLOSION-LOADS pressure (axial (bending (shear (torsion))))


A.8 PANEL STABILITY CHECKS

       PANEL-DIMENSIONS length width (fixity)
       PANEL-IMPERFECTIONS eo
       PANEL-LOADS pressure (nx (ny (nxy)))
       PANEL-STABILITY-CHECK (ON/OFF)


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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                     Summary of Commands




A.9 FILE HANDLING

       KEY-FIELDS keysyml (keysym2 (--))
       KEY-RANGES mini maxi (mint max2 (----))
       NEW-SYMBOL symbol (value)
       SYMBOL-VALUE symbol value




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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                            Sample Output


Appendix - B                Sample Output
B.1 DATA ECHO AND PRINTING


       The ECHO and LIST-INPUT-DATA commands may be used to control printing of input
       data as it is processed.

       The ECHO command causes each command to be echoed to the output file (or terminal) as
       it is read in. The LIST-INPUT-DATA command causes interpreted command printout to be
       produced for the control data. This output is more informative but lengthier than the output
       produced by ECHO.

       The PRINT-DATA command may be used at any time to obtain printout of the current input
       data. The format of this printout is shown by Figures B.1-1 to B.1-3. It is recommended that
       this facility is used immediately prior to DO-CHECKS to obtain a data listing for the
       subsequent checks. The fatigue data page (B.1-3) is only printed if FATIGUE-CHECK is
       currently switched on.


B.2 CODE CHECK OUTPUT


       Output from CONCRETE-CHECK is of four types:

        −         a brief summary report showing only the final results of the checks on each location
                  or set. This output is illustrated by Figure B.2-1 for all of the checks available in the
                  program;

        −         one (or more) pages of detailed output per location or node checked. This output
                  can be very lengthy but can be controlled with the OUTPUT-LEVEL command.
                  Figures B.2-2 to B.2-6 show typical output for the following checks:

                  o      ULS          -    Strip Method to BS8110
                  o      ULS          -    Finite Layered Approach
                  o      ULS          -    Shear Checks
                  o      SLS          -    Crack Width Calculations
                  o      FLS          -    Fatigue Calculations;
        −         implosion and Panel Stability Checks provide one page of output per check.
                  Figures B.2-7 and B.2-8 illustrate these checks;

        −         output to backing file for subsequent access by CONCRETE-PLOT.

       Further detailed levels of output are available via the SUBROUTINE-TRACE and DEBUG
       commands. It is recommended, however, that these should only be used by experienced
       users.




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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                            Sample Output

B.3 PLOT OUTPUT


       The BEGIN-PLOT and FINISH-PLOT commands may be used to produce plot files for the
       following code check results:

       −     ULS, Total Main Steel Areas
       −     ULS, Link Steel Areas

       −     SLS, Maximum Crack Widths
       −     SLS, Maximum Rebar Stresses

       −     FLS, Concrete Fatigue Lives
       −     FLS, Minimum Rebar Fatigue Lives
       −     FLS, Minimum Tendon Fatigue Lives

       These plot files may subsequently be plotted using the PLOTIT utility program. Sample
       output is included in Figure B.3-1,

       The WRITE command may be used to force CONCRETE-CHECK to write code check
       results to backing file for subsequent access by CONCRETE-PLOT. This latter program
       may then produce plottable files of selected results. Refer to the CONCRETE-PLOT User
       Manual for more details.




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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                            Sample Output




                    FIGURE B.1-1: BASIC PRINT-DATA OUTPUT




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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                            Sample Output




                       FIGURE B.1-2; GEOMETRIC PRINT DATA OUTPUT




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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                            Sample Output




                         FIGURE B.1-3: FATIGUE PRINT DATA OUTPUT

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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                            Sample Output




                      FIGURE B.24: TYPICAL SUMMARY OUTPUT




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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                            Sample Output




                          FIGURE B.2-2: ULS - STRIP METHOD OUTPUT



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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                            Sample Output




             FIGURE B.2-3: ULS - FINITE LAYERED METHOD OUTPUT


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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                            Sample Output




                           FIGURE B.2-4: ULS - SHEAR CHECK OUTPUT


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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                            Sample Output




                      FIGURE B.2-5: SLS - CRACK WIDTH OUTPUT

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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                            Sample Output




                   FIGURE B02-6a FLS FATIGUE LIFE OUTPUT - PAGE 1.
                                                 e




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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                            Sample Output




           FIGURE B2-6b: FLS - FATIGUE LIFE OUTPUT - PAGE 2




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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                            Sample Output




                  FIGURE B.2-6c: FLS - FATIGUE LIFE OUTPUT - PAGE 3


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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                            Sample Output




                         FIGURE B.2-7: IMPLOSION CHECK OUTPUT




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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                            Sample Output




                     FIGURE B.2-8: PANEL STABILITY CHECK OUTPUT



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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                                            Sample Output




                             FIGURE B.3-1: SAMPLE PLOT OUTPUT




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Concrete Check – User Manual                                                         SESAM FE Interface


Appendix - C                SESAM FE Interface
C.1 INTRODUCTION

       CONCRETE-CHECK is available as a post-processor to the SESAM FE system either
       directly or through the CONCRETE-ENVELOPE program.

       Both shell and solid element models of the structure may be processed. Section C.2 lists
       available element types.

       CONCRETE-CHECK will obtain geometric and element stress data from the SESAM
       Interface File produced by PREPOST, However, PREPOST will not produce nodally
       averaged stresses. These results must be added by the SIF-AVERAGE program which
       allows the user to define groups of elements for post-processing and nodally average
       stresses in consistent axes, for selected load cases. The user should refer to the SIF-
       AVERAGE manual for details. Section C.3 of this Appendix does, however, contain details
       of the required organisation of stresses in the interface file.

       Section C.4 contains details of command formats that are dependent on the FE system.
       Commands affected are SUPER-ELEMENT, ENVELOPE, COMBINATION, STATIC-
       COMBINATION and PRESTRESS-LOADS.

       The final section of this appendix, C.5, gives details of the files required for CONCRETE-
       CHECK to run successfully.


C.2 AVAILABLE ELEMENT TYPES

       Only the following SESAM elements are currently processed by the CONCRETE suite:

       −    IHEX,                                 Solid brick element (20 nodes);
       −    IPRI,                                 Solid prismatic element (15 nodes);
       −    LHEX,                                 Solid brick element (8 nodes);
       −    TPRI,                                 Solid prismatic element (6 nodes);
       −    IQQE, SCQS,                           Quadrilateral shell element (8 nodes);
       −    ILST, SCTS,                           Triangular shell element (6 nodes);
       −    LQUA, FQUS,                           Quadrilateral shell element (4 nodes);
       −    CSTA, FTRS,                           Triangular shell element (3 nodes).




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Concrete Check – User Manual                                                         SESAM FE Interface

       Other element types may be present in the super-element being processed, but are currently
       ignored.


C.3 STRESS EXTRACTION

       A 'Norsam Formatted' SESAM Interface File (SIN) is the required link between SESAM,
       SIF-AVERAGE and CONCRETE. This should be produced using the PREPOST program
       using the SET PERMANENT-WORKING-FILE command when reading the results file
       produced by SESTRA.

       PREPOST may also be used to create load combinations for use in CONCRETE-
       ENVELOPE and CONCRETE-CHECK. These combined cases and the original constituent
       cases are then available for code checking.

       The CONCRETE suite does not handle complex load cases in the same form as SESAM.
       Single complex cases from the analysis should be converted to separate real and imaginary
       cases by PREPOST so that they can be processed by SIF-AVERAGE. This is possible by use
       of the CREATE RESULT-COMBINATION command.

       Note also that the CONCRETE suite does not support run numbers and occurrence numbers
       of load cases. Again, PREPOST can be used to create load combinations that have a constant
       run number to avoid this restriction.

       Once all necessary combined cases have been defined, SIF-AVERAGE can be used to
       subdivide the super-element into groups of elements across which nodal averaging is valid.
       Nodally averaged stresses should then be produced for all nodes in these groups for selected
       load cases. The stresses and group information will be stored back to the SIN, where they can
       be accessed by CONCRETE-ENVELOPE and CONCRETE-CHECK.

       These nodally averaged stresses for shell elements form the basis of the loads per unit width
       produced for enveloping by CONCRETE-ENVELOPE, or accessed directly by
       CONCRETE-CHECK.

       However, for a given location around a section for any group of solid elements, the
       CONCRETE programs must interpolate between the stresses at the closest nodes to obtain
       these loads. The programs convert these extreme fibre stresses into the location axis system
       and integrate them to produce the eight basic loads per unit width at the location, Details of
       this method may be found in the Theory Manual.

       Both SESAM and CONCRETE work on a tensile-positive compression-negative system for
       stresses, and no sign conversion is needed for basic direct stresses.

       Both SESAM and CONCRETE use a sign convention for shear that causes elongation in the
       +ve quadrants (XY, XZ, YZ) for positive shear stress. No sign conversion is needed for
       shear.


C.4 SYSTEM DEPENDENT COMMANDS

       The following CONCRETE-CHECK commands take on a different format when used with
       the SESAM interface.


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Concrete Check – User Manual                                                         SESAM FE Interface
       The format of the SUPER-ELEMENT instruction is as follows: SUPER-

                ELEMENT prefix filename (super-element)

       where 'prefix' is a file prefix for the required SIN file and 'filename' is the SIN filename, and
       'super-element' is the hierarchy reference number of the required super-element. If only one
       super-element exists within the SIN, this parameter is not required.




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Concrete Check – User Manual                                                         SESAM FE Interface



       The      ENVELOPE,        PRESTRESS-LOADS,           DEFORMATION-LOADS, POST-
       DEFORMATION-LOADS, COMBINATION and STATIC-COMBINATION commands all
       take the following simple formats when interfaced with SESAM:

                 ENVELOPE ANALYSIS lcase
                 PRESTRESS-LOADS TOTAL/SECONDARY ANALYSIS lcase
                 DEFORMATION-LOADS ANALYSIS lcase
                 POST-DEFORMATION-LOADS ANALYSIS lcase (ulsfac (slsfac))
                 COMBINATION number ANALYSIS lease
                 STATIC-COMBINATION ANALYSIS lease

       where lcase is the basic or combined load case number to use for the appropriate loading.
       Note that there is no provision in these commands for a run number or occurrence number.
       The optional parameters, ulsfac and slsfac, are factors to be applied to recovered post
       deformational analysis load cases (default values 1.0). If only ulsfac is specified, slsfac
       defaults to the same value.


C.5 FILE HANDLING

       As mentioned above, CONCRETE-CHECK acts on the 'Norsam Formatted' SESAM
       Interface File produced by PREPOST and modified by the SIF-AVERAGE program to
       contain nodally averaged stresses for groups or sets of elements in a consistent axis system.
       For CONCRETE-CHECK to run, this file must be present on the default device.

       Several SIN files may be produced for different super-elements. The referenced super-
       element SIN file must be present.

       CONCRETE-ENVELOPE also writes results to the SIN, and these may also be accessed if
       the file is on the current device.

       The file name for the SIN is created using the data on the SUPER-ELEMENT command, as
       follows:

                 <prefix> <filename>.SIN

       where the extension (.SIN) signifies the Norsam formatted direct access file.

       The SESAM system uses streams 10, 11 and 12 for internal file handling. These streams, as
       well as streams 5, 6, 51, 52 and 53 should not be used by the CHANGEINPUT-STREAM
       command.

       CONCRETE-PLOT results are written back to this same SIN file as required. The WRITE
       command alone causes this. No further file definition is needed.




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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                            ASAS FE Interface


Appendix - D                ASAS FE Interface
D.1 INTRODUCTION

       CONCRETE-CHECK is available as a post-processor to the ASAS package of programs,
       either directly or through the CONCRETE-ENVELOPE program.

       Only certain ASAS element types may be accessed by the CONCRETE suite. Available
       elements are listed in Section D.2 of this Appendix.

       The ASAS storage convention for stresses is described briefly in Section D.3 and details are
       given as to how this interfaces to the CONCRETE system for post-processing.

       Section D.4 of this Appendix describes the format of any commands that are specific to the
       ASAS interface. Commands affected are SUPER-ELEMENT, ENVELOPE,
       COMBINATION, STATIC-COMBINATION and PRESTRESS-LOADS.

       The final section of this Appendix, D.5, described the files required for a successful run of
       CONCRETE-CHECK.


D.2 AVAILABLE ELEMENT TYPES

       CONCRETE-CHECK can work directly from ASASPOST results for shell and brick
       elements. The following three, four, six and eight noded shells can be handled:

                 GCS6, GCSE, TCS6, TCS8, TBC3, QUS4, QUM8,
                 QUM4, TRM6, TRM3, SLB8, TRB3, SND6, SND8

       However, not all of the above shell elements produce all of the stress resultants required by
       CONCRETE. For example, the membrane elements (QUM8, TRM6, QUM4, TRM3) do
       not produce bending stresses, and the bending elements (SLB8 and TRB3) do not produce
       membrane stresses. Only the thick shell elements (TCS8 and TCS6) produce all
       components of stress including out of plane shear and these are recommended for use in
       modelling the concrete structure. Where stresses are not available, they are set to zero.

       CONCRETE-CHECK can also handle a full range of solid (brick) elements (except for the
       BR32 element). The following can be handled:

                 BRK6, BRK8, BR15, BR20

       Shell and brick elements may not be mixed in a single set or group of elements. Other than
       this, the two element types may exist in the same model.




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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                            ASAS FE Interface



D.3 STRESS EXTRACTION

       The CONCRETE suite of programs can either be run as a direct post-processor to ASAS
       (using the STRESS-AXES command), or can use ASAS POST to produce nodally averaged
       stresses in plate or solid structures across groups. ASAS POST also defines consistent axis
       systems across panels and solid element groups. Optionally, ASAS LOCO may also be run
       to combine load cases. Real and imaginary components, and all prestress cases should be
       kept separate through this analysis.

       When using shell elements, the CONCRETE programs obtain their eight components of load
       directly from the nodally averaged stresses at the node being considered. These stresses may
       be calculated internally and stored by ASAS POST as a set of direct stresses per fibre (top,
       bottom, middle) or may be generated internally following the rules for the STRESS-AXES
       command. CONCRETE determines its membrane loads from the middle fibre results, and its
       bending loads from the difference in extreme fibre stresses. Because the ASAS and
       CONCRETE sign conventions for tension and compression are the same, these loads will
       automatically be of correct sign.

       ASAS thick shell elements also produce out-of-plane shear loads which are also nodally
       averaged internally or by ASAS POST. The sign convention in Appendix A of the ASAS
       Manual shows that these loads are identical in sign to the CONCRETE suite loads (Figure
       4.3-1) and no sign conversion is necessary.

       However, for any given location around a section through any group of solid elements, the
       CONCRETE suite programs must interpolate between the stresses at the closest nodes to
       obtain these loads. The programs convert the stresses into the location axis system and
       integrate them to produce the eight basic loads per unit width required in the checks. Full
       details of this approach is included in the CONCRETE Theory Manual.

       Both ASAS and CONCRETE work on a tensile-positive, compression-negative system for
       stresses, and no sign conversion is needed for basic direct stresses.

        Both ASAS and CONCRETE use a sign convention for shear that causes elongation in the
        +ve/+ve quadrant (XY, XZ, YZ) for positive shear stress. No sign conversion is needed for
        shear.


D.4 SYSTEM DEPENDENT COMMANDS

       The following CONCRETE-CHECK commands take on a different format when used with
       the ASAS interface.

       The format of the SUPER-ELEMENT card is as follows:

       SUPER-ELEMENT dataarea project structure (SYOP)(number)(file)
       where     dataarea is the required data area in words;
                 project   is the four character project name;
                 structure is the four character structure name;
                 SYOP      signifies that system options are to be read;
                 number    is the assembled super-element number given at the end of the
                           assembly run in the component tree diagram;
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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                            ASAS FE Interface


                         file           file stem for CONCRETE-PLOT output.


       SYOP is optional. If given, the program expects to read two lines of system options after the
       SUPER-ELEMENT command, each in 40I2 format. This is an advanced feature that should
       not generally be used without advice from support staff

       The component 'number' is also optional, but must be specified for a component analysis run.
       This is the number assigned to the component when the final structure is assembled. It is
       printed in the output from that run.

       The      ENVELOPE,        PRESTRESS-LOADS,           DEFORMATION-LOADS, POST-
       DEFORMATION-LOADS, COMBINATION and STATIC-COMBINATION commands all
       take the following simple formats when interfaced with ASAS:

                  ENVELOPE ANALYSIS lcase
                  PRESTRESS-LOADS TOTAL/SECONDARY ANALYSIS lcase
                  DEFORMATION-LOADS ANALYSIS lcase
                  POST-DEFORMATION-LOADS ANALYSIS lcase ( ulsfac ( slsfac ))
                  COMBINATION number ANALYSIS lcase
                  STATIC-COMBINATION ANALYSIS lcase

       Where lcase is the basic or combined load case number to use for the appropriate loading.
       The optional parameters, ulsfac and slsfac, are factors to be applied to recovered post
       deformational analysis load cases (default values 1.0). If only ulsfac is specified, slsfac
       defaults to the same value.


D.5 FILE HANDLING

       CONCRETE-CHECK acts on the files produced by the preceding ASAS or CONCRETE-
       ENVELOPE analyses. Optionally, ASAS LOCO and ASAS POST may be run after ASAS
       to combine load cases (although this may also be performed in CONCRETE-ENVELOPE)
       and nodally average stresses. Since ASAS LOCO produces identically formatted files to
       ASAS, either can be used as required.

       The appropriate physical files from the ASAS (or ASAS LOCO) run, and if necessary the
       ASAS POST and CONCRETE-ENVELOPE runs, must be present on disc for CONCRETE-
       CHECK to run. To produce these files, the programs should have been run with appropriate
       SAVE and WRITE options.

       In all cases there will be the Project File which contains information about all other files in
       the current set of analyses. The name of this file is derived from the four character Project
       Name defined on all JOB cards in the runs. For example, if the project name is PRDH, then
       the Project File will be PRDH10.

       For an ASAS or ASAS LOCO analysis with a 'SAVE LOCO FILES' command (or
       equivalent) in its preliminary deck, there will be a physical file containing the stress and
       displacement information from that analysis. For a single step analysis the physical file
       name will be derived from the second four character name on the JOB card of the ASAS or
       ASAS LOCO preliminary deck, or from the FILES command.


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Concrete-Check – User Manual                                                            ASAS FE Interface


       For example, if this name had been RNDH, then the backing file containing stresses (and
       displacements) would be RNDH35. For a post-processing run on a substructured analysis,
       the file name for the results is derived from the second four character name on the JOB card
       of the relevant stress recovery run. If this name has been SRGP then the file would be
       SRGP35.

       For an ASAS POST run with a SAVE INTE FILES card in its preliminary deck, there will
       be a physical file containing nodal stress data. This file will be based on the four character
       name given on the JOB card of the ASAS POST data file. If the name is ASPO, then the file
       name will be ASPO12. Multiple ASAS POST runs may produce more than one '12' file. No
       ASAS POST files are needed if internal stress averaging is to be used.

       When using results from CONCRETE-ENVELOPE, appropriate envelope backing files
       should be present on disc. For runs of CONCRETE-ENVELOPE with appropriate options
       set (ENVELOPE ON, WRITE ON), these results will be stored in '21' files. If the file name
       given on the JOB card is COPO, then CONCRETE-ENVELOPE will produce a COPO21
       file.

       CONCRETE-CHECK will produce a backing file containing code check results if these
       results are required to be saved for CONCRETE-PLOT (via the WRITE ON command).
       This will be a '22' file with the same file stem as given on the SUPER-ELEMENT
       command. If this name is COCH, then the file will be COCH22.

       The ASAS system reserves streams 1 to 50 for internal file handling and I/O. These streams
       and 51, 52 and 53 should not be used for CHANGE-INPUT-STREAM commands.




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