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					             Airport & City




                 Maurits Schaafsma
                 Utrecht 17 november 2005




1. Airports & urbanisation
     •   Development out of the city
         – Reconnect: ov-systemen
     •   Airports as Cities
         – Airport cities
         – Aerotropolis
         – Airport Corridors
     •   Multi Airport Systems


2. Airport systems – urban systems




                                            1
2
Airports tend to leave the city

• Public transport systems
   – Local: metro, light rail
       • London Heathrow, NY JFK
       • Bremen, Denver, Dallas
   – Regional: train, RER, Maglev
       • Vienna, Paris Ch de G, Brussels, Hong Kong, Osaka
       • Shanghai
   – International: intercity and high speed train
       • Zurich, Paris, Amsterdam, Frankfurt, Newark




                                                             3
Airports as Cities
• Airport City
   – Integrated development of
     airport and real estate; in the
     heart of the airport (airport
     authority driven, planned)

• Aerotropolis
   – Separated real estate
     development near the airport
     (private)

• Airport Corridor
   – Integrated real estate and
     infrastructure development
     between airport and city
     (partially government-planned)




Hub / Paris Charles de Gaulle




                                       4
5
Hub / Frankfurt




Hub / Munchen




                  6
OD / Zurich




OD / Vienna




              7
Regional / Dusseldorf, Lyon, ..




Regional / Geneve
Palexpo




                                  8
Hub / Osaka
Rinku Town




Hub / Hong Kong
Sky City




                  9
Hub / Seoul Inchon
Winged City




Dubai Jebel Ali Airport City




                               10
Dubai Jebel Ali Airport City




Cargo / Dubai Logistics City




                               11
Cargo / North Carolina GTP
‘Industrial Airport’: Logistics and production



• Just-in-time delivery
• E-commerce
• Global supply-chain
  management
• Faster changes in market
  demands




Cargo / Fort Worth
AllianceTexas: Industrial Airport developed by Hillwood (Ross Perrot)




                                                                        12
General Aviation / Airpark




Flying as lifestyle
Denver: air communities, air commuting, …




                                            13
Aerotropolis



• Not integrated
• Near Airport
• Big, mixed use real estate
  projects: working, living,
  leisure, security
• Private developers




Dallas Ft. Worth International Airport (DFW)
Las Colinas




                                               14
Washington Dulles
Tyson’s Corner




                    15
Detroit
Pinnacle Aeropark




Atlanta




  •




  •                 Hartsfield




                                 16
Airport Corridor
• Integrated real estate and infrastructure development
  between airport and city (partially government-planned)




Frankfurt


• City
• Niederrad
• Airport




                                                            17
Helsinki
E18 Corridor, Technology




Kopenhagen
Orestad




                           18
Zurich
Glattal




Rome
Fiera in airport-corridor




                            19
 Denver




Denver
T-Rex Corridor/Tech Center: I-25 naar Centennial Airport




                                                           20
 Dallas
 Northwest Corridor: Northwest Highway en DART




                                 DFW airport

                                  Dallas Love Field




Hong Kong Airport Corridor




                                                      21
Kuala Lumpur
Multimedia Supercorridor




Amsterdam AUP 1924: Airport Zeeburg




                                      22
Multi Airport Systems (MAS)
• Defining an (urban) MAS
   –   Commercial transport
   –   Metropolitan region
   –   Disregard of ownership
   –   Significant airport > 1 mln pax


• Treshold for a MAS
   – 14 mln pax (2001): rising steadily


• 30 MAS worldwide
   de Neufville 2003




• For analysing the impact of a MAS on the city:
  Also include all Cargo and General Aviation airports




                                                         23
Backgrounds MAS


• Lack of capacity                       • London, Paris, New York

• Technical reasons                      • Taipeh, London City
  Conveniance

• Political & military                   • Berlin, Moscou
  reasons


  based on De Neufville 2003




Londen                   BAA founded in 1966




• Croydon                      1920
• Gatwick                      1930/58
   – Relieve for Heathrow
   – Caledonian
• Heathrow                     1946
   – Intercontinental terminal
   – European terminal
• Stansted                     1969
   – Charters
   – Low Cost
• Luton
   – Low Cost




                                                                     24
London City Airport




Paris                           ADP founded in 1949




• Le Bourget                    1919
   – 1981closed for commercial traffic
• Orly                          1948
   – 1953 central airport for Paris
   – 1974 Air Inter; Africa, Carribean
• Charles de Gaulle             1974
   – 1974 central, international airport




                                                      25
New York                        Port Authority founded in 1947


• Newark                     1928
   – New Jersey
• Floyd Bennett Field        1931
   – Can’t compete with Newark
• La Guardia                 1939
   – Land and water
   – Quickly congested
   – Now short haul, shuttles
• JFK                        1948
   – International airport
• Newark II
   – Hub Continental
• Fourth Airport?




Los Angeles          City of LA #


• LAX
   – International #
     (Former Mines Field)


• Several small airports
   – Burbank (Regional)
   – Ontario (Regional) #
   – Van Nuys (no 1. GA) #
   – Palmdale (regional) #
   – Orange County
     (Regional)
   – ..




                                                                 26
Tokyo




• Haneda: Domestic
   – Island?


• Narita: International

• (Osaka Kansai)




Planning a MAS



• What can go wrong
   – White elephant
        • Montreal Mirabel, Washington Dulles, Milan Malpensa, Newark II
   – The old airport can’t be closed
        • Berlin Tempelhof
   – Role of airports within the system can’t be planned
        • Milan (Linate planned for Alitalia), London Stanstead
   – Market cannot be divided
        • Paris, London (helicopters between Gatwick and Heatrow)




                                                                           27
New airport, old one becomes low cost


Houston Hobby, Chicago Midway, Dallas Love Field, …..




Effect of MAS on the city




                                                        28
•   Heathrow




•   Gatwick




               29
Major hubs in major cities




• Little structuring effect?




                               30
 Detroit – Dearborn - Ann Arbor
 I-94 (Edsel Ford Freeway), NAFTA-Corridor




                                                         OD




                                                          OD
Ga             Ind
                              Hub




                       Ga
                       (OD)

Denver

                Ga


                                                     Hub




                                    exHub

                                                               Ind
                                                 exMil




                                            Ga




                                                                     31
Dallas Fort Worth Metroplex
                                        Ga




          Ind
                        Hub
                                   OD
     Ga



OD
                              Ga

                                   Ga
                      Ga




                                             32
Trans Texas Corridor +
Texas Aviation System




Constant: New Babylon




                         33
Luchthaven en stad



1.   Luchthaven stad uit

2.   Stad volgt luchthaven

3.   Luchthaven wordt stad

4.   Interactie Airport System en
     stad

5.   Global hiërarchie/netwerk
     steden + luchthavens




                                    34
MAS at higher scale level?


Interactian airport infrastructure and high speed railways

• Pearl River Delta

• Megalopolis Boston-NY-Washington
   – Newark - Baltimore


• Northwest European Metropolitan Area
   – Schiphol - Zaventem – Charles de Gaulle
   – Schiphol – Dusseldorff – Koln/Bonn - Frankfurt




                                                             35
Global hierarchies of cities & airports

• 1. World cities / OD-airports
     – NY, London, Tokyo
     – Potentially: Shanghai
• 2. Sub top
     – Los Angeles, Paris
     – Potentially: Beijing
• 3. Big Hub-cities > 5 mln inh.
     – Chicago, Dallas Ft. Worth, Seoul, Bangkok, Hong Kong
     – Potentially: Osaka, Guangzhou,
• 4. Smaller Hub-cities
     – Atlanta, Frankfurt, Amsterdam, Singapore, Madrid
     – Potentially: Munchen, Denver
• 5. Regional cities
     – Boston, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Washington DC, Milan,
       Copenhagen, Vienna, Berlin, Rhein Ruhr, Brussels, Kuala
       Lumpur
     – Aggressive OD: Orlando, Dubai




Cities USA


• Competition between cities
• Companies & people footloose
• Strategies aiming at positioning with
     – Airports
           • And air logitics
     –   Convention centers
     –   Sportstadiums & franchises
     –   Leisure theme parks
     –   Etc.
• See Atlanta, Denver

Altshuler & Luberoff




                                                                 36
Global positioning



• Role of the airport in
  urban strategies

• Mainport Strategy
  (Schiphol)

• City as a Airport City
  (Dubai)




                           37
vragen



1.   Ruimtelijke interactie luchthaven en stad

2.   Strategische inzet van stad/regio in relatie tot
     luchthaven

3.   Governance rond luchthavenontwikkeling /
     luchthavencorridor (gebiedsontwikkeling,
     infrastructuur)




                                                        38

				
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posted:8/21/2012
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