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03   CEO Foreword          12       Transport Network
04   Introduction                   Constraints

05   Aims and Objectives   14       Access Routes –
                                    Transport Network Capacity
07   Transport Inventory
     and Operational       15       Airport Ground Travel
     Performance                    Plan Initiatives

10   Ground Access         21       Recommendations
     Travel Profile

                                SYDNEY AIRPORT CORPORATION LIMITED // 1
Sydney Airport is Australia’s most significant piece of aviation infrastructure, handling around half of all international passengers
travelling to and from Australia. It also is the nation’s freight gateway, handling about 50% of Australia’s international airfreight and
30% of domestic volumes. It is the primary domestic and regional gateway for New South Wales. The airport is a key economic
driver, providing direct employment for over 60,000 people and is a multi-billion dollar contributor in terms of economic output,
household income and investment.

Not surprisingly, Sydney Airport is one of the most important economic assets in New South Wales.

Sydney Airport is located in Australia’s only global city, and anchors a key economic corridor of interconnected high-value employ-
ment centres. Sydney’s population is expected to grow by 25% within 25 years, with well over 5 million people expected to call
Sydney home. All of this economic and demographic activity inevitably increases the demand for housing, utility infrastructure,
ground transport and aviation services.

Sydney Airport Corporation Limited (SACL) is committed to providing world class aviation facilities. SACL also recognises its role in
the sustainability of airport operations, including ground transport. The Airport Ground Travel Plan demonstrates SACL’s commitment
by exploring innovative ways to improve the sustainable transport options for passengers, staff and visitors travelling to and from
Sydney Airport. Whilst the responsibility for metropolitan transport infrastructure lies with the NSW Government, SACL is commit-
ted to working with all stakeholders, including major employers and transport and government agencies, to ensure that secure, reli-
able, cost effective and sustainable transport options are provided to the local and travelling community.

Russell Balding, AO
Chief Executive Officer
Sydney Airport Corporation Limited

                                                                                                   SYDNEY AIRPORT CORPORATION LIMITED // 3
Sydney Airport is Australia’s premier international gateway and primary airport
serving the state of New South Wales and the City of Sydney. It is one of
Australia’s most significant pieces of transport infrastructure, handling around half
of all overseas travellers to and from Australia, and serves as the primary
domestic and regional airport for NSW. In 2005, it had a passenger throughput of
approximately 29.1 million passengers. By 2023/24, it is projected to handle 68.3
million passengers.1

Sydney Airport anchors the southern                up to 170,000 full and part time jobs.2    commitment of a range of stakeholders
extent of the “Global Arc”, which the              Through this activity, Sydney Airport      such as state and local governments,
NSW Government’s ‘City of Cities’                  makes a contribution of 6% to the NSW      state transport agencies, and major
Metropolitan Strategy has identified as            Gross State Product, and around            employers. This will require a ‘new’
stretching from Macquarie University               $6 billion to household incomes.           way of thinking in order to mobilise and
through the CBD to Botany Bay. The                 Sydney Airport Corporation Limited         provide incentives underpinned by
Global Arc is defined by its concentra-            (SACL) recognises that fulfilling this     service improvements for both airport
tion of high value, high technology,               vital economic role in a constrained       employees and passengers to consider
service jobs. Sydney Airport is also a             environment brings with it a range         alternative access to the airport.
significant contributor to national and            of challenges. The surrounding road
regional economic activity, and itself a           network is experiencing a high level of    SACL recognises that increasing road
major source of economic activity.                 congestion during the commuter peak        congestion will impact on not only
Sydney Airport itself is only 8km from             periods. Combined with the sustained       Sydney Airport’s users, but also have
the city, and is located in a constrained,         population growth and unmet demand         significant flow-on impacts on the
yet vibrant neighbourhood, sharing it              for public transport services, the road    NSW economy. As part of the Airport
with Port Botany and growing residen-              network will continue to come under        Ground Travel Plan (AGTP), SACL
tial and commercial precincts in Green             increasing stress.                         aims to work closely with airport busi-
Square, North Arncliffe, Mascot Station                                                       nesses, employees, Commonwealth,
Precinct and Cooks Cove.                           Improving the use of sustainable ground    State and local governments and the
                                                   transport modes to and from the airport    travelling public to ensure that access
Sydney Airport is a major hub of airport-          is not a task that SACL can achieve on     to Australia’s aviation gateway is main-
related economic activity, generating              its own. It will require the coordinated   tained and improved.

1 Sydney Airport Master Plan, SACL 03/04
2 The Economic Impact of Sydney (Kingsford Smith) Airport, Ernst and Young, August 2002

The objective of the Airport Ground Travel Plan is to identify and target
specific opportunities to promote non-car modes of access to and from
Sydney Airport, and encourage a shift to more sustainable transport modes.
The preparation of the AGTP is an action set out in the Sydney Airport
Environment Strategy 2005-2010, and substantiates a commitment in the
Sydney Airport Master Plan 03/04 to increasing rail use by the end of the 20
year master planning period.

There are six major tasks                      activity centre. It consists of a suite of   tions, including the Airports Act 1996
of the AGTP;                                   initiatives tailored to the needs of indi-   and Environmental Protection and
1) Compile an inventory of and                 vidual sites and aimed at promoting          Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.
   assess the service levels of current        greener, cleaner travel choices and
   transport options;                          reducing reliance on the car.                Sydney Airport Master Plan 03/04
2) Identify the main characteristics for the                                                A requirement of the Airports Act 1996
   travel markets to and from the airport;     It sets out objectives, actions and a        is to prepare master plans for the site at
3) Identify constraints to the use of sus-     future implementation program and pro-       five-yearly intervals. The current master
   tainable transport modes within the         vides tools to encourage and support         plan, Sydney Airport Master Plan 03/04,
   Sydney metropolitan area to and from        specific groups to adopt practices which     was approved by the Commonwealth
   Sydney Airport for each travel market;      reduce the environmental impact of           Government in March 2004.
4) Identify and promote, through               their travel patterns.
   stakeholder consultation, potential                                                      The Sydney Airport Master Plan 03/04
   measures to enhance sustainable             SACL’s AGTP targets specific groups:         guides the direction of development at
   transport to and from Sydney Airport;       airport employees; airline passengers;       Sydney Airport for the next 20 years
5) Identify infrastructure and service         and other visitors, and focuses              and supports3 the NSW Government’s
   concepts to facilitate sustainable          on the airport’s contribution towards        approach to encourage the use of pub-
   access; and                                 sustainable transport, reducing the          lic transport modes in the region.
6) Establish a framework to investigate        impact of airport travel while ensuring      Correspondingly, the Master Plan
   the viability of and deliver service        continued accessibility.                     assumes a mode shift to rail of five per-
   improvements.                                                                            cent. To encourage mode shift and
                                               The development of the AGTP for Sydney       increase in public transport usage, the
Sustainable transport modes to be              Airport will help to encourage staff, pas-   Master Plan highlighted a number of
investigated include public bus and rail,      sengers and others visiting the airport to   opportunities including the amplifica-
other bus/coach services, as well as           use more sustainable transport alterna-      tion of existing taxi, bus, hire car and
walking and cycling.                           tives and comprises a range of possible      coach facilities.
                                               short, medium and longer term options.
What is a Travel Plan                                                                       SACL 4 also supports the NSW
Generally, a travel plan is a package of       Regulatory Framework                         Government’s initiatives in promoting
measures to manage and promote more            The   planning  and    development           cycling and walking as alternatives to
sustainable travel modes and provide           of Sydney Airport is regulated by            private car use, and has assisted the
choice for travel to and from a defined        Commonwealth legislation and regula-         NSW RTA in the development of an

                                                                                                SYDNEY AIRPORT CORPORATION LIMITED // 5
extensive cycleway along the northern               commercial development in April 2005,                other important dimensions of demand
boundary of the airport. The Master                 SACL was required to prepare an                      (such as trip purpose).
Plan nominates the expansion of                     Airport Ground Travel Plan.
pedestrian and cyclist infrastructure as                                                                 A consultative workshop was held with
sustainable initiatives.                            Stages of Development of the                         key stakeholders (Commonwealth,
                                                    Airport Ground Travel Plan                           State and local government, transport
Sydney Airport Environment                                                                               providers and major employers) to
Strategy 2005-2010                                                                                       discuss the Phase 1 baseline data.
The Sydney Airport Environment                                             PHASE 1: BASELINE             The feedback gained from the
                                                                         SURVEYS AND INVENTORY
Strategy 2005-2010 provides strategic                                                                    workshop assisted SACL in forming a
direction for the environmental man-                  STAKEHOLDER
                                                                                                         comprehensive picture of access
agement of Sydney Airport. The key                     WORKSHOP                                          demand at the airport.
sustainable transport objective of the                                    PHASE 2: BEHAVIORAL
Strategy is to “increase ... staff and                                     SURVEYS, ANALYSIS,            Phase 2 involved a more detailed
passenger movements via public trans-                                       & IDENTIFICATION             collection and analysis of behavioural
                                                                              OF MEASURES
port, cycling, or on foot.”5                                                                             information and ground access
                                                      CONSULTATION                                       issues for specific travel segments
Specific actions include:                                                                                necessary for the development of
• Preparation of an Airport Ground                                                                       strategic options for consideration.
  Travel Plan;                                        PRESENTATION                                       These options are aimed at increasing
• Review of cycleway connectivity to                                                                     the use of sustainable and more viable
                                                                            AIRPORT GROUND
  major employment nodes;                                                                                modes to access Sydney Airport.
                                                                              TRAVEL PLAN
• Review provision of trip-end facilities
  for bicycles; and                                                                                      During this stage, consultative meetings
• Provide improved pedestrian                                                                            were held with the NSW Department
  access infrastructure.                            As can been seen from the flow chart                 of Planning, the Roads and Traffic
                                                    above, the AGTP is the culmination                   Authority, the Ministry of Transport and
Vehicle movements are acknowledged                  of a multiphase study on travel                      the Airport Link Company. Selected major
as a source of environmental impact.                behaviour to and from the airport. Given             employers and local government were
The impacts are likely to be greatest               the significant behavioural, temporal                also consulted. These meetings were
during commuter peak periods, when                  and accessibility barriers to modifying              instructive in gaining an appreciation on
traffic is congested. Whilst emissions              and influencing travel choice, a                     the complexities of the provision of public
reduction is not a core objective of the            comprehensive understanding of the                   transport to the Airport.
Airport Ground Travel Plan, it will                 transport dynamics of the airport
undoubtedly help in reducing Sydney                 and the region was facilitated through               Finally, a stakeholders presentation
Airport’s contribution to greenhouse                the collection and analysis of baseline              was held to present the results of the
gas emissions by improving transport                travel information data, with almost                 Phase 2 surveys and analysis and to
energy efficiency.                                  4000 individual intercept surveys                    present and discuss the main
                                                    being conducted.                                     sustainable transport opportunities for
International Terminal Precinct                                                                          Sydney Airport. An appreciation of the
Development Consent                                 Phase 1 involved extensive surveys to                nature of the transport task as well as
As part of the Commonwealth’s                       quantify Sydney Airport’s existing                   broad support for the initiatives
approval of the Major Development                   ground access market by mode,                        outlined in this AGTP was gained from
Plan (MDP) T1 multi-storey carpark and              direction and origin, time of day and                this meeting.

3 Cited in Sydney Airport Masterplan 03/04. 4 Cited in Sydney Airport Masterplan 03/04. 5 Section 4.5 – Ground Transport

Sydney Airport is served by numerous transport modes such as public rail and
bus, taxis and mini bus shuttles, as well as road, bicycle and pedestrian access.
A summary of these services is provided to highlight the current operational
scope of these services.
Market Segments                              Modes of Access                                   Road Access
Based on surveys conducted in                Ground access to Sydney Airport is                The majority of the existing trips
August 2006, estimates of the                facilitated by a wide range of modes,             to the airport are road based for
various market segments for ground           providing airport users, staff and visitors       all market segments. The airport
access to the airport were determined        with a range of public and private                is served by a number of major
and have been broken down                    transport choices of varying amenity.             State Roads including General Holmes
by passengers (business and leisure,         Key components of this transport                  Drive, Southern Cross Drive, M5
resident and non-resident), meeter           choice is provided by:                            East and Princes Highway. These
/greeters, and employees (airport                                                              roads connect Sydney’s South
and non-airport based). The proportions      • CityRail suburban train network;                and South-West to the CBD. Other
of each market segment for a                 • State Transit Authority public                  key roads in the vicinity of the
typical weekday shows over 70%                 bus service;                                    airport are Marsh Street, Foreshore
of people accessing Sydney Airport are       • Taxis;                                          Road, Airport Drive/Qantas Drive,
air passengers, while meeters/               • Rental Cars;                                    Joyce Drive, O’Riordan Street, Canal
greeters account for a further 15%,          • Drop-off and pick-up zones;                     Road and Botany Road. A review
as shown in Figure 1. The non-resident,      • Parking options including short                 of RTA traffic counts for the
air passenger market accounts for              and long term and valet;                        key roads around the airport noted
almost half (47%) of the ground              • Public cycleways and footpaths                  that     General      Holmes    Drive
access task. Employees based at the            connecting to the surrounding                   experienced a substantial increase
airport account for 13%. Figure                districts; and                                  in traffic volumes following the
2 shows the proportions for a                • Other modes, such as hire cars,                 completion of the M5 East and
typical weekend.                               shuttle buses and coaches.                      Eastern Distributor.6

Figure 1 Proportion of Access Task                                      Figure 2 Proportion of Access Task
by Market Segment (Weekday)                                             by Market Segment (Weekend)

17% Business Non Resident                 8% Business Resident          14% Business Non Resident                      8% Business Resident
                                               13% Employees                                                                 11% Employees
                                                 Airport Based                                                                 Airport Based
                                                                                                                             1% Employees
                                               1% Employees
16% Leisure Resident                                                    22% Leisure Resident                               Non Airport Based
                                             Non Airport Based

                                                 15% Meeters                                                                   16% Meeters
30% Leisure Non Resident                          and Greeters          28% Leisure Non Resident                                and Greeters

                                                                                                    SYDNEY AIRPORT CORPORATION LIMITED // 7
Rail Access                                         via Sydenham. The majority of trains          stop service between Rockdale and
The Airport Line forms part of the East             have 8-car sets, with some at 6-car sets,     Bondi Junction. It serves the Qantas
Hills Line, and has stations located at             each car having a capacity of 110             Jet Base from Qantas Drive, but
both the International and Domestic                 passengers. The train capacity is             does not enter the terminal precincts.
Airport Terminals. The stations are                 therefore approximately 880 passengers        There are five services in the morning
accessible from the arrivals level of               per service. During peak hours,               and nine in the afternoon heading
each terminal. The Airport Line has                 standing passengers account for an            to Bondi Junction. For the direction
connections to the suburban rail network            additional 20% on the seating capacity.       heading to Rockdale, there are four
and provides a direct service to and                                                              services in the morning and eleven in
from the CBD, as well as providing                  Regular Bus Services                          the afternoon.
a connection to the southwest region                There are only two regular bus routes
(which is of some importance to the                 which serve the airport, however, only one    Mini Bus/Shuttle Bus Services
employee market at the airport). The first          route has intermediate stops at the           In addition to the public transport bus
services from Campbelltown arrives at               International and Domestic terminals. The     system, private buses/coaches operate
the International Terminal at 5:19 AM               STA Route 400 bus operates daily limited      to and from the airport to Sydney CBD,
and from the CBD at 5:13 AM.                        stops service between Burwood and             from most Sydney suburbs and regional
The morning peak hour is between                    Bondi Junction. The first trip of STA Route   areas. These bus services, however,
8:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m. representing                400 to Bondi Junction departs Burwood at      require pre-booking. The main areas
the city bound commuter peak hour.                  4:50 AM and arrives at the International      being serviced by this mode are:
The train frequency through on the                  Terminal at 5:27 AM from where it
Airport Line is every 10 minutes                    proceeds to the Domestic Terminal. The        •   CBD, Darling Harbour and Kings Cross;
during weekdays and 15 minutes on                   frequency is every 20 minutes for most of     •   Baulkham Hills/Parramatta;
weekends. During the morning peak,                  the day in both directions. Figure 4 below    •   Northern Beaches/Manly;
eight train services per hour are                   shows the route configuration within the      •   North Shore;
scheduled to operate in each direction              airport boundary.                             •   Ryde/Eastwood;
along the Airport Line, with 4 peak                                                               •   Blacktown/Penrith
hour trains bypassing the airport                   The  STA     Route 410 provides               •   Central Coast/Newcastle
by travelling on the East Hills line                Monday-Friday peak hour limited               •   South Coast/Illawarra/Wollongong

Figure 3 Existing Mode Share for Access                                        Figure 4 STA Route 400
to Sydney Airport

10% Minibus                                                    11% Train

4% Bus                                                         1% Other

                                                        15% Car Drop Off
25% Taxi

                                                           29% Park Car
5% Rental

6 Airport Ground Travel Plan Scoping Study, July 2005

Travel to and from other suburbs is also    Coach Services                               To the Domestic terminal area,
available through pre-booking.              Coach services form an integral part of      pedestrian access is via the footway
                                            package tours and coach facilities are       network of the local road system and
Shuttle bus services between the            provided at the airport to support these     then through the signal controlled
Airport and Hotels are also available for   movements.                                   pedestrian facilities at the intersection
Flight Crew and Hotel patrons.                                                           of Qantas Drive and Sir Reginald
                                            Bicycle Access                               Ansett Drive.
Qantas operates several different           Cycle routes are provided along the
shuttle services between the Qantas         Cooks River and Alexandra Canal routes,      Night Ride Bus Access
Centre at Coward Street and the             on the northside of Airport Drive and, via   NightRide bus services are available
Jetbase and terminals for their staff.      the Giovanni Brunetti Bridge. The            between midnight and 4:30 am, and are
                                            shoulder and kerbside travel lanes of        deployed on routes around the airport.
Qantas and Virgin Blue use airside          Qantas Drive can also be used by             These services do not directly service
and landside respectively shuttle           cyclists. The cycle routes provide a         Sydney Airport, with the nearest bus stop
buses to transfer passengers between        means of access to the International and     on the Princess Highway in Arncliffe.
terminals.                                  Domestic Terminals. There is no
                                            cycleway on General Holmes Drive due         NightRide Bus Routes provide very
A commercial shuttle (T-Bus) operates       to the safety considerations such as the     limited early morning hourly public
between      the    international and       lack of a kerbside breakdown lane which      transport bus services when normal
domestic terminal precincts, and a          may be otherwise used by cyclists.           transport services are not operating.
SACL operated shuttle (P-bus) to                                                         The N10 provides services from
service staff and passengers from           Pedestrian Access                            Monday to Friday from the City to
the Long Term Car Park to the               Pedestrian access to the International       Sutherland Station and return. The N11
domestic terminals. An employee-            Terminal T1 is via the Giovanni Brunetti     provides seven days service from the
only airside bus operates between the       Bridge (northside footpath) and the          City to Cronulla and return.
staff car park (located adjacent to         Alexandra Canal footbridge and then
the M5 East overpass) and the               onto footpaths and covered walkways          Any valid CityRail ticket can be used for
international terminal.                     through the public car park.                 a journey on the NightRide bus.

                                                                                             SYDNEY AIRPORT CORPORATION LIMITED // 9
The Airport Ground Travel Plan conducted comprehensive surveys of staff, pas-
sengers and meeter/greeters to identify to establish a baseline mode share of the
primary travel population market segments accessing Sydney Airport.

An inventory of the current population              Passengers                                         as those who drive and park (13%),
that access Sydney Airport during a typ-            The surveyed ground access modal                   with 12% travelling by public bus
ical weekday is approximately 89,000                split  for  passenger    travel   is               or rail.
persons. The weekend population is                  shown below. Approximately 20% of
estimated to be around 80,000 per-                  all passengers are picked up and/                  As shown in Figure 6, more than one
sons. Table 1 shows the breakdown by                or dropped off. This mode generated                third of passengers originate from the
market segment.                                     twice as many vehicle movements                    Inner City/CBD region.

Table 1 Total Population Accessing Sydney Airport                          Figure 6 Passenger Origin-Destination

                                                                           7% Lower Northern Sydney                                      6% Northern Beaches
                                       WEEKDAY              WEEKEND
                                                                           2% Newcastle
                                                                                                                                      4% Hornsby – Ku-ring-gai
Arriving Passengers                        31,694            28,984                                                                       2% Gosford – Wyong
Departing Passengers                       31,623            29,363
                                                                                                                                4% Blacktown – Baulkham Hills
Meeter Greeter / Visitor                   13,779            12,488        36% Inner Sydney
                                                                                                                                        2% Inner West Sydney

Employee                                   12,113             9,609                                                                3% Central Western Sydney
                                                                                                                                     2% Outer Western Sydney
Total                                      89,209            80,444        6% Eastern Suburbs
                                                                                                                                               7% No Answer
                                                                                                                               2% Outer South Western Sydney
                                                                           7% St George – Sutherland                                          2% Wollongong
                                                                                                                                           1% Illawara SD Bal
                                                                           3% Canterbury – Bankstown                                   2% Fairfield – Liverpool

Figure 5 Passenger Mode Split                                              Figure 7 Meeter/Greeter Mode Split

12% Minibus                                              37% Taxi Hire     3% Minibus                                              12% Taxi/Hire Car

2% Bus                                                                     4% Bus                                                       3% Rental Car

                                                                           6% Train                                                            1% Other
10% Train                                                                                                                           6% Dropped Off/
                                                                                                                                          Picked Up

                                                        7% Rental Car
19% Dropped Off /
Picked Up                                  13% Car (parked in car park)                                                 65% Car (parked in car park)

Meeter/Greeters                                 Employees                                                     In terms of employment categories, 21%
For meeter/greeters (that is, those friends     A total of 16,000 employees are                               of the employees are maintenance and
and family that accompany a passenger           estimated to be employed within the                           engineering staff, 18% office/corporate,
upon departure or arrival), two thirds travel   airport site. With a maximum daily                            15% security/ border agency staff, 14%
by car. Around one-tenth travel by public       employee       population of 12,000.                          airline flight crew and 11% airport terminal
bus or rail transport. This can be seen in      A majority of these travel by car as                          staff. This breakdown shows that aside
Figure 7 below.                                 other forms of transport are not                              from 18% of staff that work in an adminis-
                                                readily available.                                            trative/corporate role, a considerable num-
Almost a quarter of meeter/greeters are                                                                       ber of employees work in shifts. This has
from the Inner Sydney/CBD region, although      The Origin/Destination distribution for                       implications on transport choice as the
the distribution is more spread compared to     employee trips is shown in Figure 9.                          early start times required by airport staff to
the Passenger Origin/Destination (OD). This     This shows a high concentration of staff                      service early morning internation aircraft
can been seen in Figure 8 below.                from the St.George-Sutherland District.                       arrivals are unavailable prior to 5 AM.

Figure 8 Meeter/Greeter Origin-Destination                                    Figure 10 Employee Origin – Destination

9% Hornsby – Ku-ring-gai                             6% Northern Beaches      2% Hornsby – Ku-ring-gai                                            5% Northern Beaches
                                                 8% Lower Northern Sydney     1% Gosford – Wyong
                                                                                                                                             1% Lower Northern Sydney
                                                                              4% Blacktown – Baulkham Hills
2% Gosford – Wyong                                           3% Newcastle                                                                              6% Inner Sydney
                                                                              2% Inner West Sydney
6% Blacktown – Baulkham Hills                                                 3% Central Western Sydney                                             9% Eastern Suburbs
                                                                              2% Outer Western Sydney
5% Inner West Sydney                                                          1% No Answer
                                                                              4% Outer South Western Sydney
3% Central Western Sydney                                                     2% Wollongong

5% Outer Western Sydney                                   22% Inner Sydney                                                                   34% St George – Sutherland
                                                                              10% Illawara SD Bal
3% No Answer
2% Outer South Western Sydney
2% Wollongong                                           10% Eastern Suburbs
1% Illawara SD Bal                                7% St George – Sutherland
3% Fairfield – Liverpool                         6% Canterbury – Bankstown    6% Fairfield – Liverpool                                       8% Canterbury – Bankstown

Figure 9 Employee Mode Split                                                  Table 2 Airport Employee Inventory
                                                                              EMPLOYMENT CATEGORY                                                 PERCENTAGE

                                                                              Airport Terminal Staff / Volunteers                                      11.28%
354 Car (Parked in Car Park)                                  60 Train
                                                                              Security / Border Agency                                                 14.84%
                                                                              Retail / Food and Beverage                                                3.90%
                                                                38 Bus
                                                                              Airlines – Maintenance and Engineering                                   21.57%
                                                   27 Dropped Off
                                                                              Airlines – Flight Crew                                                   14.32%
                                                       /Picked Up
                                                           3 Minibus
                                                                              Office / Corporate                                                       17.86%
                                                                              Freight / Logistics                                                       8.37%
                                                   6 Taxi / Hire Car
                                                                              Car Rental / Valet Parking / Parking                                      4.01%
17 Other                                                3 Rental Car          Other Staff                                                               3.85%

                                                                                                                   SYDNEY AIRPORT CORPORATION LIMITED // 11
Sydney’s transport network is characterised by its constrained capacity. The
capacity of the road around Sydney Airport in particular is a key strategic issue for
Sydney Airport due to the through traffic demand. Similarly, the limited scope of
public bus services and its availability, frequency and capacity reduces the
attractiveness of these services to Airport users.
Road Capacity Constraints                                            60% of the trips to the airport would       than airport-related traffic. For example,
to Growth                                                            approach the airport from the north on      General Holmes Drive across the south-
Trips to the airport for 2023/24 have                                Southern Cross Drive, Princes Highway,      ern edge of the airport is expected to be
been predicted based on Master Plan                                  O’Riordan Street and Botany Road.           carrying a total of some 17,000 vehicles
forecast passenger movements, main-                                                                              per hour, of which airport-related traffic
taining the ratios of meeter/greeters,                               The traffic demand during the AM peak       comprises only 14%.
and airport employees.                                               hour exceeds the available capacity in
                                                                     the northbound (airport inbound) direc-     Therefore, even discounting the effect
The distribution of trips to the airport                             tion on some of the airport access          of airport related growth, augmentation
between the main access roads is illus-                              routes. This is primarily CBD bound traf-   of road capacity will still be required
trated in the figure below.7 The majority                            fic from the south and south-west of        on major approach roads around the
of the trips approach the airport from the                           Greater Metropolitan Sydney. This           airport to ensure that the regional and
west via the M5 East and from the north                              unconstrained forecast model identified     corridor traffic needs are met. Roads
via O’Riordan Street, followed by Botany                             that capacity improvements are poten-       that require such works include the
Road and Princes Highway.                                            tially necessary to ‘manage’ congestion     northern (inbound) carriageway of
                                                                     in addition to the planned improve-         General Holmes Drive, M5 East,
According to the predicted peak AM traf-                             ments. This will be dominated by corri-     Southern Cross Drive, Qantas Drive and
fic volumes, by 2024 approximately                                   dor traffic passing the airport, rather     Princes Highway.

Figure 10 Distribution of Airport Related Trips on
Major Roads 2024 AM Peak Hour

                                                     Oriordan St
                               Princes Hwy SB
                                                                   Botany Rd SB

 M5 East                                                                  Southern Cross Dr
  20%                                                                           5%
                                        Sydney Airport
                                   (Kingsford Smith Airport)

 Princes Hwy NB
                                                                    Botany Rd NB
           West Botany Rd                                                1%
                            General Holmes Dr              Foreshore Rd
                                   4%                          0.5%

7 SKM AM peak hour Strategic Model
8 September 2005

Rail Constraints to Growth                            new residential development takes                      rail during the AM peak hour in 2024
Current data for CityRail shows that in               place along the corridor. There may be                 for city bound passengers from
the AM peak hour, the eight train servic-             some spare capacity for additional train               International and Domestic Terminal
es that operate on the Airport Line to the            movements in the shoulders of the com-                 Stations is approximately 1,500. This
City carry 6,500 passengers at an aver-               muter peak, and this might be utilised                 contrasts with the current spare
age of 92.5% of capacity. However,                    where the demand profile at the Airport                seating capacity on existing morning
there are also four peak hour train serv-             Line stations diverges from the general                peak hour commuter demand and
ices that operate from the East Hills line            CityRail demand profile.                               existing service levels of approximately
that bypass the Airport (via Sydenham)                                                                       500 passengers.
which operate at 120% of capacity. This               The Airport Line, is constrained by the
implies that at the airport peak periods,             capacity of the City Circle. The Christie              Bus Constraints to Growth
capacity remains for less than 70                     Report 10 suggested a maximum                          Currently, only two bus routes directly
boarding passengers per train at the                  capacity of 14 trains per hour through                 service the airport, this being the Route
International and Domestic, not includ-               the City Circle loop in any one direction.             400/410 Burwood to Bondi service. This
ing additional spaces for passengers                  The current CityRail timetable has 15                  ignores the major markets identified in
alighting at these stations. Over the full            trains per direction in the AM peak                    SACL’s origin/destination surveys, these
morning peak period (06:00 to 09:30),                 hour. It is possible that the improved                 being employees located to the south of
the 26 city-bound train services on the               rail clearways network to be introduced                the airport, and passengers to the north
Airport Line have a passenger loading                 by 2008 will reduce the number of                      in the CBD.
of 70%.9                                              cross-overs at Central Station, allowing
                                                      the capacity to be increased to 16 trains              As these and other high occupancy vehi-
This current data indicates that there                per hour, but there is no current                      cles operate in the absence of transit
would be no morning peak hour capacity                commitment for this.                                   lanes, the attractiveness of and ability to
for additional train services. Commuter                                                                      establish additional and alternative pub-
demand on the East Hills Line operating               Based on current mode share and pro-                   lic bus services will be compromised as
through the Airport Line will grow as                 jected airport demand, the demand for                  road congestion increases.

9 A Compendium of CityRail Travel Statistics, Fifth Edition, April 2006, Rail Development Sectorisation, Railcorp
10 Long Term Strategic Plan for Rail, 2001

                                                                                                                    SYDNEY AIRPORT CORPORATION LIMITED // 13
The volumes of vehicular traffic forecast by 2024 highlights the need for
significant augmentation of the road network around Sydney Airport. Whilst the
Airport contributes to some of the demand, such augmentation is required
primarily to service the needs of the greater metropolitan area.
Road Capacity Needs                           Due to the smaller catchment of the                                                                               to approximately 50% of seats
A strategic analysis and comparison of the    Revesby rail services, it is estimated                                                                            occupied with spare seating capacity
link volumes in the vicinity of the airport   that the AM peak period demand for                                                                                of approximately 5,000 passengers.
subregion has identified that approach        non-airport related passengers will
roads to and by the airport would suffer      reduce to 5,250 (this is approximately                                                                       The analysis above does not include
from poor service levels. This is primarily   half of the AM peak period demand),                                                                          standing passenger capacity. During
due to the high rate of expected              and implies the following average peak                                                                       peak hours, standing passengers
residential and commercial growth around      hour loadings (in 2004 volumes):                                                                             account for 20% more passengers. By
the airport subregion as outlined in the                                                                                                                   terminating services at Revesby and
NSW Government’s MetroStrategy.               • 700 passengers per train assuming                                                                          providing existing frequency of 8 train
                                                the existing 8 trains per hour is                                                                          services per hour, the rail mode would
Notwithstanding        this     anticipated     maintained, which equates to                                                                               be able to accommodate SACL’s target
growth, there are no major road                 approximately 80% of seats                                                                                 mode shift of 5% to trains by the end of
capacity augmentation projects planned          occupied, with spare seating                                                                               the master planning period. However,
in the vicinity of the airport.                 capacity for approximately                                                                                 for those passengers wishing to access
                                                1,400 passengers; and                                                                                      the airport, from rail stations to the
Figure 11 below shows the nominal             • 450 passengers per train assuming                                                                          south, this will require an interchange
additional lane requirements (in addition       12 trains per hour, which equates                                                                          at Revesby station.
to road projects outlined in the Sydney
Airport Master Plan 03/04) to service the     Figure 11 – 2024 Unconstrained Road Network
through traffic volumes in 2024.              Enhancement Requirements

                                                                                       3                                                                         1.6
Rail Capacity Needs


The Clearways Program currently being




                                                                                                      0.                                                                                                                           0.2         0.0

implemented is anticipated to provide                                                                      5


                                                                                                0.5                                                 1.1
significant improvements to capacity                                                                                                          1.1                1.1



on the East Hills line and services via


the Airport Rail Link.                                                                                                                                                                                     0.2





When complete in 2008, the Clearways


                                                                                                                                                                                                                 0.4       0.4

                                                      0.3                                         0.
                                                                                                       9                                                                                                 0.7


Program will benefit the Airport Line by:


• Increasing capacity to allow up to 12

  services per hour; and                                                                                                    0.
                                                                                                                                 3          2.0           1.3

• Commencing and terminating Airport                                                                                                                                   0.2

  Line services at Revesby.


Following careful analysis, a range of short, medium and future options have
been identified for further investigation. These initiatives aim to increase the
attractiveness of public transport for all airport users, and will be progressed
through a representative Airport Ground Travel Plan Working Group to be
established by Sydney Airport.

When        considering travel plan           operation of the AGTP. Initiatives that are   • Seek partnership with Ministry
initiatives, two key themes emerge.           crucial to the success of the AGTP are:         of Transport to identify
These are:                                                                                    opportunities to realign and
                                              • SACL nomination of an AGTP                    augment existing bus services;
• The consideration of a range of               Coordinator;                                • Establish travel plan information
  initiatives that might be appropriate       • Coordinator to establish                      portal and strategies.
  for sustainable ground travel to              partnerships with the airport
  Sydney Airport; and                           community of employers to                   Airport Passengers and Meeters
• The means by which these                      form an AGTP Working Group;                 • Reposition and/or reduce kerbside
  initiatives can be appropriately            • Working Group to establish                    drop off/ pick up zones to encourage
  assessed and implemented.                     by mutual agreement Terms                     alternate modes;
                                                of Reference to be endorsed                 • Improve signage legibility and
This section provides a structure for the       by the airport community                      access to public transport
implementation of the AGTP, and a               of employers;                                 interchange;.
summary of travel plan initiatives to         • Working Group to undertake
provide more choice to users of the             assessment of the possible                  Airport Employees
airport and help to promote more                initiatives to identify both                • Consult with rail service providers to
sustainable travel to the airport.              effectiveness and viability of                provide more flexible ticket
                                                the initiatives as elements of a              arrangements;
It should be noted that whilst initiatives      package of measures;                        • Investigate a car pool program;
are nominated below, significant and          • Transport providers/agencies and            • Encourage walking and cycling by;
additional research is required prior to        relevant stakeholders be invited to           – enhancing pedestrian and
the endorsement and implementation              contribute to the assessment of                 cycle links to and from the airport
of such initiatives.                            relevant initiatives in partnership             via upgraded intersection and
                                                with the Working Group; and                     signage; and
Airport Ground Travel Plan                    • Working Group report to SACL                  – Providing suitable security and
Operation                                       management regularly.                           change facilities.
SACL, as the airport operator, is the
appropriate point of focus for establishing   Short Term Initiatives                        1) High Occupancy Vehicle Lanes
and instituting the AGTP. However, all        Summary                                       Liaise with the RTA and Ministry of
airport employers stand to benefit from       All Markets                                   Transport with respect to the provision
the effectiveness of the Travel Plan, and     • Liaise with RTA to provide priority/        of priority/designated lanes for buses
are critical to the success of the Travel       designated high occupancy lanes (eg         and vehicles with 3 passengers or
Plan. They constitute a community of            T3 transit lanes) on key approach           more, along the main roads approaching
interest that needs to be the core to the       routes to the airport;                      and surrounding the Airport.

                                                                                               SYDNEY AIRPORT CORPORATION LIMITED // 15
2) Realign and augment existing               drop offs, which have the most impact      investigated. Car pools are voluntary
   bus services                               of any of the access ‘modes’.              schemes and work best where
SACL to liaise with Ministry of                                                          travellers are known to each other,
Transport to undertake a review of            5)Improve signage, legibility              especially as employees.
existing bus services that may be                and accessibility
complimentary to the travel profile           Combining improvements to direction-       8)Walking and cycling
of each identified employee and               al signage with enhanced legibility and    Consolidate and improve pedestrian
passenger market segment, in                  accessibility may increase awareness       and cycle infrastructure to the airport:
particular to areas to the north and          of public transport services. Ensuring
south of the airport.                         each transport interchange point is        • Provide staff access to an
                                              clean, accessible and secure will            adequate number of shower
3)Establish travel plan information           enhance the quality of experience            facilities, lockers and secure
   portal and strategies                      for passengers.                              cycle parking;
This may take the form of an                                                             • Enhance/extend cycle routes with
airport transport orientated web-based        6)Flexible Ticketing Arrangements            local councils;
portal for employers, employees and           To reduce the cost burden on the use       • Enhance and link existing airport
passengers, and include trip planning         of train travel, SACL will engage with       cycleway facilities;
information and resources.                    the Airport Link Company to discuss        • Enhance pedestrian facilities; and
                                              flexible ticketing arrangements for        • Enhance pedestrian/cycleway
4)Reposition or Reduce kerbside               employees, including a flexible ‘week-       lighting.
   drop offs and pick ups                     ly’ ticket for casual staff and reduced
Drop offs and pick ups along the termi-       pricing for regular users.                 Medium Term Initiatives
nals’ kerbside from private vehicles                                                     Summary
accounts for a quarter of traffic around      7)Car Pooling                              All markets
the airport. Passengers being dropped off     “Carpooling” or “car sharing” is           • Bus link from the CBD to the
at the airport kerbside have the benefit of   shared use of a car, for commuting to        airport precinct.
a door-to-door service with no out-of-        work, often by people who each have a
pocket expenses. However, kerbside            car but travel together to save costs.     Airport Employees
drop-offs generate twice the traffic move-    When a person shares a car/vehicle         • Bus link focussed on airport
ments as those passengers or employ-          with other commuters, the users save         employment peak times:
ees who park their car at the airport.        on fuel cost, parking cost and vehicle       – Through Sydenham Station
Kerbside drop off traffic also impedes        maintenance cost. As a result of               to the airport to improve
traffic flow for higher occupancy vehicles    reduced number of cars being used,             connectivity with the Illawarra,
such as buses, taxis and minibuses.           carpools reduce road congestion.               eastern Suburbs, Bankstown and
                                              Larger carpools offer "sweeper servic-         MacArthur Lines; and
A repositioning or reduction of               es" of late pick-up options for people       – From Sutherland Shire to the
kerbside pick-up/drop-off may redirect        having to stay longer at work. This is a       airport precinct.
the “kiss and fly” market into public         necessary adjunct to the scheme to
transport modes where it is supported         give travellers confidence that their      Potential Bus Routes
by a transport awareness campaign.            return-home trip can always be avail-      Based on the origin-destination
                                              able, where flexibility is required.       catchment profile of staff and
Reducing kerbside movements would                                                        passengers groups, an opportunity
strengthen the effectiveness of the           A car sharing scheme promoted by           to provide an airport-orientated
AGTP by discouraging pick-ups and             SACL for all airport employees is to be    bus service may be able to be

                                                                                            SYDNEY AIRPORT CORPORATION LIMITED // 17
identified subject to patronage and              service airport shift periods (early     A limited stop shuttle bus service
financial feasibility. The aim is to             AM, midday and late PM); and             to target these under serviced
provide a convenient and competitive           • Public transport travel options are      rail catchments may provide a viable
public transport option for employees,           costly in terms of time and value        alternative to car user. The following
passengers and visitors to the                   (particularly for train services)        three services are considered as hav-
airport. While the airport has two rail           where levies apply to the Airport       ing the highest potential. If sufficient
stations, many of the airport’s                  Line stations.                           stakeholder interest is generated fur-
employees do not have a reasonable                                                        ther demand and financial analysis of
or affordable public transport option to       Currently, those wishing to travel to be   these services will be undertaken.
access their workplace. There are a            airport from the Illawarra line south of
number of key reasons for this:                Hurstville cannot conveniently access      1)North/South Corridor
• The existing network of bus and rail         the airport as the majority of trains      Sydney CBD – Airport
   routes serving the airport is limited       serving this section of the line do not    A third of passengers and a
   to specific corridors;                      currently stop at Wolli Creek.             quarter of meeter/greeters originate in
• The two airport rail stations are not        Following the completion of the            the inner city areas covered by
   well located for employees working          Clearways program along the East Hills     this catchment.
   outside of the terminals;                   Line in 2010, all services west of
• The majority of employee journeys            Revesby, will travel express from          This bus service to the City is similar
   require one or more interchanges in         Revesby to the City via Sydenham. All      to the former Airport Express service
   both directions to utilise the current      rail passengers west of Revesby            provided prior to the introduction of the
   public transport services to the airport,   destined for the Airport will therefore    Airport Rail Link. This option would
• Current public transport services            be required to interchange onto the        provide direct services to the City
   (including Nightride buses) do not          Airport Line.                              with no (or limited) stops from the

airport to Central and limited stops via    stops to cater for early morning and          In order to provide an attractive
Central to Circular Quay. Such a service    late night shift employees shall also         alternative to the car, a broader
may run higher frequency services           be investigated.                              catchment and high frequency of
during the peak hour, with limited                                                        service during the peak hours may be
services operating in the early morning,    2) East/West Corridor                         required. However, bus frequencies
midday and late night periods. Such a       Currently, options for public transport       must be sufficient to match the shift
service may be attractive to passengers     users from the inner and outer west           work profile of airport employees.
and staff interchanging at Central or       are limited, and are characterised by
within the CBD. Such services should        financial penalties and additional            Figure 12 below illustrates                            the
be price competitive to the existing cost   interchanges if travelling by train to the    potential bus service routes.
of rail and taxi services to the airport.   airport. The origin/destination profile of
                                            current employees from the west               Figure 12 Proposed Bus
Cronulla – Airport via Miranda,             is underrepresented, suggesting a             Service Corridors
Sylvania and Princes Highway                suppressed employment catchment
A significant proportion (one-third) of     when compared to the southern Sydney
airport employees currently reside in       suburbs. It is also characterised by a lack
the Sutherland and St.George areas.         of public bus transport options.
This employee group is dominated by
car usage. A service to this major staff    The example bus route shown below
catchment may provide an effective          may form part of an extended
alternative to car travel.                  east/west bus transport corridor, and
                                            thus provide commuters with a
This service may run express with           convenient transport option and
limited stops along the route, with         interchange at Sydenham Station.
a high frequency service during                                                                                                 Sydney Airport
peak shift employee periods to favour       Sydenham Station – Airport
these underserviced travel target           Sydenham Station is served by trains on
group. The service would provide            four lines: Illawarra, Eastern Suburbs,
a single interchange journey that           Bankstown and Macarthur (post 2010
would otherwise require multiple            clearways). As a key transport node
interchanges or circuitous journeys to      in reasonably close proximity to the
access the airport on public transport.     airport, it may provide a potentially
                                            convenient interchange for employees
A key component of promoting                and passengers wishing to use
use of these services would be to           public transport to access the airport.        Sutherland

investigate opportunities for improving     This service could provide a drop off and
bus travel times compared to car.           pick up directly outside the station and at
Implementation of bus lanes, priority       the key employment locations at the
signaling and other intersection            airport, with a non-stop service pattern in
priority    measures      would      be     between. This would provide a single
investigated along the route of the bus     interchange journey for many employees        Proposed Bus Corridors
service to provide attractive travel        who currently have to make multiple
                                                                                                        CBD – Airport
speeds and journey times. Other             interchanges or circuitous journeys to                      Sydenham Station – Airport
measures such as safe and secure bus        access the airport on public transport.                     Sutherland/Cronulla – Airport

                                                                                               SYDNEY AIRPORT CORPORATION LIMITED // 19
Future Options and Initiatives                     employees, customers and visitors by          These initiatives, if implemented, will
The following options and initiatives may          2023/24 which may involve the following       have varying impacts on different
form part of longer term projects or               longer term initiatives:                      groups. For example, passengers can
prioritised as part of a package of measures                                                     be split into two groups, business
as determined by the Working Group.                1) Improved accessibility between             and leisure. Leisure passengers have a
                                                      airport terminal arrival halls and the     higher propensity to change their travel
Bus Services                                          underground rail stations;                 behaviour than business passengers.
General Holmes Drive is a bus                      2) Improve directional signage at             This is essentially due to business
express corridor (X03, 303) linking the               terminal station entrances and off-        passengers not having to personally
southern suburbs and central business                 airport interchange stations;              incur the cost of travel.
district. In the future, express services          3) Improve accessibility and amenity
along the M5 East may be introduced                   of the Central Station to Airport          These initiatives are based on the analysis
along the corridor. Where feasible,                   Line interchange;                          of survey data and an assessment of the
the future development of roadside                 4) Support the provision of increased         markets’ propensity to change from their
bus stops on General Holmes Drive                     rail service frequencies which meet        existing travel behaviour.11
will be investigated to provide additional            forecast passenger demand;
access options to office and retail                5) Underpin rail patronage by linking to      Future monitoring through traffic counts
developments in the southern sectors                  an interchange shuttle bus service         and surveys will be used to assess the
of the airport.                                       from Sydenham (see bus section);           effectiveness of initiatives as they are
                                                   6) Support new rolling stock introduction     considered, investigated and progressed.
The extension or rerouting of Night Ride              dedicated to the airport line;
bus service around the airport may                 7) Support dedicated airport rail service –
provide a valuable service to shift                   to improve amenity and service levels;
employees working at the airport.                  8) Support flexible pricing and access to
                                                      public transport for staff;
Cycle and Pedestrian Linkages                      9) Extend hours of rail operation to
In consultation with local stakeholders,              better match services for airport shift
SACL will investigate linkages to                     staff change over; and
employment centres in the northern and             10)In conjunction with rail service
south eastern sectors of the airport to the           providers and airlines, investigate
Botany Bay Trail where feasible. Regional             remote check-in facilities to improve
bike paths have the potential to provide              amenity and flexibility for passengers.
off-road links to the International Terminal
Precinct, Qantas Jet Base, Domestic                Ticketing
Terminal Precinct, commercial and                  SACL to liaise with the Ministry of
aviation developments in the southern              Transport,, CityRail, State Transit bus
sectors of the airport.                            service operators and the Airport Rail
                                                   Link Company to reviewing station
Rail Services                                      access charges and to develop a flexible
SACL is to investigate opportunities to            fares model to attract staff and
facilitate an increase in rail patronage for       passenger users.

11 The Sydney Airport Phase II survey and analysis is documented in Working Paper 2.

Aviation activity forecasts indicate that   SACL has identified and documented       Group will be tasked with formulating
by 2023/24, Sydney Airport will be          a range of initiatives for further       terms of reference and developing a
handling 68.3 million passengers. This      consideration to provide airport         business case for each of the identified
corresponds with an average growth          staff and passengers with more           initiatives.
rate of 4.2 percent per annum. As a         sustainable modes of transport such as
result of this growth, employment will      bus and rail transport, pedestrian and   Due to the scale of the metropolitan
also increase at the airport. However,      cycle access.                            transport task, it is recognised
given parallel growth in the surrounding                                             that SACL will not be able to
metropolitan region and presuming           To facilitate the development and        resolve transport capacity issues in
little or no change in the current travel   implementation of these initiatives,     isolation. SACL is committed to the
behaviour, the current road network in      SACL plans to nominate an AGTP           AGTP and, in consultation and
the airport corridor and the approach       Coordinator and establish a Working      partnership with key stakeholders to
roads to the airport, are expected to       Group of airport employers, employee     enhance level of public transport
experience significant congestion due       representatives, with input from         choice and access to all users of
to traffic generated off airport.           external contributors. The Working       Sydney Airport.

                                                                                        SYDNEY AIRPORT CORPORATION LIMITED // 21
Sydney Airport Corporation Limited ACN: 082 578 809

The Ulm Building
1 Link Road Sydney International Airport NSW 2020 Australia
Locked Bag 5000 Sydney International Airport NSW 2020 Australia

Telephone 61 2 9667 9111    Facsimile 61 2 9667 1592

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