Human Heredity Notes

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					Biology                                                                                              Name:
Boehling                                                                                             Date:
                                  Guided Notes: Chapter 14 Human Heredity
Human Chromosomes
Chromosomes are only visible during cell ______________________ (mitosis/meiosis).
To analyze chromosomes, biologist photograph cells during mitosis and align the chromosomes in homologous pairs.
This picture is known as a ______________________________ .


Types of Chromosomes
On a human karyotype:
Chromosome pairs 1-22 are known as ___________________________.
           They code for traits that are not related to sex.
           Both males and females have the same type.


Chromosome pair 23 contains the ______________ chromosomes.
           Males have ________ and females have ___________.
           Did you know??? Sex is determined by the ________________________ of a child.


           You have a __________% chance of having a boy or a girl
           Who decides?
           Mom can give ______
           Dad can give ______ or ________


Human GENETIC DISORDERS
Homologous chromosomes ________________ during MEIOSIS = _________________________
           ____________ syndrome (____________________________ 21)
                       One cell gets ____ copies of the chromosome the other cell gets _______________________.
                       Most ___________________chromosomal abnormality
                       Mild to severe mental retardation
                       Risk of having a child with Down syndrome increases with _________ of mom


Sex Linked GENETIC DISORDERS
           SEX CHROMOSOMES CAN CARRY OTHER GENES TOO = ___________________
           Y-LINKED GENES:
           Genes _________________________ chromosome
           ___________________________ GENES: are carried on the Y chromosome
           X-LINKED GENES:
           __________________________ GENES: are carried on the Y chromosome


HEMOPHILIA
           CAUSE: Mutation in genes for __________________ carried ______ chromosome


           Blood clotting proteins are missing so person with this disorder can’t stop bleeding when injured;
           can ________________ from minor cuts or suffer internal bleeding from bruises or bumps.


Muscular Dystrophy
           CAUSE:
           deletion in gene that codes for a_______________ on X Chromosome
           Results in ________________________ and loss of _______________________
           Seen in 1 in every 3000 males in the US
COLORBLINDNESS
  CAUSE:
  Mutation in one of three genes for _______________ carried on X chromosome
  Persons with this disorder have trouble distinguishing colors.
            Seen in 1 in 10 males
                            1 in 100 females
When Harry Met Sally…
Harry and Sally are two normal vision adults who have a color blind son.


B – normal vision         b – color blind
What are the genotypes of Harry and Sally?

XB Y, XB Xb
Show the cross between Harry and Sally and draw the Punnett Square:




Give all of the possible genotypes and phenotypes of their offspring.


_________ – normal vision daughter
________ – normal vision daughter (carrier)
________ – normal vision son
________– color blind son


Sally’s dad has normal vision. Is Sally’s Mom colorblind?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PEDIGREE CHARTS
Show the ________________________within a family to study one particular ___________________ _______________/phenotype.
Refer to page 342 in text.
Circle=female
Square=male
Horizontal line=marriage
Vertical line and bracket=children
Shaded=person expresses trait
Unshaded=person does not express trait.
DRAW Chart for Color Blindness:

				
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