Docstoc

Myers.Gibson.Laux ACPA 2012 Revised Survey Tool

Document Sample
Myers.Gibson.Laux ACPA 2012 Revised Survey Tool Powered By Docstoc
					      A Disability Identity Development
       Model: Pilot Study and Revised
                 Survey Tool
           Karen A. Myers, PhD, Saint Louis University, kmyers11@slu.edu
     Jennifer Gibson, PhD, University of California-Davis, jgibson@ucdavis.edu
      Sarah Laux, MA, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, slaux@siue.edu




                            Purpose of this Study

The purpose of this study is 1) to describe and analyze the perspectives of people with
visual disabilities regarding their identity development as it is influenced by their
disabilities, and 2) to test the Disability Identity Development Model (Gibson, 2006)
survey on children and adolescents with visual disabilities to determine the survey’s
validity. Gibson’s Model describes three stages of disability identity development:
Passive Awareness, Realization, and Acceptance.




                       Survey and Data Collection

Using Gibson’s Disability Identity Development Model as a guide, a 25-question online
survey was developed by Dr. Jennifer Gibson to measure the level of acceptance of
one’s own visual disability. The survey was posted on Student Voice (an accessible
site) and participants were solicited through Delta Gamma Center for Children with
Visual Impairments in St. Louis, Mo, Lighthouse for the Blind, American Council for the
Blind, various state agencies for adults with visual disabilities, and disability services
centers on college campuses.
                                                                                             pg. 2
            Demographics of Study Participants

                   Gender                                Ethnicity

                                                                          White/Cauasian
                                     Male
                                                                          African
                                     Female                               American/Black
                                     Transgender
                                                                          Other




                      Age                                Services
140                                                 70
                                                    60
120                                                 50
100                                                 40
                                                    30
 80                                                 20                            Services
                                              Age   10
 60
                                                     0
 40

 20

  0
       12-17 yrs   18-23 yrs   24+ yrs



                           Participants Attending College
 140
 120
 100
  80
  60
  40
  20                                                      Participants Attending College
   0
                                                                                        Pg. 3
                                    Background

Adolescent identity and social participation are shaped by the activities youths choose
and the friendships they develop (Barber, Stone, Hunt & Eccles, 2005; Eccles &
Barber, 1999). A significant amount of evidence suggests that participation in school
and community-based activities is associated with short- and long-term positive
development (Barber, Stone, & Eccles, 2003). However, although individuals with
visual disabilities are taught compensatory skills, skills that can help them lead
satisfying lives and live as independently as possible, adolescents with visual
disabilities often experience social isolation and limited opportunities to engage in
meaningful relationships. The Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) created more
accessibility and attainability to post-secondary education for persons with visual
disabilities as a result of disability legislation (Myers, 2009). Because of this shift
toward equal opportunity and participation, it is important to consider how their identity
development differs from that of individuals without disabilities. Dr. Jennifer Gibson
(2006) developed a Disability Identity Model that facilitates one’s understanding for
persons with life-long disabilities and their identity development by giving insight into
perceptions and struggles they may experience. Gibson’s Disability Identity Model is
explained in three stages: Passive Awareness, Realization, and Acceptance. Identity
development of individuals with disabilities can be fluid and not all individuals fit into a
particular stage. Individuals may have reached Stage 3 – Acceptance, but may revert
to Stage 2- Realization upon the occurrence of negative experiences and stereotypes.




                               Jennifer Gibson, PhD
                               Psychologist
                               University of California, Davis
                               jgibson@ucdavis.edu
                               www.disabilitypsychology.com
                                                                               Pg. 4




                Disability Identity Development Model
                             (Gibson, 2006)

                  Passive Awareness: (12-18 pts on scale)

               First part of life 0-? (Can continue into adulthood)

       No role model of disability
       Medical needs not met
       Taught to deny disability
       Disability becomes silent member of family
       Co- dependency/ “Good-Boy/Good-Girl”
       Shy away from attention
       Will not associate w/others w/disability

                      Realization: (19-35 pts on scale)

                 Often occurs in adolescence/early adulthood

       Begins to see self as having a disability
       Self-Hate
       Anger: Why me?
       Concerned with how others perceive self
       Concerned w/ appearance
       “Superman/woman” Complex


                      Acceptance: (36-48 pts on scale)

                                   Adulthood

   Shift focus from “being different” in a negative light to embracing self
   Begins to view self as relevant; no more no less than others
   Begins to incorporate others with disabilities into life
   Involves self in disability advocacy and activism
   Integrates self into majority (able-bodied) world
                  Jennifer Gibson, PhD www.disabilitypsychology.com
                                                                                   Pg. 5
                                         Results

Participants were asked to rank their level of agreement (on a scale of 1-4) to
statements related to their disabilities. Each stage of Gibson’s Disability Identity
Development Model was given a numerical range to correspond with participants’
answers. The chart below shows the mean scores and corresponding stage of the
model. Passive Awareness: 1-1.3 Realization: 1.4-2.9                Acceptance: 3.0-4


                      Strongly   Agree    Disagree   Strongly     Mean         Model
   Statement           Agree                         Disagree     Score        Stage
                          4        3         2           1
I am comfortable
talking about my        96        33         8           2         3.60     Acceptance
disability with my
family of origin.
I have friends          102       26         8           3         3.63     Acceptance
with disabilities.
Most of my
problems are            22        50        42          25         2.50     Realization
caused by my
disability.*
I really do not
ever think about        12        46        58          43         3.23     Acceptance
my disability.*
Because of my
disability, I often     40        59        19           3         1.63     Realization
do more than
others to prove
my abilities.*
I want to work in
the field of            36        43        40          20         2.68     Realization
disability.
I feel responsible
for most of my           5        25         9         100         3.25     Acceptance
family’s
problems*
I care very much
about what              43        50        35          11         2.10     Realization
others think of
me.*
Though I have a
disability, I am as    119         17          2             1         3.83
important as                                                                     Acceptance
anyone else who
does not have a
disability.
My disability is
only spoken of          5          14          40           80         3.40       Realization
during doctor’s
appointments*
I appreciate who       102         32          4             1          3.7      Acceptance
I am.
In regard to my
disability, I often     9          27          24           79         3.24      Acceptance
wonder, “why
me?”*

TOTAL                                                                36.79 pts Acceptance
*Reverse coded




                                                                                         Pg. 6
                                        Summary

Our study showed that the majority of those surveyed are in the Acceptance stage of
Gibson’s model. Overall, 80% of people receiving services strongly agreed that they
felt as important as anyone who did not have a disability. 100% of college students
with disabilities surveyed stated that they had friends with disabilities. Of the traditional
college-aged students, 62% agreed that most of their problems are caused by their
disability. 69% agreed that, because of their disability, they often do more than others
to prove their ability.
                                                                                      Pg. 7
                                     References
Barber, B. L., Stone. M. R., Hunt, J. & Eccles, J. S. (2005). Benefits of activity

      participation: The roles of identity affirmation and peer group norm sharing. In B.

      L. Barber, Stone, M. R., & Eccles, J. S. (2003, March).

Gibson, J. (2006). Disability and clinical competency: An introduction. The California

      Psychologist.39. 6-10.


Gibson, J. (2011). Advancing care to clients with disabilities through    clinical

      competency. The California Psychologist. 44(4).


Myers, K. A. (2009). College students with visual disabilities: Preferences for effective

      interaction. Saarbrücken, Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller Aktiengesellschaft &

      Co. KG.
                                         Revised Survey

Instructions: Please read the following statements carefully. Indicate how much you agree or
disagree with each statement by selecting your choice. There is no right or wrong answer to
any of these statements

                                                            Strongly         Strongly
                                                            Disagree (1)     Agree (4)
   1. I am comfortable talking about my disability              1    2     3    4
      with my family

   2. I have friends with disabilities                         1     2     3    4
   3. Most of my problems are caused by my disability          1     2     3    4
   4. I really do not ever think about my disability           1     2     3    4
   5. Because of my disability, I often do more than           1     2     3    4
      others to prove my abilities
   6. I want to work to advocate for disabilities              1     2     3    4
   7. I feel responsible for most of my family’s problems      1     2     3    4
   8. I care very much about what others think of me           1     2     3    4
   9. Though I have a disability, I am as important as         1     2     3    4
      anyone else who does not have a disability

   10. My disability is only spoken of during                  1     2     3    4
       doctor appointments
   11. I appreciate who I am                                   1     2     3    4
   12. I feel angry because I have a disability                1     2     3    4
   13. In regards to my disability, I often                    1     2     3    4
       wonder, “Why me?”

Instructions: Read the following questions carefully. Answer by checking “Yes” or “No”.

   14. One or both of my parents has/have a disability
             Yes                 No

   15. Mother disability type (mark all that apply)
         a. Blind
          b. Low vision
          c. Deaf
          d. Hard of hearing
          e. Speech/Language Condition
       f. Learning Disability
       g. Physical or Musculoskeletal Disability (e.g. multiple sclerosis, etc.)
       h. Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
       i.   Psychiatric/Psychological Condition (e.g. anxiety disorder, major depression, etc.)
       j.   Neurological Condition (e.g. brain injury, strok, etc.)
       k. Medical Condition (e.g. diabetes, asthma, etc.)
       l.   Other
       m. None

16. Father disability type (mark all that apply)
       a. Blind
       b. Low vision
       c. Deaf
       d. Hard of hearing
       e. Speech/Language Condition
       f. Learning Disability
       g. Physical or Musculoskeletal Disability (e.g. multiple sclerosis, etc.)
       h. Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
       i.   Psychiatric/Psychological Condition (e.g. anxiety disorder, major depression, etc.)
       j.   Neurological Condition (e.g. brain injury, stroke, etc.)
       k. Medical Condition (e.g. diabetes, asthma, etc.)
       l.   Other
       m. None
17. My brother/sister has a disability
                 Yes                   No

18. Brother disability type (mark all that apply)
       a. Blind
       b. Low vision
       c. Deaf
       d. Hard of hearing
       e. Speech/Language Condition
       f. Learning Disability
       g. Physical or Musculoskeletal Disability (e.g. multiple sclerosis, etc.)
       h. Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
       i.   Psychiatric/Psychological Condition (e.g. anxiety disorder, major depression, etc.)
       j.   Neurological Condition (e.g. brain injury, stroke, etc.)
          k. Medical Condition (e.g. diabetes, asthma, etc.)
          l.   Other
          m. None
   19. Sister disability type (mark all that apply)
         a. Blind
          b. Low vision
          c. Deaf
          d. Hard of hearing
          e. Speech/Language Condition
          f. Learning Disability
          g. Physical or Musculoskeletal Disability (e.g. multiple sclerosis, etc.)
          h. Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
          i.   Psychiatric/Psychological Condition (e.g. anxiety disorder, major depression, etc.)
          j.   Neurological Condition (e.g. brain injury, stroke, etc.)
          k. Medical Condition (e.g. diabetes, asthma, etc.)
          l.   Other
          m. None


Please circle your response to each of the following questions.
   20. Age
        a. 12-17
          b. 18-23
          c. 24+


   21. Ethnicity (mark all that apply)
          a. White/Caucasian
          b. African American/Black
          c. American Indian/Alaska Native
          d. Asian American/Asian
          e. Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander
          f. Mexican American/Chicano
          g. Puerto Rican
          h. Other Latino
          i.   Other
          j.   Prefer not to respond
22. Gender
       a. Female
       b. Male
       c. Transgender
       d. Other


23. I receive services from
       a. The Delta Gamma Center for Children with Visual Impairments
       b. Another organization serving individuals with visual disabilities
       c. I do not receive services from an organization serving individuals with visual disabilities


24. If you attend college, what is your classification?
       a. Freshman
       b. Sophomore
       c. Junior
       d. Senior
       e. Graduate/Professional student
       f. I do not attend college


25. My disability type (mark all that apply)
       a. Blind
       b. Low vision
       c. Deaf
       d. Hard of hearing
       e. Speech/Language Condition
       f. Learning Disability
       g. Physical or Musculoskeletal Disability (e.g. multiple sclerosis, etc.)
       h. Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
       i.   Psychiatric/Psychological Condition (e.g. anxiety disorder, major depression, etc.)
       j.   Neurological Condition (e.g. brain injury, stroke, etc.)
       k. Medical Condition (e.g. diabetes, asthma, etc.)
       l.   Other
26. Age of onset of disability (when your first or only disability began)
       a. Birth
       b. 1 month – 1 year
       c. 1-5
       d. 6-10
       e. 11-17
       f. 18-23
       g. Other, please list age.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:13
posted:8/21/2012
language:Unknown
pages:12