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					Climate Change
adaptation RepoRt
at gatWiCK aiRpoRt
July 2011
                                                                          0
taBle oF ContentS




1. Executive summary                                                 4

2. Introduction to the report                                        6

2.1   About Gatwick                                                  6
2.2   Ownership                                                      6
2.3   Our ambition and strategy                                      6

3. Overview of Gatwick Airport Limited                               8

3.1   Gatwick today                                                  8
3.2   How we are planning to deliver sustainable development         8
3.3   The legislative environment                                    8
3.4   Looking ahead                                                  8

4. Gatwick Airport and climate change                                10

4.1   Traffic and Surface Access                                     10
4.2   Legislative framework                                          11
4.3   Existing airport infrastructure                                13
4.4   Infrastructure improvements being made today                   15

5. Identifying the risks                                             18

6. Assessing the risks                                               20

7. Adapting to climate change                                        29

7.1   Flood risk management                                          29
7.2   Strategic approach                                             37
7.3   Snow and ice                                                   38

8. Barriers to climate change adaptation                             39

9. Summary and conclusions                                           40

10. Glossary                                                         41

11. Appendices                                                       42

1.    Gatwick Airport location plan                                  42
2.    Key airport infrastructure                                     43
3.    Risk assessment methodology                                    44




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Gatwick Airport is the world’s busiest single           •   Deliver the best customer experience
runway airport and as the UK’s second busiest in        •   Help our airlines grow
terms of passenger throughput, handled just over        •   Increase future value and efficiency
32 million passengers in 2010. The airport is also      •   Protect and enhance our reputation
an important public transport hub, with frequent        •   Build strong environment, health and safety culture
rail services to London, and direct or connecting       •   Develop the best people, processes and technology
rail or coach services to many towns in South East
England and nationally.                                 Following a direction to report issued by the
                                                        Department for Transport, Food and Rural Affairs,
On December the 4th 2009 Gatwick Airport was            Gatwick Airport have produced this report in line
sold by BAA to Global Infrastructure Partners           with the requirements of The Climate Change
(GIP) for £1.51 billion. The airport has now            Act 2008. We are required to produce a climate
been independent of BAA for 18 months during            change report outlining our approach to risk
which there has been significant change and             assessment and resulting risks using a series of
improvement across many key aspects of the              climate change projections.
business. This now allows Gatwick Airport to truly
compete for the first time.                             The UK Climate Projections (UKCP09) were
                                                        released in June 2009 and are the latest update
GIP was founded in 2006 by former senior                to an ongoing series of projections for the UK.
executives from Credit Suisse and the General           UKCP09 give probabilistic projections of climate
Electric Company. GIP targets investments in            change up to the end of the present century over
the energy, transportation and water / waste            both land and sea for 3 greenhouse gas emissions
industries. GIP has offices in New York and             scenarios. They provide information on variables
London with an affiliate in Sydney and portfolio        such as precipitation, temperature, cloud, sea level
operations headquarters in Stamford, Connecticut.       rise, storm surge, and sea surface temperatures.
                                                        The UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP) has
We’re now a major independent airport                   undertaken a series of regional studies for each
competing to become London’s airport of choice.         part of the UK, and identified a range of possible
We have ambitious plans and the freedom to              future impacts. These include and increased risk of
pursue what’s best for our passengers, our airlines,    flooding, water supply shortages and extremes of
our employees and our community.                        hot and cold winter and summer temperatures.

At Gatwick we’re putting the passenger at the           It is clear that the Earth’s climate is changing.
centre of our plans. Everything we do is designed       Rising global temperatures will bring increased
to make their journey faster, easier and more           temperatures, changes in weather patterns, rising
rewarding. We’re working hard to understand             sea levels and increased frequency and intensity
what they want and to deliver a better experience       of extreme weather across the globe. For us
at every step of the journey.                           adapting to climate change is not a one-off
                                                        exercise; it is an ongoing process that has become
Our credentials to transform Gatwick into a great       an everyday part of doing business. Adapting to
airport are grounded in years of experience             climate change has become a key strategic issue
working with airline partners. It’s about listening,    considered alongside other corporate business
sharing ideas and delivering long-term benefits         risks.
that will make Gatwick the first choice for airlines.
We have now developed a clear path to develop           This report outlines our approach to climate
the airport to handle over 40 million passengers        change adaptation assessment and details some
per annum by 2025. In delivering this aim we            activities we are already engaged in to adapt to
have set six clear objectives;                          climate change. In assessing the risks from climate
                                                        change we have assumed the worst case scenario
                                                        for our region as modelled by UKCIP and assessed
                                                        the risks up until 2050.



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Assessing and managing risk is a core part of          Environmental Strategy
the airports business strategy and as such is          Managing the environment and the airport’s
something we have been engaged in for some             impact on climate change is something the airport
time. Applying the outcomes of the UKCIP work          takes very seriously and have recently published
has allowed us to be more specific around our          a new strategy around. In 2010 we launched
climate change risk assessment and has also            our Decade of Change strategy outlining are
confirmed that adaptation activities we are already    sustainability objectives and targets taking us
engaged in are in the correct areas to deliver the     to 2020. This strategy outlines our committed
best results.                                          to sustainable growth through responsible
                                                       environmental management coupled with strong
The main areas of climate change risk to Gatwick       economic and community programmes.
Airport are flooding and extremes of temperature.
This is not altogether a new concern for us and        During 2010 we secured the Carbon Trust
we have been working on these issues for some          Standard for our approach to carbon
time now. However the UKCIP modelling has              management, the international accreditation ISO
enabled us to give greater credibility to our risk     14001 for environmental management and the
assessment approach and gives comfort that we          ACI Carbon Accreditation Scheme, making us the
are addressing the right areas. We are already         largest UK airport to hold all three accreditations.
well advanced in flood mitigation at Gatwick
in partnership with the Environment Agency             At Gatwick we want to grow and develop our
through a mutual partnership project involving         business in a responsible way and where possible
flood alleviation of the River Mole. We have           reducing our absolute impact on the environment
also recently agreed a ground breaking strategic       and contribution to climate change. This means
partnership with the EA on flood offsetting as part    working with our partners to drive innovative and
of our ongoing capital investment programme,           industry leading initiatives ensuring the airport
detail on both of these activities is given later in   has a prosperous and sustainable future. (see
this report.                                           Appendix 2 for map of airport infrastructure).




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                                                                           intRodUCtion




This report has been produced following a              2.2   Ownership
Direction to Report issued by the Department for
Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) as a       BAA put Gatwick up for sale in October 2008
result of the Climate Change Act (2008).               following the Competition Commission’s enquiry
                                                       into the competitive dynamics of the South East
The Climate Change Act also creates a framework        England airports market.
for building the UK’s ability to adapt to climate
change. This Act requires the Secretary of State       On 4 December 2009 Global Infrastructure
to lay before Parliament assessments of the risks      Partners (GIP) completed its £1.51 billion
posed to the UK by climate change. This report         acquisition of Gatwick, creating an independent
details Gatwick Airport’s response.                    airport and opening up real competition in the
                                                       market for the first time in decades.
Gatwick Airport has been identified as critical
UK infrastructure and as a result we are legally       Today Gatwick is owned by a group of global
required to submit a Climate Change Adaptation         investment funds led by GIP – which has
report. The Direction to Report was issued by          committed to a long-term investment with a focus
Defra in early 2010 requiring us to submit a           on improving facilities and service levels.
report by 31 May 2011. There have already been
reports submitted from the Environment Agency,         The shareholder board, under the chairman of Sir
Highways Agency, Network Rail, Natural England         David Rowlands, is committed to making Gatwick
and Trinity House (Lighthouse Authority) and           a successful, international airport, a goal shared
National Grid. This report will be accompanied by      by the executive management team led by chief
several other airport reports as part of a second      executive officer Stewart Wingate.
wave.
                                                       2.3   Our ambition and strategy
It provides details of how we have assessed
climate change impacts on specific parts of our        Gatwick competes directly with Heathrow,
business and the actions being taken to address        Stansted, Luton and London City as well as
these challenges both now and in the future.           with European airports in one of the busiest air
                                                       transport markets in the world.
2.1   About Gatwick
                                                       Our overriding ambition is to compete to grow
Gatwick is the second largest airport in the UK        and become London’s airport of choice.
and busiest point-to-point airport in Europe,
handling 31.3 million passengers in 2010. It is also   Our aim is to generate growth in passenger
the busiest single-runway airport in the world,        numbers, and we have identified a clear path to
scheduling up to 53 aircraft movements per hour        achieving 45mppa by 2025 with the existing single
in peak times.                                         runway and two terminal operation.

We have around 70 airlines flying to more than         We currently have no plans to develop a second
200 destinations – more than any other UK airport.     runway at Gatwick and no intention of challenging
Approximately 23,000 people are employed on            the 2019 agreement1. However, we will continue
the airport campus, and we generate in excess of       to safeguard land for the eventuality that a second
£2 billion for the UK economy each year.               runway may be needed in the future.

                                                       In the medium term, growth in passenger volume
                                                       will come from greater airfield efficiency; the
                                                       introduction of cleaner, larger aircraft like the A380
                                                       and B787; and attracting new airlines to Gatwick,
                                                       particularly during off-peak times.




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Delivering great service every day will be a key
competitive advantage and encourage airlines
and passengers to choose to fly from Gatwick.
Competition creates choice, and our ambition is
for Gatwick to become London’s airport of choice.

We have set out six strategic priorities to help us
achieve our ambition.

These are to:

• deliver the best passenger experience by
  listening to our passengers and delivering the
  kind of service that will make them choose to fly
  from Gatwick

• help our airlines grow by understanding their
  goals and developing commercial partnerships

• Increase value and efficiency by maximising
  income from retail, property and car parks,
  lowering our operating costs and investing
  efficiently

• protect and enhance our reputation by building
  strong and constructive relationships with our
  stakeholders based on openness and trust

• build a strong environment, health and safety
  culture by maintaining a relentless focus on
  achieving zero incidents

• develop the best people, processes and
  technology by investing in high performing
  people, driving continuous improvement and
  the right systems

We are focused on delivering great service for our
passengers. Taking our passenger numbers to 40
million and beyond will require a step change in
the quality of service we deliver.




1
    Legal agreement signed in 1979 with West Sussex County Council in which BAA agreed not to develop a second runway at Gatwick before 2019.


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Competing to grow and become                            • build and maintain constructive relationships
london’s airport of choice                                with stakeholders
                                                        • recognise the value of our employees, partners
Under independent ownership since December                and communities.
2009, we can now offer real competition in
the London area. We believe we can grow to              With specific targets and action plans around
a throughput of 40 million and passengers per           these priorities we believe we can develop and
annum and beyond and become London’s airport            operate the airport sustainably and help adapt to
of choice.                                              the impacts of climate change.

To achieve this vision we have six strategic            3.3   The legislative environment
priorities:
                                                        The airport environment is a regulated one. Our
• deliver the best passenger experience                 operations must comply with EU environmental
• help our airlines grow                                legislation and local controls. We also have to
• increase value and efficiency                         comply with safety and security legislation set by
• protect and enhance our reputation                    the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and Department
• build a strong environment, health and safety         for Transport (DfT), and our aircraft charges
  culture                                               which are normally reviewed every five years, are
• develop the best people, processes and                regulated by the CAA.
  technology.
                                                        Additionally, we always work closely with the local
3.1   Gatwick today                                     planning authorities to make sure we comply with
                                                        their policies and work within the terms of the
We are partway through a £1 billion investment          Section 106 Agreement with West Sussex County
programme that is radically improving Gatwick. It       Council (WSCC) and Crawley Borough Council
includes projects to expand North Terminal (NT),        (CBC). This agreement sets out legally binding
including building additional pier-served stands,       obligations that underpin the way in which the
and to deliver a new security search area, baggage      airport will be developed and operated as it
system and major forecourt improvements for             grows.
South Terminal (ST). We are also making a £7.9m
contribution to redeveloping Gatwick rail station.      3.4   Looking ahead
These and many other planned changes are set
to transform the look and feel of the airport, and      Over the next eight years we expect our annual
enable us to offer a better passenger experience.       throughput to grow to 40 million passengers.

3.2   How we are planning to deliver                    To accommodate this growth we don’t expect any
      sustainable development                           significant change to the airport size or the way
                                                        we use the land, but we do anticipate important
In 2010 we published ‘Decade of Change’ which           changes to our airport infrastructure. The exact
outlines our sustainability priorities. These are to:   scope of these changes will be shaped by
                                                        discussions with our airlines and business partners,
• enable Gatwick to become the airport of choice        but they might include:
  for our passengers and customers
• ensure the safety and security of passengers,         • optimisation of the runway and taxiway system
  partners and employees                                • work to enable Airbus A380 operations
• generate national and regional economic               • completion of current terminal projects plus
  wealth, connectivity, increased airport                      • expansion of NT security search
  catchment and employment                                     • reconfiguration of NT departure lounge
• reduce adverse impacts to the environment                    • baggage system improvements
                                                               • reconfiguration of check-in facilities in
                                                                  both terminals


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• pier redevelopment and additional
  NT pier-served stands
• apron reconfiguration
• surface access improvements:
      • additional car parking
      • road junction improvements

We believe that growing the airport to 40mppa
will create an extra 1,700 on-airport jobs and
many more off-airport. Furthermore, we think
that by 2020 Gatwick will be contributing around
£2.3 billion gross value added (GVA) to the UK
economy.

Our transport assessment shows that with the
planned improvements to the ST roundabout
(Junction 9A), the NT roundabout and A23
Beehive roundabout, the road network around
Gatwick will be able to accommodate the traffic
that this airport growth will generate. There are
also a number of planned rail improvements that
will add capacity and improve the passenger
experience for rail travellers.

We have also studied how growing Gatwick to
40mppa will affect environmental issues including
carbon, air quality, aircraft and ground noise,
energy, waste, water, landscape and biodiversity.
We believe that any expected impacts are within
an acceptable range and that we’ll be able to
meet all statutory requirements.




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4.1 Traffic and surface access                           while Stansted operated 420 daily flights on
                                                         average, with 18 airlines serving 150 destinations.
Our role
                                                         Gatwick’s two largest carriers account for almost
Gatwick is the UK’s second busiest airport and           half our passenger traffic. EasyJet is the largest,
a vital part of the UK’s transport infrastructure.       accounting for 35% of passenger traffic, while
Operations are very much aligned to the needs            British Airways accounts for 14%.
of those travelling to and from the greater south
east region. It is the second busiest airport serving    Surface access
London and offers more travel destinations than
any other London airport.                                With approximately 35 million air passengers, 10
                                                         million staff movements and significant freight
In 2010, we handled 31.3 million passengers,             and servicing, travelling to and from the airport
10.9% fewer than our peak in 2007. There were a          annually, the demand for travel to and from
total of 240,505 aircraft movements, with 104,143        Gatwick is substantial. Effective surface access is
tonnes of air cargo carried.                             critical but it also greatly affects local communities
                                                         surrounding the airport. It is also an essential
The 2010 total of 240,505 aircraft movements             part of our approach to sustainability and carbon
comprised:                                               management. By providing a range of high
                                                         quality transport and on-airport parking options
• 233,499 passenger air transport movements              we not only help reduce emissions and impact on
  (PATMs), giving an average aircraft load of 134        the climate and cut congestion, we also provide
  passengers. These flights also carried the great       an excellent passenger experience and strengthen
  majority of Gatwick’s freight as belly-hold cargo      Gatwick’s role as a regional transport hub. It is
• 153 cargo air transport movements (CATMs).             recognised that ease of access is one of the key
  These were a mixture of international flights,         determinants of an airport’s success. Our position,
  and domestic and Channel Island flights                close to the M23 and M25 motorways and with a
• 2,187 general aviation (GA) and air taxi               major station on the main London to Brighton rail
  movements                                              line, offers a strong base from which to build.
• 4,666 other flights, the majority by empty civil
  aircraft on positioning flights.                       During adverse weather, the importance of clear
                                                         and operational surface access routes is critical
                                                         in maintaining our operations. While we make
Passengers                                               considerable efforts to remain operational at all
Most passengers travel from homes, hotels, and           times, this can be difficult when surrounding roads
businesses within the greater south east region.         are crippled by snow and ice preventing staff and
In 2009, 79.8% of all our passengers had their           passengers getting here.
journey start around points in the south east,
10.7% in other areas of the UK and 9.5% were             These issues here are outside our control but are
transferring between flights.                            paramount in ensuring the continued operation
                                                         of the airport. We don’t intend to go into detail
                                                         regarding the climate change impacts in these
Airlines                                                 specific areas, but it is important to note that
One of our strengths is its range of airline services    there are significant impacts on airport operations
and routes. In 2010, Gatwick was served by 70            if climate change impacts are not adequately
regularly operating passenger airlines, comprising       addressed and operational synergies are not
a mix of full service, low cost, and charter airlines.   identified with these third parties.
On average, passenger airlines operated 640
daily flights and served over 200 destinations –
more than any other UK airport. In comparison,
Heathrow operated an average of 1,250 daily
flights, with 88 airlines flying to 185 destinations,


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Climate change                                                           to provide a single definitive source of information
                                                                         on climate change. Comprised of governments,
With the emergence of clearer scientific evidence                        scientists and UN representatives, the IPCC is
consensus has developed on the respective roles                          the leading authority on climate change. It’s
of industries and governments in contributing                            most recent report, the Fourth Assessment,
towards efforts to combat climate change. The                            states that “most of the observed increase in
aviation industry, however, is clear about the role it                   global average temperatures since the mid-20th
has to play.                                                             century is very likely due to the observed increase
                                                                         in anthropogenic [human] greenhouse gas
Over the past few decades demand for air travel                          concentrations.”5
has grown significantly. In global terms, air travel
makes up 1.6%1 of worldwide CO2 emissions and                            UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
this could reach 3% by 20502, as the trend for                           (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol
increased air travel continues.
                                                                         The UNFCCC is a voluntary international treaty
In the UK, CO2 emissions from UK aviation                                for co-ordinated action on climate change. The
continue to grow in line with the increasing                             Kyoto Protocol, an addition to the UNFCCC,
demand for air travel. Notwithstanding                                   is a legally binding agreement committing 37
this growth, it is widely acknowledged that                              industrialised nations to reducing their greenhouse
aviation plays a vital role in supporting the UK’s                       gas emissions. As part of the Kyoto Protocol, the
participation in the global economy, and that it                         UK agreed to a target of reducing emissions by
must continue to play its part. However, as an                           12.5% by 2012 against 1990 levels. The Kyoto
overall contributor to the UK’s CO2 emissions, air                       Protocol came into force in 2005 and will end in
travel only represents 6.3%4 of the UK’s total, with                     2012. International negotiations to agree a follow-
energy suppliers and road transport representing a                       on treaty are continuing.
significantly higher contribution.
                                                                         European legislation
Considerable momentum has now built behind                               European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS)
the aviation industry’s efforts to reduce emissions.
Such efforts necessarily involve extensive                               The EU ETS is one of the EU’s key responses to
collaboration between airports, airlines, transport                      the Kyoto Protocol. Launched in 2005, the scheme
services, local communities and governments                              covers the EU’s largest emitters through a cap
(national and international). Although significant                       and trade arrangement. Emission levels are set at
progress has been made much remains to be                                EU and national level and each country is given
done.                                                                    allowances to distribute to companies covered by
                                                                         the scheme. Each allowance permits participating
4.2     Legislative framework                                            companies to emit one tonne of CO2 per year.

Several mechanisms have been established                                 Companies can buy and sell allowances to cover
internationally to create consensus on climate                           their emissions, thereby establishing a price for
change and to forge agreement on mitigation                              carbon and creating a market for carbon permits.
strategies.                                                              A small element of our operations is regulated
                                                                         by EU ETS and we undergo an annual verification
Intergovernmental panel on climate change                                audit on our EU ETS obligated emissions. We
                                                                         have been lobbying for aviation to be included
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change                            into the EU ETS, from 2012 it will be included in
(IPCC) was established in 1998 by the World                              phase three of the scheme and we welcome this
Meteorological Organization (WMO) and by the                             development.
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
2
  World Resources Institute, available at http://www.wri.org/stories/2006/10/greenhouse-gases-and-where-they-come-from.
3
  Working Group III Report, IPCC, 2007
4
  Factsheet 5, UK Aviation: Carbon Dioxide Emissions, DfT, 2009


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EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive                     Climate Change Act 2008

Building use is responsible for almost 50% of the                The Climate Change Act was passed in November
UK’s energy consumption and carbon emissions.                    2008. It has two key aims:
This directive introduces measures to improve the
energy efficiency of buildings, including:                       • to improve carbon management and help the
                                                                   transition towards a low carbon economy in the
• energy performance certificates for properties                   UK
  providing A-G efficiency ratings and                           • to demonstrate strong UK leadership
  recommendations for improvement                                  internationally
• requiring public buildings to display energy
  certificates                                                   The Climate Change Act has a number of key
• requiring inspections for air conditioning                     provisions that are relevant to the running of an
  systems                                                        international airport, including:
• giving advice and guidance for boiler users.
                                                                 • legally binding targets for CO2 and greenhouse
The EU directive is implemented in the UK via                      gases
the Energy Performance of Buildings Regulations                  • the introduction of a carbon budgeting system
2007. Any new buildings at Gatwick will be fully                 • the creation of a Committee on Climate Change
compliant with this regulation.                                  • international shipping and aviation
                                                                 • further measures to reduce emissions
National legislation
                                                                 Carbon reduction commitment
Over the past decade, the UK government has
introduced legislative measures to reduce carbon                 The Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) is
emissions. The UK-wide goal, as defined in the                   a mandatory emissions trading scheme being
Climate Change Act 2008, sets a legally binding                  introduced by the Government to cover large
target for a 34% reduction in greenhouse gases by                business and public sector organisations whose
2020, and an 80% cut by 2050.                                    annual half-hourly metered electricity use is above
                                                                 6,000MWh. The scheme began in April 2010, with
The following government initiatives are                         a three-year introductory phase. The first capped
particularly relevant here:                                      phase will begin in April 2013. Our electricity
                                                                 consumption is sufficiently high to obligate us
UK sustainable development strategy                              under the CRC.

The UK Climate Change programme is a key                         However as a result of the Government’s spending
strand in the UK Government’s sustainable                        review in 2011, this legislation in now under review
development strategy. It sets out the UK                         in order to simplify the administrative burden
Government’s commitments at international                        associated with compliance.
and domestic levels to tackle climate change.
Domestically it is split into several sectors – energy           Local agreements
supply, business, transport, domestic, public
sector and local government, agriculture forestry                There is a role for local government to play in
and land management and the encouragement of                     translating these commitments into action at
personal action.                                                 the local level. In December 2008, we signed a
                                                                 new Section 106 Legal Agreement with (WSCC)
                                                                 and (CBC), having consulted with seven other
                                                                 adjoining councils and other key stakeholders.

                                                                 The agreement sets legally binding obligations
                                                                 and supporting commitments on the following
                                                                 areas: climate change, air quality, noise, surface
5
    IPCC fourth assessment report -Climate Change 2007


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access, land use, development and biodiversity,          Our primary runway is designated 08R/26L and
community and the economy, water quality                 is an instrument runway (suitable for operations
and drainage, waste management and utility               in low visibility conditions) with a length of
management. It also outlines our action plans            3,316m. The prevailing wind conditions mean
and process for monitoring and reporting our             that the runway is used in the 26 direction for
performance on these important issues.                   approximately 72% of the time although this
                                                         changes by year and season.
The full Section 106 Legal Agreement is available
on our website, (http://www.gatwickairport.com)          The standby runway (designated 08L/26R) is only
                                                         used when the main runway is closed for planned
4.3    Existing airport infrastructure                   maintenance or for an unplanned closure. 08L/26R
                                                         is a visual runway that cannot be used in low
Figure A1 shows Gatwick in relation to its local         visibility conditions and has a length of 2,565m. In
setting. Horley in Surrey lies on the northern           2010 only 1.5% of total movements took place on
boundary and Crawley in West Sussex lies to              the standby runway.
the South. The London to Brighton railway line
runs north-south to the east, as does the M23            Passenger terminals
motorway. The River Mole flows from south to
north through the western part of the airport,           We have two passenger terminals, North Terminal,
passing beneath the runway in a culvert. Two             which opened in 1988 and South Terminal, which
tributaries, Crawters Brook and Gatwick Stream           opened in 1958. Along with their associated
flow around the boundary.                                facilities the terminals occupy approximately 18ha
                                                         of airport land. North Terminal and South Terminal
The airport boundary is largely based on the             have gross floor areas of approximately 85,000m2
Gatwick Airport Limited (Gatwick) land holding.          and 160,000m2 respectively.
While we own the freehold interest in the majority
of this land, some areas are the subject of very         South Terminal currently accommodates more
long term lease agreements, removing them                than half of our annual passenger traffic, with
from Gatwick’s day-to-day responsibility, e.g. the       approximately 18mppa, while North Terminal
land occupied by the cargo sheds and associated          currently accommodates approximately 14mppa.
facilities.
                                                         Associated facilities within the passenger terminal
There is a further 28ha of unallocated land              land use category include office buildings,
within the airport boundary. This comprises land         baggage handling facilities, boilers and chillers
to the east of Brockley Wood and land to the             and air/cabin crew reporting facilities.
south of the runway previously used for aircraft
maintenance. Most or all of this land will be            The train station next to South Terminal (owned
brought into use (or returned to use) at some time       by Network Rail) provides access to a range of rail
in the future. The total area of the airport is 759      services including the Gatwick Express service to
ha.                                                      London Victoria as well the Southern Railways and
                                                         First Capital Connect networks. Both terminals
Airfield facilities                                      also provide access to local and regional bus and
                                                         coach services.
Gatwick’s airfield extends over an area of 228ha,
slightly less than one third of the land within the      Our terminals are connected by an automated
airport boundary. It contains our primary and            people mover system known as the shuttle. This
standby runways, the northern parallel taxiway,          has two three-car trains running every few minutes,
and extensive grass areas surrounding these              and was upgraded in 2010 at a cost of £47 million.
facilities, a variety of navigational and landing aids
and our fire training area.




JUlY 2011 | gatWiCK aiRpoRt limited : Climate Change adaptation RepoRt                                      13
4
                                                               gatWiCK aiRpoRt and
                                                                   Climate Change



Aprons and piers                                           The cargo sheds are not owned by Gatwick but are
                                                           managed by a third party with a long term ground
Gatwick’s apron area currently extends to 161ha            lease. We have no direct commercial involvement
comprising:                                                with the cargo operation although we do manage
                                                           the border inspection post located there which
•    aircraft parking stands                   37%         is used for temporary storage, inspection and
•    taxiways                                  52%         clearance of live animals and foodstuffs.
•    fuel farm                                  6%
•    piers, fire station, control tower, etc    5%         Aircraft maintenance

Aircraft stands are classified as ‘pier-served’ or         Over recent years there has been a reduction in
‘remote’. Pier-served stands mean passengers               hangar provision at Gatwick with the demolition
can walk (via piers) between the aircraft and the          of some facilities south of the runway. British
terminal, while on remote stands, passengers use           Airways now operates the one remaining hangar
an airside coach to travel to and from the aircraft.       in this location on a 5ha site. There is a second
                                                           maintenance hangar (approx 4ha) to the north of
Most, but not all, pier-served stands at Gatwick           the runway, currently operated by Virgin Atlantic
have loading bridges providing a covered route             Airways.
between the pier and the aircraft. Where loading
bridges are not provided, passengers access the            While there has been a decline in overall hangar
aircraft via the apron and mobile stairs. In the latter    provision it is essential that airlines have access to
case, special vehicles are used for passengers with        maintenance infrastructure so additional hangars
reduced mobility (PRM). Both solutions are termed          could be needed as traffic increases.
‘pier service’, and the number of pier-served
stands at Gatwick is sufficient to achieve our             Ancillary activities
standard that 95% of passengers at each terminal
should receive pier service.                               Examples of ancillary activities needed within the
                                                           airport boundary include:
Remote stands are used for long stay parking
and aircraft are regularly towed between remote            •   hotels
stands and pier served stands in order to achieve          •   offices
pier service targets.                                      •   vehicle and equipment maintenance
                                                           •   contractors compounds
The apron also includes Gatwick’s fuel farm                •   filling stations
(approximately 9 ha), airport fire station and NATS’       •   police station
control tower.
                                                           A number of separate on-airport sites of
Cargo facilities                                           approximately 27ha accommodate these
                                                           activities.
The Cargo Centre covers some 11ha. This is
made up of a 23,000m2 cargo shed, office                   Surface transport facilities
accommodation, areas for HGV loading, unloading
and parking, and open equipment parking areas.             Gatwick has excellent surface transport links. The
                                                           airport is located around 25 miles south of central
Gatwick’s current cargo throughput is around               London and is well connected to the motorway
a third of the peak achieved in 2001 (approx               network via the M23 and M25. It has one of the
320,000 tonnes pa). It is likely that our facilities       UK’s busiest rail lines and the station is the busiest
could accommodate a considerable recovery in               UK airport rail station with over 12 million rail users
the airport’s cargo traffic without a requirement for      every year. The Gatwick Express service to London
additional capacity.                                       Victoria takes passengers to the heart of London
                                                           within 30 minutes and there are other also direct
                                                           rail services to London Kings Cross, London Bridge
                                                           and London St Pancras.

14                                    gatWiCK aiRpoRt limited : Climate Change adaptation RepoRt | JUlY 2011
                                                                                                                                     4
gatWiCK aiRpoRt and
Climate Change



The airport is well connected to the wider South                             4.4     The infrastructure improvements
East including Brighton and other coastal towns                                      being made today
and cities. Gatwick has a strong bus and coach
network connecting the airport to much of the UK.                            Gatwick’s investment strategy is reviewed annually
                                                                             and is developed in consultation with the airlines
Every year, over 30 million passengers travel to                             as part of the formal regulatory process defined by
and from Gatwick Airport (excluding transfer                                 the CAA. The investment strategy is described in
passengers) and around 10 million journeys are                               the Capital Investment Plan (CIP) which provides
made by staff working on the airport site. Add the                           detailed investment plans over the next 10 years.
significant number of journeys by suppliers and                              The 2010 CIP outlines a total expenditure of
service providers, and the scale of demand for                               nearly £1 billion up until March 2013. This section
surface access1 to the airport is huge.                                      describes some of the key infrastructure changes
                                                                             being made through this programme.
Surface transport facilities within the airport
boundary comprise on-airport roads, car parks                                The primary objectives are to improve service
and facilities for coaches, taxis and car rental                             quality standards by improving the passenger
companies which together occupy 145ha of                                     experience, upgrading the fabric of the airport and
airport land, around half of which are car parks.                            increasing terminal and airfield capacity to meet
                                                                             forecast growth.
Landscaping and surface water drainage
                                                                             Several significant projects have been completed,
Gatwick includes approximately 132ha of land                                 including the shuttle upgrade, building additional
devoted to landscaping (both natural and                                     aircraft stands in the North West Zone. Projects
planted), agriculture and surface water drainage.                            underway include:

A zone of natural and man-made landscaping,
defining the north-west boundary of the airport,
runs between North Terminal and the North West
Zone (the triangular area of land bordered by the
airfield to the south, the River Mole to the north
and west and the apron to the east).

The North West Zone supports important areas
of semi-natural broadleaf woodland (including
Brockley Wood, which is included on the National
Inventory of Woodlands and Trees) connected
by mature hedgerows bordering fields of semi
improved grassland. Many of the hedgerows are
associated with periodically wet ditches and there
are a number of wetlands that range from marshy
grassland, to relic ox-bow lakes marking the of the
original course of the River Mole.




6
    When we talk about “surface access” we mean airport roads, strategic highways, rail, bus and coach services, forecourt management, taxi
    provision, car parking, cycling and walking facilities for passengers, staff and other airport users


JUlY 2011 | gatWiCK aiRpoRt limited : Climate Change adaptation RepoRt                                                                        15
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                                                        gatWiCK aiRpoRt and
                                                            Climate Change



South Terminal forecourt                              In addition a number of developments are
Construction of new entrance building to South        planned to start by March 2013, including:
Terminal, improving the accessibility from the
forecourt and multi-storey car parks with new         South Terminal baggage system
lifts and simplifying the routes in and out of the    and Pier 1 replacement
terminal.                                             Major upgrade to South Terminal baggage
                                                      system increasing capacity, improving efficiency
South Terminal security                               and enabling bags to be checked-in earlier. The
Creation of a new centralised security screening      project is combined with the replacement of
position to replace the current arrangement of        Pier 1, Gatwick’s oldest pier. Its replacement will
separate channels on different levels. This will      provide a better passenger experience and also
improve way finding, improve efficiency and           enable a more efficient operation on the airfield.
facilitate the introduction of the latest security
technology.                                           North Terminal pier service
                                                      Construction of additional pier served stands to
South Terminal Pier 2                                 maintain pier service levels when the capacity and
Reconfiguration of the south side of Pier 2 and       throughput of North Terminal is increased. Pier 6
the adjacent apron to improve efficiency. The         might be extended to deliver these stands.
reconfigured apron will be able to accommodate
the most modern short-haul aircraft.                  North Terminal baggage upgrade
                                                      Upgrade of the baggage system to support the
South Terminal landside concourse                     planned increase in passenger throughput.
To improve the passenger experience in the
landside concourse by upgrading the floor and         Runway resurfacing
ceiling finishes.                                     Part of our on-going maintenance programme
                                                      to maintain and/or upgrade assets. Typically the
North Terminal extension                              runway needs to be resurfaced every 10 to 12
Extension of the landside envelope of North           years.
Terminal adding approximately 12,500m2 of floor
area for additional check-in and arrivals baggage     Contributions to other projects
reclaim facilities, a key part of our strategy to     We are also contributing to two infrastructure
grow the capacity of North Terminal to handle         projects managed by other organisations:
approximately 20mppa and provide a balanced
throughput for both terminals.                        • Rail station improvements
                                                        Gatwick is contributing £7.9m to Network Rail’s
North Terminal security                                 £53m project to extend the station concourse,
Two additional security search lanes in order to        construct a seventh platform and improve the
provide a faster journey through the terminal.          vertical circulation between platforms and
                                                        concourse. This should add capacity as well as
North Terminal interchange and forecourt                improving the environment for passengers.
The North Terminal forecourt has been redesigned
with a kerbside drop-off to the east of the multi-    • Upper Mole Flood Alleviation Scheme (UMFAS)
storey car parks and a new bus and coach facility       Gatwick is contributing £4.01m to the
to the south. Work continues to complete this           Environment Agency £15m flood prevention
project, including repositioning the entry lane to      scheme which benefits both the airport and the
the multi-storey car parks.                             surrounding area (see section 7.1).

North Terminal multi-storey car park
A second multi-storey car park giving
approximately 1,200 additional car park spaces.




16                               gatWiCK aiRpoRt limited : Climate Change adaptation RepoRt | JUlY 2011
                                                                         4
                              gatWiCK aiRpoRt and
                                  Climate Change



This list is not exhaustive but gives an indication
of the scale of improvements that are underway
or planned. Collectively they will enable Gatwick
to handle the predicted growth in passenger
numbers while improving the passenger
experience and services on offer.

Beyond March 2013 it is clear that further
investment will be needed. We expect there will
be the need for further capacity related projects to
bring all the components of the airport to a point
where they match the capacity potential of the
existing single runway. We will also be the need
to invest in new infrastructure to replace existing
assets that have reached the end of their design
lives or need upgrading to improve passenger
service, energy efficiency or productivity. There will
also be the need to invest in infrastructure to meet
future standards of environmental performance,
adapt to climate change or to meet new safety
and security legislation.

All existing infrastructure projects follow the six
sigma management process to ensure the ultimate
solution is provided to the identified requirement.
Within this process we have two check gates to
ensure our sustainability strategy is being adhered
to and that any adaptation requirements are met.
The first check gate is Sustainability Assessment 1
(SA1), this ensures all requirements are considered
at the project brief stage. The next is SA2 at the
project solution proposal stage, both these checks
ensure that key criteria are met for every project
and provided us with confidence that we are
developing and growing the airport sustainably
including adapting where appropriate and
necessary to climate change.




JUlY 2011 | gatWiCK aiRpoRt limited : Climate Change adaptation RepoRt   17
5
                                                         identiFYing the RiSKS




Being a critical element of UK infrastructure, we’ve
been assessing and managing associated risk for
many years now. Risk assessment is embedded
in everything we do from day to day operation to
long term development and growth. (figure 1)


Strategic framework & Risk Management




Figure 1
Risk assessment process overview




18                                 gatWiCK aiRpoRt limited : Climate Change adaptation RepoRt | JUlY 2011
                                                                                                 5
                              identiFYing the RiSKS




Over the last decade the focus on environmental         Future Assessment
risk has grown in importance and is now a key
part of all assessment our processes. Indeed            In assessing the risks we have assumed the worst
it is recognised that effective environmental           case scenarios for all the UKCIP options and have
risk management is critical to our license to           only assessed risk up to 2050. We believe that
operate and to grow. The UK Climate Impacts             the scenarios presented for beyond this date are
Programme (UKCIP) in their work on climate              too far in advance of any current airport modelling
change projections has confirmed this fact and          or policy development for us to be confident in
with this report we are highlighting our approach       assessing the risks effectively.
to adapting to these scenarios.
                                                        However as modelling methods improve and more
Each business unit across the airport has their own     detail becomes available around Government
risk register outlining all risks associated with its   policy on aviation growth we will revisit the
operation. The registers are updated regularly          risks and the latest UKCIP data to ensure our
and aligned with others across the business.            climate change adaptation risks are as up to
Full risk assessment processes and procedures           date as possible. We anticipate that this report
are outlined in appendix 3. To assess climate           will be formally reviewed and updated on a five
change adaptation risks, we first started with          yearly basis from date of publication, but will be
these registers and followed exactly the same           internally reviewed every year in line with our
assessment process, an approach which also has          current risk assessment.
the added benefit of consistency and simplicity.
                                                        Climate change adaptation and its risk assessment
While the projected climate change scenarios are        is now a part of our ongoing business as usual
very specific about impact on climate, our existing     risk assessment process and is evident across the
risk registers did cover the majority of the issues     business.
presented. This is because many environmental
impacts have already been identified as business
critical and are already being acted upon. In total
we have prioritised 21 climate change risks in
chapter 6 of these, snow/ice and flooding are
the key risks we have chosen to focus on. The
process of assessing climate change adaptation
risk has been a good sense check to ensure we
were covering the correct factors and to the right
degree.




JUlY 2011 | gatWiCK aiRpoRt limited : Climate Change adaptation RepoRt                                   19
6
                                                                         aSSeSSing the RiSKS




Gatwick Airport Climate Change Risk Register 2011

 Inherent Risk Likelihood Ranking                  1=Improbable (<10%); 2=Unlikely(10-30%); 3=Less Than Likely(30-50%);
                                                   4=More Than Likely(50-80%); 5=Probable(>80%)



 Inherent Risk                                     1=Minor; 2=Moderate; 3=Significant; 4=Substantial; 5=Grave
 Consequence Ranking



 Current Risk Consequence:                         1 = Non Reportable injuries; 2 = Minor injuries; 3 = Major injuries; 4 =
 Health & Safety                                   Single fatality; 5 = Mulitple fatailties or single fatality and multiple injuries

                                                   1 = Minor breach of regulations; 2 = Reportable breach or regulations; 3 =
 Security                                          Prosecution; 4 = Short airport closure; 5 = Long airport closure

                                                   1 = Short term local damage; 2 = Short term regional damage; 3 = Long
 Environment                                       term local damage; 4 = Long term widespread damage; 5 =Widespread
                                                   permanent damage




 BU Financial                                      User Defined - Enter in ‘BU Defined’ worksheet



 LGW Financial                                     1=<£1m, 2=>£1-25m<, 3=>£25-50m<, 4=>£50-100m<, 5=>£100m



 Reputation                                        1=Improvement notice, minor local reputation damage, 2= Prohibition
                                                   notice, major local reputation damage, 3= Prosecution with fine, national
                                                   adverse media coverage, 4= Directors charged



 Control Rating                                    1 = Excessive,exceed level required to manage risk; 2 = Optimal,
                                                   reasonably practicable and working as intended; 3 = Adequate, shortfall
                                                   but does not materially affect risk; 4 = Inadequate, weakness and
                                                   inefficiency in controls




                  5   5   20        45     80     125

                  4   4   16        36     64    100
     Likelihood




                  3   3   12        27     48     75


                  2   2   8         18     32     50

                      1   4         9      16     25
                  1
                      1   2         3       4      5



20                                       gatWiCK aiRpoRt limited : Climate Change adaptation RepoRt | JUlY 2011
                                                                                                                                                   6
ASSESSING THE RISKS




                                                            Inherent                                                                                                                                                                                     Inherent                                                                                                                                                                            Inherent
                                                                                                                                                   Current Risk                                                                                                                                                                        Predicted risk                                                                                                                                                                    Predicted risk
                                                            Risk 2011                                                                                                                                                                                    Risk 2020                                                                                                                                                                           Risk 2050


BU Risk           Owner         Root Cause How can it                                                               Mitigating Controls                                                                                                                                                                          Mitigating Controls                                                                                                                                                                 Mitigating
Event                           go wrong?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Controls
leading to




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Control Rating




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Control Rating




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Control Rating
                                                                                                                                                                              LGW Financial




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LGW Financial




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LGW Financial
                                                                         Consequence




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Consequence




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Consequence
consequence




                                                                                                                                                                Environment




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Environment




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Environment
                                                                                                     Matrix Score




                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Matrix Score




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Matrix Score




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Matrix Score




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Matrix Score




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Matrix Score
                                                                                       Matrix Zone




                                                                                                                                                                                                           Matrix Zone




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Matrix Zone




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Matrix Zone




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Matrix Zone




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Matrix Zone
                                                                                                                                                                                              Reputation




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Reputation




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Reputation
resulting in




                                                            Likelihood




                                                                                                                                                   Likelihood




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Likelihood




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Likelihood




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Likelihood




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Likelihood
effect on
business
objective

 Engineering
1. Use of         Head of       Significant rainfall        3            5             R             75             Contingency plan agreed -      3            3             2               4            R             75             4                3            5             R             75             Update flood          1            3             2               4            R             25             2                1            5             R             25             Possible            1            3             2               4            R             25             2
de-icer           Engineering   leading to high volumes                                                             need to input into SMIRF                                                                                                                                                                     contingency plan,                                                                                                                                                                   development
                                of contaminated surface                                                             (plan includes list of flood                                                                                                                                                                 maintain flood                                                                                                                                                                      and use of
                                water flowing to ponds                                                              critical assets based on 2D                                                                                                                                                                  consumables                                                                                                                                                                         alternative de
                                A, M & D resulting either                                                           flood maps and available                                                                                                                                                                     store, and develop                                                                                                                                                                  icer chemical,
                                flooding of the airport                                                             pumping equipment,                                                                                                                                                                           partnership                                                                                                                                                                         preventing
                                (due to discharge being                                                             including location). Need to                                                                                                                                                                 with the EA to                                                                                                                                                                      contamination of
                                prevented) or significant                                                           create flood consumables                                                                                                                                                                     deliver flood risk                                                                                                                                                                  treatment ponds.
                                risk of environmental                                                               store. Work with EA on                                                                                                                                                                       improvements                                                                                                                                                                        and the lifting
                                incident.                                                                           Flood Alleviation Scheme to                                                                                                                                                                  from 1:50 to 1:100                                                                                                                                                                  of discharge
                                                                                                                    take us from 1:20 year flood                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     restrictions
                                                                                                                    risk to 1:50 year flood risk
                                                                                                                    due for completion 2013.




2. Use of         Head of       Heavy rainfall leading      3            4             R             48             Hire additional aeration       3            3             2               3            R             48             3                4            4             R             48             Continued use of      3            3             2               3            R             48             3                3            4             R             48             Possible            1            3             2               3            R             48             2
de-icer           Engineering   to anaerobic conditions                                                             capacity in advance of an                                                                                                                                                                    additional aeration                                                                                                                                                                 development
                                in ponds/lagoon                                                                     issue occurring. Employ                                                                                                                                                                      capacity when                                                                                                                                                                       and use of
                                resulting in the need for                                                           competent people with                                                                                                                                                                        needed, and when                                                                                                                                                                    alternative de
                                additional aeration or                                                              appropriate risk assessments                                                                                                                                                                 required dose                                                                                                                                                                       icer chemical,
                                worst case, dosing with                                                             and method statements                                                                                                                                                                        with Hydrogen                                                                                                                                                                       preventing
                                Hydrogen Peroxide                                                                   should it be necessary                                                                                                                                                                       Peroxide                                                                                                                                                                            contamination of
                                                                                                                    to dose with Hydrogen                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            treatment ponds.
                                                                                                                    Peroxide.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        and the lifting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     of discharge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     restrictions




3. Insufficient   Head of       Pollution lagoon during     4            3             R             36             Plan to empty lagoon during    4            3             1               3            R             36             3                4            3             R             36             Increase capacity     2            1             1               3            G             8              3                2            2             G             8              Potential           2            1             1               3            G             8              3
capacity of       Engineering   wet cold winter. Heavy                                                              summer in preparation.                                                                                                                                                                       of the pollution                                                                                                                                                                    creation of a new
infrastructure.                 rain coupled with high                                                              Regular maintenance                                                                                                                                                                          lagoon. Negotiate                                                                                                                                                                   larger pollution
Leading to                      use of de-icer meaning                                                              of aerators. Regularly                                                                                                                                                                       greater volume                                                                                                                                                                      lagoon on site
pollution of                    the BOD of the pollution                                                            calibrated BOD meter                                                                                                                                                                         take from Thames                                                                                                                                                                    to handle much
local rivers.                   lagoon is too high for                                                              installed at D pond that                                                                                                                                                                     Water. Investigate                                                                                                                                                                  greater volumes
Resulting in an                 Thames Water, but the                                                               ensures only divert to                                                                                                                                                                       alternative de-icer                                                                                                                                                                 of effluent from
HSSE incident                   level is so high we need                                                            pollution lagoon when                                                                                                                                                                        chemical use.                                                                                                                                                                       the airport
and full or                     to discharge to Thames                                                              necessary.                                                                                                                                                                                   Agree differential
partial closure                 before overflows to river                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        discharge
of airport                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       consents with the
services.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        EA for winter and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 summer months




JULY 2011 | GATWICK AIRPORT LIMITED : CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION REPORT                                                                                                          21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ASSESSING THE RISKS




                                                             Inherent                                                                                                                                                                                     Inherent                                                                                                                                                                             Inherent
                                                                                                                                                    Current Risk                                                                                                                                                                         Predicted risk                                                                                                                                                                    Predicted risk
                                                             Risk 2011                                                                                                                                                                                    Risk 2020                                                                                                                                                                            Risk 2050


BU Risk             Owner         Root Cause How can it                                                              Mitigating Controls                                                                                                                                                                           Mitigating Controls                                                                                                                                                                 Mitigating
Event                             go wrong?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Controls
leading to




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Control Rating




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Control Rating




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Control Rating
                                                                                                                                                                               LGW Financial




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LGW Financial




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LGW Financial
                                                                          Consequence




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Consequence




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Consequence
consequence




                                                                                                                                                                 Environment




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Environment




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Environment
                                                                                                      Matrix Score




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Matrix Score




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Matrix Score




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Matrix Score




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Matrix Score




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Matrix Score
                                                                                        Matrix Zone




                                                                                                                                                                                                            Matrix Zone




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Matrix Zone




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Matrix Zone




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Matrix Zone




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Matrix Zone
                                                                                                                                                                                               Reputation




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Reputation




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Reputation
resulting in
                                                             Likelihood




                                                                                                                                                    Likelihood




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Likelihood




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Likelihood




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Likelihood




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Likelihood
effect on
business
objective

Engineering
4. Full or          Head of       Surface Water Drainage.    2            4             A             32             Condition survey of surface    2            4             1               4            A             32             3                1            4             A             16              Surface water         1            4             1               4            A             16             2                1            4             A             16             Surface water       1            4             1               4            A             16             2
partial failure     Engineering   Heavy rain leading                                                                 water infrastructure pits                                                                                                                                                                     infrastructure                                                                                                                                                                      infrastructure
of an asset/                      to ground water                                                                    almost complete. Pipework                                                                                                                                                                     upgraded to                                                                                                                                                                         upgraded to
facility. Leading                 contamination due to                                                               condition unknown.                                                                                                                                                                            deliver greater                                                                                                                                                                     deliver greater
to injury, loss                   failed surface water                                                               Aware of significant silt                                                                                                                                                                     capacity and                                                                                                                                                                        capacity and
of life, asset,                   infrastructure carrying                                                            accumulation.                                                                                                                                                                                 ongoing de silting                                                                                                                                                                  ongoing de
significant                       pollutants                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       work to keep                                                                                                                                                                        silting work to
impact to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          channels clear.                                                                                                                                                                     keep channels
customer                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               clear.
service.
Resulting in an
HSSE incident
and full or
partial closure
of airport
services Head
of Engineering

5. Supply           Head of       Water, catastrophic leak   2            4             A             32             Annual leak detection survey   2            1             1               4            A             32             3                1            4             A             16              Maintenance           1            1             1               4            G             1              2                1            1             G             1              Maintenance         1            1             1               4            G             1              2
of essential        Engineering   on distribution system                                                             of distribution system.                                                                                                                                                                       regime in place                                                                                                                                                                     regime in place
utilities                         or failure to supply by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          on system                                                                                                                                                                           on system
                                  utilities company, due                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           and effective                                                                                                                                                                       and effective
                                  to possible drought                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              leak detection                                                                                                                                                                      leak detection
                                  conditions                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       system in place.                                                                                                                                                                    system in place.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Identification                                                                                                                                                                      Identification
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   or water critical                                                                                                                                                                   or water critical
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   infrastructure.                                                                                                                                                                     infrastructure.

6. Use of           Head of       Additional BOD &           2            4             A             32             Hire additional capacity       2            3             2               3            A             32             4                2            2             G             8               This risk is linked
de-icer             Engineering   COD of surface water,                                                              at an early stage. Employ                                                                                                                                                                     to risk 3 from this
                                  “contaminated” following                                                           competent people with                                                                                                                                                                         point forwards.
                                  the use of Konsin,                                                                 appropriate risk assessments
                                  LEADING TO high                                                                    and method statements
                                  concentration ponds                                                                should it be necessary
                                  becoming anaerobic                                                                 to dose with Hydrogen
                                  RESULTING IN the need                                                              Peroxide.
                                  for additional aeration.
                                  Additional BOD &
                                  COD of surface water,
                                  “contaminated” following
                                  the use of Konsin,
                                  reducing the levels of
                                  dissolved oxygen.

7. Damage to        Head of       High Wind - Loading        3            3             A             27             Equipment taken out of         3            0             1               3            A             27             3                3            3             A             27              Possible design       2            0             2               3            A             27             4                2            3             A             18             Possible design     2            0             2               3            A             27             4
infrastructure      Engineering   bridges damaged due                                                                service (for example loading                                                                                                                                                                  amend to loading                                                                                                                                                                    amend to
                                  to high winds. Increased                                                           bridges) under high wind                                                                                                                                                                      bridges to make                                                                                                                                                                     loading bridges
                                  risk of building fabric                                                            conditions. Building fabric                                                                                                                                                                   then more                                                                                                                                                                           to make then
                                  becoming dislodged and                                                             surveys.                                                                                                                                                                                      tolerable to high                                                                                                                                                                   more tolerable to
                                  injuring someone.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                winds                                                                                                                                                                               high winds




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  22                                                                    GATWICK AIRPORT LIMITED : CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION REPORT | JULY 2011
                                                                                                                                                   6
ASSESSING THE RISKS




                                                           Inherent                                                                                                                                                                                      Inherent                                                                                                                                                                             Inherent
                                                                                                                                                   Current Risk                                                                                                                                                                         Predicted risk                                                                                                                                                                     Predicted risk
                                                           Risk 2011                                                                                                                                                                                     Risk 2020                                                                                                                                                                            Risk 2050


BU Risk            Owner         Root Cause How can it                                                             Mitigating Controls                                                                                                                                                                           Mitigating Controls                                                                                                                                                                  Mitigating
Event                            go wrong?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Controls
leading to




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Likelihood
effect on
business
objective

 Engineering
8. Act of          Head of       Heavy rainfall -          1            5             R             25             Contingency plan agreed -       1            3             2               5            R             25             4                1            5             R             25             Update flood           1            3             2               5            R             25             4                1            3             R             25             Continued            1            3             2               5            R             25             4
Nature             Engineering   Flooding Loss of                                                                  need to input into SMIRF                                                                                                                                                                      contingency plan,                                                                                                                                                                    critical asset
                                 critical equipment due                                                            (plan includes list of flood                                                                                                                                                                  maintain flood                                                                                                                                                                       protection and
                                 to flooding leading to                                                            critical assets based on 2D                                                                                                                                                                   consumables                                                                                                                                                                          new assets
                                 closure of airport                                                                flood maps and available                                                                                                                                                                      store, and develop                                                                                                                                                                   constructed out
                                                                                                                   pumping equipment,                                                                                                                                                                            partnership                                                                                                                                                                          of the flood zone
                                                                                                                   including location). Need to                                                                                                                                                                  with the EA to
                                                                                                                   create flood consumables                                                                                                                                                                      deliver flood risk
                                                                                                                   store. Work with EA on                                                                                                                                                                        improvements
                                                                                                                   Flood Alleviation Scheme to                                                                                                                                                                   from 1:50 to 1:100
                                                                                                                   take us from 1:20 year flood
                                                                                                                   risk to 1:50 year flood risk
                                                                                                                   due to completion 2013




9. Act of nature   Head of       Heavy rainfal causing     2            3             A             18             Capacity survey to be           2            3             1               3            A             18             2                2            3             A             18             Increased              1            3             1               3            G             9              2                1            3             G             9              Capacity             1            3             1               3            G             9              2
lading to full     Engineering   flood and back up in                                                              undertaken by any impacting                                                                                                                                                                   capacity at off site                                                                                                                                                                 increased
or partial                       foul sewage system and/                                                           project. Outcome to form                                                                                                                                                                      Thames Water                                                                                                                                                                         through
failure of an                    or foul water drainage                                                            part of project approval sign                                                                                                                                                                 treatment facility.                                                                                                                                                                  treatment facility
asset/facility.                  Demand from users /                                                               off. Also see earlier flood                                                                                                                                                                   Developments                                                                                                                                                                         and flood risk
Leading to                       development outstrips                                                             alleviation work.                                                                                                                                                                             in flood risk                                                                                                                                                                        now managed to
injury, loss                     design capacity.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                management 1:50                                                                                                                                                                      1:100
of life, asset,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  to 1:100
significant
impact to
customer
service.
Resulting in an
HSSE incident
and full or
partial closure
of airport
services.




JULY 2011 | GATWICK AIRPORT LIMITED : CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION REPORT                                                                                                        23
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ASSESSING THE RISKS




                                                              Inherent                                                                                                                                                                                    Inherent                                                                                                                                                                              Inherent
                                                                                                                                                    Current Risk                                                                                                                                                                          Predicted risk                                                                                                                                                                      Predicted risk
                                                              Risk 2011                                                                                                                                                                                   Risk 2020                                                                                                                                                                             Risk 2050


BU Risk            Owner         Root Cause How can it                                                                Mitigating Controls                                                                                                                                                                          Mitigating Controls                                                                                                                                                                  Mitigating
Event                            go wrong?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Controls
leading to




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Control Rating




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Control Rating




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                                                                           Consequence




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consequence




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resulting in
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effect on
business
objective

Engineering
10. interruption   Head of       Heavy rainfall or snow       1            4             A             16             Regular maintenance of        1            1             2               4            A             16             2                1            4             A             16              Critical sub           1            1             2               4            A             16             2                1            4             A             16             Adequate              1            1             2               4            A             16             2
to the supply      Engineering   leading to catastrophic                                                              distribution system. Dual                                                                                                                                                                    stations protected                                                                                                                                                                   back up power
of essential                     electricity supply failure                                                           redundancy of 33 kV supply.                                                                                                                                                                  and ensured                                                                                                                                                                          supply available
utilities                        and/or failure of                                                                    Back up generators from                                                                                                                                                                      integrity of                                                                                                                                                                         and all critical
                                 distribution system.                                                                 essential supplies.                                                                                                                                                                          distribution                                                                                                                                                                         distribution
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   system across                                                                                                                                                                        assets protected.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   the airport and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   provision of back
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   up generation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   for critical airport
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   infrastructure




11. Act of         Head of       Significant Snow/            4            2             A             16             De-icer applied by General    4            0             1               1            A             16             3                4            2             A             16              Effective              4            0             1               1            A             16             2                4            2             A             16             Effective             4            0             1               1            A             16             2
Nature,            Engineering   Ice Roads become icy,                                                                Services according to a                                                                                                                                                                      application of                                                                                                                                                                       application of
significant                      possibly increasing the                                                              pre-defined plan.                                                                                                                                                                            de icer and                                                                                                                                                                          de icer and
snow/and or                      risk of accidents and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             snow clearance                                                                                                                                                                       snow clearance
ice                              likelihood of queuing.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            processes                                                                                                                                                                            processes




12. Use of         Head of       Heavy snow and               3            4             R             48             Board and sandbag the         1            4             2               4            A             16             3                3            4             R             48              B, C and M           2              4             2               4            A             18             3                2            3             A             18             Increased             2            4             2               4            A             18             3
de-icer            Engineering   ice leads to Surface                                                                 points of discharge from                                                                                                                                                                     ponds removed.                                                                                                                                                                       flow through
                                 water from ponds A                                                                   ponds A, B, and C prior to                                                                                                                                                                   Diversion of flow                                                                                                                                                                    Thames Water
                                 “contaminated” following                                                             the use of Konsin                                                                                                                                                                            from pond A                                                                                                                                                                          treatment facility.
                                 the use of Konsin, enters                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         into the original                                                                                                                                                                    Possible micro
                                 the River Mole leading                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            catchments area                                                                                                                                                                      scale treatment
                                 to a fish-kill incident                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           of pond M, this will                                                                                                                                                                 facility on site.
                                 resulting in a breach of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          now be isolated                                                                                                                                                                      More effective
                                 our discharge consent                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             and pumped to                                                                                                                                                                        application of
                                 with the Environment                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              larger pollution                                                                                                                                                                     de-icer chemical.
                                 Agency. “Enviro” valve                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            lagoon                                                                                                                                                                               Possible
                                 does not operate, leak,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                introduction of
                                 deflates, etc/                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         a new chemical.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Dedicated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        aircraft de-icer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        stands.

13. Act of         Head of       Extreme summer heat          2            2             G             8              Regular maintenance of        2            0             1               1            G             8              2                2            2             G             8               Possible upgrade       2            0             1               1            G             8              2                2            1             G             2              Efficient new         2            0             1               1            2             G              2
Nature             Engineering   or winter cold- Air                                                                  distribution system.                                                                                                                                                                         to existing cooling                                                                                                                                                                  building design
                                 conditioning unable                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               and heating                                                                                                                                                                          with appropriate
                                 to keep temperature                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               infrastructure                                                                                                                                                                       cooling and
                                 at usual levels causing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           where appropriate                                                                                                                                                                    heating
                                 passenger discomfort                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   infrastructure
                                 and, potentially, medical
                                 issues




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  24                                                                     GATWICK AIRPORT LIMITED : CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION REPORT | JULY 2011
                                                                                                                                                  6
ASSESSING THE RISKS




                                                           Inherent                                                                                                                                                                                     Inherent                                                                                                                                                                            Inherent
                                                                                                                                                  Current Risk                                                                                                                                                                        Predicted risk                                                                                                                                                                  Predicted risk
                                                           Risk 2011                                                                                                                                                                                    Risk 2020                                                                                                                                                                           Risk 2050


BU Risk          Owner         Root Cause How can it                                                               Mitigating Controls                                                                                                                                                                          Mitigating Controls                                                                                                                                                                 Mitigating
Event                          go wrong?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Controls
leading to




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Control Rating




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                                                                        Consequence




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resulting in




                                                           Likelihood




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effect on
business
objective

 HSE
14. Multiple     Head of HSE   Illness, adverse weather,   2            2             G             8              Global office, broad           2            1             1               2            G             2              2                3            2             A             12             Ensure all            2            2             1               2            G             8              2                2            3             A             12             Effective         2            2             1               2            G             8              2
Staff Shortage                 employees unable to                                                                 competencies, buy-in                                                                                                                                                                         relevant staff have                                                                                                                                                                 third party
*short to                      get to the airport due to                                                           resource, use expertise from                                                                                                                                                                 remote access to                                                                                                                                                                    engagement
medium term                    snow/flooding                                                                       other parts of the business                                                                                                                                                                  business systems.                                                                                                                                                                   and significant
*inability                                                                                                         (knock on effect). E-media,                                                                                                                                                                  Develop working                                                                                                                                                                     improvement in
to deliver                                                                                                         conference calls                                                                                                                                                                             relationships with                                                                                                                                                                  surface access
functional                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      external bodies                                                                                                                                                                     adverse weather
objectives                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      to ensure surface                                                                                                                                                                   management
and possible                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    access risks are                                                                                                                                                                    process
disruption                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      managed
to airport
operation




JULY 2011 | GATWICK AIRPORT LIMITED : CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION REPORT                                                                                                       25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ASSESSING THE RISKS




                                                     Inherent Risk                                                                                                                                                                                Inherent Risk                                                                                                                                                                            Inherent
                                                                                                                                            Current Risk                                                                                                                                                                             Predicted risk                                                                                                                                                                   Predicted risk
                                                     2011                                                                                                                                                                                         2020                                                                                                                                                                                     Risk 2050


BU Risk           Owner   Root Cause How can it                                                              Mitigating Controls                                                                                                                                                                               Mitigating Controls                                                                                                                                                                 Mitigating
Event                     go wrong?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Controls
leading to




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Control Rating




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Control Rating




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Control Rating
                                                                                                                                                                       LGW Financial




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LGW Financial




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                                                                  Consequence




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consequence




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resulting in
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Likelihood
effect on
business
objective

Airside Ops
15. Aircraft      COO     Adverse weather, strong    3            5             R             75             Low Visibility Procedures in   2            1             2               4            A             32             3                3            5             R             75                  Low Visibility        2            1             2               4            A             32             3                4            5             R             32             Low Visibility     2            1             2               4            A             32             3
Accident/                 winds or storms                                                                    place (LVPs), MDIs, apron                                                                                                                                                                         Procedures in                                                                                                                                                                       Procedures in
Incident                                                                                                     discipline                                                                                                                                                                                        place (LVPs), MDIs,                                                                                                                                                                 place (LVPs),
leading to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     apron discipline                                                                                                                                                                    MDIs, apron
injury/loss of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     discipline
life




16. Aircraft      COO     Bird strike                5            5             R             125            Habitat management and        2             3             2               4            R             50             2                5            5             R             125                 Review all current    2            3             2                            R             50             2                5            5             R             50             Maintain ongoing                2             3               2            R             50             2
Accident/                                                                                                    bird detection/dispersal.                                                                                                                                                                         bird management                                                                                                                                                                     reviews and
Incident                                                                                                     Liaison with local landowners                                                                                                                                                                     practices and                                                                                                                                                                       assessments of
leading to                                                                                                   (off airport) and provision                                                                                                                                                                       amend as                                                                                                                                                                            bird and habitat
injury/loss of                                                                                               of specialised equipment/                                                                                                                                                                         appropriate to                                                                                                                                                                      management
life                                                                                                         training - annual competency                                                                                                                                                                      reflect possible                                                                                                                                                                    practices
                                                                                                             checks. Safeguarding                                                                                                                                                                              increase in
                                                                                                             processes and safety                                                                                                                                                                              numbers of birds
                                                                                                             management systems.                                                                                                                                                                               on or around
                                                                                                             Trained staff - bird hazard                                                                                                                                                                       the airport due
                                                                                                             refresher/3 yrs 9) record                                                                                                                                                                         to changes in
                                                                                                             keeping and analysis. Special                                                                                                                                                                     weather patterns
                                                                                                             projects/working groups/
                                                                                                             reactions to trends and
                                                                                                             emergency procedures
                                                                                                             including audit and risk
                                                                                                             assessment with FERA.
                                                                                                             Liaison with Landscape
                                                                                                             Manager

17. Increase      COO     High temperatures          2            2             G             8              Ensure availability of FEGP    2            3             2               1            G             8              2                3            2             A             12                  maintain              3            3             2               1            G             8              2                3            2             A             12             maintain           3            3             2               1            G             8              2
in demand                 leading to increased use                                                           on all stands. Enforce GAD’s                                                                                                                                                                      availability of                                                                                                                                                                     availability of
for energy at             of aircraft APU, FEGP/                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               FEGP, possible                                                                                                                                                                      FEGP, possible
aircraft stands           GPU                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  review for                                                                                                                                                                          introduction of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               consideration of                                                                                                                                                                    preconditioned
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               preconditioned air                                                                                                                                                                  air on stands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               on stands




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          26                                                                     GATWICK AIRPORT LIMITED : CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION REPORT | JULY 2011
                                                                                                                                                  6
ASSESSING THE RISKS




                                                         Inherent Risk                                                                                                                                                                                  Inherent Risk                                                                                                                                                                         Inherent Risk
                                                                                                                                                  Current RiskG                                                                                                                                                                         Predicted risk                                                                                                                                                                    Predicted risk
                                                         2011                                                                                                                                                                                           2020                                                                                                                                                                                  2050


BU Risk           Owner     Root Cause How can it                                                                Mitigating Controls                                                                                                                                                                            Mitigating Controls                                                                                                                                                                   Mitigating
Event                       go wrong?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Controls
leading to




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effect on
business
objective

 Airside Ops
18. Aircraft      COO       Heavy rain/snow -            4            5             R             100            Provision of navaids, ILS,       2            3             2                            A             18             2                4            5             R             100            Provision of            2            3             2                            A             18             2                4            5             R             100            Maintain current    2            3             2                            A             18             2
Accident/                   leading to possible ice                                                              airfield lighting, signs, met                                                                                                                                                                  navaids, ILS,                                                                                                                                                                         procedures
Incident                    formation.                                                                           reports, snow clearance,                                                                                                                                                                       airfield lighting,                                                                                                                                                                    and practices
leading to                                                                                                       de-icing, strong wind                                                                                                                                                                          signs, met reports,                                                                                                                                                                   and review
injury/loss of                                                                                                   precautions Adverse Weather                                                                                                                                                                    snow clearance,                                                                                                                                                                       alternative or
life                                                                                                             Plan, staff training, tabletop                                                                                                                                                                 de-icing, strong                                                                                                                                                                      new technology
                                                                                                                 exercise LVP procedures.                                                                                                                                                                       wind precautions                                                                                                                                                                      for snow and ice
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Adverse Weather                                                                                                                                                                       management
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Plan, staff training,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                tabletop exercise
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LVP procedures.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effective use
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                of snow and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ice clearing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                equipment
19. Loss of       COO       Adverse weather (heavy       5            4             R             80             Provision of navaids, ILS,       3            1             1               3            A             12             2                5            4             R             80             maintain ongoing        3            1             2               3            A             12             2                5            4             R             80             maintain ongoing    3            1             2               3            A             12             2
infrastructure              snow and ice) and lack                                                               LVP SOPs, AGL, inspections,                                                                                                                                                                    assessment                                                                                                                                                                            assessment
leading to loss             of investment in snow                                                                maintenance, snow fleet,                                                                                                                                                                       of airfield                                                                                                                                                                           of airfield
of capacity                 clearing equipment                                                                   grip tester, MDIs, clearway                                                                                                                                                                    requirements for                                                                                                                                                                      requirements for
resulting                                                                                                        3 & 6, Konsin use. Strong                                                                                                                                                                      adverse weather                                                                                                                                                                       adverse weather
in business                                                                                                      investment in snow clearing                                                                                                                                                                    management.                                                                                                                                                                           management.
disruption                                                                                                       equipment                                                                                                                                                                                      Ensure snow                                                                                                                                                                           Ensure snow
and/or airport                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  and ice clearing                                                                                                                                                                      and ice clearing
closure.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        equipment is fit                                                                                                                                                                      equipment is fit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                for purpose                                                                                                                                                                           for purpose

20. Loss of       COO       Loss of utility supply to    2            4             A             32             Supplier contracts and           2            1             2                            G             8              2                3            4             R             48             Supplier contracts      2            1             2                            G             8              2                3            4             R             48             On site energy      2            1             2                            G             8              2
supplies                    airfield due to adverse                                                              delivery network/method,                                                                                                                                                                       and delivery                                                                                                                                                                          generation
leading to loss             weather conditions                                                                   contingency plans in place                                                                                                                                                                     network/method,                                                                                                                                                                       maintained
of capacity                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     contingency plans                                                                                                                                                                     with possible
resulting                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       in place. On site                                                                                                                                                                     additional
in business                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     energy generation                                                                                                                                                                     capacity
disruption                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      in place to                                                                                                                                                                           developed
and/or airport                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  protect critical
closure                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         infrastructure

21. Loss          COO       Significant change in        1            2             G             4              minimal control options          1            2             2               1            G             4              2                2            2             G             4              If issue continues      1            2             2               1            G             4              2                2            2             G             4              Amend and           1            2             2               1            G             4              2
of airfield                 prevailing wind direction,                                                           available                                                                                                                                                                                      and becomes                                                                                                                                                                           adapt current
capacity and                meaning change in                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   more regular                                                                                                                                                                          environmental
operational                 runway direction of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 then a review of
flexibility                 operation, having                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         impact controls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                all current noise,
                            impacts on noise,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         to reflect change
                            air quality and CO2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 air quality and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      in runway
                            emissions                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           CO2 mitigation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                and management                                                                                                                                                                        operation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                processes will be
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                conducted.


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      intentionallY BlanK




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As a result of conducting a climate change risk                 Topography and ground conditions
assessment and when aligning with the outputs
of an overall business risk assessment it was clear             Gatwick is generally flat with an elevation of
that flooding and water management were the                     around 59m above ordnance datum (AOD). These
biggest risks to our business. The risk of flooding             include the area around North Terminal (AOD
is not a new one to us and has been a critical focus            56.4m) and South Terminal (AOD 58.3m).
for some time. The process of climate change
risk assessment only confirmed our already well                 The airport site has a shallow ridge running south-
established approach and mitigation measures.                   east to north-west through the centre. The ground
                                                                at the South Terminal generally slopes from the
7.1    Flood risk management                                    Terminal toward the northwest returning to the
                                                                Gatwick Stream near North Terminal.
Environment Agency flood maps currently show
large areas of the airport including areas in the               The British Geological Society map shows that
north eastern parts of the airport, around North                most of the airport is underlain by weald clay
and South Terminals, to be located within Flood                 underlain by Tunbridge Wells sandstone. The
Zone 3. Parts of the airport fall within areas of               clay has been found to include a ‘mudstone layer’
lesser flood risk - Flood Zones 2 and 1. Definitions            approximately two metres thick. The mudstone
of flood zones can be found in table 1.                         is as a dense hard shale like material that flakes
                                                                like slate and crumbles and breaks down when
Detailed modelling of the Upper Mole from                       exposed to the atmosphere.
2004 is currently the best information available
to the EA, but this is soon to be updated by new                Ground water flooding
modelling we commissioned in 2009, which is
currently awaiting validation by the EA. In this                Due to the impervious nature of the ground the
report we have used the more detailed modelling                 risk of groundwater flooding at the airport is very
on the basis that it will be validated.                         low. The Defra Groundwater Flooding Study
                                                                (2004) shows no historic groundwater flooding
Risk of airport flooding comes from two sources:                incidents at or near the airport and the (Strategic
                                                                Flood Risk Assessment) SFRA found that “there is
• the rivers surrounding the airport (the River                 no conclusive evidence of elevated susceptibility
  Mole, Gatwick Stream and Crawter’s Brook). This               to groundwater flooding within the Borough”.
  flooding generally occurs after longer duration
  storms in the upstream river catchment.                       Existing surface water drainage infrastructure

• intense direct rainfall falling on the airport itself         The airport is divided into a number of surface
  exceeding the capacity of the surface water                   water drainage catchments [see Figure 3].
  drainage system. This flooding generally occurs               Surface water runs into a system of pipes and
  for shorter, more intense storms.                             culverts which discharge into a number of water
                                                                bodies (ponds A and D to G), a main pollution
                                                                control pond (pond D) and a pollution lagoon.


 Flood                         probability of Flooding
 3b (functional floodplain)    [Identified in Crawley SFRA]

 3a (high probability)         1% annual probability or greater of river flooding

 2 (medium probability)        Between 1% and 0.1% annual probability of river flooding

 1 (low probability)           Less than 0.1% annual probability of river flooding

Table 1
Flood zone definitions


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These reduce flows before discharging into                 is pumped to a separate pollution lagoon for
the main rivers around the site, or, in the case           storage and then treatment at Crawley STW.
of contaminated water, to the Crawley sewage
treatment works.                                         • Dog Kennel pond, which is being enhanced as
                                                           part of the North West Zone project, will collect
A further pond (pond M) has recently been                  surface water run off from the North Terminal
completed in the North West Zone, while                    car park area and is located to the north east of
former ponds B and C have now been infilled.               new NWZ stands and taxiway.
                                                         • pond E – takes airfield drainage from the south
The principal water bodies and catchment areas             east end of the runway. It has an oil barrage
will then be:                                              boom, aeration and discharges water to Gatwick
                                                           Stream.
• pond A which collects surface water from               • ponds F and G take surface water flows from
  catchment A and Westefield Stream located                around the South Terminal landside areas and
  to the west of the River Mole at the discharge           car parks. Both are basic balancing ponds. Pond
  point from the runway culverts.                          F discharges by gravity to the Gatwick Stream
• pond D is at the heart of the airport’s surface          and Pond G via pumped main.
  water infrastructure. The pond consists of a           • pond M balances flows from former Ponds B
  lower balancing pond, an oil separator unit              and C and the new NWZ development. This
  (filtration ponds) and an aeration pond. It              pond will also have facilities for detecting and
  collects surface water from catchment D the              diverting contaminated run-off to the pollution
  majority of the airport. From pond D water               lagoon for treatment.
  which meets the specified quality requirements         • pollution lagoon to the south east of the airport,
  is discharged via pumps into the River Mole at a         balancing storage for contaminated run-off
  licensed rate, after aeration if necessary. Water        pumped from Pond D prior to treatment at
  which does not meet the consented quality                Crawley STW.




Figure 3
Surface water drainage catchments


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Surface water flooding                                 Fluvial (river) flood risk

The existing surface water drainage system was         Figure 4 below shows the main water courses
designed to accommodate a storm with a five year       at Gatwick. The river Mole runs in a northerly
return period without additional water from 186ha      direction on the central western side of the
of paved area. When the piped surface water            airport, with a section of it running in a twin box
system reaches its capacity, during or following       culvert underneath the main runway. There is
a severe rainfall event, water will back up in the     also a siphon which performs as an overflow relief
piped system and eventually spill out and cause        tunnel during higher river flows. North of the
localised ponding and run off as surface water         runway, following its diversion completed in 2000,
flows across the site.                                 the River Mole now flows around the north west
                                                       perimeter of the airport.
The mechanisms of surface flooding which would
have the greatest impact on airport operation are      The Gatwick Stream, a tributary of the River Mole,
floodwater backing up from pond D when inflows         flows along the eastern boundary of the airport
exceed outflow pump capacity.                          northwards toward Horley and is partly in culvert
                                                       alongside the railway and South Terminal building.
Current airfield design standards specify no           These two main rivers confluence immediately
flooding for a 1 in 5-year storm. For landside         downstream of Gatwick Airport. A third river, the
areas the required level of service is no flooding     Crawters Brook joins the River Mole upstream
for a 1 in 10-year storm. While the model predicts     of the twin box culvert before the Mole passes
some flooding before these return periods, it          underneath the airfield.
is by no means significant. This accords with a
lack of historic flood reporting at the airport. The   Flood risk from the River Mole principally arises
surface water drainage system can therefore be         on the south side of the airport before it enters
considered fit for purpose.                            the twin box culverts. Here the capacity of the
                                                       culverts can lead to localised flooding of a small
The Construction Industry Research and                 part of the airfield but this is of limited extent.
Information Association (CIRIA) Guidance c635
outlines that surface water flooding of open           Based on our latest modelling it is estimated
spaces such as landscaped areas or car parks is        that there is currently a 1 in 20 (5%) chance each
acceptable for short periods for events with a         year of flooding of parts of the airport. The risk
return period in excess of 30 years. However, the      principally arises in relation to fluvial flooding from
layout and landscaping of the site should aim to       the Gatwick Stream. Figure 6 shows the current
route water away from any vulnerable property          extent of flood risk for the 1 in 100 year event.
and avoid creating hazards to access and exit          This is based on our most recent modelling. It
routes. Storm events are likely to become more         indicates that flooding would occur in the north
frequent with increased rainfall intensity in the      east quadrant of the airport around both South
future. Surface water flooding on site can be          and North Terminals and extend across to the
decreased by seeking to increase the drainage          Cargo area. Depths of flood water would be
capacity to above 1 in 10 year storm events and        greatest around North Terminal and Cargo.
incorporation of sustainable urban drainage            Figure 7 shows the current flood risk for the less
systems through re-development and when                extreme but still severe 1 in 50 year flood event.
opportunities arise.




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Figure 4
Main water courses




Figure 6:
1 in 100 year flood risk


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Although there have been floods (most recently         We have been working with the EA and have also
in 2000, which was estimated to be a 1 in 15 year      identified opportunities to reduce the effects of
flood), so far none of the floods have caused any      flooding from the surface water drainage system.
major disruption to operations so far.
                                                       Fluvial flooding – flood risk management Upper
More extreme flood events have been modelled           Mole Flood Alleviation Scheme
and are predicted to occur with an increasing
likelihood in the future as a result of climate        Because of flood risk in the Upper River Mole
change. These would result in greater disruption       catchment, the EA has developed a flood
and could affect passenger operations either           alleviation scheme for the Upper Mole – the Upper
directly, through flooding of areas of the terminal,   Mole Flood Alleviation Scheme (UMFAS). Having
road network, car parks, or indirectly through         secured funding including a significant financial
flooding of support assets such as baggage             contribution from us the EA has now started work
systems, substations and plant rooms.                  on the scheme. It is expected to be completed in
                                                       2013. Based on our latest model, the following
We operate an emergency plan to manage flood           plans show how UMFAS, should benefit the
risk, which includes a contingency plan for major      airport.
flooding and pollution incidents. This is informed
by the EA flood warning service. Resilience            1 in 50 year flood
measures should place vulnerable equipment at
as high a level as is practicable for future proof     Figure 9 shows to 1 in 50 year flood risk following
against more extreme events and to allow for           implementation of UMFAS. It can be seen that
climate change. To protect people, access to           once the UMFAS scheme is operational, fluvial
higher level areas of the terminal is available from   flood risk at the airport for a 1 in 50 year event
all areas.                                             will reduce compared to that shown in Figure 7.




Figure 7:
1 in 50 year flood risk


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Flooding will be limited to relatively small parts of      Future flood risk reduction
the airport, although it is still predicted to occur
around South Terminal from the Gatwick Stream,             Even after the implementation of UMFAS it can be
which will over spill at the culverts due to culvert       seen that residual risks will remain
capacity. Flooding at North Terminal would in              for the more extreme floods, including the 1
this 1 in 50 return period cease because the               in 100 year flood return. We and the EA are
floodwater would not breach the shallow ridge.             exploring further measures to reduce flood risk
                                                           from the Gatwick Stream, particularly to afford
1 in 100 year flood                                        South Terminal the same level of protection as
                                                           North Terminal from the 1 in 50 year event, but
Figure 8 shows the predicted extent of flooding            also to protect the airport against a 1 in 100 year
for a 1 in 100 year event. There would still be            flood event. The study includes both on-airport
flooding but its extent and depth would be                 and off-airport works to the Gatwick Stream.
significantly less than today (see Figure 6).
The principal cause of flooding would be the               On-airport options include increasing the size of
Gatwick Stream. UMFAS will also reduce flood               the Gatwick Stream South Terminal culvert and
risk upstream and downstream of the airport, in            an option of connecting the Gatwick Stream to
Crawley and Horley. On completion of the UMFAS             the River Mole via the Crawters Brook, thereby
the EA flood risk maps covering the airport                diverting water out of the Gatwick Stream and into
will be reviewed. A new baseline will be set for           the River Mole before it reaches the constrained
development at the airport denoting a revised              culvert.
extent of flood risk, against which considerations
of acceptability and mitigation will be appraised.




Figure 8:
1 in 100 year flood risk with UMFAS


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             adapting to Climate Change




Initial modelling has shown that with                    Pond M
improvements to the Gatwick Stream culvert               We have recently completed a new surface water
fluvial flood risk at the airport could be alleviated    attenuation pond – Pond M – at the airport’s
for a 1 in 100 year flood including a further 20%        North West Zone. It has purposefully been
allowance for climate change.                            over-sized in anticipation of further development
                                                         of the NWZ as envisaged in the Interim Master
Flood plain compensation storage                         Plan. Pond M has a storage capacity of 75,000
                                                         m³ and reduces surface water run-off from the
We have also identified the opportunity to build         development of the NWZ. Because the pond
additional flood storage for the Gatwick Stream          receives surface water from the airfield, it includes
up stream of the airport where the river flows just      clean and dirty compartments and aeration to
to the south of the Crawley Sewage Treatment             improve water quality prior to discharging into the
Works. Initial studies show that this would              River Mole or to Crawley Waster Water Treatment
significantly reduce flood risk.                         plant.

A study of the protection of critical assets will also   Ponds D and E
include other measures that could be taken to            Pond D is our main surface water attenuation pond
protect existing key assets against flooding. This       and It’s 20 years old. We’re currently re-examining
might involve relocating critical assets to less         it’s design capacity and evaluating work to extend
vulnerable areas and remedial measures to be             it’s operational life. This is likely to include further
taken to reduce risk.                                    de-silting (de-silting of the lower pond was carried
                                                         out in 2007), replacement and improvements of
                                                         pumping equipment and monitoring and control
                                                         systems, repairs to the earth banks and pond liner
                                                         replacement. Improvements are also planned to
                                                         Pond E.




Figure 9:
1 in 50 year flood risk with UMFAS


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                                                adapting to Climate Change




Resilience and resistance to flood water
(local measures)

Implementing risk reduction measures for airport
developments will be based on understanding the
level of risk presented to key assets, their criticality
and the safety of airport users. Of course it is
often either not practical or prohibitively expensive
to relocate existing facilities outside flood zones.
For this reason, it’s important to consider other
measures to protect those facilities and their
users and reduce flood risk and its impacts where
practicable. Where practical, existing facilities
will be relocated to areas with lower flood risk
but when that’s not practical measures will be
considered to protect those facilities and their
users to reduce flood risk and its impacts.

For existing facilities vulnerable to flooding it is
important to limit the risk to life, costs and the
recovery time after a flood. A range of measures,
both structural and non structural, can be
deployed to increase the resilience and resistance
of existing facilities. Table 2 lists examples of
these flood proofing measures. They are based on
evidence from laboratory tests, technical evidence
and industry experience.



  • Moving services and electrical sockets above predicted flood level
  • Resilient internal walls
  • Resilient floors
  • Resilient internal doors
  • Flood resistant / water proof external doors
  • Flood resistance gates
  • Air brick covers
  • Local bunds
  • Boundary walls
  • Rainwater harvesting
  • Permeable paving
  • Sump and pump
  • On site attenuation
  • Improving flood warning
  • Emergency planning and response

Table 2:
Protecting existing buildings from flood risk


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7.2   Strategic approach                                 risk and ‘bank’ benefits by reducing development
                                                         in flood areas. It will also help overcome the
Learning from previous development projects,             difficulty and cost of trying to bring forward stand
we’ve begun discussions with the EA about                alone project flood mitigation.
UMFAS and how we can avoid EA objections to
future development projects. Crawley Borough             The strategic approach also provides
Council (CBC) is also involved in this collaborative     practical approaches to be considered in new
approach.                                                developments to enhance resilience and safety. It
                                                         will not have legal or statutory status but will be
This process has resulted in agreeing our                a material planning consideration used by the EA
contribution to UMFAS. It also led to agreeing           in its consideration of our planning applications
principles for how new development in flood              and by CBC in determining applications. The
risk areas could be taken forward without each           strategic approach is underpinned by new flood
individual development being required to mitigate        risk modelling so that decisions are taken on best
for flood impacts. This built on an approach             available flood risk information.
adopted by the EA and the owners of Thorpe
Park. It will be the first time that a UK airport has    Implementation of strategic approach
put in place this arrangement.
                                                         Flood risk is identified in the SA1 and SA2
A draft strategic approach document has now              (sustainability appraisals) of projects at specific
been prepared in discussion with the EA. It sets         stages in the project (tollgates). The strategic
out the principles for how the flood risk approach       approach document will therefore be rolled out
will be applied to developments at Gatwick. In           to development managers to ensure that as
order to allow us to continue to develop at the          development options are being considered, flood
same time as making sure we put measures in              risk opportunities and risks are identified.
place so flood risk isn’t increased elsewhere and
that development is safe and resilient to flooding.      The quantification of benefits is a relatively
It recognises that some developments will need           straight forward calculation requiring only the non
to be located in areas at risk of flooding because       floodable footprint of a building (to be added or
of existing physical constraints, the extent of          removed) and the modelled (1% +20%) flood level
areas at risk of flood and the location of existing      across the area of the building. This gives cubic
development.                                             metres of flood water displaced or made available.

One of the main issues tackled and advantages            Regular meetings will continue with the EA at
brought about by the strategic approach is that          where quantified benefits (and adverse effects)
it considers airport developments holistically           of development will be monitored and updated
rather than as stand- alone developments. It             as new development occurs. The principle
thereby allows us to offset the adverse flood            requires that the records will always show Gatwick
effects of one development against the benefits          being in surplus, but in the event that planning
of another (so long as the benefits occur first). This   development creates a deficit then a flood risk
is more preferable to an approach in which each          intervention would be required.
development that has an adverse effect has to
have its own mitigation, yet the benefits of other
developments are lost. This means, for example,
that the demolition of Old Customs House, Pier 1
and Southgate Building (which sit in a0. flood risk
area) are to be quantified and used to offset other
development that needs to be in a flood zone.

This approach means that we need to consider
flood risk carefully, but it provides us with the
incentive to identify opportunities to reduce flood


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7.3   Snow and ice

The effects of snow and ice on our operation can       Gatwick invested £600,000 upgrading the airport’s
be significant, this has been highlighted recently     snow clearing equipment and de-icer storage
when the airport experienced two specific periods      facilities in summer 2010. We also worked with
of heavy snowfall in the final weeks of 2010.          airlines and airport partners to develop and agree
At the end of November into early December             enhanced snow contingency plans, following
accumulations of up to 24cm, drifting up to 40cm       benchmarking visits to Scandinavian airports in
in places, closed our airfield and disabled critical   Oslo, Helsinki and Stockholm Arlanda. Following
surface access networks. The weekend before            the first period of snow in late November we
Christmas, one of our busiest weekends of the          made an immediate decision to invest a further
year when more than 240,000 passengers were            £8 million to double the size of Gatwick’s snow
scheduled to travel, saw snowfall of 10cm close        fleet from 47 to 95 vehicles, which will put our
our airfield for two very brief periods. With snow     snow clearing capability on a par with that of Oslo
causing air travel disruption across Europe, there     Airport in Norway. Gatwick now has 14 Shorling
continued to be disruption even when the airport       snow ploughs for our single runway, more than any
returned to full operations.                           other airport in the UK.

With the airport under new ownership in                It should be recognised however that although
December 2009, the snowfall of winter                  we now are more prepared than ever for heavy
2009/10 was the new management team’s first            snow fall and significant ice formation, there way
experience of adverse weather at the airport. The      be occasions in the future when some disruption is
collaborative approach developed with our airport      experienced to normal operation.
partners in December 2009 proved very useful
in winter 2009/10 and was enhanced throughout
2010, through workshops and table top exercises
to improve preparedness for snow disruption.
In the most recent snow periods, our ongoing
work with airlines, ground handlers, air traffic
control, emergency services, UKBA and others
proved valuable in seeking to ensure adequate
preparations were made ahead of, and speedy
recovery from, each heavy snowfall.




38                               gatWiCK aiRpoRt limited : Climate Change adaptation RepoRt | JUlY 2011
                                                                                                    8
BaRRieRS to adaptation




Funding and regulation                                   The Governments current position on aviation
                                                         capacity in the south east is also a possible
We are CAA regulated airport, this has been the          contributing factor in adapting to climate
case for Gatwick since 1986, under the Airports          change. This position at present is preventing
Act. This means that investment programmes are           any expansion at airports in the south east and
regulated in 5 year blocks, quinqueniums. In short       therefore any adaptation is having to be delivered
this dictates that as we develop, improve and            through old existing infrastructure. It would be
grow the airport all capital financial costs incurred    much easier and straight forward to address many
doing this have to be agreed by the airlines and         adaptation challenges if there were scope to
the CAA in advance.                                      fundamentally upgrade and expand.

When planning for and adapting to climate                Third Parties
change inn the future there may be requirements
for us to spend capital monies on initiatives and        As is inevitable in a regulated airport operating
projects. This expenditure will require agreement        with many business partners, any adaptation
from the regulator and out airlines before when          requirements will have direct impacts on those
can proceed. As the current UKCP09 projections           that operate with us on the airport campus.
are just projections it is likely that these will need   These business partners range from, airlines to
to be modified and updated on a regular basis            retailers, baggage handlers and air traffic control.
as knowledge and modelling methods improve.              All these airport partners have their own climate
If the airport are to convince the regulators that       change and adaptation plans. The challenge for
certain projects and cost are essential to the           us exists around identifying adaptation synergies
sustainable operation of the airport then the            with our business partners that will provide an
business case as it stands would be difficult            overall airport adaptation solution and not create
to justify off such long term climate change             conflicting results.
predictions.

It is therefore far more likely and realistic that
adaptation solutions for longer term climate
change will not be actionable until clearer and
more robust climate change predictions are
available. On an ongoing basis we will continue
to ensure all our infrastructure growth will be
inclusive of expected climate change impacts
through our six sigma SA1 and SA2 processes.

Interdependencies

There are of course several interdependencies that
exist between delivering and achieving climate
change adaptation and maintaining reductions
in CO2, noise and air quality. While a solution
may exist for effective climate change adaptation
there may be an adverse impact on air quality.
For example we could reduce our reliance on the
electricity grid and produce our own power on
site through a CCHP plant. This would provide
us with greater resilience during adverse weather
conditions but may well contribute to air quality
issues around the airport.




JUlY 2011 | gatWiCK aiRpoRt limited : Climate Change adaptation RepoRt                                      39
9
                                            SUmmaRY and ConClUSionS




As outlined in this report the impacts of                It is also important to recognise that climate
climate change have already been recognised              change adaptation at the airport is only
through existing business risk assessments and           addressing part of the operational risks we face
this exercise has served to confirm our initial          from climate change, effective and operational
assessment results and that our current and              surface access is also critical. In the past adverse
planned areas of adaptation activity are accurate.       weather conditions have had a significant effect on
                                                         road and railway routes to the airport. It has often
Due to the airport being sighted on a flood plain,       been the case that the airport has worked hard to
flood risk is by far the greatest risk to our business   remain open and operational only to be let down
as a result of climate change. There are other           by impassable roads and cancelled trains. In order
well documented climatic events that can effect          for the true climate change risks to addressed
the airport, snow/ice for example but we feel that       at Gatwick Airport we recognise there needs to
these are fairly short lived in duration and having      be greater collaborative working with transport
invested heavily, we now have industry leading           companies and the Highways Agency.
equipment and infrastructure to deal with this
eventuality. This has now placed the airport in a        We will continue to assess our options for
far better preparatory state for this climatic event.    adaptation in line with the results of our ongoing
                                                         risk assessment process. Our climate change
Heavy rain fall and flooding are far more difficult to   adaptation risks along with our sustainability
predict and much longer lasting in duration and in       objectives are now embedded into the business
their possible disruption to the airport. We have        and will continue to be managed and updated on
therefore focused our attention on managing this         an ongoing basis.
element of climate change as highlighted through
our significant financial support for UMFAS and          In conclusion, our analysis and assessment results
the development of our strategic approach with           demonstrated that Gatwick Airport Limited is
the Environment Agency. We now feel that                 well placed and in a good state of preparedness
significant risk of flooding at the airport has been     assessed against the UKCP09 future anticipated
reduced with additional knock on benefits to off         climate change scenarios. We feel we have a good
airport areas. However we realise that the risk is       understanding of the risks of climate adaptation
not completely removed and we are working with           and that the management of these risks is already
the EA and other bodies to further reduce this risk      at an advanced stage of being embedded into the
towards 1:100 year flood.                                normal day to day business risk processes. This
                                                         ensures that these risks are embedded across the
The airport has a significant capital development        business are regularly reviewed and updated with
programme that is driving a complete upgrade             appropriate actions and targets.
and modification of the airport’s infrastructure.
Where new infrastructure is being built or current
is being upgraded it is more straight forward to
deal with the challenges of adaptation. All our
planned infrastructure work will be developed
incorporating adaptation requirements these
will be amended as appropriate as and when
climate change projections are updated. Where
adaptation has to be delivered against existing
infrastructure the result is more challenging but we
are confident in our approach.




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                                                                          10
gloSSaRY




DfT          Department for Transport
Defra        Department of Environment and Rural Affairs
BAA          British Airports Authority
GIP          Global Infrastructure Partners
UKCP09       United Kingdom Climate Projections 2009
UKCIP        United Kingdom Climate Impacts Programme
Mppa         Millions of passengers per annum
WSCC         West Sussex County Council
CBC          Crawley Borough Council
GVA          Gross value added
UNFCCC       United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
NATS         Nation Air traffic Services
NWZ          North West Zone
CIRIA        Construction Industry Research and Information Association
UMFAS Upper Mole Flood Alleviation Scheme
EA           Environment Agency
UKBA         United Kingdom Borders Agency
GAD          Gatwick Airport Directive
MDI          Managing Directors instruction
ILS          Instrument Landing System
NAVAIDS      Navigational Aids
LVP          Low Visibility Procedures
SOP’s        Standard Operating Procedures
SMIRF        Safety Management Incident Reporting Facility
BOD          Biological Oxygen Demand
COD          Chemical Oxygen Demand
AOD          Above Ordnance Datum
SFRA         Strategic Flood Risk Assessment




JUlY 2011 | gatWiCK aiRpoRt limited : Climate Change adaptation RepoRt     41
11
                        appendiCeS
     gatWiCK aiRpoRt loCation plan




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gatWiCK aiRpoRt
KeY inFaStRUCtURe




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                                                       appendiCeS
                                     RiSK aSSeSSment methodologY




           Identify the risks to your operation and to the achievement of GAL business objectives and strategy
Step 1     The classic “what keeps me awake at night?” What Can go wrong (or not go right) in your day to day
           operation or in working to meet your business targets?



Step 2     Identify the root causes of the risks
           How it can go wrong. What could cause the problem/event?



Step 3     Inherent score (without mitigation) for each root cause
           How likely is this problem/event to occur? And if it does, how big an impact could it have?


           Prioritise your risks and select a response
Step 4     Using the score assigned in Step 3 decide your strategy for dealing with it before controls are in place
           eg. eliminate risk or control the risk



Step 5     Mitigating controls
           What controls have you got in place to reduce the likelihood or the impact of the risk materialising?


           Residual scoring current controls
Step 6     How good are your controls today? Just how much risk is the company facing today in this area? Score
           the risk again for how likely it is to occur today and the impact if it does. Quantify the risk so you know
           how much financial loss you are facing if this all goes wrong…

           Control ratings
Step 7     These help you to understand just how good your controls are. Have they been implemented and are
           they effective? If they are rated as not being ‘optimal’, what does ‘optimal’ look like and how are you
           going to get there?

           Further mitigating action to optimise controls
Step 8     Having identified that controls are rated as not being ‘optimal’ in Step 7, are there any additional
           actions that need to be implemented or are already planned to reduce or control the risk further?

           Forecast residual scoring
Step 9     Score the risk again for how likely it is to occur today (if additional controls identified in Step 8 are in
           place) and the impact if it does. Quantify the risk so you know how much financial loss you are facing if
           this all goes wrong...

        Forecast residual scoring
                                                           today (if additional controls identified in Step 8
Step 10 Score the risk again for how likely it is to occurrisk so you know how much financial loss you areare in if
        place) and the impact if it does. Quantify the                                                        facing
           this all goes wrong...


Step 11    Record your findings
           Risk and opportunities should be recorded in the standard format Risk Register on the MRB database.



Step 12 Auditing your controls to be able to evidence the effectiveness of your controls .
        At any time you may need


           Reviewing your risk register
Step 13    BU risk register reviews must be carried out quarterly. The Gatwick risk register is reviewed at least
           twice a year



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 Step 1                  It is important to identify your risks effectively. Understanding the risks to
                         your business/function is key to making good, well informed decisions.
                         Plan ahead so that surprises are minimised and there is an ability to act
 identify risks to       quickly and effectively when something happens.
 your business
                         There are 4 common ways of identifying risks:

                         1. Brainstorming
                         A facilitated workshop which needs the attendance of the right people
                         to work together and discuss matters important to the business/function.
                         Creativity and freethinking are encouraged. It is a good way to capture past
                         experience from the individuals involved.

                         2. Specialist Interviews
                         Structured interviews of specialists (internally or externally) can expose risks
                         across a broad scope. A specialist interview gives the scope to explore risks
                         in some detail and encourage the identification of risks which otherwise
                         might be hidden in a more public arena. It also enables the benefit of others’
                         experience and knowledge.

                         3. SWOT analysis
                         The analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. This
                         technique is particularly useful when considering both risks and opportunities
                         as the effect of strengths and weaknesses on opportunities and threats are
                         considered and the relationship between them determined and assessed.

                         4. Root Cause Identification
                         Using data from an actual risk events, this technique enables you to find out
                         what happened and how it happened, and understand why it happened, so
                         that you can devise responses to prevent recurrences

                         It is important to remember that your business operation can be impacted
                         (positively or negatively) by other areas of the business and vice versa.
                         Some of your risks may have a root cause elsewhere in the business.
                         Therefore, when identifying your risks ensure you consult other risk registers
                         and risk co-ordinators as appropriate to capture risks that should be on your
                         register.

                         At all times think of what could impact on your part of the business, even if
                         remote or appears ‘inconceivable’. Also look at all situations from different
                         viewpoints. It may not be the actual risk you have identified that can impact.
                         It could be an external party’s response to a possible threat to us that
                         crystalises a risk which we have not anticipated. Once a risk is identified, the
                         analysis phase later in the process will draw out those risks of low likelihood/
                         consequence which warrant little further action. But you can’t analyse what
                         you haven’t identified.

                         It is also good practice to, once a year, take a “step back” approach and go
                         through the risk identification process again. It is so easy to concentrate on
                         known risks and miss any emerging or hidden risks.




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 Step 2                  The root cause of any risk is how things can go wrong and is directly related
                         to the nature of the risk itself. The root causes need to be identified to allow
                         a better understanding of the risk being faced and guide its treatment.
 identify root causes
                         Confusion can often arise between what is a risk and what is a root cause.
                         For example, is the risk the loss of a terminal caused by fire, or is the risk a
                         fire caused by poor housekeeping which results in the loss of a terminal? In
                         general it is best to look at the level you can influence.

                         When all risks are identified, and you are reviewing them, keep the big
                         picture in mind to ensure there is consistency in the level at which you are
                         operating and the risks and root causes are clear and unambiguous.

                         Root causes can be put together for general assessment, or considered
                         separately with specific controls/mitigating actions applied to each cause or
                         group of causes. Put the root causes together if there are common controls
                         which can be considered together. Otherwise it is better to separate them.


 Step 3                  This initial scoring is carried out to help prioritise the risks which have been
                         identified. Time and staff resource is scarce so we need to be able to focus
 inherent scoring        all resource in the most effective way we can.

                         The initial scoring of the risk and its root causes is made before GAL takes
                         any action. Many controls already exist that we take for granted. The effect
                         of these should be ignored for this first scoring.

                         Remember to agree a score. It doesn’t work by splitting the score in half.
                         We need to use the advantages gained from the discussions. Suppose a
                         team of 8 are split with 6 wanting a ‘5’ and 2 wanting a ‘1’. An averaging of
                         the scores gives a 4, but doesn’t address why the members of the team have
                         such widely opposing views. This discrepancy needs to be resolved to ensure
                         full understanding of the nature of the risk and team buy-in to the assessment
                         of risk.

                         A discrepancy such as this may indicate that not all the “right” people are
                         involved in the assessment. Take this opportunity to review assessors and
                         their competency and knowledge of the risk subject matter.

                         When you have scored all your risks prioritise them for action.
 Step 4
                         Each box on the risk matrix has a weighted score which will allow you to
 prioritise your risks   rank all the risks. The weighted score reflects the GAL approach that the
 and select your         consequence is more important than the likelihood (just think of the threat of
 response                a gas explosion – the likelihood may be low even without us doing anything,
                         but the consequence of loss of life and property damage would be grave).
                         And by the same logic we need to be able to distinguish between a 4:5 and
                         a 5:4. They are not both the same.

                         When all the risks are ranked in order carry out a sense check to make sure
                         what is there seems sensible. Anomalies can easily creep in when risks are
                         debated in isolation.


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 Step 4                  Once you have identified your most important risks you can select a response
                         – that is select a strategy for dealing with it.
 Continued...
                         There are 4 possible responses which should be considered in the following
 prioritise your risks   order:
 and select your
 response                1. Avoid
                         seeking to eliminate uncertainty, the link between the cause and the risk is cut
                         so it is impossible for the risk to occur, or if it does occur there is no impact on
                         the business.
                         But remember – a fair amount of the activities can, and do, have a red
                         residual risk score and serves to demonstrate that the GAL operation is
                         inherently risky. Therefore stopping our business activities to avoid a risk is
                         not necessarily the most feasible option.

                         2. Transfer
                         Allocate ownership – seek to transfer ownership and/or liability to a third
                         party. This does not change the risk directly but involves others (possible
                         better qualified or experienced) in its management.
                         But remember – though an obvious choice in this is to transfer through
                         buying insurance, GAL’s policy does not allow insurance to be used as a
                         control.

                         3. Mitigate
                         Modify the exposure – seek to reduce the size of the exposure to below an
                         acceptable threshold. In so doing you seek to weaken the cause and effect
                         link to make a risk less likely or less severe (or both). This is our normal course
                         of action and we often skip straight to this strategy. But do consider the
                         other 3 because this response may not be the best or most appropriate in
                         every case.

                         4. Accept
                         Basically, do nothing. Keep a watching brief because circumstances can
                         and do change. This response may be appropriate if there is nothing
                         we can do about a risk (though don’t forget we can plan to mitigate the
                         consequences if a risk crystallises by developing business continuity plans in
                         which case this response would not be appropriate), or if the likelihood and
                         consequence are low enough not to warrant spending any time, money or
                         resource on it.

                         Just keep watching in case it changes.




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 Step 5             If your selected response is to mitigate then there are 2 types of action to
                    consider:

 Cost effective     1. Develop and implement a control. A control is a preventative action which
 mitigation and     seeks to reduce the likelihood of the risk crystallising. Effective controls
 controls           should reduce the likelihood score at residual level;

                    2. Develop and implement a mitigating action. A mitigating action seeks
                    to reduce the likelihood even further or to reduce the consequence of a risk
                    crystallising. One example of a mitigating action is a business continuity plan
                    particularly low likelihood, high consequence events.

                    3. Effective mitigating actions should reduce the consequence score at
                    residual level.

                    For the remainder of this guidance, the term ‘control’ covers both types of
                    action

                    Remember there are a lot of controls already in existence and when
                    considering what action to take all the existing controls should be subject to
                    the same level of assessment as the newly identified ones.

                    Conduct a brainstorming session to identify all possible controls and then
                    consider how effective each one would be in mitigating the risk.

                    There is separate guidance on Business Continuity Management. A
                    contingency or business continuity plan needs to be up to date, reviewed and
                    tested on a regular basis.

 Step 6             Once all the above have been identified and assessed the risk is re-scored
                    at the ‘as of today’ level taking into account the most likeliest outcome (not
                    necessarily worse-case). This is the residual risk score and indicates the level
 Residual Scoring   of remaining risk.

                    At residual level the risk is scored for likelihood and consequence. The
                    difference to inherent scoring is that the consequence is split into 6 areas,
                    namely:

                    1. Safety
                    2. Security
                    3. Environment
                    4. Business Unit (BU) financial
                    5. Gatwick financial
                    6. Reputation/Legal

                    If there is considered to be no impact on one of more of the above areas,
                    then leave it blank.

                    Note: This means reputational risks are not identified separately as every risk
                    is assessed for reputational impact.




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 Step 6                  The financial score is given for GAL level but can be assessed separately at
                         local level with a BU self-defined scale so that all risks can be assessed for
 Continued...            local impact regardless of how big an impact a risk may have at GAL level.

 Residual Scoring        If the residual score is red then you will need to either accept the level of risk
                         the assessment represents, being carried by the business or decide whether
                         the risk needs to be reduced further.

                         The Control Rating (CR) is an important step in understanding how effective
 Step 7                  the controls are. Once controls have been identified and selected you need
                         to assess how effective those controls are as of today. ‘As of today’ is crucial.
 Control Ratings         Your risk register should record how much risk is being faced by your part of
 and action plans        the business (and indeed GAL) at any given moment.

                         It is recommended that all controls should be at level 2 – Optimal.
                         Remember Optimal means everything reasonably practical is being done
                         NOT that everything even remotely possible is being done.

                         Think of the example of the risk of an attack by a suicide bomber. The only
                         way of ensuring such an individual did not gain access to a terminal is to
                         search everyone as they enter the building. However, the terminal could not
                         operate under those circumstances. So the controls which are selected allow
                         the business to operate whilst keeping people as safe as possible.

                         Remember that a risk may be outside our control and therefore can not be
                         reduced to below a red risk at residual. In such cases our controls may be
                         deemed optimal if we are doing all we reasonably can.


 Step 8                  As referred to in Step 5 above, should there be the need to reduce the
                         likelihood and consequence further, an action plan needs to be developed
 Further mitigating      with a timeframe and accountable persons for delivery.
 actions

                         Once further mitigating actions are identified, it is important to understand
 Step 9                  what effect their implementation will have on the residual risk score, if any as
                         we need to be sure we focussing time and resource in the most effective way.
 Forecast Residual
 Score                   (There is another opportunity here to review the CR, as some mitigating
                         actions may not necessarily reduce the risk further but will improve the overall
                         control of that risk and therefore the CR.)




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                                         appendiCeS
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 Step 10         The term ‘risk’ in the negative sense is referred to as a ‘threat,’ however risk
                 in the positive sense may is called an ‘opportunity.’ Identifying opportunities
                 can help us to offset negative risks or help us to understand possible
 Future          improvements to our business and its objectives.
 opportunities
                 The same techniques described in Step 1 can be applied to identifying
                 opportunities.

                 Once opportunities are identified, it is important to consider the following:
                 How easy is it to realise the opportunity and what are the benefits? How
                 much will it cost? How complex will it be? What is the financial and
                 reputational risk of getting it wrong? Do we pursue the opportunity? Do we
                 pass ownership to another party to maximise it? Do we do nothing?

                 If it is decided to pursue an opportunity, it is essential that any resulting
                 actions are fed into Business Plans.


 Step 11         Risks and opportunities should be recorded in the standard format risk
                 register.
 Record Your
                 The register is designed to provide an overview and give sufficient detail to
 Findings
                 allow risk review and challenge.

                 The Gatwick Airport risk register (provided the standard format is used)
                 can be generated from the BU risk registers. This is done by the Business
                 Continuity and Business Assurance Teams.

                 You should be able to demonstrate that the control is working and that it
 Step 12
                 positively affects the risk in the way it has been assessed to do.

 auditing your   Any audit activity should be commensurate with the level of risk and
 controls        complexity of controls.




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 Step 13                 Reviews of BU risk registers must be carried out on a quarterly because it
                         represents your way of knowing and being confident that you are managing
                         your risks. Reviews must ensure:-
 Reviewing your risk
 register                • risks/opportunities are still current
                         • risk scoring and control rating is consistent and current
                         • risk and control owners are aware of their responsibilities for “their” risks
                         • mitigating controls are relevant, effective, sufficient and actually in place
                           and operating effectively
                         • actions are tracked to completion
                         • new/emerging risks are considered
                         • risk registers are used to build or modify business continuity plans

                         Any changes to risk registers must be recorded on a separate tab labelled
                         “Change Control” in the BU risk register. Headings should include:-

                         • risk ref no.
                         • date of change
                         • detail of change
                         • by whom

                         The Gatwick Airport risk register will be reviewed at least twice a year with the
                         Chief Executive Officer.

                         To review the top risks use the matrix scores and multiply them by the Control
                         Rating.




JUlY 2011 | gatWiCK aiRpoRt limited : Climate Change adaptation RepoRt                                     51
GATWICK AIRPORT LIMITED
destinations place                    printed on a recycled paper containing
gatwick airport                       100% post consumer waste and
                                      manufactured at a mill that is certified
West Sussex                           with iSo 14001 environmental management
Rh6 0np                               standard. pulp used to produce this product
                                      is not bleached. We’ve also used a local
                                      design agency and a local printing firm to
                                      produce this document.
website www.gatwickairport.com
twitter twitter.com/gatwick_airport   XG 02/2011

				
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