SPECIAL EDITION 10/NO.2
n e w s
for Preventing Crashes
Mercedes Pro-Active Head Restraint
INSIDE: Youth Key P4 / Alco-locks P6 / Protecting Pedestrians P10
PRIMARY VS. SECONDARY SAFETY
But prevention is, as they say, better than cure - avoiding the crash
in the first place. New technologies now coming forward will have
a significant effect on the way the public view crash safety – with
cars being able to prevent or mitigate (reduce) the likelihood of
a crash occurring in the first place – this is primary safety.
A selection of primary safety technologies is described in this
Research News. These are known as Advanced Driver Assist
Systems (ADAS). Although the list is not comprehensive, these
technologies do give an indication as to the breadth and capability
Over the past 50 years, vehicle manufacturers have focused mainly on the of this type of technology. The focus for Thatcham is on assessing
need to protect the occupant in a crash and we’ve seen lots of new technology the impact of these ADAS technologies and how they will affect
that reduces the risk of injury, such as steering wheel airbags, seat belt the motorists and insurers alike.
pre-tensioners and stronger occupant compartments. This technology is termed
secondary safety – providing protection in the event of a crash. Below: Primary safety systems mitigate or prevent crashes from occurring Secondary safety systems protect the
occupant during a crash
AUTHORS: MATTHEW AVERY, Research Manager and Dr. ALIX WEEKES, Lead Research Engineer, Thatcham
Youth Key The Youth Key is a duplicate key
Insurance for young drivers is often for a car that alters its performance
prohibitively high due to their very and systems (whilst the key is in use)
high risk of making a claim. Young Some facts: to provide specific protection for
drivers need the protection offered young drivers.
by modern cars in terms of improved • 17-20 year-old male drivers
safety features like airbags and ESC. are almost 10 times more likely Examples of possible changes
to be killed or seriously injured to the car:
A parent would want their child to than more experienced drivers.
drive a car with all the best available • The engine has an interlock
safety features, for example their • 17-20 year-old male drivers are that prevents the car from
own large car. But often financial almost 5 times more likely to be starting if all occupants are
pressure and fear of damage to the involved in a road traffic accident not belted.
car mean that young drivers end involving a casualty than 30-59
up with a small, older car, which by year-old males. • The engine cannot be started
nature of its smaller size and age, after midnight.
does not have the best available • The higher accident risk
safety features and offers less crash of young drivers also has • If the windows are open, the
protection. Also, another factor is consequences for their radio volume is restricted.
that large cars usually come with big insurance premiums. As a
performance – a typical family saloon result, the premiums they • The car warns the driver
often having 180 bhp and 140 mph pay are significantly higher. when pre-set speed limits
performance – not what you want By reducing the accident are breached.
your 18 year old to drive. rates of young drivers, the
affordability of insurance • The car’s top speed is
There are other features of young will improve. artificially limited.
drivers that put them at increased
risk of crashes, for example, they • Young drivers are more than • The acceleration performance
often don’t recognise how fast they twice as likely to make an (0-60 mph) is limited - the family
are driving. Young drivers often like insurance claim than older performance saloon suddenly
loud music which they like others drivers. has the performance of a small
to hear. This is often seen as hatchback.
anti-social and from a safety • The average value of each
perspective, can lead to driver claim is three times greater. An example is the Ford Taurus
distractions. Young drivers often (USA) which is fitted with a Youth Ford Taurus from USA fitted with MyKey
fail to use seat belts especially • An 18 year-old driver is Key called ‘MyKey’ – a spare key that
in the rear of the car – either almost 3 times as likely to can be recoded by the parent. It has
forgetting or seeing belt usage as cause a collision than a driver an engine interlock preventing the
a weakness. in their fifties. car starting with unbelted occupants,
limited top speed, limited radio
volume, and a warning when the
driver is exceeding pre-set
This technology is not available in the UK at the time of writing 05
Alco-Lock • Nearly one in five (19%) of driver/ Alcohol continues In 2008, it was
Alcohol continues to be a rider fatalities were for someone
contributory factor in 11% of serious who was over the legal blood to be a contributory estimated that 13,020
crashes. Although stringent and alcohol limit. factor in 11% of reported casualties
well policed drink drive campaigns
have been successful, there remains An example of an Alco-Lock is serious crashes. (6 per cent of all road
a core part of society that ignores Alcoguard from Volvo – the vehicle casualties) occurred
the potential risk of driving a motor is fitted with a first generation system
vehicle whilst under the influence of that requires a breath sample to be when someone was
alcohol. taken prior to starting the vehicle. driving whilst over the
The key works with the immobiliser,
An Alco-Lock is an integrated in-car only deactivating it once a breath Breathalyser unit from Volvo Alcoguard legal alcohol limit.
alcohol interlock system, developed alcohol sample is taken below a
to help reduce the number of prescribed limit.
accidents caused by vehicles with
a drunk driver at the wheel. These Before the car can be started, the
systems monitor alcohol levels and driver has to blow into a wireless
if the limit is exceeded, the security handheld unit which analyses the
immobiliser will not disengage – breath sample and transmits the
preventing the car from starting. result to the car. This is a first
Some facts: generation system.
• If you drive at twice the legal Future versions will measure blood
alcohol limit, you are at least alcohol levels passively, by measuring
30 times more likely to cause breath alcohol levels constantly using
a road crash than a driver who sensors in the steering wheel hub,
hasn’t been drinking. or by measuring alcohol levels in
the sweat from the skin.
• In 2008, it was estimated that
13,020 reported casualties The UK Department for Transport
(6 per cent of all road casualties) encourages use of Alco-Locks
occurred when someone was by fleet operators as a condition
driving whilst over the legal of employment for their drivers.
alcohol limit. An Alco-Lock limit can be set
according to legal requirements,
• The number of drink drive or can be adjusted to beyond the
fatalities accounts for 17% of all legal limit, which is useful for fleet
road accident fatalities (drivers operators who have a ‘no alcohol’
and passengers). rule.
Alco-Lock technology prevents drunk drivers from starting the engine
This technology is not available in the UK at the time of writing 07
AUTONOMOUS EMERGENCY BRAKING (AEB)
Autonomous Emergency First generation AEB systems use This low cost technology is set
Braking (AEB) systems operate a radar system to identify potential to be fitted to more and more
to automatically apply the brakes in collision situations. AEB systems vehicles, for example, Ford’s next
order to prevent or mitigate collisions apply pre-collision braking at the generation Focus is to be fitted
with ‘targets’ in front of the vehicle. point where a collision is deemed with such a system.
For example, an AEB system could unavoidable to reduce the impact
help prevent a driver from colliding speed and associated injuries. Assuming standard fleet wide
with the rear of the vehicle in front. Many systems also pre-tension fitment, Thatcham’s predictions
the seat belt and pre-charge the show that AEB systems working
According to Thatcham’s study airbag systems to obtain optimum at low speed could annually
of 1,000 insurance claims, 26% performance in the event of a prevent 263,250 crashes and
were for rear-end collisions. This collision. Examples are the Honda mitigate 87,750, making a total
corresponds with estimates of the Collision Mitigation Braking System, of 351,000 crashes that could
potential collisions that could be and Mercedes Pre-Safe Brake. be affected. These low speed
affected by AEB systems in the AEB technologies could also
US and Swiss markets, of 38% Second generation systems can prevent 152,000 injuries, equalling
and 20% respectively. In 2007, be identified as those building nearly €2 billion savings in repair
there were 2.7 million insurance on first generation, higher speed costs and whiplash compensation.
claims, and if up to 26% of claims mitigation systems, by adding low
could be affected by AEB systems, speed avoidance. The Volvo City Examples of manufacturers fitting
then this equates to over 700,000 Safety system addresses the most AEB systems are Audi, Honda,
claims that could be affected common sort of impact – the front- Lexus, Mercedes, Toyota, and Volvo.
(assuming there was fleet-wide into-rear low speed shunt, typically
fitment of systems). AEB type occurring at speeds below 20 mph.
technologies could therefore make These accidents represent 75%
a large contribution to preventing of all crashes, and if such a system
and mitigating the most common were fitted to all cars, this could
types of crashes. significantly reduce whiplash injuries
and repair costs.
Above: Mercedes Pre-Safe Brake - an AEB system
Mercedes Pre-Safe Brake – an AEB system
Honda Collision Mitigation Braking System – an AEB system Low speed AEB systems might be fitted on Volvo City Safety – a low speed AEB system
more mainstream cars in the future
Protecting Pedestrians car. Sensor fusion is the key to the
Pedestrian casualties represent development of this third generation
more than 1 in 10 of all severe of AEB systems – combining the
injuries on UK roads. Car fronts are outputs of multiple sensor types to
more pedestrian friendly than ever, reliably identify and track the path of
following the pioneering work of Euro different types of collision partners
NCAP in encouraging best practice and estimate the likelihood of a
pedestrian friendly front ends. Many collision occurring, thus potentially
manufacturers have introduced amplifying their effectiveness. This
pedestrian friendly solutions such as third generation of AEB system
pop-up bonnets that can protect the offers collision prevention from
pedestrian from hitting solid parts of higher speeds than was previously
the car such as the engine. achievable, as well as the ability
to correctly identify and track
However, 25-45% of all casualties pedestrians.
are reported to be due to head
strikes on the road following a Volvo has developed a third
collision, so this must be borne generation AEB system and will
in mind when assessing the be offering Collision Warning with
effectiveness of these systems. Full Auto Brake and Pedestrian
Systems are now available that can Protection on the new S60. Volvo
detect a pedestrian beforehand and claims the system can completely
automatically apply braking to avoid avoid a collision with a pedestrian at
a collision altogether. Radars now speeds of up to 21mph if the driver
fitted to some vehicles scan the road fails to react. At higher speeds, the
and pavement constantly looking system acts to reduce the car’s
for typical pedestrian behaviours speed as much as possible prior to
and will apply the brakes where the the impact. The system can reliably
pedestrian is likely to be hit by the identify pedestrians taller than 80cm.
Pedestrian collisions result in over 10% of severe casualties in the UK
ELECTRONIC STABILITY CONTROL (ESC)
Electronic Stability Control
ESC prevents the driver losing
control in a skid. ESC automatically
controls the vehicle by comparing
the steering and braking actions
carried out by the driver to what the
vehicle is actually doing. If the ESC
senses that the vehicle is veering
from the required course – a skid –
it automatically brakes selective
wheels to bring the car back into line.
A study for the UK Department
for Transport by Loughborough
University has shown that on UK
roads, cars fitted with ESC are 25%
less likely to be involved in a fatal
accident than those without ESC.
If every vehicle were fitted with ESC,
this would equate to 380 fewer fatal
accidents annually. Serious crashes
involving skidding or overturning
could be reduced by up to 59%.
Thatcham produces annual fitment
ratings to raise awareness of this
important safety technology, and
to encourage drivers to buy cars
fitted with ESC. Thatcham also has
a programme of dynamic testing
of vehicles for ESC functionality.
This dynamic testing is based on an
international procedure that assesses
the performance requirements of the
ESC system, with a result of either
a pass or fail. Further information
on Thatcham’s research and testing
of ESC can be found at
(LDW) LANE KEEP
LANE DEPARTURE WARNING / LANE/KEEP ASSISTASSIST
Lane Departure Warning Lane Keep Assist
Example of dashboard warning from Honda Lane Keep Assist System (LKAS)
(LDW) systems warn the driver The Honda Lane Keep Assist System – a lane keep assist technology
if they unintentionally stray across (LKAS) builds on conventional LDW
the lane. Thatcham’s research systems by actively steering the
shows that 6% of insurance claims car to maintain a central position
are related to merging and lane between lane markings during normal
collisions, and international insurance driving. If the car begins to cross the
data suggests LDW systems are lane markings unintentionally, LKAS
of positive benefit in reducing costs applies steering to return the car to
and crash frequency. They may also the centre of the lane and provides a
help prevent single vehicle collisions continuous beeping sound. Providing
where drivers run off the road. the system can reliably identify
markings bordering both sides of
According to the ABI (Association the lane, the system operates at
of British Insurers), there were speeds from 45 to 112 mph. LKAS
nearly 2.1 million insurance claims automatically suspends itself on
in 2008. Insurance studies show tighter bends if the lane markings
that 6% of claims are for lane are in poor condition or missing, and
change and merging collisions, if the driver takes their hand off the
so up to 125,000 claims could steering wheel after a short period of
be affected by LDW systems. time.
This estimate assumes fleet-wide
standard fitment of LDW systems, Examples of manufacturers fitting
and these crashes could also be lane keep assist systems are Honda
Example of camera sensor mounted in windscreen affected by blind spot warning and Volkswagen.
Most LDW systems use a forward
facing camera mounted inside Other Technologies
the windscreen by the rear view The Lexus Advanced Pre-Collision
mirror to identify the lane markings System combines a LDW system
and determine if they are crossed. and a collision avoidance steering
Citroën use an array of infrared support system. If the forward facing
sensors mounted underneath the radar identifies an object and a
front bumper. Most systems operate collision is imminent, the driver is
at speeds in excess of 40 mph and given a warning. If they attempt an
require lane markings to be present, avoidance manoeuvre by steering
or a line with significant contrast around the object, the variable gear
such as the verge. ratio steering and adaptive variable
suspension control the steering gear
Typical warnings when the systems ratio, torque assist and suspension
are activated are a flashing symbol damper firmness to support the
on the dashboard display or head driver’s avoidance measures. This
up display, and/or an audible warning gives the car a more responsive
alerting the driver. The BMW LDW chassis and allows the driver to
system vibrates the steering wheel, more successfully avoid a collision.
and the Citroën system warns by
vibrating the driver’s seat on the side
corresponding to the lane departure.
If the driver indicates before
intentionally changing lanes, the
warnings are deactivated, a benefit
of which may be that LDW systems
LDW systems do not warn the driver of lane crossing when indicators are used encourage better use of signalling Lexus Advanced Pre-Collision System
potentially reducing side-swipes.
Examples of manufacturers fitting
LDW systems are Audi, BMW,
Citroën, Lexus, Mercedes, and Volvo.
NIGHT VISION / SPEED LIMIT RECOGNITION /
BLIND SPOT WARNING
Night Vision BMW Night Vision with Pedestrian • These included 586 fatalities
Night vision systems ‘see’ further Recognition monitors the images and over 4,000 serious injuries,
into the distance than the driver and when a pedestrian is identified, accounting for 25% of road
can with normal vehicle lighting the driver is alerted to their deaths and 18% of serious
by using infrared sensors to detect presence. The system operates injuries.
heat contrasts. In 2008, there were at all times, however a 10˚C
923 accidents with a reported temperature difference is required • More than 4 times as many
contributory factor of pedestrians for identification, so performance male drivers had a speed
wearing dark clothing at night. is likely to be limited on warmer days. related contributory factor
Objects in the carriageway, such reported than female drivers.
The realistic images are displayed as fallen rocks or a shed load are
in the driver’s line of sight for also often visible. The systems use information
early recognition, typically on the stored in the navigation system
navigation system or dashboard Examples of manufacturers fitting as a reference. This is augmented
display screens, with a likely shift night vision systems are BMW and with a camera system that can
to head up displays in the future. Mercedes. read speed limit signs, including
Currently, Mercedes and BMW are those displayed on electronic
offering the technology in the UK Speed Limit Recognition variable speed limit signs on
on premium models in their ranges, Speed limit recognition systems overhead gantries. The camera
claiming views ahead of the vehicle inform the driver of the maximum system output either confirms
of 150m and 300m respectively – at permissible speed for the particular the figure from the base map,
least three times further than can be stretch of road the car is on. Some or overrides it where a difference
seen with dipped beam headlights. facts: is identified, such as where speed
limits have been changed or
The hotter the source, the brighter • In 2008, there were just under a temporary limit is in force.
it appears on the greyscale image. 28,000 casualties in accidents
‘Hot’ pedestrians and large animals where a speed contributory factor Currently, the systems only display
Jaguar XF blind spot warning
are readily identified against ‘cold’ was reported. the maximum permissible speed
urban and rural backgrounds. and do not interfere with the driver
allowing them to ignore the advice.
Future developments will allow the Blind Spot Warning there were nearly 2.1 million vehicles. Because of the regular
system to automatically manage the Blind spot warning systems insurance claims. So if blind spot warnings given by such systems
vehicle speed providing Intelligent indicate when another vehicle is warning systems could affect 6% a non-obtrusive warning is given –
Speed Adaptation (ISA). There is present in the driver’s blind spot. of claims, then this represents up typically illumination of a warning
also the potential for other safety These systems can help prevent to 125,000 claims. This estimate light in the wing mirror assembly
information to be displayed such or mitigate collisions when a driver assumes fleet-wide standard or interior trim nearby.
as ‘no overtaking’, determined from is changing lanes. fitment of blind spot warning
either road signs or markings. systems, and these crashes could Examples of manufacturers fitting
Thatcham’s research into collision also be affected by LDW systems. blind spot warning systems are
An example of a manufacturer fitting types involved in insurance claims Audi, BMW, Ford, Jaguar, Mercedes,
a speed limit recognition system reveals that 6% of claims are for Many manufacturers use ultrasonic Volkswagen, and Volvo.
is BMW, and Mercedes will launch lane changing or merging types of sensors similar to parking sensors
a system in the near future. crashes. In 2008, the ABI reported to detect the presence of other
Night Vision with pedestrian recognition ‘Head Up’ Speed Limit Display
FRONT SIDE-VIEW CAMERAS
BMW 7 Series showing location of Side-View Camera
BMW Side-View Cameras
Front Side-View Cameras Front side-view cameras are a Front side-view camera systems are Examples of manufacturers fitting
A reversing camera is a camera development of reversing cameras, currently offered by BMW and Lexus. front side-view cameras are BMW
mounted on the rear bumper of but integrated into the front bumper On the new 5 Series, BMW are also and Lexus.
the vehicle with a display on the on both sides of the vehicle. They offering cameras mounted in the
dashboard for the driver to aid in provide the driver with an immediate wing mirrors viewing alongside the
reversing manoeuvres. Reversing overview of traffic conditions around vehicle. A processor combines these Poor vision at
cameras are becoming more the car when pulling out of an images with that from the reversing
widespread in cars, but side- obscured junction, passing through camera and parking sensors to blind junctions is a
view cameras are a more recent a gateway or exiting a car park, provide a plan view of the car and its contributory factor
innovation. and offer extra information when surroundings.
manoeuvring and parking in confined to collisions.
BMW Side-View Camera
“Most systems provide an audible The Lexus Driver Monitoring System
monitors the drivers themselves.
AEB system reduces the impact
speed if the collision is deemed
signal and a message on the The output of a camera mounted on unavoidable.
dashboard display, encouraging the steering column is processed
to map the position of the driver’s Examples of manufacturers fitting
the driver to take a break”. facial features and monitor the driver alert systems are Lexus,
orientation of the driver’s face. Mercedes, and Volvo.
An array of six near infrared LEDs
provides illumination for both day
and night system functionality. When
the vehicle is started, the system
identifies the position of the driver’s
facial features and determines the
width and centre-line of the face.
Driver Alert Mercedes-Benz Attention Assist At any time the vehicle is moving,
Driver fatigue and distraction warning systems monitor the – a driver alert system if the driver’s face is orientated
driver and their driving performance, and alert them when away from the road by an angle
their attentiveness is affected. If detected, most systems Volvo Driver Alert Control uses greater than 15º and the forward
provide an audible signal and a message on the dashboard a forward-facing camera, installed facing radar system detects an
display, encouraging the driver to take a break. More advanced between the windscreen and the obstacle ahead, an audible warning
systems can draw the attention of distracted drivers towards rear view mirror, to monitor the alerts the driver to the imminent
the road if a potential collision is detected ahead. Some facts: car’s position on the road relative danger. If they fail to react, a
to the road markings. In conjunction momentary brake application jolts
• Research performed at the • They also reported that 17% with the camera output, data from the driver and the PCS system
Loughborough University Sleep of all road crashes resulting various sensors registering the engages emergency braking
Research Centre, investigating in injury or death were sleep car’s movement are used to assess preparation and pre-tensioning Driver Alert Systems warn drowsy or
driver drowsiness on selected related. whether it is being driven in a of the front seatbelts. Finally, the inattentive drivers
UK motorway and trunk roads, controlled manner. Driving control
found that one quarter of all • Currently, at least one fatal and consistency is indicated via the
crashes on these roads that sleep related crash occurs vehicle’s dashboard display. At the
subsequently caused death or per day in the UK. beginning of a journey, the driver
serious injury were sleep related. has a full compliment of five bars.
The less consistent the driving,
There are various different types of driver drowsiness and distraction the fewer bars remain. When all
monitoring systems currently on the market. Systems from Volvo and Mercedes the bars have been extinguished,
alert the driver in a similar fashion when drowsiness is detected; an audible the audible and visual warnings
warning is given and a coffee cup symbol and a short message encouraging are given. The system activates
them to take a break from driving is shown on the dashboard display. at a speed of 40 mph and remains
active as long as the speed exceeds
However different systems determine driver drowsiness in different ways. 37 mph.
Mercedes-Benz Attention Assist monitors the driver’s steering inputs along
with numerous other vehicle parameters including speed, lateral and longitudinal
acceleration, use of the turn indicators, pedals and certain control inputs,
to determine an individual driver behaviour pattern during the first few minutes
of every journey. The current steering behaviour and driving situation are then
continuously referenced against this initial pattern to identify the typical factors
indicating the floating transition from alertness to drowsiness. The system
is active at speeds between 50 and 113 mph.
The Mercedes-Benz system, being an intelligent system which determines
a driver behaviour pattern at the beginning of each journey, offers a more
tailored response to individual drivers.
Volvo Driver Alert Control Lexus Driver Monitoring System and Pre-Crash Safety System – a driver alert system
– a driver alert system
Warning Standardisation The same issue can arise with all
– a big challenge! types of ADAS system – there are
Currently, there are few standards a wide range of warnings available,
prescribing the functionality of and drivers could become
Advanced Driver Assistance confused or react inappropriately.
Systems (ADAS) and the warnings Standardisation would assist driver
they should provide to the driver. understanding and reduce the
It appears to be by chance that the workload and distraction associated
Volvo and Mercedes-Benz driver with receiving the warning. When
drowsiness and distraction warning ADAS warning systems become
systems provide a similar alert more prolific, various methods of
comprising an audible signal and alerting the driver may be used.
a short message and coffee cup In critical situations, a driver used
symbol on the dashboard display. to one system may, when driving
Will such a warning be taken a vehicle fitted with another, all too
seriously by drivers? To some drivers, easily respond in a less appropriate
the coffee cup symbol may portray manner, believing the warning was
a more leisurely ‘it’s time for a break’ advising them of something less
message rather than the more urgent urgent.
‘your driving has become poorly
controlled and inconsistent, you’re Research is required to help identify
unsafe – so rest’. the most appropriate warning for
each situation and encourage
For LDW systems, there are a wide manufacturers to fit standardised
variety of warnings, ranging from and common symbols and sounds in
an audible warning, a display on order to prevent a potential mistaken
the dashboard, a vibrating seat, warning becoming another casualty
and a vibrating steering wheel. How situation.
will drivers respond to the different
warnings? Will they understand that
they are drifting out of the lane, or
will a vibrating seat feel like a nice
THE REAL WORLD - WHAT WILL DRIVERS DO?
The real world -
The ADAS systems can have both These risk compensation and
positive and negative side effects. driver adaptation issues can be
For example, if LDW systems are associated with any of the ADAS
activated because they warn drivers systems. The use of the ADAS
when they change lanes and do not systems in the real world needs
indicate, then what effect will this to be monitored to ensure that
have on drivers? Will they increase systems are used as they are
their use of indicators and drive in intended, and that the real world
a safer more consistent way? Or safety benefits can be achieved.
will they turn off the LDW system It is only over time and through
because it is annoying? use in the real world that the
real safety potential of the ADAS
systems will be assessed.
Above: Drivers may rely on technology to save them from collisions
REPAIR COSTS / INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH COLLABORATION
Repair costs research
These ADAS systems can help International Research The P-Safe group has chosen to
to reduce the risk of a collision. Collaboration focus on three main types of primary
However, in some circumstances, The Research Council for safety (ADAS) technology initially.
a crash that is unavoidable or a minor Automobile Repairs (RCAR) is an These three technologies are
manoeuvring bump, could end up international network of insurance Electronic Stability Control (ESC),
costing significantly more to repair based research centres working to Autonomous Emergency Braking
because of the high cost of some control insurance costs. Members (AEB), and Lane Departure Warning
of the sensors used. For example, of RCAR have grouped together to (LDW). ESC was selected because
a radar on a Honda Accord costs form the P-Safe working group on research has already shown that
£2,118. The infrared sensor for night primary safety, chaired by Thatcham. ESC is effective in reducing crashes.
vision on the BMW 7 Series costs The P-Safe group aims to investigate AEB and LDW were selected
Camera inside windscreen is better £2,468. Both of these sensors are the primary safety technologies because these technologies could
protected from damage in a collision mounted on the front grille and are help address commonly occurring
that are brought to the market. The
at risk of damage in a low speed international group has members crash types. The list of ADAS
crash. (Note that prices exclude VAT) from Europe, Australia and North technologies being investigated by
America, and also has collaborators the P-Safe group will be extended in
Location of the sensor is critical. from specialist academic institutions the future as there are new advances
For example, the cameras used for such as Loughborough University. in technology, and to ensure that the
side view at junctions need to be The group is developing strategies needs of the insurers are met.
positioned at or near the front of the to identify the most effective primary Thatcham is an active member
vehicle to be of benefit, a vulnerable safety systems. The group is also reporting to Euro NCAP via their
position in a frontal impact. Likewise, working to encourage manufacturers primary safety working group
cameras mounted in wing mirrors for to adopt a best practice approach to PNCAP, and is investigating and
viewing along the vehicle flanks are help produce common interfaces that monitoring ADAS systems as they
susceptible to damage. Mounting are clear and effective. are introduced. Thatcham is also
cameras and sensors behind the looking at introducing new rating
windscreen rather than in the front systems to augment the scoring, as
bumper or behind the grille offers well as encouraging wider fitment of
improved protection from damage. technologies that are shown to be of
Although there remain technical benefit.
issues over sensor placement –
some, for example, must be placed
at the leading edge of the vehicle to
be effective – vehicle manufacturers
must protect the sensors to ensure
they are not damaged in low speed
Radar mounted in grille could be expensive to replace in a low speed shunt
research n e w s
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