The Middle East by ert554898


									The Middle East
   What is the Middle East?
• The Middle East is actually South West
  Asia and parts of North West Africa
• The term “Middle East” is a sign of
  Western bias ( it is east of Western Europe & North
• Historically its oil & central location near trade
  routes (Euro, Asia, & Africa) made it a source of
What who are Arabs?
-live in Arabia
-speak Arabic

Ethnicity V. Religion

-mostly all Arabs are Muslim
Not all Muslims are Arab
             Arabia Economics
• Oil discovered in Persia (Iran) in 1908.
• More oil discovered on the Arabian
  Peninsula in 1932.
• About 64% of world’s known oil reserves
  are in this region
• Oil makes up 25-50%
of revenue in all Arabian
(over 50% of Kuwait’s revenue)
• Oil has urbanized the region.
• Foreign companies (Brit. & US) originally
  developed the oil industry here
• 25% urbanized in 1960... 60% urbanized today
• Jobs changed –shifted to workers who could
  read, write, and had technical skills
• Foreign workers were brought in to fill jobs
  natives could not (Qatar – only 1/5 workers are
                   Saudi Arabia
• People- Arabian riches stereotype, most of
  the people in Saudi Arabia are not wealthy
• Have a lot of resentment towards their own
  government and the U.S.
• (15 of 19 Sept. 11 hijackers from Saudi Arabia)

• Government- Al Saud dynasty created
Saudi Arabia in 1928
• Osama Bin Laden and others have accused
  the monarchy of betraying Islam and serving
  as an agent of American imperialism in the
  Middle East
Prince Alwaleed of Saudi
• Saudization: laws passed to give jobs to
  Saudi people that were previously held by
  foreign workers
• Population growth and depleting oil reserves
  could bring problems to the area
• segregation of women
• Attacks from Al-Qa’ida for rid the area of its
  secular and ‘imperialist’ influences and
  replace monarchy with Islamic government
  – Allowing tourists and encouraging foreign
    Why is the U.S. involved
• 1990 Iraq forces invaded Kuwait claiming it
  was theirs *Gulf War
• Kuwait is a tiny country with with the worlds
  4th largest reserve of oil
   – Also a great dependency on foreign workers and
     risk of depletion of oil reserves
• The U.S. was part of the world wide
  opposition to the Iraqi aggression and placed
  armed forces in the region
• Saudi monarchy is wary of internal and
  external threats
       In your notes…
• Explain the relationship between the
  Saudi Arabian people, their
  government, and the United States

• Name at least 2 factors that have
  put a strain on these relationships
• First middle eastern country to produce large
  quantities of oil
• Arid desert, rugged mountains, and very little
  rainfall makes it difficult the cultivate the land
  and make a living
• Influenced by modernizing efforts in
  Turkey,the new king (or Shah) set to
  modernize and westernize Iran during the
• Agricultural reforms generally failed and poor
  people from the countryside came to the
     So what’s the problem?
• Oil money funneled for development was
  mostly spent on military and arms (yes, from the
  United States)
• 1978-79 revolution overthrew the shah, mainly
  sparked Iran’s Shi’itte population
   – Religious sentiments, resentment of modernization, western
     imperialism, and exploitation of the underprivileged
• Authority is based on Shi’ite interpretation of
  Islamic Law
• Present day tug of war between moderate
  and extreme religious leadership who control
  the military and judicial branch of government
      So why Iran considered so ‘evil’…?
• The young population of Iran is increasingly
  accepting of western culture and
• Iranian leaders have been
accused of spreading extremist
revolutionary Islam ideas and
weapons across the Middle East
(State-sponsored terrorism)
  - Hezbollah (Lebanon)
  -Hamas (Palestine)
        In your notes…

•Explain the relationship between the
Iranian people, their government,
And other countries around the world

•Name at least 2 factors that have put
a strain on these relationships

To top