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Malaysian Research Findings on Language Learning Strategies

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					                                          Figure 4.1.
                     An Example of a Strategy Item with a Positive Variation

                         OLLS Item 6, Look For Opportunities To Use English

     Low Achievers
                                                                                                    High Use
  Medium Achievers                                                                                  Low Use

    High Achievers


                     0    10         20     30   40      50        60   70     80   90      100
                                                      Percentage




                                                     Low Use                             High Use
                               n          Response         %                 Response          %
High Achievers                 193            50           26                   143            74
Medium Achievers               170            86           51                    84            49
Low Achievers                  152           109           72                    43            28
Note: x2 = 106.68 (df = 2), p <.05




                                       Figure 4.2.
                 An Example of a Strategy Item with a Negative Variation

                           OLLS Item 11, Translate What To Say In L1 First

     Low Achievers
                                                                                                    High Use
  Medium Achievers                                                                                  Low Use

    High Achievers


                     0    10         20     30   40      50        60   70     80   90      100
                                                      Percentage




                                                     Low Use                             High Use
                               n          Response         %                 Response          %
High Achievers                 193           140           73                    53            27
Medium Achievers               170            64           38                   106            62
Low Achievers                  152            49           32                   113            68
Note: x2 = 108.75 (df = 2), p <.05
                                                          2


                                          Figure 4.3.
                     An Example of a Strategy Item with a Mixed Variation
                                CLLS Item 2, Do Exercises Beforehand


     Low Achievers
                                                                                                   High Use
  Medium Achievers                                                                                 Low Use

    High Achievers

                     0   10         20     30   40      50        60   70     80   90      100
                                                     Percentage




                                                    Low Use                             High Use
                              n          Response         %                 Response          %
High Achievers                193           143           74                   50             26
Medium Achievers              170           113           66                   57             34
Low Achievers                 152           116           76                   36             24
Note: x2 = 16.05 (df = 2), p <.05
                                                     3



                   Variation in Learners’ Overall Strategy Use

                                             Table 4.2.

         A Summary of Variation in Learners’ Overall Reported Strategy Use
LANGUAGE      High-achiever Med-achiever Low-achiever
PERFORMANCE      n=193           n=152           n=170
                                                              Significance                    Pattern of
              Mean S.D.       Mean S.D.       Mean S.D.       level                           Variation

Overall Strategy Use   2.61   .34     2.50     .37        2.18       .40      (p<.0000)       High>Med.>Low

GENDER                   Females            Males
                         n=270              n=245
                                                          Significance      Pattern of
                       Mean   S.D.    Mean     S.D.       level             Variation

Overall Strategy Use   2.53   .36     2.38     .45        (p<.0000)         Females > Males

ETHNICITY                 Indians       Chinese              Malays
                           n=83         n=227                n=205
                                                                              Significance    Pattern of
                       Mean   S.D.    Mean     S.D.       Mean      S.D.      level           Variation

Overall Strategy Use   2.56   .40     2.46     .38        2.42      .42       n.s.

CLASS SIZE               Larger      Neither Large        Smaller
                         Classes         nor              Classes
                                     Small Classes
                          n=206        n=190                n=119
                                                                            Significance     Pattern of
                       Mean   S.D.   Mean      S.D.      Mean    S.D.       level            Variation
                                                                                             Smaller > Larger
Overall Strategy Use   2.50   .37    2.34      .45       2.57    .36        (p<.0000)        Larger > Neither

EXTENT OF THE            High-user    Low-user
USE OF ENGLISH            n=135        n=380
                                                         Significance      Pattern of
                       Mean   S.D.   Mean      S.D.      level             Variation

Overall Strategy Use   2.66   .34    2.39      .41       (p<.0000)         High > Low
                                                     4



         Variation in Learners’ Use of Three Strategy Categories

                                     Table 4.3
             Variation in Learners’ Reported Use of Strategy Categories
                    According to Their Language Performance

              High-achiever       Med.-achiever          Low-achiever
                 n=193               n=152                  n=170
STRATEGY                                                                 Significance
CATEGORY      Mean      S.D.      Mean      S.D.         Mean    S.D.    level           Pattern of Variation

  CLLS        2.54      .36       2.58      .36          2.34    .39     (p<.0000)       Med. >High > Low

  OLLS        2.76      .41       2.43      .39          2.02    .37     (p<.0000)       High > Med. > Low

  ELLS        2.52      .56       2.63      .56          2.18    .56     (p<.0000)       Med. > High > Low



                                   Table 4.4.
           Variation in Learners’ Reported Use of Strategy Categories
                          According To Their Gender

                       Females            Males
                       n=270              N=245
 STRATEGY                                                 Significance
CATEGORIES       Mean      S.D.     Mean      S.D.        level          Pattern of Variation

   CLLS          2.56      .36      2.43      .40         (p<.0001)      Females > Males

   OLLS          2.48      .40      2.38      .53         (p<.018)       Females > Males

   ELLS          2.55      .53      2.34      .62         (p<.0000)      Females > Males


                                    Table 4.5.
             Variation in Learners Reported Use of Strategy Categories
                              According To Ethnicity

                     Indians         Chinese                Malays
                      n=83            n=227                 n=205
 STRATEGY                                                                Significance
CATEGORIES      Mean      S.D.     Mean      S.D.        Mean    S.D.    level           Pattern of Variation

   CLLS         2.63      .33      2.46      .36         2.50    .43     (p<.005)        Indians>Malays>Chinese

   OLLS         2.57      .50      2.47      .50         2.32    .48     (p<.0001)       Indians>Chinese> Malays

   ELLS         2.48      .56      2.47      .55         2.44    .63      n.s.
                                                          5




                                         Table 4.6.
                Variation in Learners’ Reported Use of Strategy Categories
                                 According To Class Size

                       Larger            Neither Large              Smaller
                       Classes               nor                    Classes
                                         Small Classes
                        n=206                n=190                   N=119
 STRATEGY                                                                           Significance
CATEGORIES          Mean     S.D.        Mean      S.D.        Mean      S.D.       level             Pattern of Variation
                                                                                                      Smaller > Larger
        CLLS        2.53     .35         2.39      .40         2.63      .35        (p<.000)          Larger > Neither

        OLLS        2.48     .45         2.40      .57         2.41      .43         n.s.

        ELLS        2.52     .35         2.39      .35         2.63      .35         n.s.


    .

                                        Table 4.7.
        Variation in Learners’ Reported Use of Strategy Categories by the Extent of
                   Their Reported Use of English Outside the Classroom

                       High-user           Low-user
                        n=135               n=380
 STRATEGY                                                      Significance
CATEGORIES          Mean         S.D.    Mean     S.D.         level               Pattern of Variation

        CLLS        2.57         .38     2.47     .38          (p<.0059)           High > Low

        OLLS        2.88         .37     2.27     .43          (p<.0000)           High > Low

        ELLS        2.52         .55     2.42     .59          n.s



                                        Figure 4.4
           Summary of Learners’ Reported Use of Three Strategy Categories
          Varying Significantly According To the Various Independent Variables

STRATEGY CATEGORIES                Language Performance   Gender       Ethnicity   Class Size   Extent of Use of English
Classroom Language Learning
Strategies Category (CLLS)                Yes                 Yes       Yes          Yes                Yes
Out-of-Class Language Learning
Strategies Category (OLLS)                Yes                 Yes       Yes                              Yes
Exam Language Learning
Strategies Category (ELLS)                Yes                 Yes
                                                       6


                                         Table 4.8.
     Individual Strategies Exhibiting Significant Variation by Language Performance
                                                                   % of High Use       (3 or 4)
                                                           High-          Medium-      Low-            observed
Individual Strategy Item                                   achievers      achievers    achievers          x
I. Positive Variation
(used more frequently by more successfull learners)
OLLS 1 Converse in English with parents at home *                    56           14               4      182.47
OLLS 25 Read English newspapers/magazines *                          78           45              17      182.33
OLLS 2 Converse in English with friends in school *                  56           19               7       176.9
OLLS 3 Converse in Eng. with friends out of school *                 57           19               7      158.29
OLLS 33 Read English story books *                                   70           39              13       148.7
OLLS 4 Converse in English with teachers in school *                 54           18               9      133.81
OLLS 30 Guess meaning form context (in reading) *                    84           64              31      129.13
CLLS 12 Speak Only English in class *                                59           20              16      124.29
OLLS 14 Think in English *                                           53           22              11      121.77
OLLS 24 Write letters in English *                                   55           23               8      121.68
OLLS 6 Look for opportunities to use English *                       74           49              28      106.98
OLLS 5 Get parents to correct usage of English *                     64           34              18       92.55
OLLS 16 Listen to parents’ speech *                                  64           35              32       91.52
OLLS 13 Talk to oneself in English *                                 55           39              18       90.67
OLLS 8 Correct ones own speech *                                     91           77              49       87.87
OLLS 17 Listen to English news *                                     66           46              26       83.82
OLLS 7 Attend functions conducted in English *                       57           28              12       82.96
OLLS 22 Watch English T.V. programs *                                77           61              36       81.66
OLLS 31 Get general meaning first (in reading) *                     78           56              39       75.32
OLLS 20 Memorize lyrics of English songs *                           71           61              38       66.15
OLLS 10 Think of what to say direct in English *                     57           44              29       65.08
CLLS 19 Be brave to speak English in class *                         74           59              40       63.04
OLLS 29 Use newly learnt/read vocabulary *                           72           58              35       62.42
OLLS 19 Understand lyrics of English songs *                         83           70              56       56.77
OLLS 9 Ask for repetition during conversation *                      76           62              45          55.8
ELLS 6 Study grammar book *                                          49           47              27       47.53
OLLS 26 Use English-English dictionary *                             64           53              39       43.99
OLLS 23 Watch English movies *                                       58           45              28       42.99
ELLS 5 Do past exams papers *                                        58           56              31       42.59
OLLS 18 Listen to English radio programs *                           59           41              26          39.7
CLLS 10 Answer silently to oneself *                                 75           71              52       37.18
OLLS 15 Practice Reading alound *                                    59           54              34       36.83
CLLS 14 Discuss with parents at home *                               43           27              20          36.5
OLLS 36 Make use of computer programs *                              25           18               6       28.32
ELLS 7 Join a discussion group *                                     22           17               8          25.1
OLLS 35 Practice essay writing *                                     22           17               8          23.8
CLLS 6 Ask teacher to clarify *                                      54           49              33       22.54
OLLS 28 Read sample sentences in the dictionary *                    81           72              65       22.28
CLLS 5 Pay attention in class *                                      82           70              66       20.15
CLLS 9 Volunteer to answer questions when sure *                     61           60              45       16.62
ELLS 4 Memorize essay formats **                                     76           70              58       15.49
CLLS 13 Discuss with friends after class **                          57           54              40       13.62
                                                              7


                                                                           % of    High Use (3 or 4)
                                                                  High-            Medium-        Low-           observed
      Individual Strategy Item                                    achievers        achievers      achievers         x
      II. Negative Variation
      (used more frequently by less successfull learners)
      OLLS 11 Translate what to say in L1 first *                            27              62            68        108.75
      OLLS 27 Use English-Malay dictionary *                                 43              71            72           52.39
      CLLS 1 Read textbook beforehand *                                       6              12            13           30.71


      III Mixed Variation
      CLLS 17 Translate everything into L1*                                  30              67            58           85.92
      ELLS 3 Do exercises in the workbook *                                  66              72            49           30.18
      ELLS 1 Read over notes/exercises *                                     59              73            51           20.72
      CLLS 2 Do exercises beforehand **                                      26              34            24           16.05


    Note: * p <.01, ** p <.05
         Critical value of x2 = 12.69 (df = 2) p > .05


                                   Figure 4.5.
    An Example of a Strategy Item Showing Authentic Language Use (Speaking)

                     OLLS Item 3, Converse In English With Friends Out Of School

     Low Achievers
                                                                                                                    High Use
  Medium Achievers                                                                                                  Low Use

    High Achievers

                     0      10         20     30    40      50        60      70        80         90      100
                                                         Percentage




                                                       Low Use                                          High Use
                                 n          Response         %                       Response                 %
High Achievers                   193            83           43                         110                   57
Medium Achievers                 170           137           81                          33                   19
Low Achievers                    152           142           93                          10                    7
Note: x2 = 158.29 (df = 2), p <.05
                                                          8


                                   Figure 4.6.
    An Example of a Strategy Item Showing Authentic Language Use (Reading)
                               OLLS Item 33, Read English Story Books

     Low Achievers

                                                                                                   High Use
  Medium Achievers
                                                                                                   Low Use

    High Achievers

                     0   10         20     30   40      50        60   70     80   90      100
                                                     Percentage




                                                    Low Use                             High Use
                              n          Response         %                 Response          %
High Achievers                193            57           30                   136            70
Medium Achievers              170           104           61                    66            39
Low Achievers                 152           132           87                    20            13
Note: x2 = 148.70 (df = 2), p <.05

                                  Figure 4.7.
   An Example of a Strategy Item Showing Authentic Language Use (Listening)
                               OLLS Item 16, Listen To Parents' Speech

     Low Achievers

                                                                                                   High Use
  Medium Achievers
                                                                                                   Low Use

    High Achievers


                     0   10         20     30   40      50        60   70     80   90      100
                                                     Percentage




                                                    Low Use                             High Use
                              n          Response         %                 Response          %
High Achievers                193            70           36                   123            64
Medium Achievers              170           111           65                    59            35
Low Achievers                 152           119           68                    33            32
Note: x2 = 91.52 (df = 2), p <.05
                                                          9


                                    Figure 4.8.
       An Example of a Strategy Item Showing Getting Out of Class Assistance
                 OLLS Item 5, Get Parents To Correct Usage Of English At Home

     Low Achievers
                                                                                                   High Use
  Medium Achievers                                                                                 Low Use

    High Achievers

                     0   10         20     30   40      50        60   70     80   90      100
                                                     Percentage




                                                    Low Use                             High Use
                              n          Response         %                 Response          %
High Achievers                193            69           36                   124            64
Medium Achievers              170           112           66                    58            34
Low Achievers                 152           124           82                    28            18
Note: x2 = 92.55 (df = 2), p <.05

                                      Figure 4.9.
           An Example of a Strategy Item Showing Making Use of the Media
                                OLLS Item 17, Listen To English News

     Low Achievers

                                                                                                   High Use
  Medium Achievers
                                                                                                   Low Use

    High Achievers


                     0   10         20     30   40      50        60   70     80   90      100
                                                     Percentage




                                                    Low Use                             High Use
                              n          Response         %                 Response          %
High Achievers                193            65           34                   128            66
Medium Achievers              170            92           54                    78            46
Low Achievers                 152           112           74                    40            26
Note: x2 = 83.82 (df = 2), p <.05
                                              10



  Variation in Reported Use of Individual Strategies by Gender
                                         Table 4.9.
        Individual Strategies Exhibiting Significant Variation According To Gender
                                                              % of High Use
                                                                 (3 or 4)    observed
   Individual Strategy Item                                   Female Male        x
   I. Strategies Used Significantly More
      Often by Female Students

   CLLS 4 Sit near front rows *                           56      31           33.94
   ELLS 3 Do exercises in workbook *                      70      55           25.63
   OLLS 15 Practice reading aloud *                       56      43           19.06
   CLLS 11 Use dictionary in class *                      50      43           18.86
   CLLS 17 Translate everything in L1 *                   56      44           17.97
   OLLS 24 Write letters in English *                     32      30           17.74
   ELLS 5 Do past exam papers *                           53      45            17.2
   CLLS 13 Discuss with friends after class *             59      42           17.11
   ELLS 4 Memorize essay formats *                        76      61           14.53
   OLLS 13 Talk to oneself in English *                   41      37           13.44
   OLLS 14 Think in English *                             32      29           12.89
   ELLS 1 Read over notes/exercises*                      68      54           12.54
   ELLS 6 Study grammar book *                            50      35            11.9
   OLLS 17 Listen to English news *                       52      43           11.88
   CLLS 16 Listen to teacher’s speech *                   80      66           10.83
   OLLS 12 Self-monitoring **                             59      56           10.69
   OLLS 27 Use English-Malay dictionary **                66      54           10.39
   CLLS 7 Ask friends clarify **                          72      62           10.31
   OLLS 28 Read sample sentences in dictionary **         77      69            9.55
   OLLS 26 Use English-English dictionary **              57      48            8.99
   OLLS 31 Get general meaning first (when reading) **    63      54            8.74


   II. Strategies Used Significantly More
       Often by Male Students

   OLLS 23 Watch English movies *                         42      53           15.02
   CLLS 1 Read texbook beforehand *                        7      12            11.5
   OLLS 25 Read English newspapers/magazines **           45      53            7.81


Note: *p<.01, **p<.05
     Critical Value of x2 = 7.80 (df = 1) p < .05
                                                        11



                        Variation of Individual Strategies by Class Size
                                               Table 4.10
             Individual Strategies Exhibiting Significant Variation According To Class Size

                                                               % of High use (3 or 4)
                                                                    Neither
                                                                    Large nor
                                                         Large      Small      Smaller           Observed
  Individual Strategy Item                               classes    classes    classes             x
  I. Mixed Variation
  CLLS 17 Translate everything into L1 *                          44         42             75       52.39
  CLLS 12 Speak only English in class *                           37         38             20       42.58
  OLLS 6 Look for opportunities to use Eng.*                      59         43             52       33.56
  CLLS 2 Do exercises beforehand *                                32         20             33       31.55
  CLLS 1 Read textbook beforehand *                               11          7             10       23.86
  OLLS 34 Take private tuition *                                  33         24             30       20.64
  OLLS 22 Watch English T.V. programs *                           61         59             60       19.53
  CLLS 19 Be brave to speak English *                             53         43             63       19.04
  CLLS 13 Discuss with friends after class *                      53         41             60       17.93
  CLLS 16 Listen to teacher’s speech **                           78         65             77       15.87
  CLLS 8 Volunteer to answer questions **                         18         22             17       14.48
  CLLS 3 Sit near bright students **                              45         40             52       14.32
  CLLS 15 Read over class work **                                 26         19             27       14.19
  CLLS 4 Sit near front rows **                                   43         40             52       12.99
  CLLS 18 Get help from friends nearby **                         71         70             82       12.74

Note: * p <.01, ** p <.05
     Critical Value of x2 = 12.70 (df = 2) p < .05

                                   Figure 4.10.
      An Example of a Strategy Item with “L > S > N” Type of Mixed Variation
                                  CLS Item 1, Read Textbook Beforehand


     Smaller Classes
                                                                                                 High Use
  Neither Large/Small                                                                            Low Use

      Larger Classes

                        82   84      86    88      90        92   94    96    98      100
                                                   Percentage




                                                 Low Use                           High Use
                             n        Response         %               Response          %
Larger Classes               206         183           89                 23             11
Neither Large/Small          190         176           93                 14              7
Smaller Classes              119         107           90                 12             10
Note: x2 = 23.68 (df = 2), p <.05

                                                 Figure 4.11.
                                                          12


      An Example of a Strategy Item with “S > L > N” Type of Mixed Variation
                                     CLLS Item 3, Sit Near Bright Students


      Low Achievers
                                                                                                   High Use
  Medium Achievers                                                                                 Low Use


     High Achievers

                      0   10         20     30   40      50        60   70     80   90     100
                                                      Percentage




                                                     Low Use                            High Use
                              n           Response         %                 Response         %
High Achievers                193            107           55                   86            45
Medium Achievers              170             88           52                   82            48
Low Achievers                 152             90           59                   62            41
Note: x2 = 14.34 (df = 2), p <.05




                                   Figure 4.12.
      An Example of a Strategy Item with “N > L > S” Type of Mixed Variation
                               CLLS Item 18, Get Help From Friends Nearby


      Low Achievers
                                                                                                   High Use
  Medium Achievers                                                                                 Low Use

     High Achievers

                      0   10         20     30   40      50        60   70     80   90     100
                                                      Percentage




                                                     Low Use                            High Use
                               n          Response         %                 Response         %
High Achievers                 193           65            34                   128           66
Medium Achievers               170           34            20                   136           80
Low Achievers                  152           39            26                   113           74
Note: x2 = 14.48 (df = 2), p <.05
                                                   13



                  Variation of Individual Strategies by Ethnicity
                                              Table 4.11
            Individual Strategies Exhibiting Significant Variation According To Ethnicity

                                                           % of High use (3 or 4) Observed
Individual Strategy Item                                Indians Chinese Malays       x
Pattern I. Indians > Chinese > Malays

OLLS 4 Converse in Eng. with teachers in shcool*             48        43        7          84.24
OLLS 3 Converse in English with friends in school*           46        42       12          73.22
OLLS 2 Converse in Eng. with friends out of school*          46        37       14          60.63
OLLS 1 Converse in English with parents*                     46        29       15          59.21
OLLS 24 Write letter in English*                             39        38       18          51.21
OLLS 14 Think in English*                                    42        35       20          49.82
OLLS 10 Think of what to say direct in English*              65        51       38          46.92
CLLS 12 Speak only English in class*                         47        39       22          41.15
OLLS 13 Talk to oneself in English*                          58        38       31          40.26
OLLS 6 Look for opportunites to use English*                 64        53       47          32.54
OLLS 25 Read English newspapers/magazines*                   68        48       43          27.42
OLLS 7 Attend functions conducted in English*                36        34       22          26.57
OLLS 12 Self-monitoring*                                     75        56       53          24.07
OLLS 23 Watch English movies*                                48        46       42          23.16
OLLS 16 Listen to parents' speech*                           60        39       37          22.42
OLLS 30 Guess meaning from context*                          68        66       56          20.54
CLLS 10 Answer silently to oneself **                        81        69       59          20.11
CLLS 8 Volunteer to answer questions**                       33        17       16          20.04
CLLS 19 Be brave to speak English in class**                 72        57       55          18.52
OLLS 35 Practice essay writing**                             24        16       14          17.29
CLLS 1 Read textbook beforehand**                            17        11        6           9.38


Pattern II. Malays > Chinese > Indians
CLLS 17 Translate everything into L1*                        37        59       69          69.98
OLLS 11 Translate what to say into L1*                       41        51       63          53.71
OLLS 27 Use English-Malay dictionary*                        51        64       71          46.32


Pattern III. Indians > Malays > Chinese
CLLS 4 Sit near front rows*                                  53        39       47          23.01
CLLS 16 Listen to teacher's speech**                         81        69       76          21.16
CLLS 15 Read over class work**                               35        19       24          19.52
CLLS 3 Sit near bright students**                            49        41       48          17.17

Note: *p<.01, **p<.05
     Critical Value of x2 = 16.7 (df = 2) p <.05
                                              14


                                           Table 4.12
            Individual Strategies Exhibiting Significant Variation According To The
              Extent of Learners’ Reported Use of English Outside the Classroom
                                                               % of High use (3 or 4)
                                                               High-user Low-user Observed
Individual Strategy Item                                       of Eng.   of Eng.
                                                                         of Eng.      x
I. Strategies Used Significantly More
   Often by High-user of English
OLLS 3 Converse in Eng. with friends out of school*                    84        10   304.41
OLLS 2 Converse in English with friends in school*                     82        10   290.38
OLLS 1 Converse in English with parents at home*                       78         9   276.47
OLLS 4 Converse in English with teachers in school*                    74        13   204.24
CLLS 12 Speak only English in class*                                   77        18   196.86
OLLS 14 Think in English*                                              71        16   177.73
OLLS 24 Write letters in English*                                      73        15   166.87
OLLS 25 Read English newspapers/magazines*                             86        36   129.34
OLLS 13 Talk to oneself in English*                                    72        27   121.04
OLLS 6 Look for opportunities to use English*                          82        42   113.12
CLLS 19 Be brave to speak English in class*                            81        51    86.48
OLLS 10 Think of what to say direct in English*                        76        38    86.23
OLLS 33 Read English story books*                                      75        32    85.82
OLLS 5 Get parents to correct usage of English                         69        31    73.92
OLLS 7 Attend functions conducted in English*                          56        22    67.62
OLLS 17 Listen to English news*                                        74        39    58.94
OLLS 30 Guess meaning from context (when reading)*                     84        55    40.41
OLLS 8 Correct ones own speech*                                        93        67    37.16
OLLS 31 Get general meaning first (when reading)*                      79        52    31.42
OLLS 9 Ask for repitition during conversation*                         76        58    30.83
OLLS 18 Listen to English radio programs                               59        38    30.23
CLLS 6 Ask teacher to clarify*                                         62        41    27.48
OLLS 22 Watch English T.V. programs*                                   76        54    27.04
OLLS 26 Use English-English dictionary*                                67        48    25.86
OLLS 23 Watch English movies*                                          62        39    23.62
OLLS 35 Practice essay writing*                                        24        13    22.36
OLLS 15 Practice reading aloud*                                        65        45    22.15
OLLS 16 Listen to parents' speech*                                     67        33    19.94
OLLS 29 Use newly learnt/read vocabulary*                              71        51    19.86
CLLS 8 Volunteer to answer questions*                                  29        16    18.71
OLLS 20 Memorize lyrics of English songs*                              68        54    16.51
OLLS 36 Make use of computers*                                         27        14    15.63
CLLS 14 Discuss with parents at home*                                  42        27    14.88
CLLS 10 Answer silently to oneself*                                    78        63    14.54
OLLS 19 Understand lyrics of English songs**                           79        68    13.04
CLLS 9 Volunteer to answer question when sure*                         64        53    10.22
ELLS 6 Study grammar book**                                            51        39     9.25
CLLS 15 Read over class work**                                         30        21     8.29
ELLS 4 Memorize essay formats**                                        78        65     7.82


II. Strategies Used Significantly More
    Often by Low-user of English
OLLS 11 Translate what to say in L1 first*                             19        62   162.06
CLLS 17 Translate everthing into L1*                                   19        62   119.35
OLLS 27 Use English-Malay dictionary*                                  38        69    53.69
CLLS 18 Get help from friends nearby**                                 63        76    10.84
                                                        15



                                                 Factor Analysis

         Table 4.13. Lists of the 9 Factors Extracted
                                                             Factor
FACTORS                                                      Weight
Factor 1: Strategies for Using the Language
OLLS 3 Converse in English with friends out of school        .87
OLLS 2 Converse in English with friends in school            .84
OLLS 4 Converse in English with teachers in school           .78
OLLS 1 Converse in English with parents at home              .74
CLLS 12 Speak only English in class                          .72
OLLS 14 Think in English                                     .72
OLLS 24 Write letters in English                             .69
OLLS 9 Ask to repeat if don’t understand conversation        .63
OLLS 25 Read English newspapers/magazines                    .62
OLLS 13 Talk to oneself in English                           .61
OLLS 6 Look for opportunities to the English                 .57
CLLS 17 Translate everything into L1                         .52
OLLS 7 Attend functions conducted in English                 .51
OLLS 10 Think of what to say direct in English               .50
OLLS 33 Read English story books                             .48
CLLS 19 Be brave to speak English in class                   .43
Factor 2: Strategies for Exams Preparation
ELLS 1   Read over notes/exercises                           .67
ELLS 4   Memorise essay formats                              .66
ELLS 3   Do exercises in workbook                            .64
ELLS 6   Study grammar book                                  .62
ELLS 5   Do past exams papers                                .53
ELLS 2   Read over textbook                                  .43
Factor 3: Strategies for Utilising English Media
OLLS 19 Understand lyrics of English songs                   .80
OLLS 20 Memorise lyrics of English songs                     .76
OLLS 18 Listen to English radio programs                      53
OLLS 22 Watch English T.V. programs                          .53
OLLS 23 Watch English movies                                 .42
OLLS 17 Listen to English news                               .42
Factor 4: Strategies for Dealing with New Words
OLLS 30 Guess meaning from context                           .58
OLLS 31 Get general meaning first                            .57
OLLS 29 Use newly learnt vocabulary                          .54
OLLS 28 Read sample sentence in dictionary                   .51
Factor 5: Strategies for Centring Learning
CLLS 5 Pay attention in class                                .63
CLLS 16 Listen to teacher’s speech                           .60
CLLS 15 Read over class work                                 .42
Factor 6: Out of Class Social Learning Strategies
CLLS 14 Discuss with parents at home                         .74
OLLS 5 Get parents to correct usage of English               .67
OLLS 16 Listen to parents’ speech                            .56
Factor 7: Classroom Social Learning Strategies
CLLS 7 Ask friends to clarify                                .78
CLLS 13 Discuss with friends                                 .68
CLLS 18 Get help from friends nearby                         .65
Factor 8: Classroom Advance Preparation Strategies
CLLS 1 Read textbook beforehand                              .65
CLLS 2 Do exercises beforehand                               .62
Factor 9: Classroom Physical Restructuring Strategies
CLLS 3 Sit near bright students                              .64
CLLS 4 Sit near front rows                                   .59
                                                                 16



                   Factors Strongly Related to Language Performance

   Table 4.14 A Summary of How Each Factor Relates to Language Performance
                                                                           Factor        Variation by
FACTORS                                                                    Weight        Language Performance
Factor 1: Strategies for Using the Language
OLLS 3 Converse in English with friends out of school                      .87           Positive
OLLS 2 Converse in English with friends in school                          .84           Positive
OLLS 4 Converse in English with teachers in school                         .78           Positive
OLLS 1 Converse in English with parents at home                            .74           Positive
CLLS 12 Speak only English in class                                        .72           Positive
OLLS 14 Think in English                                                   .72           Positive
OLLS 24 Write letters in English                                           .69           Positive
OLLS 9 Ask to repeat if don’t understand conversation                      .63           Positive
OLLS 25 Read English newspapers/magazines                                  .62           Positive
OLLS 13 Talk to oneself In English                                         .61           Positive
OLLS 6 Look for opportunities to the English                               .57           Positive
CLLS 17 Translate everything into L1                                       .52           Mixed
OLLS 7 Attend functions conducted in English                               .51           Positive
OLLS 10 Think of what to say direct in English                             .50           Positive
OLLS 33 Read English story books                                           .48           Positive
CLLS 19 Be brave to speak English in class                                 .43           Positive
Factor 2: Strategies for Exam Preparation
ELLS 1 Read over notes/exercises                                           .67           Mixed
ELLS4 Memorise essay formats                                               .66           Positive
ELLS3 Do exercises in workbook                                             .64           Mixed
ELLS6 Study grammar book                                                   .62           Positive
ELLS5 Do past exams paper                                                  .53           Positive
ELLS2 Read over textbook                                                   .43             -
Factor 3: Strategies for Utilising English Media
OLLS 19 Understand lyrics of English songs                                 .80           Positive
OLLS 20 Memorise lyrics of English songs                                   .76           Positive
OLLS 18 Listen to English radio programs                                    53           Positive
OLLS 22 Watch English T.V. programs                                        .53           Positive
OLLS 23 Watch English movies                                               .42           Positive
OLLS 17 Listen to English news                                             .42           Positive
Factor 4: Strategies for Dealing with New Words
OLLS 30 Guess meaning from context                                         .58           Positive
OLLS 31 Get general meaning first                                          .57           Positive
OLLS 29 Use newly learnt vocabulary                                        .54           Positive
OLLS 28 Read sample sentence in dictionary                                 .51           Positive
Factor 5: Strategies for Centring Learning
CLLS 5 Pay attention in class                                              .63              -
CLLS 16 Listen to the teacher’s speech                                     .60              -
CLLS 15 Read over class work                                               .42              -
Factor 6: Out of class Social Learning Strategies
CLLS 14 Discuss with parents at home                                       .74           Positive
OLLS 5 Get parents to correct usage of English                             .67           Positive
OLLS 16 Listen to parents’ speech                                          .56           Positive
Factor 7: Classroom Social Learning Strategies
CLLS 7 Ask friends to clarify                                              .78              -
CLLS 13 Discuss with friends                                               .68           Positive
CLLS 18 Get help from friends nearby                                       .65              -
Factor 8: Advance Preparation Strategies
CLLS 1 Read textbook beforehand                                            .65           Negative
CLLS 2 Do exercises beforehand                                             .62           Mixed
Factor 9: Classroom Physical Restructuring Strategies
CLLS 3 Sit near bright students                                            .69             -
CLLS 4 Sit near front rows                                                 .59             -
Note: Positive = item which shows significant positive variation, Negative = item which shows significant negative variation
      Mixed = item which shows significant mixed variation, - = item which shows no significant variation
                                                               17




                                 Factors Strongly Related to Gender

           Table 4.15. A Summary of How Each Factor Relates to Gender
                                                                         Factor        Variation by
FACTORS                                                                  Weight        Gender
Factor 1: Strategies for Using the Language
OLLS 3 Converse in English with friends out of school                    .87             -
OLLS 2 Converse in English with friends in school                        .84             -
OLLS 4 Converse in English with teachers in school                       .78             -
OLLS 1 Converse in English with parents at home                          .74             -
CLLS 12 Speak only English in class                                      .72             -
OLLS 14 Think in English                                                 .72           Females > Males
OLLS 24 Write letters in English                                         .69           Females > Males
OLLS 9 Ask to repeat if don’t understand conversation                    .63             -
OLLS 25 Read English newspapers/magazines                                .62           Males > Females
OLLS 13 Talk to oneself In English                                       .61           Females > Males
OLLS 6 Look for opportunities to the English                             .57             -
CLLS 17 Translate everything into L1                                     .52           Females > Males
OLLS 7 Attend functions conducted in English                             .51             -
OLLS 10 Think of what to say direct in English                           .50             -
OLLS 33 Read English story books                                         .48             -
CLLS 19 Be brave to speak English in class                               .43             -

Factor 2: Strategies for Exam Preparation
ELLS 1 Read over notes/exercises                                         .67           Females > Males
ELLS4 Memorise essay formats                                             .66           Females > Males
ELLS3 Do exercises in workbook                                           .64           Females > Males
ELLS6 Study grammar book                                                 .62           Females > Males
ELLS5 Do past exams paper                                                .53           Females > Males
ELLS2 Read over textbook                                                 .43             -
Factor 3: Strategies for Utilising English Media
OLLS 19 Understand lyrics of English songs                               .80             -
OLLS 20 Memorise lyrics of English songs                                 .76             -
OLLS 18 Listen to English radio programs                                  53             -
OLLS 22 Watch English T.V. programs                                      .53             -
OLLS 23 Watch English movies                                             .42           Males > Females
OLLS 17 Listen to English news                                           .42           Females > Males
Factor 4: Strategies for Dealing with New Words
OLLS 30 Guess meaning from context                                       .58             -
OLLS 31 Get general meaning first                                        .57           Females > Males
OLLS 29 Use newly learnt vocabulary                                      .54             -
OLLS 28 Read sample sentence in dictionary                               .51           Females > Males
Factor 5: Strategies for Centring Learning
CLLS 5 Pay attention in class                                            .63             -
CLLS 16 Listen to the teacher’s speech                                   .60           Females > Males
CLLS 15 Read over class work                                             .42             -
Factor 6: Out of class Social Learning Strategies
CLLS 14 Discuss with parents at home                                     .74             -
OLLS 5 Get parents to correct usage of English                           .67             -
OLLS 16 Listen to parents’ speech                                        .56             -
Factor 7: Classroom Social Learning Strategies
CLLS 7 Ask friends to clarify                                            .78           Females > Males
CLLS 13 Discuss with friends                                             .68           Females > Males
CLLS 18 Get help from friends nearby                                     .65
Factor 8: Advance Preparation Strategies
CLLS 1 Read textbook beforehand                                          .65           Males > Females
CLLS 2 Do exercises beforehand                                           .62             -
Factor 9: Classroom Physical Restructuring Strategies
CLLS 3 Sit near bright students                                          .69             -
CLLS 4 Sit near front rows                                               .59           Females > Males

Note: Females > Males = item used significantly more often by females than by males
Males > Females = item used significantly more often by males than by females, - = item which shows no significant variation
                                                              18



                              Factors Strongly Related to Ethnicity

              Table 4.16. A Summary of How Each Factor Relates to Ethnicity
                                                                        Factor
FACTORS                                                                 Weight         Variation by Ethnicity
Factor 1: Strategies for Using the Language
OLLS 3 Converse in English with friends out of school                   .87            Indian > Chinese > Malay
OLLS 2 Converse in English with friends in school                       .84            Indian > Chinese > Malay
OLLS 4 Converse in English with teachers in school                      .78            Indian > Chinese > Malay
OLLS 1 Converse in English with parents at home                         .74            Indian > Chinese > Malay
CLLS 12 Speak only English in class                                     .72            Indian > Chinese > Malay
OLLS 14 Think in English                                                .72            Indian > Chinese > Malay
OLLS 24 Write letters in English                                        .69            Indian > Chinese > Malay
OLLS 9 Ask to repeat if don’t understand conversation                   .63               -
OLLS 25 Read English newspapers/magazines                               .62            Indian > Chinese > Malay
OLLS 13 Talk to oneself In English                                      .61            Indian > Chinese > Malay
OLLS 6 Look for opportunities to the English                            .57            Indian > Chinese > Malay
CLLS 17 Translate everything into L1                                    .52            Malay > Chinese > Indian
OLLS 7 Attend functions conducted in English                            .51            Indian > Chinese > Malay
OLLS 10 Think of what to say direct in English                          .50            Indian > Chinese > Malay
OLLS 33 Read English story books                                        .48               -
CLLS 19 Be brave to speak English in class                              .43            Indian > Chinese > Malay
Factor 2: Strategies for Exam Preparation
ELLS 1 Read over notes/exercises                                        .67              -
ELLS4 Memorise essay formats                                            .66              -
ELLS3 Do exercises in workbook                                          .64              -
ELLS6 Study grammar book                                                .62              -
ELLS5 Do past exams paper                                               .53              -
ELLS2 Read over textbook                                                .43              -
Factor 3: Strategies for Utilising English Media
OLLS 19 Understand lyrics of English songs                              .80              -
OLLS 20 Memorise lyrics of English songs                                .76              -
OLLS 18 Listen to English radio programs                                 53              -
OLLS 22 Watch English T.V. programs                                     .53              -
OLLS 23 Watch English movies                                            .42            Indian > Chinese > Malay
OLLS 17 Listen to English news                                          .42              -
Factor 4: Strategies for Dealing with New Words
OLLS 30 Guess meaning from context                                      .58            Indian > Chinese > Malay
OLLS 31 Get general meaning first                                       .57              -
OLLS 29 Use newly learnt vocabulary                                     .54              -
OLLS 28 Read sample sentence in dictionary                              .51              -
Factor 5: Strategies for Centring Learning
CLLS 5 Pay attention in class                                           .63               -
CLLS 16 Listen to the teacher’s speech                                  .60            Indian > Chinese > Malay
CLLS 15 Read over class work                                            .42            Indian > Chinese > Malay
Factor 6: Out of class Social Learning Strategies
CLLS 14 Discuss with parents at home                                    .74              -
OLLS 5 Get parents to correct usage of English                          .67              -
OLLS 16 Listen to parents’ speech                                       .56            Indian > Chinese > Malay
Factor 7: Classroom Social Learning Strategies
CLLS 7 Ask friends to clarify                                           .78              -
CLLS 13 Discuss with friends                                            .68              -
CLLS 18 Get help from friends nearby                                    .65              -
Factor 8: Advance Preparation Strategies
CLLS 1 Read textbook beforehand                                         .65            Indian > Chinese > Malay
CLLS 2 Do exercises beforehand                                          .62               -
Factor 9: Classroom Physical Restructuring Strategies
CLLS 3 Sit near bright students                                         .69            Indian > Chinese > Malay
CLLS 4 Sit near front rows                                              .59            Indian > Chinese > Malay
Note: Indian > Chinese > Malay = item which shows significant variation with Indian > Chinese > Malay
      Malay > Chinese > Indian = item which shows significant variation with Malay > Chinese > Indian
      - = item which shows no significant variation
                                                                19



                               Factors Strongly Related to Class Size

                      Table 4.17. A Summary of How Each Factor Relates to Class Size

                                                                        Factor        Variation by
FACTORS                                                                 Weight        Class Size
Factor 1: Strategies for Using the Language
OLLS 3 Converse in English with friends out of school                   .87              -
OLLS 2 Converse in English with friends in school                       .84              -
OLLS 4 Converse in English with teachers in school                      .78              -
OLLS 1 Converse in English with parents at home                         .74              -
CLLS 12 Speak only English in class                                     .72           Mixed
OLLS 14 Think in English                                                .72              -
OLLS 24 Write letters in English                                        .69              -
OLLS 9 Ask to repeat if don’t understand conversation                   .63              -
OLLS 25 Read English newspapers/magazines                               .62              -
OLLS 13 Talk to oneself In English                                      .61              -
OLLS 6 Look for opportunities to the English                            .57           Mixed
CLLS 17 Translate everything into L1                                    .52              -
OLLS 7 Attend functions conducted in English                            .51              -
OLLS 10 Think of what to say direct in English                          .50              -
OLLS 33 Read English story books                                        .48              -
CLLS 19 Be brave to speak English in class                              .43           Mixed
Factor 2: Strategies for Exam Preparation
ELLS 1 Read over notes/exercises                                        .67              -
ELLS4 Memorise essay formats                                            .66              -
ELLS3 Do exercises in workbook                                          .64              -
ELLS6 Study grammar book                                                .62              -
ELLS5 Do past exams paper                                               .53              -
ELLS2 Read over textbook                                                .43              -
Factor 3: Strategies for Utilising English Media
OLLS 19 Understand lyrics of English songs                              .80              -
OLLS 20 Memorise lyrics of English songs                                .76              -
OLLS 18 Listen to English radio programs                                 53              -
OLLS 22 Watch English T.V. programs                                     .53           Mixed
OLLS 23 Watch English movies                                            .42              -
OLLS 17 Listen to English news                                          .42              -
Factor 4: Strategies for Dealing with New Words
OLLS 30 Guess meaning from context                                      .58              -
OLLS 31 Get general meaning first                                       .57              -
OLLS 29 Use newly learnt vocabulary                                     .54              -
OLLS 28 Read sample sentence in dictionary                              .51              -
Factor 5: Strategies for Centring Learning
CLLS 5 Pay attention in class                                           .63              -
CLLS 16 Listen to the teacher’s speech                                  .60           Mixed
CLLS 15 Read over class work                                            .42           Mixed
Factor 6: Out of class Social Learning Strategies
CLLS 14 Discuss with parents at home                                    .74              -
OLLS 5 Get parents to correct usage of English                          .67              -
OLLS 16 Listen to parents’ speech                                       .56              -
Factor 7: Classroom Social Learning Strategies
CLLS 7 Ask friends to clarify                                           .78              -
CLLS 13 Discuss with friends                                            .68           Mixed
CLLS 18 Get help from friends nearby                                    .65           Mixed
Factor 8: Advance Preparation Strategies
CLLS 1 Read textbook beforehand                                         .65           Mixed
CLLS 2 Do exercises beforehand                                          .62           Mixed
Factor 9: Classroom Physical Restructuring Strategies
CLLS 3 Sit near bright students                                         .69           Mixed
CLLS 4 Sit near front rows                                              .59           Mixed
Note: Mixed = item which shows a mixed significant variation, - = item which shows no significant variation
                                                              20



                              Factors Strongly Related to the Extent
                              of Learners’ Reported Use of English

Table 4.18. A Summary of How Each Factor Relates to the Extent of Learners’ Use of English

                                                                        Factor         Variation by the Extent of Learners’
FACTORS                                                                 Weight         Reported Use of English Out of Class
Factor 1: Strategies for Using the Language
OLLS 3 Converse in English with friends out of school                   .87            High-user > Low-user
OLLS 2 Converse in English with friends in school                       .84            High-user > Low-user
OLLS 4 Converse in English with teachers in school                      .78            High-user > Low-user
OLLS 1 Converse in English with parents at home                         .74            High-user > Low-user
CLLS 12 Speak only English in class                                     .72            High-user > Low-user
OLLS 14 Think in English                                                .72            High-user > Low-user
OLLS 24 Write letters in English                                        .69            High-user > Low-user
OLLS 9 Ask to repeat if don’t understand conversation                   .63            High-user > Low-user
OLLS 25 Read English newspapers/magazines                               .62            High-user > Low-user
OLLS 13 Talk to oneself In English                                      .61            High-user > Low-user
OLLS 6 Look for opportunities to the English                            .57            High-user > Low-user
CLLS 17 Translate everything into L1                                    .52            Low-user > High-user
OLLS 7 Attend functions conducted in English                            .51            High-user > Low-user
OLLS 10 Think of what to say direct in English                          .50            High-user > Low-user
OLLS 33 Read English story books                                        .48            High-user > Low-user
CLLS 19 Be brave to speak English in class                              .43            High-user > Low-user
Factor 2: Strategies for Exam Preparation
ELLS 1 Read over notes/exercises                                        .67              -
ELLS4 Memorise essay formats                                            .66            High-user > Low-user
ELLS3 Do exercises in workbook                                          .64              -
ELLS6 Study grammar book                                                .62            High-user > Low-user
ELLS5 Do past exams paper                                               .53              -
ELLS2 Read over textbook                                                .43              -
Factor 3: Strategies for Utilising English Media
OLLS 19 Understand lyrics of English songs                              .80            High-user > Low-user
OLLS 20 Memorise lyrics of English songs                                .76            High-user > Low-user
OLLS 18 Listen to English radio programs                                 53            High-user > Low-user
OLLS 22 Watch English T.V. programs                                     .53            High-user > Low-user
OLLS 23 Watch English movies                                            .42            High-user > Low-user
OLLS 17 Listen to English news                                          .42            High-user > Low-user
Factor 4: Strategies for Dealing with New Words
OLLS 30 Guess meaning from context                                      .58            High-user > Low-user
OLLS 31 Get general meaning first                                       .57            High-user > Low-user
OLLS 29 Use newly learnt vocabulary                                     .54            High-user > Low-user
OLLS 28 Read sample sentence in dictionary                              .51              -
Factor 5: Strategies for Centring Learning
CLLS 5 Pay attention in class                                           .63              -
CLLS 16 Listen to the teacher’s speech                                  .60            High-user > Low-user
CLLS 15 Read over class work                                            .42              -
Factor 6: Out of class Social Learning Strategies
CLLS 14 Discuss with parents at home                                    .74            High-user > Low-user
OLLS 5 Get parents to correct usage of English                          .67            High-user > Low-user
OLLS 16 Listen to parents’ speech                                       .56            High-user > Low-user
Factor 7: Classroom Social Learning Strategies
CLLS 7 Ask friends to clarify                                           .78              -
CLLS 13 Discuss with friends                                            .68              -
CLLS 18 Get help from friends nearby                                    .65            Low-user > High-user
Factor 8: Advance Preparation Strategies
CLLS 1 Read textbook beforehand                                         .65              -
CLLS 2 Do exercises beforehand                                          .62              -
Factor 9: Classroom Physical Restructuring Strategies
CLLS 3 Sit near bright students                                         .69              -
CLLS 4 Sit near front rows                                              .59              -
Note: High-user > Low-user = item used significantly more often by high-user than low-user of English
      Low-user > High-user = item used significantly more often by low-user than high user of English
      - = items which shows no significant variation
                                                     21


   Table 4.19. A Summary of Factors Strongly Related to the Various Independent Variables

                                                      Language                           Class   Extent of
FACTORS                                               Performance   Gender   Ethnicity   Size    Use
                                                                                                 of English
Factor 1: Strategies for Using the Language               Yes                  Yes                  Yes
Factor 2: Strategies for Exams Preparation                           Yes
Factor 3: Strategies for Utilising English Media          Yes                                      Yes
Factor 4: Strategies for Dealing with New Words           Yes                                      Yes
Factor 5: Strategies for Centring Learning                                    Yes         Yes
Factor 6: Out of class Social Learning Strategies         Yes                                      Yes
Factor 7: Classroom Social Learning Strategies                       Yes                  Yes
Factor 8: C/room Advance Preparation Strategies                                           Yes
Factor 9: C/room Physical Restructuring Strategies                            Yes         Yes


    Does Learners’ Strategy Use Vary Significantly With Language Performance?
          If So, What Is the Main Pattern of Variation That Exists? (RQ3)
     Overall Reported Strategy Use
     1. ANOVA results show significant variation in learners’ overall reported strategy use according to
        their language performance - with high language achievers reporting greater overall strategy use
        than low language achievers.
     Categories of Reported Strategy Use
     1. ANOVA results show significant variation in learners’ reported use of all the three strategy
        categories (CLLS, OLLS & ELLS) according to their language performance.
     2. Medium achievers report greater use of strategies than high and low achievers in the way they learn
        English in the classroom (CLLS) and in the way they prepare for their English examinations (ELLS)
     3. High achievers report greater strategy use than medium and low achievers in learning English out
        of the classroom (OLLS).
     4. Low achievers report lesser strategy use than high and medium achievers whether learning English
        in the classroom (CLLS) or out of the classroom (OLLS) or preparing for their English exams
        (ELLS).
     Individual Items of Reported Strategy Use
     1. Chi-square tests show that a large portion (79%) of learners’ reported use of individual strategy
        items vary significantly according to their language performance.
     2. The main pattern of variation that exists is a positive one indicating that high achievers report
        greater strategy use than low achievers.
     3. Half of the individual strategy items which show significant positive variation by learners’ language
        performance are related to authentic language use - indicating that high achievers report greater use
        of strategies for using the language naturalistically than low achievers.
     4. Other individual strategy items which show significant positive variation by learners’ language
        performance are related to a) making use of parents and b) making use of English media - indicating
        that high achievers report greater use of strategies relating to utilising parents and English media
        than low achievers.
     Underlying Relationship
     1. Results of factor analysis show that Factor 1 (Strategies for Using the Language), Factor 3 (Strategies
        for Utilising the Media), Factor 4 (Strategies for Dealing with New Words) and Factor 6
        (Out-of-class Social Learning Strategies) relate strongly to learners’ language performance.

     2. The main underlying relationship between learners’ reported strategy use and their language
        performance is a positive variation in the use of mainly Out-of-class Language Learning Strategies -
        indicating that high language achievers differ significantly from low achievers in the way they learn
        English out of the classroom compared to the way they learn English in the classroom and in
        preparation for their English examinations, particularly in strategies related to using the language,
        utilising English media and parents, and dealing with new words.
                                                   22


Does Learners’ Strategy Use Vary Significantly With Social Factors (Gender and
 Ethnicity)? If So, What Are the Main Patterns of Variation That Exist? (RQ4)

A. Gender
  Overall Reported Strategy Use
  1. ANOVA results show significant variation in learners’ overall reported strategy use according to
     gender - with females reporting greater overall strategy use than males.
  Categories of Reported Strategy Use
  1. ANOVA results show significant variation in learners’ reported use of all the three strategy
     categories (CLLS, OLLS & ELLS) according to their gender.
  2. Female students report greater strategy use than male students whether learning English in the
     classroom (CLLS) or out of the classroom (OLLS) or preparing for their English exams (ELLS).
  Individual Items of Reported Strategy Use
  1. Chi-square tests show that more than one third (39%) of learners’ reported use of individual strategy
     items vary significantly according to gender.
  2. The main pattern of variation that exists is female students reporting greater strategy use than male
     students.
  3. Most (88%) of the individual strategy items which show significant variation according to gender
     are used more by female students than by male students.
  4. Although the strategies which show significant variation according to gender represent strategies
     from all the three strategy categories (CLLS, OLLS and ELLS), the highest percentage of them are
     related to strategies for exams preparation - indicating that females report greater strategy use than
     males in the way they prepare for their English examinations than in the way they learn English
     in or out of the classroom.
  Underlying Relationship
  1. Results of factor analysis show that Factor 2 (Strategies for Exams Preparation) and Factor 7
     (Classroom Social Learning Strategies) relate strongly to gender.
  2. The main underlying relationship between learners’ reported strategy use and gender is females
     reporting greater use than males in strategies for exams preparation and social learning in the
     classroom.
                                                  23


B. Ethnicity
 Overall Reported Strategy Use
 1. ANOVA results show no significant variation in learners’ overall reported strategy use according
    to their ethnic background.
 Categories of Reported Strategy Use
 1. ANOVA results show significant variation in learners’ reported use of two of the three strategy
    categories (CLLS & OLLS) according to their ethnicity.
 2. Indian students report greater strategy use in the way they learn English in the classroom (CLLS)
    and out of the classroom (OLLS) than the Malay and the Chinese students.
 3. No significant variation is found in learners’ reported use of strategies for exams preparation (ELLS)
    according to ethnicity.
 Individual Items of Reported Strategy Use
 1. Chi-square tests show that nearly half (45%) of learners’ reported use of individual strategy items
    vary significantly according to ethnicity.
 2. The most common pattern of variation in the reported use of individual strategies is Indians >
    Chinese > Malays in which Indian students report greater strategy use than the other two ethnic
    groups, with Malay students reporting lesser strategy use
 3. Although the strategies which show significant variation by ethnicity represent strategies from two of
    the three strategy categories (CLLS and OLLS), the Out-of-class Language Learning Strategies
    show the highest percentage of category representation – indicating that students of different ethnic
    groups differ significantly in the reported use of strategies relating to learning out of the classroom
    compared to strategies relating to learning it in the classroom.
 4. Indian students also report greater use of strategies pertaining to the naturalistic use of English than
     the other two ethnic groups, with Malay students reporting lesser use of the same strategies.
 5. Malay students report greater use of strategies related to the use of L1 than the other two ethnic
     groups.
 Underlying Relationship
 1. Results of factor analysis show that Factor 1 (Strategies for Using the Language), Factor 5 (Strategies
    for Centring Learning) and Factor 7 (Classroom Physical Restructuring Strategies) relate strongly to
    ethnicity.
 2. The main underlying relationship between learners’ reported strategy use and ethnicity is associated
    mainly to the naturalistic use of English with Indian students reporting greater strategy use than the
    other two ethnic groups, and with Malay students reporting lesser use.
                                                  24


 Do Learners’ Strategy Use Vary Significantly With Situational Factors Such
As Class Size and the Extent of Learners’ Use of English Out of the Class? If So,
          What Are the Main Patterns of Variation That Exist? (RQ5)

A. Class Size
 Overall Reported Strategy Use
 1. ANOVA results show significant variation in learners’ overall reported strategy use according to
    students studying in classes of different sizes, but the relationship is a complex one .
 Categories of Reported Strategy Use
 1. ANOVA results show significant variation in learners’ reported use of only one of the three strategy
    categories (CLLS) according to students studying in different class size.
 2. Students in smaller classes report greater use of Classroom Language Learning Strategies (CLLS)
    than students in larger and neither large nor small classes. Students in larger classes report greater
    strategy use of CLLS than those in the ‘neither’ class size group.
 Individual Items of Reported Strategy Use
 1. Chi-square tests show that only about a quarter (24%) of learners’ reported use of individual strategy
    items vary significantly according to students studying in classes of different sizes.
 2. The main patterns of variation that exist are mixed ones - indicating that though there are patterns
    they are highly complex ones which cannot be explained in simplistic terms.
 3. Although the individual strategy items that vary significantly with class size represent two strategy
    categories (CLLS and OLLS), the Classroom Language Learning Strategies show the highest
    percentage of category representation - indicating that learners studying in classes of different sizes
    differ more in the way they learn English in the classroom than they way they learn it out of the
    classroom.
 Underlying Relationship
 1. Results of factor analysis show that Factor 5 (Strategies for Centring Learning), Factor 7 (Classroom
    Social Learning Strategies), Factor 8 (Classroom Advance Preparation Strategies) and Factor 9
    (Classroom Physical Restructuring Strategies) relate strongly to class size.
 2. The main underlying relationship between learners’ reported strategy use and class size mainly
    concerns the way these learners studying in classes of different size learn English in the classroom,
    but the relationship is a complex one which is not easily described in simple terms.
                                                 25


B. Extent of Learners’ Reported Use of English Outside the Classroom
 Overall Reported Strategy Use
 1. ANOVA results show significant variation in learners’ reported overall strategy use according to the
   extent of their reported use of English outside of the classroom - with high-users of English reporting
   greater overall strategy use than low-users of English.
 Categories of Reported Strategy Use
 1. ANOVA results show significant variation in learners’ reported use of two of the three strategy
    categories (CLLS and OLLS) according to the extent of their reported use of English out of the class.
 2. High-users of English report greater use of classroom and out-of-class language learning strategies
    than low-users of English - indicating that students who use English as the main language of
    communication with friends and at home report greater use of in and out of classroom learning
    strategies than the students who use L1 as the main language of communication with friends and at
    home.
 Individual Items of Reported Strategy Use
 1. Chi-square tests show that more than two thirds (69%) of learners’ reported use of individual
    strategy items vary significantly with the extent of their reported use of English out of the class.
 2. Most (91%) of the individual strategy items which show significant variation according to the extent
    of learners’ reported use of English outside the classroom are used more by high-users than
    low-users of English.
 3. Although the strategies which show significant variation according to the extent of learners’ reported
    use of English outside the classroom represent strategies from all the three strategy categories
    (CLLS, OLLS and ELLS), the Out-of-class Language Learning Strategies show the highest
    percentage of category representation - indicating that high-users of English differ significantly in
    the reported use of strategies relating to learning English out of the classroom rather than strategies
    relating to learning it in the classroom or for preparing for its examination.
 4. About two thirds of the individual strategy items which show significant variation according to the
    extent of learners’ reported use of English outside of the classroom are related to strategies for
    practising or using English in natural language situations.
 5. Other individual strategy items which show significant positive variation by the extent of learners’
    reported use of English out of the classroom are related to a) making use of parents and b) making
    use of English media - indicating that high-users of English report greater use of strategies relating
    to utilising parents and English media than low-users of English.
 Underlying Relationship
 1. Results of factor analysis show that Factor 1 (Strategies for Using the Language), Factor 3 (Strategies
    for Utilising the Media), Factor 4 (Strategies for Dealing with New Words) and Factor 6
    (Out-of-class Social Learning Strategies) relate strongly to the extent of learners’ reported use of
    English out of the classroom.
 2. The main underlying relationship between learners’ reported strategy use and the extent of their
    reported use of English outside of the classroom mainly concerns the way learners learn English
    out of the classroom particularly in terms of strategies for using the language in a naturalistic way
    and utilising English media and parents, with high-users reporting greater use of these strategies
    rather than low-users of English.
                                             26



                                        Summary

1. The results in this study support the general findings of previous similar
   correlational studies. However, this study does not only provide fresh
   evidence, but it also presents it in a more detailed manner.

2. Significant variation between learners’ overall reported strategy use
   according to language performance, gender and the extent of their reported use
   of English out of the classroom was found.

3. In particular, greater overall use of language learning strategies among
   more successful learners than the less successful ones, among females than males,
   and among high-users than low-users of English was noted.

4. Significant variation of learners’ reported overall strategy use and the
   Classroom Language Learning Strategies category according to class size is noted.
   However, the relationship is a mixed one.

5. Significant differences according to language performance and gender in learners’
   reported use of all the three strategy categories used in the SQ have been noted.

6. Although there is no significant correlation in learners’ overall reported strategy
   use, ethnicity is shown to be significantly related to two of the strategy categories
   and about half of the individual strategy items. In particular, the results indicate
   that Indian students report greater strategy use in the way they learn English in the
   classroom, as well as in the way they learn it out of the classroom than do the other
   two ethnic groups.

7. It was demonstrated that the results of the analysis at the individual strategy
   level reveal a more detailed pattern of relationships between the reported strategy
   use and the independent variables selected.

8. At the individual strategy level, the main pattern of significant
   variation in terms of language performance is a positive variation, indicating that
   more successful learners report higher levels of strategy use than less successful
   learners. Specifically, these different groups of learners differ more in the way they
   learn English out the classroom than the way they learn it in the classroom or the
   way they prepare for their English examinations.


9. In contrast, it is found that female students report greater use of strategies than male
   students more in the way they prepare for their English examinations than the way
   they learn English in and out of the classroom.
                                              27


10.It is also found that although Indian students report a high percentage of use of
   strategies relating to the naturalistic use of English, Malay students report a low
   percentage of use of similar strategies. On the other hand, with regard to strategies
   having to do with the use of L1 in the learning of English, the pattern of variation
   that emerges is exactly the opposite.

11.In relation to the extent of the respondents’ use of English, it is noted that generally,
   those who are learning English in an environment where the language is the means
   of everyday communication (measured in terms of its use with friends and at home)
   report using a greater number of learning strategies than those who are learning it
   in a setting where that language is not the daily means of communication.

12.The results of the factor analysis provide parallel evidence to the findings obtained
   through the different levels of analysis of variance. In general, the factor analysis
   shows that language performance, the extent of the respondents’ reported use of
   English and class size demonstrate the greatest influence on students’ strategy use.

13.The factor analysis also provides fresh evidence of the importance of authentic
   language use in language learning. In fact, the factor with the largest amount of
   individual strategies loading significantly in it is Factor 1 - Strategies for Using
   the Language. Moreover, this factor is found to be related strongly with three
   out of the five independent variables measured in the analysis.

14.One interesting finding of the factor analysis is that more successful learners are
   found to differ significantly from less successful learners in the reported strategies
   they employ for naturalistic use of English, utilising the English media, dealing with
   new words and utilising an out of class social agent to assist language learning;
   namely, the parents. Similar patterns are also noted with the extent of learners’
   reported use of English, suggesting an overlap of how the two variables work in
   relation to the reported strategy use.

15.The nine factors emerging from the factor analysis support the three
   strategy categories that were developed and used in the questionnaire survey.
                                                 28



              Reported Classroom Language Learning Strategies

Table 6.1. A Summary of Classroom Language Learning Strategies Reported
           by Respondents in Interviews in the Main Study

Reported Classroom Language Learning Strategies (RCLLS)

RCLLS1 Discuss with friends*
RCLLS2 Discuss with teachers
RCLLS3 Ask for clarification from friends
RCLLS4 Ask for clarification from the teacher
RCLLS5 Join a group discussion
RCLLS6 Learn from own mistake/error
RCLLS7 Read English materials
RCLLS8 Read textbook/workbook*
RCLLS9 Read grammar book
RCLLS10 Refer to the dictionary*
RCLLS11 Do exercises in the revision book
RCLLS12 Converse in English with friends*
RCLLS13 Pay attention during the lesson*
RCLLS14 Be prepared before the lesson
RCLLS15 Revise the previous lesson
RCLLS16 Volunteer to answer questions
RCLLS17 Be active in class
Note: *also reported in the pilot study
       strategies in bold were also observed during the CO

      What Learners Report Doing in Order to Learn English in the Classroom

 Table 6.2. A Comparison Between What GOOD LEARNERS and POOR LEARNERS
            Report Doing in Order to Learn English in the Classroom (Q6a)

GOOD LEARNERS                                 n      POOR LEARNERS                             n
RCLLS1 Discuss with friends                    1    RCLLS4 Ask for clarification from teachers 17
RCLLS2 Discuss with teachers                   2          *NOTHING                             7
RCLLS3 Ask for clarification from friends       3
RCLLS5 Join a group discussion                 1
RCLLS6 Learn from own mistake/error             2
RCLLS7 Read English materials                  7
RCLLS8 Read textbook/workbook                   6
RCLLS10 Refer to the dictionary                 3
RCLLS11 Do exercises in revision book           5
RCLLS12 Converse in English with friends      13
RCLLS13 Pay attention during the lesson        4
RCLLS16 Volunteer to answer questions          1
RCLLS17 Be active in class                     1
         *NOTHING                             6
Note: * 11 % of ‘GOOD’ learners report doing ‘nothing’
        88 % of ‘POOR’ learners report doing ‘nothing’
                                                 29


                 What Learners Report Doing Before an English Lesson

  Table 6.3. A comparison Between What GOOD LEARNERS and POOR LEARNERS
             Report Doing Before an English Lesson (Q7a)

GOOD LEARNERS                                 n     POOR LEARNERS                                 n
RCLLS7 Read textbook/workbook                  3    RCLLS4 Ask for clarification from the teacher 1
RCLLS8 Read grammar book                      2     RCLLS14 Be prepared before the lesson           2
RCLLS14 Be prepared before the lesson          5           *NOTHING                              24
RCLLS15 Revise the lesson                     2
          *NOTHING                          60
Note: * 83% of the ‘GOOD’ learners report doing ‘nothing’
       89% of the ‘POOR’ learners report doing ‘nothing’
                                               30



            Reported Out-of-class Language Learning Strategies

Table 6.4. A Summary of Out-of-class Language Learning Strategies Reported
          by Respondents in Interviews in the Main Study

Reported Out-of-class Language Learning Strategies (ROLLS)

ROLLS1 Discuss with friends*
ROLLS2 Discuss with teachers
ROLLS3 Join a group discussion
ROLLS4 Ask for clarification from friends*
ROLLS5 Ask for clarification from teacher*
ROLLS6 Ask for clarification from parents*
ROLLS7 Get friends correct ones usage of English
ROLLS8 Get siblings correct ones usage of English
ROLLS9 Get parents correct ones usage of English*
ROLLS10 Learn from own mistake/errors
ROLLS11 Correct ones own mistakes
ROLLS12 Talk to oneself in English*
ROLLS13 Practise reading aloud*
ROLLS14 Read English materials*
ROLLS15 Read textbook/workbook
ROLLS16 Read revision book
ROLLS17 Read grammar book
ROLLS18 Read sample essays*
ROLLS19 Read the dictionary
ROLLS20 Refer to the dictionary*
ROLLS21 Refer to the thesaurus
ROLLS22 Keep a vocabulary list
ROLLS23 Do exercises in revision book*
ROLLS24 Do exercises in workbook
ROLLS25 Practise doing grammar exercises*
ROLLS26 Practise on writing*
ROLLS27 Do a lot of practise*
ROLLS28 Do essay writing
ROLLS29 Write summary*
ROLLS30 Write letters*
ROLLS31 Write in diary
ROLLS32 Write poems
ROLLS33 Converse in English with friends*
ROLLS34 Converse in English with parents*
ROLLS35 Practise conversing in English*
ROLLS36 Not using/mixing L1 when conversing in English
ROLLS37 Converse in English with siblings
ROLLS38 Watch English programmes on television*
ROLLS39 Watch English movies*
ROLLS40 Listen to English news*
ROLLS41 Listen to English programmes in the radio*
ROLLS42 Listen to speech of others
ROLLS43 Listen to English conversation tapes*
ROLLS44 Listen to English songs*
ROLLS45 Pay attention during the lesson
                                                  31


ROLLS46 Revise the lesson*
ROLLS47 Elaborate on notes/point taken in class
ROLLS48 Use what has read/learnt
ROLLS49 Play word games
ROLLS50 Memorise formats*
ROLLS51 Guess meaning of a word
ROLLS52 Do homework
ROLLS53 Compare between English and L1
ROLLS54 Attend functions conducted in English*
ROLLS55 Take private tuition*
Note: * also reported in the pilot study

         What Learners Report Doing in Order to Learn English As a Whole

Table 6.5. A Comparison Between What GOOD LEARNERS and POOR LEARNERS
          Report to Do Learning English as a Whole (Q10a)

GOOD LEARNERS                                    n     POOR LEARNERS                              n
ROLLS4 Ask for clarification from friends          1   ROLLS 4 Ask for clarification from friends 1
ROLLS6 Ask for clarification from parents         4    ROLLS15 Read textbook/workbook               1
ROLLS7 Get friends correct ones usage of English1 1 ROLLS19 Read the dictionary                   2
ROLLS9 Get parents correct ones usage of English 1     ROLLS20 Refer to the dictionary             2
ROLLS12 Talk to oneself in English                1    ROLLS46 Revise the lesson                   1
ROLLS14 Read English materials                  53     ROLLS55 Take private tuition                5
ROLLS19 Read the dictionary                       1           *NOTHING                            8
ROLLS20 Refer to the dictionary                   2
ROLLS22 Keep a vocabulary list                    1
ROLLS23 Do exercises in revision book              1
ROLLS24 Do exercises in workbook                   2
ROLLS28 Do essay writing                         1
ROLLS30 Write letters                            2
ROLLS33 Converse in English with friends          8
ROLLS34 Converse in English with parents         6
ROLLS37 Converse in English with siblings        1
ROLLS38 Watch English programs on television 5
ROLLS39 Watch English movies                     3
ROLLS40 Listen to English news                   2
ROLLS41 Listen to English programs in the radio 2
ROLLS46 Revise the lesson                        1
ROLLS53 Do homework                              1
ROLLS54 Attend functions conducted in English 3
ROLLS55 Take private tuition                    4
Note: *40% of the ‘POOR’ learners report doing ‘nothing’
                                                  32


                What Learners Report Doing to Learn English Grammar

Table 6.6. A Comparison Between What GOOD LEARNERS and POOR LEARNERS
          Report Doing to Learn English Grammar (Q10b)

GOOD LEARNERS                                    n     POOR LEARNERS                            n
ROLLS4 Ask for clarification from friends          1   ROLLS5 Ask for clarification from teacher 1
ROLLS6 Ask for clarification from parents          2   ROLLS15Read textbook/workbook              2
ROLLS7 Get friends correct ones usage of English 1 ROLLS23Do exercises in revision book           1
ROLLS9 Get parents correct ones usage of English 2           *NOTHING                           7
ROLLS10Learn from own mistake/errors               2
ROLLS14Read English materials                     4
ROLLS15Read textbook/workbook                      3
ROLLS16Read revision book                         4
ROLLS17Read grammar book                           8
ROLLS20Refer to the dictionary                     2
ROLLS23Do exercises in revision book               7
ROLLS24Do exercises in workbook                    2
ROLLS25Practice doing grammar exercises            1
ROLLS43Listen to English conversation tapes        1
ROLLS53Compare between English and L1             1
        *NOTHING                                10
Note: *67% of the ‘POOR’ learners report doing ‘nothing’
     *20% of the ‘GOOD’ learners report doing ‘nothing’

                What Learners Report Doing to Improve Spoken English

Table 6.8. A Comparison Between What GOOD LEARNERS and POOR LEARNERS
           Report Doing to Improve Spoken English (Q10d)

GOOD LEARNERS                                     n      POOR LEARNERS                            n
ROLLS2 Discuss with teacher                        1     ROLLS4 Ask for clarification from friends 1
ROLLS7 Get friends correct ones usage of English 2       ROLLS5 Ask for clarification from teacher 2
ROLLS8 Get siblings correct ones usage of English 1      ROLLS55Take private tuition               1
ROLLD9Get parents correct ones usage of English 3              *NOTHING                          13
ROLLS11Correct ones own mistakes                   1
ROLLS12Talk to oneself in English                 2
ROLLS13Practice reading aloud                     4
ROLLS33Converse in English with friends          18
ROLLS34Converse in English with parents          14
ROLLS35Practice conversing in English             2
ROLLS36Not using/mixing L1 when conversing
         in English                             3
ROLLS38Watch English programs on television       3
ROLLS41Listen to English programs in the radio 13
ROLLS42Listen to speech of others                 1
ROLLS43Listen to English conversation tapes        1
ROLLS44Listen to English songs                     1
ROLLS54 Attend functions conducted in English       1
ROLLS55 Take private tuition                       1
Note: *76% of the ‘POOR’ learners report doing ‘nothing’
                                                 33



           What Learners Report Doing To Improve Their Written English

Table 6.9. A Comparison Between What GOOD LEARNERS and POOR LEARNERS

           Report Doing to Improve Written English (Q10e)

GOOD LEARNERS                                   n      POOR LEARNERS                            n
ROLLS1 Discuss with friends                      2     ROLLS4 Ask for clarification from friends 1
ROLLS7 Get friends correct ones usage of English 3     ROLLS16Read revision books                1
ROLLS8 Get siblings correct ones usage of English 1          *NOTHING                          13
ROLLS9 Get parents correct ones usage of English 3
ROLLS10Learn from own mistake/errors              2
ROLLS14Read English materials                   21
ROLLS18Read sample essays                        4
ROLLS23Do exercises in revision book               1
ROLLS24Do exercises in workbook                    1
ROLLS26Practice on writing                        3
ROLLS28Do essay writing                          21
ROLLS29Write summary                             2
ROLLS30Write letters                             7
ROLLS31Write in diary                            1
ROLLS32Write poems                               1
ROLLS47Elaborate on notes/point taken in class 1
ROLLS50Memorise format                           1
ROLLS52Do homework                               1
ROLLS55Take private tuition                       1
Note: *87% of the ‘POOR’ learners report doing ‘nothing’


Table 6.10. A Comparison Between What GOOD LEARNERS and POOR LEARNERS
            Report Doing in Learning New Words (10g)

GOOD LEARNERS                                n     POOR LEARNERS                             n
ROLLS4 Ask for clarification from friends     1    ROLLS20Refer to the dictionary             1
ROLLS6 Ask for clarification from parents     4          *NOTHING                            7
ROLLS14Read English materials               13
ROLLS19Read the dictionary                   4
ROLLS20Refer to the dictionary              12
ROLLS21Refer to the thesaurus                 1
ROLLS22Keep a vocabulary list                 2
ROLLS33Converse in English with friends       1
ROLLS48Use what has been read/learnt         4
ROLLS49Play word games                       3
ROLLS50Memorise                              1
ROLLS51Guess meaning of a word               2
ROLLS54Attend functions conducted in Eng. 1
Note: *87% of the ‘POOR’ learners report doing ‘nothing’
                                                    34




                    Reported Exam language learning strategies

Table 6.11. A Summary of Reported Exam language learning strategies

Reported Exam Language Learning Strategies (RELLS)
RELLS1 Discuss with friends*
RELLS2 Join a group discussion
RELLS3 Ask for clarification from friends
RELLS4 Ask for clarification from parents*
RELLS5 Let siblings correct ones usage of English*
RELLS6 Read English materials
RELLS7 Read textbook/workbook*
RELLS8 Read exercise book*
RELLS9 Read revision book*
RELLS10 Read grammar book*
RELLS11 Read vocabulary list
RELLS12 Read notebook*
RELLS13 Read sample essays*
RELLS14 Read past exam papers
RELLS15 Do past exam papers
RELLS16 Do exercises in revision book*
RELLS17 Do exercises in workbook
RELLS18 Practice on writing
RELLS19 Do essay writing*
RELLS20 Watch English programs on television
RELLS21 Revise the lesson*
RELLS22 Memorise*
RELLS23 Take private tuition
Note: *also reported in the pilot study
       strategies in bold print are also reported as strategies employed out of the classroom (ROLLS)
       strategies in bold italics print are also reported as strategies employed both in and
       out of the classroom (RCLLS and ROLLS respectively)
                                                    35


Table 6.12. A Comparison Between What GOOD LEARNERS and POOR LEARNERS
          Report Doing in Preparing for Their English Examinations (Q9a)
GOOD LEARNERS                                          n      POOR LEARNERS                            n
RELLS2 Join a group discussion                          1     RELLS1 Discuss with friends               1
RELLS4 Ask for clarification from parents               1     RELLS3 Ask for clarification from friends 1
RELLS5 Get siblings correct ones usage of English       1     RELLS7 Read textbook/workbook              5
RELLS6 Read English materials                         2       RELLS8 Read exercise book                 4
RELLS7 Read textbook/workbook                           3     RELLS9 Read revision book                 6
RELLS8 Read exercise book                              2      RELLS21Revise the lesson                 2
RELLS9 Read revision book                             5            *NOTHING                           2
RELLS10Read grammar book                              2
RELLS11Read vocabulary list                           1
RELLS12Read notebook                                  2
RELLS13Read sample essays                             6
RELLS14Read past exam papers                          6
RELLS15Do past exam papers                            1
RELLS16Do exercises in revision book                 17
RELLS17Do exercises in workbook                       4
RELLS18Practice on writing                            2
RELLS19Do essay writing                               7
RELLS20Watch English programmes on television          1
RELLS21Revise the lesson                              7
RELLS22Memorise formats                                1
RELLS23Take private tuition                           8
        *NOTHING                                     8
Note: *10 % of both groups of learners report doing ‘nothing’




      Range and Individual Types of Strategies Reported by Learners

  Table 6.13. Types of Individual Strategy Items Reported by GOOD and POOR Learners

                                                                          Good Learners   Poor Learners
INDIVIDUAL TYPES OF STRATEGIES REPORTED                                        n                n
1. Discuss with friends (RCLLS1, ROLLS1, RELLS1)                               3                1
2. Discuss with teachers (RCLLS2, ROLLS2)                                      3                -
3. Join a group discussion (RCLLS5, ROLLS3, RELLS2)                            2                -
4. Ask for clarification from friends (RCLLS3, ROLLS4, RELLS3)                 6                5
5. Ask for clarification from the teacher (RCLLS4, ROLLS5)                     -                5
6. Ask for clarification from parents (ROLLS6, RELLS4)                        11                -
7. Get friends correct ones usage of English (ROLLS7)                          7                -
8. Get siblings correct ones usage of English (ROLLS8, RELLS5)                 3                -
9. Get parents correct ones usage of English (ROLLS9)                          9                -
10. Learn from own mistake/error (RCLLS6, ROLLS10)                             6                -
11. Correct ones own mistakes (ROLLS11)                                        1                -
12. Talk to oneself in English (ROLLS12)                                       3                -
13. Practice reading aloud (ROLLS13)                                           4                -
14. Read English materials (RCLLS7, ROLLS14, RELLS6)                         100                -
15. Read textbook/workbook (RCLLS8, ROLLS15, RELLS7)                          16                8
16. Read revision book (ROLLS16, RELLS9)                                      10                7
17. Read grammar book (RCLLS9, ROLLS17, RELLS10)                              12                -
                                                  36


18. Read sample essays (ROLLS18, RELLS13)                                  12         -
19. Read exercise book (RELLS8)                                              2        4
20. Read vocabulary list (RELLS11)                                           1        -
21. Read notebook (RELLS12)                                                  3        -
22. Read past year papers (RELLS14)                                          6        -
23. Do past year paper (RELLS15)                                             1        -
24. Read the dictionary (ROLLS19)                                            5        2
25. Refer to the dictionary (RCLLS10, ROLLS20)                             21         5
26. Refer to the thesaurus (ROLLS21)                                         1        -
27. Keep a vocabulary list (ROLLS22)                                         3        -
28. Do exercises in revision book (RCLLS11, ROLLS23, RELLS16)              31         1
29. Do exercises in workbook (ROLLS24, RELLS17)                              9        -
30. Practise doing grammar exercises (ROLLS25)                               1        -
31. Practise on writing (ROLLS26, RELLS18)                                   5        -
32. Do lot of practice (ROLLS27)                                             2        -
33. Do essay writing (ROLLS28, RELLS19)                                    20         -
34. Write summary (ROLLS29)                                                  2        -
35. Write letters (ROLLS30)                                                  9        -
36. Write in diary (ROLLS31)                                                 1        -
37. Write poems (ROLLS32)                                                    1        -
38. Converse in English with friends (RCLLS12, ROLLS30)                    40         -
39. Converse in English with parents (ROLLS34)                             20         -
40. Converse in English with siblings (ROLLS37)                              1        -
41. Practise conversing in English (ROLLS35)                                 2        -
42. Not using/mixing L1 when conversing in English (ROLLS36)                 3        -
43. Watch English programmes on television (ROLLS38,RELLS20)                 9        -
44. Watch English movies (ROLLS39)                                           3        -
45. Listen to English news (ROLLS40)                                         2        -
46. Listen to English programmes in the radio (ROLLS41)                      4        -
47. Listen to speech of others (ROLLS42)                                     3        -
48. Listen to English conversation tapes (ROLLS43)                           2        -
49. Listen to English songs (ROLLS44)                                        1        -
50. Pay attention during the lesson (RCLLS13, ROLLS45)                       5        -
51. Be prepared before the lesson (RCLLS14)                                  4        2
52. Revise the lesson (RCLLS15, ROLLS46, RELLS21)                          27         3
53. Elaborate on notes/point taken in class (ROLLS47)                        2        -
54. Use what has read/learnt (ROLLS48)                                       4        -
55. Play word games (ROLLS49)                                                3        -
56. Memorise format (ROLLS50, RELLS22)                                       6        -
57. Guess meaning of a word (ROLLS51)                                        2        -
58. Do homework (ROLLS52)                                                    2        -
59. Compare between English and L1 (ROLLS53)                                 1        -
60. Attend functions conducted in English (ROLLS54)                          5        -
61. Take private tuition (ROLLS55, RELLS23)                                  7        6
62. Volunteer to answer questions (RCLLS16)                                  1        -
63. Being active in class (RCLLS17)                                          1        -
Note: items in normal print are reported by both the ‘GOOD’ and the ‘POOR’ learners
      items in italic print are reported only by the ‘POOR’ learners
      items in bold print are reported only by the ‘GOOD’ learners
                                                        37


               Table 6.14 Summary of Strategies Associated With Success and Failure
                               in Learners’ Language Learning

    SUCCESSFUL LANGUAGE LEARNERS                                 UNSUCCESSFUL LANGUAGE LEARNERS
Seek and take opportunities to use the target                Depend on classroom activities. Do not seek and take
language naturalistically in and out of the                  opportunities to use the target language in natural
classroom.                                                   situations
Make use of a wide variety of target language                Rely heavily on the textbook for language input.
input.
Do not depend on the teacher alone. Instead, utilise         Be highly dependent on the teacher in the language
other out of class social agents to assist in the            learning process
language learning process
Take advantage of the media available as a source            Do not make use of the media available
of input to the target language.
Read English materials extensively and for different         Do not read English materials
purposes
Use the target language extensively                          Avoid using the target language. Instead, prefer to
                                                             revert to the use of L1 in the learning of English.
Use a wide range and types of strategies in learning         Use a fairly limited range and types of strategies in
the various language areas                                   learning the various language areas




A. Reported Individual Types of Strategies

   A total of 63 individual types of strategies are reported to be employed by the
   interviewees in our study. In particular,:

   -the greatest proportion of these individual types of strategies (87%) are reported
    in relation to learners’ own initiative in learning English out of the classroom
    indicating the extent of autonomous learning reported by the respondents in
    approaching their language learning.

            Successful Language Learners                             Unsuccessful Language Learners
    Report the use of a larger repertoire of language         Report the use of a smaller repertoire of language
    learning strategies (63 individual types).                learning strategies (12 individual types).

B. Reported Classroom Language Learning Strategies (RCLLS)
  A total of 17 Classroom Language Learning Strategies are reported to be used
  by the interviewees and there are marked differences between what good and
  poor learners report doing in the classroom while learning English. Particularly,:
              Successful Language Learners                              Unsuccessful Language Learners
    Report a larger repertoire of Classroom Language            Report a limited repertoire of Classroom Language
    Learning Strategies especially strategies related           Learning Strategies. Most of them (88%) report
    to social and ‘active’ classroom learning.                  doing nothing.
    Appear to be high-users of English in the                   Appear to be low-users of English in the classroom
    classroom.                                                  and have the tendency to revert to BM or MT.

   -there are no marked differences between what both types of learners report doing in
    preparation before an English lesson.
                                                       38




C. Reported Out-of-class Language Learning Strategies (ROLLS)
  A total of 55 individual types of Out-of-class Language Learning Strategies
  are reported by the interviewees and there are marked differences between what
  good and poor learners report doing out of the classroom in learning English.
  In particular,:

              Successful Language Learners                          Unsuccessful Language Learners
  Report a larger repertoire of Out-of-Class Language         Report a smaller repertoire of Out-of-Class
  Learning Strategies especially strategies related to        Language Learning Strategies. No evidence
  seeking and taking opportunities to use English in          of strategies related to seeking and taking
  natural language situations.                                opportunities to use English in natural
                                                              language situations is reported.
  Report making use of English media and parents to           (No evidence of this is reported)
  assist them in learning English.

D. Reported Exam Language Learning Strategies (RELLS)
   A total of 23 individual types of Exam Language Learning Strategies are
   reported to be employed by the interviewees. In particular,:

  -most (79%) of the strategies reported by the learners in preparing for the
   English exams are also reported to be used for learning English in and
   out of the classroom.

          Successful Language Learners                       Unsuccessful Language Learners
  Report a larger repertoire of Exam Language          Report a smaller repertoire of Exam Language
  Learning Strategies.                                 Learning Strategies.
  Report reading a wider range of materials.           Report reading a limited range of materials.
  Report making use of parents and siblings to         (No evidence of this is reported)
  assist them in preparing for English exams.

E. Reported Strategies for Learning English Grammar
  There are marked differences between what poor and good learners report
  doing while learning English grammar. Specifically,:

            Successful Language Learners                            Unsuccessful Language Learners
   Report a larger repertoire of individual types of        Report a limited repertoire of individual types
   strategies in dealing with learning of English           of strategies in dealing with learning of English
   grammar.                                                 grammar. Two thirds of them (67%) report
                                                            doing nothing.

   Report utilising parents to assist them learning         (No evidence of this is reported) Seem to be
   of English grammar.                                      dependent on the teacher and the textbook.
                                                      39


F. Reported Strategies for Improving Reading Comprehension
   There is a marked difference between what good and poor learners report
   doing to improve reading comprehension. In particular,:

              Successful Language Learners                          Unsuccessful Language Learners
   Report reading extensive English materials which            (No evidence relating to extensive reading is
   include storybooks, novels, newspapers, magazines,          reported)
   encyclopedias etc.

G. Reported Strategies for Improving Listening Comprehension
  There is a marked difference between what good and poor learners report
  doing to improve listening comprehension. Particularly,:

              Successful Language Learners                       Unsuccessful Language Learners
   Report listening to various English media available         (No evidence of this is reported)
   as one of the sources of input of the target language.

H. Reported Strategies for Improving Spoken English
   There are marked differences between what good and poor learners report
   doing to improve their spoken English. Specifically,:

  Successful Language Learners                             Unsuccessful Language Learners
  Report a larger repertoire of individual types of        Report a limited repertoire of individual types
  learning strategies for improving spoken English         of learning strategies for improving spoken
  especially those related to seeking and using            English. Three quarters (76%) of them report
  practice opportunities.                                  doing nothing.
  Report making use of English media and parents           (No evidence of this is reported) Seem to be
  to improve their spoken English.                         dependent on the teacher and friends.
  Report listening to and correcting their own             (No evidence of this is reported)
  speech.
  Report not using or mixing BM or MT with                 (No evidence of this is reported)
  English when conversing.

I. Reported Strategies for Improving Written English
   There are marked differences between what good and poor learners report
   doing to improve their written English. Specifically,:

           Successful Language Learners                          Unsuccessful Language Learners
  Report a larger repertoire of individual types of        Report a limited repertoire of individual types
  learning strategies for improving written English        of learning strategies for improving written
  especially those related to seeking and using            English. Most (87%) of them report doing
  practice opportunities.                                  nothing.
  Report making use of parents and siblings to             (No evidence of this is reported)
  improve their spoken English.
  Report engaging in various kinds and purposes of         (No evidence of this is reported)
  writing.
  Report reading extensive English materials.              (No evidence of this is reported)
                                                       40


J. Reported Strategies for Learning New Words
   There is a marked difference between what good and poor learners report
   doing while learning new words. In particular,:

   Successful Language Learners                             Unsuccessful Language Learners
   Report a larger repertoire of individual types of        Report a limited repertoire of individual types of
   strategies for learning of new words.                    strategies for learning of new words. Most of them
                                                            (87%) report doing nothing.
   Report utilising parents in learning new words.          (No evidence of this is reported)

				
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