Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

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        What is Phonemic Awareness?

Phonemic awareness is the understanding that
words are made up of individual sounds or
phonemes and the ability to manipulate these
phonemes either by segmenting, blending, or
changing individual phonemes within words to
create new words.
                              –Chard & Dickson, 1999
    What is Phonemic Awareness?

Phonemic awareness is the understanding that
words are made up of individual sounds or
phonemes and the ability to manipulate these
phonemes either by segmenting, blending, or
changing individual phonemes within words to
create new words.
                              –Chard & Dickson, 1999
 North Carolina Standard Course of
               Study
                 Competency 1 Goal:
The learner will develop and apply enabling strategies &
skills to read and write.
1.02 Develop phonemic awareness . . .
• demonstrate understanding that spoken language is a sequence
  of identifiable speech sounds.
• demonstrate understanding of the sounds of letters and
  understanding that words begin and end alike (onsets and
  rimes)
Learn About—Phonemic Awareness
the best predictor of reading
 success is a child's level of
    phonemic awareness
   Take Note: “Ph” Words

      Phoneme
Phonological Awareness
 Phonemic Awareness
       Phonics
                   Phoneme:
                     40 phonemes
          For each phoneme, there is a correct
                    vocal gesture.

 Most words consist of a blend of phonemes,
                 such as
                 my with two phonemes /m/-/ī/
digraph       ship with three phonemes /sh/-/i/-/p/
              clock with four phonemes /k/-/l/-/o/-/k/
Phoneme, Phonological Awareness &
      Phonemic Awareness
          (vs. Phonics)



Phonemes are different from graphemes, which
are units of written language and which
represent phonemes in the spellings of words.
Phoneme Pronunciation Video

• What phonemes do you commonly mispronounce?
• What are some phonemes that your students commonly mispronounce?
Phonological Awareness
       -Awareness of word   parts

                                                      Phoneme Isolation
                                                      Phoneme Identity
                                                      Phoneme Categorization
                                                      Phoneme Blending
                                                      Phoneme Segmentation
                                         Onset-Rime   Phoneme Deletion
                                                      Phoneme Addition
                                         Blending &   Phoneme Substitution
                                         Segmenting
                            Syllable
                            Blending &
                            Segmenting
               Sentence
               Segmenting

Rhyming &
Alliteration
   Sentence Segmenting
          How many words are in this sentence?

The children play in the park.
 1    2       3    4 5    6


  Syllable Segmenting
    How many syllables are in the word Umbrella?


               Um             brell                a
Once there was a creature named Ed.
He started out with a great big ____________
He won’t be a nervous wreck
if you give this creature a _______.
Because he likes to do karate,
let us give him a nice big _____.
Even though he’ll do no harm,
on each side he needs an _____.
Since it’s hard to walk on wooden pegs,
Let’s give our creature two long _____.
Now our Ed is finally done.
Wasn’t that a lot of ______?
       Onset-Rime
Blending and Segmentation




   t r u s t
     onset       rime
Word Manipulation
 Toothbrush– take away the tooth


    Tooth brush
Phonemic Awareness
            Phonemic Awareness
• Phoneme Isolation: The ability to recognize
  individual sounds in words.
  The first sound in cat is /k/.




Phoneme Identity: The ability to recognize the
same sound in different words.

 The same sound
in mouse, mat, and
    map is /m/
           Phonemic Awareness
• Phoneme Categorization: The ability to
  recognize the word in a series of words that does
  not belong.

    Which word does not belong with the others?
              ball, bus, girl, balloon
            Phonemic Awareness

• Phoneme Blending: The ability to hear spoken
  phonemes and combine them into a word.

   What is the word? /b/-/u/-/s/



Phoneme Segmentation: The ability to break a
word into its separate phonemes
               Elkonin Box
Segment the word: lock
            Phonemic Awareness

• Phoneme Deletion: The ability to identify what
  remains of a word if a phoneme is deleted.

  smile without /s/ is mile.
            Phonemic Awareness
• Phoneme Addition: Create a new word by
  adding a phoneme.
  When /s/ is added to the beginning
  of top, it makes stop.



• Phoneme Substitution: Substitute one phoneme
 for another to create a new word.

  When the /b/ in bat is changed to /m/,
  the new word is mat.
Phonemic Awareness Skills Video
Report Form (Expected)
Self Assessment: What I Know
(Expected)
• What do you know
  about phonemic
  awareness?
• What do you want
  to know?
Self Assessment: What I Learned
(Expected)
• What did you learn
  from the Learn About
  Phonemic Awareness
  (Topical Reading)?
• What questions do
  you still have about
  phonemic awareness?
Independent Tasks:             Count down
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                           1.
                     Skills Video
                     Report Form
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                                    25 min




                           1.
                     Skills Video
                     Report Form
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                                    20 min




                           1.
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                     Report Form
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                                    15 min




                           1.
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                     Report Form
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                                    10 min




                           1.
                     Skills Video
                     Report Form
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                                    5 min




                           1.
                     Skills Video
                     Report Form
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                                  4 min




                           1.
                     Skills Video
                     Report Form
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                                  3 min




                           1.
                     Skills Video
                     Report Form
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                                  2 min




                           1.
                     Skills Video
                     Report Form
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                                  1 min




                           1.
                     Skills Video
                     Report Form
• Learn
               1 hr     • Learn to
  About    • Learn to     Apply
             Measure
    1 hr                    1 hr
ISF & PSF
 Effective Instruction
                                   Taught       Blending &
 Regular        Direct           Explicitly &   Segmenting
component    Instruction          Modeled
 in K & 1




                                                    Focus on a
                                                   few types of
                                                  specific skills
    10-15
   minutes                 Small Groups
    daily                  or whole class
             Design & Delivery

           Which one is more explicit?
“Let’s listen for the       “Man begins with the
beginning sound. I am       same sound as mop, and
going to say two words,     menu, and Mary, and
and you tell me which       mountain. What’s another
                            word that we know that
words begins with the /m/
                            begins with the same
sound. Listen: man/hand.
                            sound as man?”
Which word begins with
/m/?”
Learn to Apply—Phonemic
Awareness (Topical Reading)
Jigsaw Model Activities
   Pgs. 17-19: Segmenting and Blending


   Pgs. 20-21: Segmentation of Onset and Rime


  Pgs. 22-23: Phoneme Blending
              and Segmentation


  Pgs. 24-27: Phoneme Isolation
Self-Assessment: CheckPoint
 Discuss Answers as a group
Case Study Activity
Discuss your answers to the case study.
 • What instructional strategies were appropriate for these students?
 • Why?
 • How might you
   apply this to your
   own classroom?
Evaluate Your Existing
Program (Expected)
• How does your core
  curriculum support phonemic
  awareness instruction?

• How much time do you
  spend on phonemic
  awareness instruction?

• Is your instruction explicit
  and systematic?

• What changes can you make
  to improve your phonemic
  awareness instruction?
Learn to Apply Tasks:

				
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posted:8/22/2012
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