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Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000

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C H A P T E R   1 4


Using Systems
Management Server to
Deploy Windows 2000

            Microsoft® Systems Management Server (SMS) provides a variety of tools to help
            you deploy Microsoft® Windows 2000 Server or Microsoft® Windows 2000
            Professional in an enterprise environment. Project leaders and analysts,
            Windows 2000 technical analysts, and SMS administrators involved in this process
            should become familiar with the recommended configurations and procedures
            described in this chapter. Although these recommendations also work for smaller
            organizations, the focus is on organizations with at least 2,500 personal computers.
            You do not need to be familiar with Systems Management Server version 2.0 to
            understand the information in this chapter. However, you need someone with SMS
            expertise to perform your Windows 2000 deployment. It is presumed that your SMS
            infrastructure is in place or that you will put an SMS infrastructure in place prior to
            deploying Windows 2000. Important differences between SMS 2.0 and Systems
            Management Server version 1.2 are also presented in this chapter.
            In This Chapter
            Using Systems Management Server to Distribute Software 515
            Packaging Windows 2000 for Systems Management Server 521
            Distributing the Windows 2000 Packages 529
            Advertising the Windows 2000 Packages 538
            Using Systems Management Server to Ease Domain Consolidation
            and Migration 549
            Examining Differences Between Systems Management Server 1.2 and Systems
            Management Server 2.0 550
            Planning Task List for Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000
            551
514   Part 4   Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation


                Chapter Goals
                This chapter will help you develop the following planning documents:
                 Windows 2000 Software Distribution Plan
                 Windows 2000 SMS Package Definitions

                Related Information in the Resource Kit
                 For more information about automating the Windows 2000 upgrades, see
                  “Automating Server Installation and Upgrade” and “Automating Client
                  Installation and Upgrade” in this book.
                 For more information about automating domain consolidation and migration,
                  see “Determining Domain Migration Strategies” in this book.
Chapter 14    Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000                          515


      Using Systems Management Server to Distribute
      Software
      Deploying Windows 2000 is much simpler when you use automated installation.
      However, there are still many tasks involved when you apply automated procedures to
      multiple servers and client computers throughout your organization. These tasks
      include:
       Selecting computers that are equipped for Windows 2000 and that you are
          ready to support.
       Distributing Windows 2000 source files to all sites, including remote sites and
        sites without technical support staff.
       Monitoring the distribution to all sites.
       Securely providing enough operating system rights to do the upgrade.
       Automatically initiating the installation of the software package with the
        possibility of allowing the user to control the timing.
       Resolving problems related to the distributions or installations.
       Reporting on the rate and success of deployment.

      Systems Management Server can help you with all these tasks. The primary tasks
      involved in deploying Windows 2000 with SMS are illustrated in Figure 14.1.
      Start


              Create a software           Prepare to                   Select clients for
              distribution plan.          distribute the               the advertisement.
                                          package.
              Prepare the                 Distribute the               Advertise the
              distribution                package.                     package’s program.
              package.
                                          Monitor the                  Migrate the clients.
                                          distribution of
                                          the package.

                                          Troubleshoot the             Monitor the
                                          distribution of              advertisements.
                                          the package.
                                                                       Troubleshoot the
                                                                       advertisements.

      Figure 14.1      Deploying Windows 2000 with SMS
516   Part 4   Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation


                SMS provides tools for upgrading your current computers but not for the installation
                of new computers that do not have an operating system already installed. To use SMS
                software distribution, you must install SMS client components on the destination
                computers. These SMS components require that the computer has a properly
                configured operating system.
                Note The phrase “SMS client” refers to all destination computers regardless of their
                     function.

                However, you can use your current SMS clients to initiate the installation of
                Windows 2000 into a new directory hierarchy or disk partition. In this situation, the
                Windows 2000 installation is a clean installation rather than an upgrade.
                Note You can also use SMS to help you with other Windows 2000 deployment
                        activities. For more information about using SMS in your Windows 2000
                deployment, see “Using Systems Management Server to Analyze Your Network
                Infrastructure” in this book.


Software Distribution with Systems Management
Server 2.0
                Systems Management Server software distribution is based on multiple components
                and tasks which allow you to completely control the process.
                SMS Packages
                SMS software distribution starts with an SMS package. The package, the basic unit of
                software distribution, contains the source files for the program and the details that
                direct the software distribution process.
                Each package contains at least one program, which is a command line that runs on
                each targeted computer to control the execution of the package. Programs can direct
                the installation of software or contain any other command line to be run at each
                targeted computer. Most packages also contain package source files, such as software
                installation files, that are used by the program when it runs.
Chapter 14   Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000                      517


      Some software applications provide extensive installation options. Other packages and
      tools do not. If the program you want to distribute does not provide appropriate setup
      options, such as unattended operation, you can use SMS Installer to prepare your
      program for software distribution. SMS Installer can generate attended and unattended
      installation scripts that you can fully customize. This kind of scripting is not
      appropriate for the Windows 2000 upgrade. However, it might be useful for packages
      that are sent prior to the Windows 2000 upgrade to prepare the computer, or for
      packages that are sent after the upgrade to finalize the configuration. For more
      information about SMS Installer, see “Creating Self-Extracting Files with SMS
      Installer 2.0” in the Microsoft® Systems Management Server Administrator’s Guide.
      You can create a package by using Packages in the SMS Administrator console, or
      you can create or obtain a package definition file and use the Create Package from
      Definition wizard. A package definition file is an alternative, noninteractive way to
      create a package. It is a formatted file that contains all the information necessary to
      create the package. A package definition file for Windows 2000 is included with
      SMS 2.0. You can use SMS tools and wizards to create packages from package
      definition files without user interaction. When a package has been created, use the
      SMS Manage Distribution Points wizard to choose the distribution points.
      Distribution
      Packages also contain information about software distribution, such as the directory
      for the package source files. Distribution Points are shares on site systems where the
      package source files are copied for access by client computers. Packages also include
      information about how and when to update distribution points. For ease of
      administration, you can group distribution points into Distribution Point Groups.
      When package files need to be propagated to other sites, SMS compresses these files
      for sending between sites. You can also create and use a compressed copy of the
      package source files within the originating site.
      You can control the distribution of a package by using Distribution Points, which is
      under the definition of the package under Packages in the SMS Administrator
      console.
518         Part 4     Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation


                         Advertising
                         After you create the Windows 2000 package, you advertise one or more of the
                         package’s programs to your users by creating an advertisement. An advertisement
                         specifies what program is available to client computers, which computers will receive
                         the advertisement, and when the program will be scheduled for installation.
                         Figure 14.2 shows the software distribution process.
                         When an advertisement is received at an SMS client, the user can still have some
                         control over the scheduling of the package. The advertisement can be run in a special
                         privileged mode so that you need not give privileges to users. You can also run the
                         advertisement so that it operates without any intervention from the user.
                         You create an advertisement by using Advertisements in the SMS Administrator
                         console.


                                         Site
                                       Server

                                           SMS Site Database
                                           (SQL Server)

        Distribution                                                       Client Access
           Point                                                            Point (CAP)



                                            Target
                                            Clients

1. Distribute package source files.
2. Distribute advertisements
   and package details.
3. Get instructions.
4. Run programs.

                         Figure 14.2   SMS 2.0 Software Distribution Process

                         For more information about SMS software distribution, see the Systems Management
                         Server Administrator’s Guide.
      Chapter 14   Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000                        519


            SMS Software Distribution Best Practices
            With large software distributions, such as Windows 2000, it is important to note the
            two phases of Systems Management Server 2.0 software distribution: distribution and
            advertising. Distribution gets the software close to the computers to be upgraded.
            Advertising initiates the upgrade. With a package as large as Windows 2000, the
            distribution phase consumes a great deal of resources and problems could arise due to
            lack of disk space. Therefore, make sure to plan and monitor the distribution phase
            carefully. After you have successfully completed the distribution phase, begin the
            advertising phase.
            Test your distribution by first distributing Windows 2000 only to one site. The initial
            advertisement of the package should also be sent only to clients at that site. This
            allows you to test your SMS infrastructure and procedures on a limited scale. As your
            confidence increases and as capacity allows, you can distribute the package to more
            sites and increase the scope of the advertisement to include more clients and sites until
            you eventually include your entire organization.
            Additional best practices are included in the following discussions of the software
            distribution process.

How SMS Can Help with Windows 2000 Deployment
            Systems Management Server can be particularly helpful for deploying Windows 2000
            in the following ways:
            Sending Windows 2000 Source Files Out to All Sites
            SMS has senders that can send files over a wide variety of network protocols and over
            virtually any kind of network link. Senders provide several benefits over traditional
            file transfer methods. They can:
             Use only a fraction of the network bandwidth, allowing other business
                functions to continue at the same time.
             Forward packages only during specified hours, such as when most users are
              not using the link.
             Check the files as they are transferred so that if the network link fails, the
              transfer resumes at the latest checkpoint rather than at the beginning of the
              transfer.
             Choose an alternate route to the destination.
             Use the SMS hierarchy to get the packages to the sites, rather than sending the
              packages to all sites directly from the originating site.

            Using senders can be beneficial when your sites are remote, particularly if they have
            no technical support staff. In such cases, you can reliably distribute Windows 2000
            software to all sites without interfering with other business functions.
520   Part 4   Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation


                Monitoring the Distribution to All Sites
                SMS automatically sends a status message as each step is completed, and you can
                easily monitor these messages using the SMS status subsystem.
                Selecting Computers
                Because deploying Windows 2000 upgrades is a large, complex, high-profile process,
                you need to deploy it in phases. This spreads out both the network activity and
                required support. Also, all your computers might not be ready to receive the package
                at the same time; for example, some computers might not have enough memory or
                disk space. SMS collects inventory details about your computers and allows you to
                create queries that select appropriate computers. You can increase the size of the
                selections as your confidence in the process increases.
                Collections of inventory details can automatically include any additional computers
                that now meet the selection criteria. For example, consider a collection that is defined
                to include computers with 64 Megabytes (MB) of memory or more. If you added
                32 MB to an SMS client computer that had 32 MB, it would then qualify to receive
                the Windows 2000 upgrade and be included in the collection automatically.
                Securely Providing Enough Operating System Rights
                Operating system upgrades affect all aspects of a computer and, therefore, require that
                end users have broad access rights. You might be hesitant to give such broad
                permissions to users who do not have an in-depth knowledge of computers or of
                important company policies and procedures. SMS does have special privileges and
                can run the upgrade in that context.
                Automatically Initiating the Installation
                Upgrades can be either automatically initiated or initiated by users. You can set up the
                process so that even when users are involved, they do not have to choose between
                complex options. You can give users the option to control the timing so that the
                upgrade can occur when their computers are not in use.
                Resolving Problems
                If the upgrade to Windows 2000 causes problems on a particular computer, SMS has
                features that help you solve them. The status and inventory information that SMS
                provides can supply many details about the computer from a central, convenient
                source —the SMS Administrator console. You can also use SMS remote tools to
                remotely control the computer, transfer files, or manipulate the computer in other
                ways (as long as the SMS client is functional). If the user has an incompatible
                application or an application that might benefit from being reinstalled, you can use
                SMS software distribution to automatically update or remove it.
      Chapter 14   Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000                       521


            Reporting Status
            SMS status messages are generated not only for the distribution of the package but
            also for the advertisements and the installation on user computers. You can use these
            status messages to report on the rate and success of deployment.
            The steps required to take advantage of these SMS features are described in the
            procedures that follow. The details for enabling the relevant SMS subsystems and
            using them effectively are included the SMS documentation.

            Packaging Windows 2000 for Systems Management
            Server
            When you use Systems Management Server to deploy Windows 2000, you must put
            the Windows 2000 files into an SMS package. You need to create separate packages
            for Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 Professional. SMS 2.0 includes
            predefined packages for Windows 2000 Server and Professional. These can be used as
            the starting point to create your Windows 2000 packages.
            For each package, SMS obtains the files from a distribution folder. For more
            information about structuring distribution folders, see “Automating Server Installation
            and Upgrade” in this book. You must structure the distribution folder as described in
            that chapter, and include all the auxiliary files required to complete the upgrade, such
            as the Plug and Play device drivers and answer files. You can even include standard
            applications, language packs, and service packs.
            Each predefined Windows 2000 SMS package also contains SMS programs. Each
            program is a different combination of options that you create for installing the
            Windows 2000 package. For example, your default program might be to install
            Windows 2000 with no user intervention. If you want to allow power users to choose
            options, they need an additional program. All these SMS programs must be
            compatible with the set of files for the package available at the distribution folder.

Preparing the Windows 2000 Server Upgrade Package
            The following procedure describes how to set up a typical upgrade package for
            Windows 2000 Server. The first step is to set up the location of the package source
            files and the predefined SMS package for distributing Windows 2000 Server.
522   Part 4   Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation


               To create a Windows 2000 Server SMS package
                1. Set up a location for the package source files.
                   This process is described in the chapter “Automating Server Installation and
                   Upgrade” in this book. This will include the Windows 2000 files, an answer
                   file, and other files as needed.
                2. In the SMS Administrator console, select Packages. From the Action menu,
                   point to New, and then click Package From Definition as shown in
                   Figure 14.3.




                   Figure 14.3   Initiating the SMS Package from Definition Wizard

                3. On the Welcome page, click Next. From the Package definition list, click
                   Windows 2000 Server.
                4. On the Source Files page, click Create a compressed version of the source,
                   and then click Next. In the Source directory box, enter the path to the
                   package source files (see step 1). Click Next, and then click Finish.
                   If the site server is extremely tight for disk space, you can choose Always
                   obtains files from a source directory from the Source Files page. However,
                   this slows future distributions of the software, and you must ensure that the
                   source directory is always available.
Chapter 14   Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000                      523


      5. When the wizard finishes, select Programs under your new package. In the
         results pane (the right side of the console), double-click Automated upgrade
         from NTS 3.51/4.0 (x86). Then verify that the predefined Command line is
         the correct setup command for your needs. Repeat step 5 for the other
         programs that you use.
         To verify that the predefined Command line meets your needs, see
         “Examining the Windows 2000 Server Package Definition” later in this
         chapter.
         Consider specifying an answer file in the program command line, which can
         allow you to specify a large number of configuration options. For more
         information about answer files, see “Automating Server Installation and
         Upgrade” in this book.
      6. In the Comment box, enter a comment for each of the programs that you will
         use.
         The user can see your comments, so be sure they are descriptive. Give your
         users contact information, such as the name, phone number, or e-mail address
         of someone that they can contact for more information.
      7. On the Requirements tab for each program, adjust (if necessary) the
         Estimated disk space and Estimated run time to values that are appropriate
         for the upgrade you are doing. These values are information for your users.
      8. On the Environment tab for each program, verify that Program can run is
         set to Whether or not a user is logged on.
         This setting ensures that the program is run with administrative rights, which is
         necessary for Microsoft® Windows NT® Server upgrades.
      9. Click OK to close the program properties box.
     10. Select the Windows 2000 Server package, and from the Action menu, click
         Properties. On the Reporting tab, enter 5.0 for the Version. Verify that the
         Name is Windows NT and the Publisher is Microsoft.

         Important Setting these values is necessary for the advertisement status
                         information to be accurate. Otherwise, every execution of the
         SMS package is recorded as successful even if it aborts or fails.

     11. Click OK to close the package properties dialog box.
     12. If you want to ensure that users do not upgrade their computers before you are
         ready to deploy Windows 2000, select Access Accounts under your new
         package, and in the results pane, delete the Guests and Users access accounts.
524   Part 4   Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation


                   Note that SMS does hide the software distribution shares and that users would
                   require administrative rights on the computers (or the computers would have to
                   be running Microsoft Windows 95 or Microsoft Windows 98) for them to take
                   advantage of these shares.
                   You have to give access to users who are authorized to upgrade to
                   Windows 2000 at a later time.

                Also, do not adjust the distribution points or create an advertisement at this time.

                Caution If you want to use security to control who can adjust or deploy the
                        package, see the chapter “Distributing Software” in the Systems
                Management Server 2.0 Administrator’s Guide.

                If you require multiple Windows 2000 upgrade answer files to accommodate
                variations in your upgrades, you must create additional programs for the package in
                the SMS Administrator console. Each program will specify a different answer file for
                the winnt32 /unattend switch. Separate answer files allow different groups of
                computers to be upgraded in different ways while still using just a single package.
                Systems Management Server 2.0 includes a variety of sophisticated options for
                packages and their programs. For example, you can specify that the Windows 2000
                files be made available with a specific share name at your distribution points. This
                way they can easily be used by people performing manual upgrades as well as by
                SMS. The SMS documentation includes complete details on these options.

Allowing User Input During the Upgrade
                Most SMS administrators consider it good practice not to allow user input during
                package installations. When users buy and install software by themselves, the Setup
                program generally prompts them for responses, such as which disk to install the
                software on or what options to install. Every user interaction introduces the
                opportunity for error that can cause problems. Users might not understand the
                implications of the answers they provide. If even a small percentage of users makes
                mistakes, the number of help desk calls can be overwhelming at a time when you are
                upgrading thousands of computers.
                Another reason to eliminate user input during upgrade is to allow the installation to
                occur while no one is present at the computer so that you minimize the inconvenience
                to users.
      Chapter 14   Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000                      525


            Finally, providing all the answers in an answer file ensures that you maintain
            configuration standards. When you follow those standards, you simplify future
            computer maintenance and support by reducing the number of variables that could be
            relevant to a problem.
            Providing an answer file with all the details required for the upgrade will prevent the
            Windows 2000 Setup program from asking for user input. If some details are not
            provided (and the UnattendMode line in the answer file allows it) or if the /unattend
            command-line switch is not specified, the program prompts the user for the details. An
            answer file for a server upgrade might look like the following (you must change the
            JoinDomain line):
            [Unattended]
            FileSystem = LeaveAlone
            UnattendMode=FullUnattended
            NTUpgrade=Yes
            [Networking]
            InstallDefaultComponents = Yes
            [Identification]
            JoinDomain = RED1DOM


            Note You must specify the answer file by using the command winnt32
                   /unattend:answer.file. The command winnt32 /unattend performs an
            unattended upgrade, but it gets the information it needs from the current
            configuration.


Examining the Windows 2000 Server Package
Definition
            The Windows 2000 Server package definition that comes with Systems Management
            Server 2.0 includes predefined programs. Review these programs to understand how
            the upgrades are performed.
            The Windows 2000 Server upgrade from Windows NT Server includes the switches
            /unattend30 and /batch. The first switch, /unattend30, means that you will do an
            unattended upgrade and that all the required information will be taken from the
            current installation. The computer will restart 30 seconds after the Setup program
            completes its first phase, which is when the files are copied to your computer. An
            answer file is not used.
            The /batch switch specifies that Setup not display any error messages. This is
            appropriate when you are sending the package to users you do not want involved in
            the Setup or if you are running the upgrade when no one is at the computer. However,
            if there are problems with the upgrade, such as a lack of disk space or an incorrect
            Start in directory, then this will not be readily apparent, because no error messages
            will appear.
526   Part 4   Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation


                However, you need to include error information in the SMS status messages generated
                as a result of the operation. If you encounter problems in your testing and the status
                messages are insufficient, remove the /batch switch to allow errors to be displayed
                during package testing. Also, if the user clicks on the Cancel button during the first
                phase of the Windows 2000 Setup, the user will not be asked to confirm that they
                want to stop the Setup.
                By default, the Start in directory for the package is specified as i386. This is
                appropriate if the source for the package includes an i386 directory, mirroring the
                Windows 2000 CD-ROM. However, if the source for the package only includes the
                files in and below the i386 directory on the CD-ROM, it is not necessary to specify a
                Start in directory.
                The estimated disk space and run time values included in the SMS 2.0 package are
                estimates that might not be realistic for your environment. You might want to increase
                them. These values are informational only and for the benefit of the user.
                Notice on the Environment tab that the program is run with administrative rights
                securely provided by SMS. This is an important benefit when you are upgrading
                clients that run Microsoft Windows NT Workstation to Windows 2000 Professional.
                This feature means that you do not have to give administrative privileges to end users.
                It can also be important when servers are owned by business units and when central
                administrators have rights on the servers only through SMS.
                If you include an answer file in the command line of the package program, it allows
                you to specify many of the options for your upgrade. For example, you can specify
                which disk Windows 2000 is to be installed on, or whether an upgrade or new
                installation needs to be done.

Preparing the Windows 2000 Professional Upgrade
Package
                To upgrade user computers to run Windows 2000 Professional by using SMS, you
                must first create a Windows 2000 Professional package. You prepare and use this
                package in much the same way as the Windows 2000 Server package. Begin by
                following the procedure to create a Windows 2000 Server package, but be sure to
                specify that this is a Windows 2000 Professional package. Because there are special
                issues for Windows 95 and Windows 98 upgrades to Windows 2000, you must create
                a new program as outlined in the following section.
                Note Make sure to also create a separate package when you use SMS to distribute
                        Windows 2000 Advanced Server. Although many files and setup details in this
                program are the same as those in Windows 2000 Server, there are enough differences
                to require each version to have its own package. You can use the basic Windows 2000
                Server package definition as a starting point when creating packages to distribute
                other Windows 2000 Server versions.
Chapter 14   Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000                        527


      Windows 95 and Windows 98 Upgrades
      In addition to the differences in the source files, a significant difference between the
      Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 Professional upgrades is in the answer file
      when upgrading Windows 95 or Windows 98 clients to Windows 2000 Professional.
      Computers running Windows 95 or Windows 98 have not been members of a domain
      (even if the users using them have been logging onto a domain), and have not had
      local accounts (although they have had local profiles and password list files).
      Therefore, relevant details must be specified in the answer file, such as the following
      (you must change the JoinDomain, DomainAdmin, and DomainAdminPassword
      values):
      [Unattended]
      FileSystem = LeaveAlone
      UnattendMode=FullUnattended
      Win9xUpgrade=Yes
      [Networking]
      InstallDefaultComponents = Yes
      [GUIUnattended]
      AdminPassword=Testing123
      [Identification]
      JoinDomain = RED1
      DomainAdmin = AddComputers
      DomainAdminPassword = Restricted

      A computer that is upgraded from Windows 95 or Windows 98 to Windows 2000 is
      given a local Administrator account. This account requires a password; you can
      specify that password in the GUIUnattended section of the answer file or let the user
      be prompted for it at the end of the upgrade. This password can be read from the
      answer file by anyone that can access the SMS package share, which is commonly
      most users. This is not an immediate security risk because the Windows 95 and
      Windows 98 computers were not secure before the upgrade, due to the nonsecure
      nature of those operating systems.
      You might want to set the administrator password to a secure value and begin
      enforcing limited administrative privileges. You can do this after the upgrade by
      running a program that sets the password to a value shared only with authorized staff.
      The password is compiled within the program and is not available to unauthorized
      staff. You can easily create such programs by using common programming languages
      or scripting tools, such as SMS Installer. The program can be distributed with SMS, or
      it can be invoked at the end of the Windows 2000 upgrade by specifying appropriate
      values in the answer file.
528   Part 4   Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation


                Although computers that run Windows 95 and Windows 98 are not members of
                domains, computers that run Windows 2000 must be. Therefore, you need to include
                the JoinDomain line in the answer file to indicate which domain the computer needs
                to join, along with an administrative account and password with the right to join
                computers to that domain.

                Caution Answer files can be read by unauthorized staff so you need to consider
                           security issues when you create them. However, it is unlikely that people
                would access the files from an SMS distribution point because the distribution points
                are hidden and they must know where to look for these details. An appropriate
                precaution, however, is to use an administrative account whose only right is Add
                workstations to domain. Another precaution is to add the computers upgraded in this
                manner to a dedicated resource domain. In that case the administrative account only
                needs to have rights in that domain, and therefore cannot cause problems in other
                domains in which you might have account domain controllers or other sensitive
                computers.

                The answer file must also specify that you want to upgrade the computers that are
                running Windows 95 or Windows 98. Do this by including the following line in the
                answer file:
                Win9xUpgrade=Yes

                Without this line, you do a clean install of Windows 2000 rather than an upgrade.
                During the Windows 95 or Windows 98 upgrade to Windows 2000, the
                Windows 2000 Setup program eliminates programs that it suspects might be
                incompatible with Windows 2000. This occurs for some of the SMS 2.0 client
                components. Windows 2000 provides a facility, called migration DLLs, to ease the
                migration of such programs. For more information about migration DLLs, see the
                Microsoft Systems Management Server link on the Web Resources page at
                http://windows.microsoft.com/windows2000/reskit/webresources.
                Windows NT Workstation Upgrade
                Upgrading from Windows NT Workstation to Windows 2000 is quite simple
                compared to upgrading from Windows 95 or Windows 98. This is because
                Windows NT Workstation has much more in common with Windows 2000
                Professional. For this reason, you can upgrade the Windows NT Workstation without
                using an answer file, or you can upgrade using a minimal answer file.
                It is important to set the Environment properties of the SMS program so that it runs
                with administrative rights, unless users will be logged on and have administrative
                rights when the package is initiated at client computers.
      Chapter 14   Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000                        529


            Distributing the Windows 2000 Packages
            You need to distribute the SMS package files for Windows 2000 to all sites where you
            anticipate upgrading computers. Distribution is involved even if you have just one
            site. Distribution consists of sending the package files to the site, and then getting the
            files to the SMS distribution points within the site.

Preparing to Distribute the Packages
            Before you distribute the Windows 2000 packages, there are several tasks you must
            perform to ensure that your SMS hierarchy is ready to receive them.
            Check the Status of Site Servers and
            Distribution Points
            Windows 2000 is a large operating system requiring considerable disk space. Not only
            are copies of Windows 2000 required for computers to be upgraded, but SMS also
            needs copies as it moves the package between servers. Therefore, you must review
            your site servers and distribution points to ensure that they have enough disk space.
            The easiest way to do this is to go to System Status in the SMS Administrator
            console, select Site Status, and then for each site, click Site System Status as shown
            in Figure 14.4. The results pane displays the distribution points and their free disk
            space.




            Figure 14.4   Site Status with Distribution Points and Their Free Space
530   Part 4   Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation


                Ensure Each Site Has an Adequate Number of
                Distribution Points
                You might want to limit the number of Windows 2000 upgrades that you perform
                concurrently at each site. Upgrades can impose a heavy load on the local network and
                the distribution points. Before you upgrade, you need to experiment in a lab or run a
                pilot. When you test, use servers that are typical of your distribution points and a
                typical network. This will allow you to judge how many clients you can comfortably
                upgrade at one time.
                If you find that your network is not a bottleneck for the upgrades but that your
                distribution points are, consider adding more distribution points at the site. For more
                information about how to add distribution points, see “Distributing Software” in the
                Systems Management Server Administrator’s Guide.
                Use Distribution Point Groups
                Because the Windows 2000 package is quite large and you will use it extensively,
                make certain that you dedicate distribution points for this package. You can refer to
                these distribution points as a group. You can create a distribution point group for your
                Windows 2000 distribution points to reduce the number of administrative tasks.
                You can create distribution point groups (and add or remove distribution points from
                the groups), when you are creating or adjusting distribution points. Then, during
                distribution, you can specify the distribution point groups at the same places that you
                specify distribution points.
                Ensure Sender Controls Are in Place
                If the Windows 2000 package is sent to any site that does not have adequate sender
                controls in place, it can overload the network link at a time when it interferes with
                other business functions. Therefore, check the sender controls to be sure they are
                properly set.
                The SMS Administrator console includes SMS address definitions for each site. SMS
                addresses include the SMS site server name, security details for accessing that site,
                and network transport details (if required). The addresses also include a schedule to
                specify when high, medium, and low priority transfers can be executed, and how
                much of the network link can be used at any time of the day.
Chapter 14   Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000                          531


      Ensure Fan-out Distribution Will Work
      Systems Management Server 2.0 has a feature called fan-out distribution that allows
      child sites to distribute software to lower sites. This reduces the workload on the site
      that you use to initiate the software distribution because the software does not then
      have to be distributed from the initiating site to all sites. This also reduces the
      workload on the network link between the initiating site and the rest of the sites,
      which is often the most significant issue. When you are distributing to many sites,
      copying Windows 2000 over the network many times from any site can cause an
      unacceptably heavy load. Figure 14.5 illustrates the difference between software
      distribution with fan-out and without fan-out distribution.

                    Central Site                                Central Site




             Site ABC         Site DEF                   Site ABC         Site DEF




        Site MNO        Site PQR    Site STU       Site MNO         Site PQR    Site STU


                    With Fan-out                              Without Fan-out

      Figure 14.5   Two Types of Software Distribution

      Fan-out distribution occurs automatically if the initiating site does not have an SMS
      address for the destination site. Therefore, you must use the SMS Administrator
      console to review the SMS addresses and ensure that the only SMS server with an
      address to a site is its parent.
      Select a Test Site
      To ensure that your plan is complete, distribute the Windows 2000 package to a test
      site or a small number of sites before sending it to your entire organization. This will
      enable you to quickly correct problems and to minimize their impact.
      The test site or sites should be as typical as possible, but at least one site should also
      represent a high-risk scenario. Examples of such a scenario include deploying with a
      site server or distribution points that have very little disk space to spare, or having a
      network link that is particularly slow or unreliable.
532   Part 4   Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation


                A best practice for this level of testing is to start with small sites that do not have
                complex requirements. An ideal test site has technical support specialists who are
                readily available and users who are sympathetic to your goals. At such sites, you can
                identify solutions for any problems that you might not have built into your
                contingency plans during deployment planning. As your confidence in your
                procedures increases, expand your testing to sites that are larger, more complex, or
                more difficult to support.
                During the distribution phase, your Windows 2000 deployment needs to be
                transparent to your users because you have not yet run the upgrades on their
                computers. Caution is appropriate now but is more critical later in the deployment
                process.
                For more information about the tasks presented in this section, see the Systems
                Management Server Administrator’s Guide.

Distributing the Packages to Sites and Distribution
Points
                The basic procedure for distributing packages is presented as follows. When you
                perform this task, note that all distribution points for all sites are listed, so you can
                select all the intended distribution points at one time. However, make sure that you
                first distribute the package to a small number of sites so that you can test your SMS
                infrastructure and procedures. As your confidence increases and capacity allows, you
                can include additional distribution points at other sites. For more information about
                this procedure, see “Distributing Software” in the Systems Management Server
                Administrator’s Guide.
               To distribute a Windows 2000 Server SMS Package
                1. In the SMS Administrator console, select Packages, select the Windows 2000
                   package, and then select Distribution Points.
                2. From the Action menu, point to New, and then click Distribution Points.
                   The New Distribution Points wizard appears.
                3. Click Next to continue past the Welcome page, and select the distribution
                   points you want to use.
                   If this is a test distribution, select the distribution points that you decided on.
                   Also, if you are using distribution point groups, select them now. Note that all
                   distribution points for all sites are listed, so you can select all the intended
                   distribution points now. However, you might do a limited number of
                   distribution points at one time to better manage network traffic.
                4. Click Finish to start the distribution.
Chapter 14   Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000                        533


      Caution As soon as you click Finish in step 4, the distribution process begins. You
                 might notice a short delay, due to system processing, package priorities, or
      sender schedules; however, be prepared for immediate SMS activity.

      For more information about the flow of a package after you initiate distribution, see
      “Software Distribution Flowcharts” in the Microsoft® Systems Management Server
      2.0 Resource Guide (part of the Microsoft® BackOffice® 4.5 Resource Kit). The
      Windows 2000 files are compressed into a single file which is then sent to child sites.
      At each site, the package might then be sent to other child sites, if they have
      distribution points for this package.
      Testing the Distribution
      As the Windows 2000 packages are distributed, verify that they are properly
      deploying to the distribution points. The section “Monitoring the Distribution,” which
      follows later in this chapter, describes how you can verify that the packages have
      arrived at all distribution points and how you can quickly identify any problems.
      However, you also need to test the distributions to ensure that they are complete and
      that the directory trees are properly laid out. You do not need to test all distribution
      points at this level, but make sure to spot-check a few distribution points to confirm
      that the production distribution is working as you intended.
      Expanding the Distribution
      When the first distribution of the package has been completed successfully, you can
      distribute the package to additional sites and distribution points. The procedure is
      exactly the same, except that you might want to send to more distribution points at a
      greater frequency and with less monitoring. You must be sure to distribute the
      package to sites before advertising the package to clients at those sites. SMS does not
      make the advertisement available to the clients until a distribution point is available.
      Distributing by Means of the Courier Sender
      Network links to some of your sites might be slow or unreliable, or they might already
      be fully utilized by other traffic. Therefore, sending a large package like
      Windows 2000 over the network links might not be acceptable. SMS 2.0 includes an
      alternate sender, called the Courier Sender, that can be used to provide all the benefits
      of SMS software distribution but without the network overhead normally involved in
      getting packages to sites.
534   Part 4   Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation


                With the Courier Sender, the SMS package is copied to CD-ROM or similar media
                and then sent through mail or by courier to your sites. At the sites, someone puts the
                CD-ROM into the site server and runs a simple program. From this point on, the
                software distribution carries on as it normally would. The advertisements, status
                information, and other information will flow over the network at the times you
                specify; however, this traffic is small relative to the traffic that the package itself
                would require.

Monitoring the Distribution
                Distributing Windows 2000 in an organization with many sites takes some time to
                complete. Some sites will take longer than others due to the speed of the wide area
                network (WAN) links, the reliability of those links, sender scheduling, and so forth.
                There is also the possibility that, despite good preparations, some sites or distribution
                points might have inadequate disk space by the time the package arrives. For these
                reasons, it is important to give the Windows 2000 distribution adequate time to
                complete. Monitor it closely to determine if there are any issues to resolve and make
                sure that the distribution is complete at all sites.
                System Status Subsystem
                SMS 2.0 includes a powerful System Status subsystem for monitoring the distribution.
                The SMS Administrator console includes a System Status node where you can obtain
                summary and detailed results from the System Status subsystem. You can also obtain
                the status of the package distribution from the Package Status subnode.
                Note When you create a package, the definition of that package is immediately
                        distributed to all child sites; however, the actual files for that package, if any,
                are not distributed at that time. The same package definition is re-sent when the
                package definition is updated. Status information for the package definition
                distribution is then available. Therefore, when reviewing package status, make certain
                you distinguish between the distribution of the package definition and the package
                files.

                Software distribution status is summarized at several levels, as follows.
                Package Status for All Packages
                When you select Package Status under the System Status, you can see, as shown in
                Figure 14.6, how many distribution points have been targeted for each package and
                how many have been installed, are retrying, or have failed. This level is useful to
                identify how many distribution points, if any, might need intervention. Note the size
                difference between the original package and the compressed package. The package
                identification number might also be useful for other purposes, such as
                troubleshooting.
Chapter 14   Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000                      535




      Figure 14.6   The Status of All Packages
      At this level there are no status messages to query.
      Package Status for a Specific Package
      Below the package status for all packages, you can select each package. At this level
      you can see, as shown in Figure 14.7, which sites should or should not have the
      package, and which ones might need intervention. You can also verify that all sites
      have the same package version, as indicated by the Source Version column.




      Figure 14.7   The Status of the Windows 2000 Package at All Sites
      At this level you can select the Action menu and select Show Messages, All to see all
      the status messages for the package from all sites and distribution points. This can be
      a lot of messages; and therefore, it is better to review the messages at each site
      individually.
      Package Status at the Sites
      Below the package status for a specific package you can select each site. This level of
      status checking allows you to see, as shown in Figure 14.8, which specific distribution
      points within a site might be having problems with the distribution.




      Figure 14.8   The Status of the Windows 2000 Package at a Specific Site
536   Part 4   Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation


                At this level, you can select the Action menu and select Show Messages, All to see all
                the status messages for the package from this site and all its distribution points. The
                following sequence of messages is typical (the distribution point-specific messages are
                listed in the next section):
                 30000 or 300001 — package created or modified
                 30003 — program created
                 2300, 2310, and 2311 — distribution manager preparing package
                 2339 — distribution manager initiating schedule and sender to send the
                  package information (not the package files)
                 30009 — distribution point assigned
                 2333 — preparing to send compressed image of package
                 2335 — distribution manager initiated scheduler and sender to send the
                  package files to the sites
                 2315 — distribution manager deleted the compressed image of the package

                When reviewing status messages, notice that each sequence of Distribution Manager
                activities ends with the message 2301, which indicates that the sequence was
                successful. This message appears whenever Distribution Manager completes any
                activities. Distribution Manager is the SMS component that distributes packages from
                the site server to the SMS distribution points and that initiates the sending of the
                package to other sites.
                Package Status at a Distribution Point
                At the package status at each site, you can select each distribution point. At this level,
                you can select the Action menu and select Show Messages, All to see all the status
                messages for the package at this distribution point. The following sequence of
                messages is typical:
                 2317 — distribution manager is refreshing package on distribution point (not
                    seen the first time the package is sent to the distribution point)
                 2342 — distribution manager is starting to distribute package to distribution
                  point
                 2322 — distribution manager decompressed package to temporary directory (if
                  applicable)
      Chapter 14    Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000                       537


             2329 — distribution manager copied package from temporary directory or
              package source to distribution point
             2330 — distribution manager successfully distributed package to distribution
              point

            Note The Systems Management Server Resource Guide includes a chapter, “Status
                 Messages,” that lists all status messages and their complete message text.


            Reporting Package Distribution Status
            You might want to produce a report of the package distribution status, either for easy
            reference or to address your own specific requirements. You can perform queries of
            the package distribution status classes and incorporate the responses in the reporting
            tool of your choice as is done with other SMS reporting tools. Table 14.1 lists the
            relevant classes and the category of status information that you can find in each.
            Table 14.1   Package Distribution Status Classes
            Class                     Status Information
            SMS_PackageStatus         Overall summary information about the status of packages on
                                      the distribution points.
            SMS_PackageStatus         Information about the status of a given package. Maps to
            RootSummarizer            Package Status in the SMS Administrator console.
            SMS_PackageStatus         Detailed information about the status of a given package by
            DetailsSummarizer         site code. Maps to the package console tree beneath Package
                                      Status in the SMS Administrator console.
            SMS_PackageStatus         Detailed information about the status of a given package at a
            DistPointsSummarizer      given site. Maps to the site code under the package console tree
                                      beneath Package Status in the SMS Administrator console.



Troubleshooting the Distributions
            Monitoring the software distributions can indicate whether a software distribution has
            encountered problems at some point. Typically, this is due to lack of disk space,
            network link difficulties, or server problems. The status message text indicates such
            problems.
538   Part 4   Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation


                Isolating the problem is the first step in solving any technical problem. When you
                know which component failed, you can concentrate your efforts on the appropriate
                issues. Using the monitoring techniques described earlier will help you to isolate the
                problem. Also, the chapter on “Software Distribution Flowcharts” in the Systems
                Management Server Resource Guide includes graphics that show the typical flow of
                the software distribution process. If you find indications that your software
                distribution did not make it to a certain point in the flow, there is a good chance that
                the failure occurred at the previous point in the flowchart.
                After you have isolated the particular component, understanding how it works can
                provide clues why it failed. The flowcharts also help with this. In addition, the log
                files can show what is happening with the component at a very low level; and
                therefore, what might not be working. The logs are enabled using the SMS Service
                Manager.
                The chapter “Software Distribution Flowcharts” in the Systems Management Server
                2.0 Resource Guide also includes troubleshooting tips for software distribution.

                Advertising the Windows 2000 Packages
                Users can upgrade to Windows 2000 when they receive an advertisement. The
                advertisements give descriptive information about the package to end users, and they
                include the details necessary for SMS to run the programs. The advertisements can
                even be assigned to run at specific times so that the user cannot block the upgrade or
                so that the upgrade can occur while the user is away from the computer.

Selecting Computers to Upgrade
                An advertisement tells SMS to make available to an SMS collection a specific
                program within a package. A collection is a very flexible definition of computers,
                users, or user groups. In the case of a Windows 2000 software distribution, you would
                initially use collections that are a small number of computers used for testing
                purposes. Later, you would use collections that are all computers that are ready for
                Windows 2000. You might subdivide the collection by site or organizational unit.
Chapter 14   Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000                     539


      Collections have the additional benefit of being dynamic; as time goes on, you can
      add computers to a collection, and the advertisements that are available to that
      collection automatically become available to those additional computers. If the
      collection is based on the memory capacity of computers, for example, computers are
      added to the collection as their hardware is upgraded for Windows 2000. If you install
      additional memory in a computer, the SMS hardware inventory detects this and
      records it within SMS. This computer is automatically included in the collection;
      therefore, the Windows 2000 upgrade is made available to the computer. Other than
      physically adding the memory to the computer, this is all automatic.
      For more information about determining which computers in your organization are
      ready to upgrade, see “Using Systems Management Server to Analyze Your Network
      Infrastructure” in this book. This includes defining queries to select the computers
      from the inventory that SMS maintains. You can use these queries to create
      collections, as described in the following procedure. SMS also provides a sample
      report, “Windows 2000 Upgrade Candidates by Site and Roles,” which might help
      with this process.
     To create a collection of computers ready for Windows 2000
      1. In the SMS Administrator console, select Collections.
      2. From the Action menu, point to New, and then click Collection.
      3. In the Collection Properties dialog box, enter a name for the collection.
      4. On the Membership Rules tab, click the New Query Rule button.
      5. In the Query Rule Properties box, click the Browse button and select the
         appropriate query.
         For example, use a query that you have made to report on the computers that
         are available to be upgraded to Windows 2000. (For help developing such a
         query, see the chapter “Using Systems Management Server to Analyze Your
         Network Infrastructure”). You might have other queries that you prefer to use,
         such as All Windows 95 Systems or queries that you have defined to include
         all computers at specific sites.
      6. Add query rules and direct membership rules as necessary.

      Alternatively, at step 4 you might prefer to click the New Direct Rule button and then
      use the Create Direct Membership Rule wizard to specify the computers that you want
      to upgrade. This choice might be your best option during testing, especially if you
      have a small number of arbitrarily chosen computers that you want to run the package
      on.
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                An issue to consider is that SMS 2.0 allows collections to include computers, users, or
                user groups. Including users or user groups in Windows 2000 might not be
                appropriate, because users can often log on to different computers. Therefore, each
                computer that a user logs on to could be upgraded, especially if the advertisement is
                assigned and runs whether or not the user chooses it. However, the computers that
                they log on to might not be ready for the upgrade, or the users that usually use the
                computer might not be trained to use Windows 2000.

                Caution For more information about using security to control who can adjust or use
                          the advertisement, see “Distributing Software” in the Systems Management
                Server Administrator’s Guide.



Preparing Clients to Receive the Advertisements
                The computers that you are going to advertise to need to be ready for the
                advertisement. During the Windows 2000 upgrade, the computer needs to restart
                several times. If this can occur automatically, the entire upgrade can be accomplished
                without input from users.
                Some users put a boot password on their computer. This password is required by the
                computer itself; and therefore, cannot be circumvented by software. Until this
                password is entered, the computer will not restart, and the Windows 2000 upgrade
                cannot continue. Therefore, make sure to advise users to temporarily disable their boot
                passwords. If this is not possible, someone must be present during the upgrade. The
                same issue holds true if the computer stops for confirmation during restart because of
                hardware configuration changes or other issues.
                Give users advance notice of the upgrade so that they can be sure to close all
                documents. If users know that the upgrade is imminent, they will also be more
                inclined to get any training they require, perform backups, and prepare any programs
                they are responsible for.
                If you are advertising the package with an assignment to run overnight or over a
                weekend, any Windows 95 or Windows 98 client computers need a user logged on in
                order for the advertisement to start automatically. These users might want to use a
                secure screen saver to prevent others from using their computer while they are away.
                Windows NT client computers do not have to have a user logged on for the
                advertisements to start.

Advertising the Packages to Computers
                You now have a Windows 2000 package ready to distribute, you have the right
                computers selected, and you have the computers ready for the upgrade. The next step
                is to initiate the process. Do this by creating an advertisement as shown in the
                following procedure.
      Chapter 14   Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000                        541


           To create an advertisement for Windows 2000
            1. In the SMS Administrator console, select Advertisements.
            2. From the Action menu, point to New, and then click Advertisement.
            3. From the Package list, select Microsoft Windows 2000 Server English.
            4. From the Program list, select Automated upgrade from NTS 3.51/4.0 (x86).
            5. Click Browse, and then select the collection that you are advertising the
               program to.
            6. To set the advertisement to run at a specific time, click the Schedule tab. To
               add assignment schedules, click the New button.

            Caution Assigned advertisements run only once for each client they are advertised
                         to. If the advertisement fails at the client computer, the client does not
            attempt to automatically run it again. This ensures that computers are not caught in an
            infinite loop of trying to run an assigned advertisement, failing, restarting, and then
            trying again. Therefore, in step 6, you might also want to select Allow users to run
            the program independently of assignments. This allows users to run the program
            ahead of schedule or to run it afterwards if the program fails the first time.
            Alternatively, you can create a new advertisement at a later time for the computers
            that failed to upgrade.

            As with the previous phases of Windows 2000 software distribution, start the
            advertising on a limited scale and expand as it proves successful. This is especially
            true now, because end users will definitely be affected by the software distribution.
            You can expand the advertising by creating additional advertisements, each aimed at
            different collections, or by adjusting the collection that the advertisement is based on
            so that it includes more and more computers. Separate advertisements might be
            necessary to advertise different programs to appropriate collections. For example, the
            Windows 95 upgrade program should be advertised only to the computers in the
            Windows 95 collection.

Expanding Security on Distribution Points
            If you restricted access to the package on the distribution points when you created the
            package, you must now open that access. Do this by using the following procedure. If
            you are using SMS to run the program using administrative privileges, add the client
            network connection accounts used in the SMS site as your package access accounts.
542   Part 4   Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation


               To open security for the Windows 2000 package
                1. In the SMS Administrator console, select Packages.
                2. Select the Windows 2000 package and then Access Accounts.
                3. From the Action menu, point to New, and then click Windows NT Access
                   Account.
                4. In the Access Account Properties dialog box, click Set.
                5. In the Windows NT Account dialog box, enter the domain and user or group,
                   and specify the Account Type. Click OK to close the dialog box.
                6. In the Access Account Properties dialog box, verify that the Permissions are
                   Read.

                Repeat this procedure as necessary to add additional users or groups.

Upgrading Computers
                When you have Windows 2000 on a distribution point in the same site as the
                computers to be upgraded, and the advertisement is available at the computers, you
                can do the following:
                 Schedule the upgrade for a time that is convenient for the user.
                 Report the status of the upgrade.

                Executing the Advertisement at Each Computer
                Distribution to all users can be done by means of SMS at a time that you believe is
                convenient. However, you can give users the option to adjust the date and time, as
                shown in Figure 14.9, to coincide with a time when they are not using their
                computers. You can also make the upgrade mandatory at a certain date and time so
                that users cannot postpone the upgrade indefinitely.
Chapter 14   Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000                       543




      Figure 14.9   Users Can Schedule the Upgrade for a Convenient Time

      The distribution that you initiate to users will also include appropriate command-line
      parameters to indicate which auto-answer file to use and other options, so that the
      setup will be done according to the standards that you have determined.
      Many organizations do not give their end users full privileges on client computers.
      This helps to minimize problems that are caused by users making uninformed or
      unintentional computer changes. However, this lack of privileges would normally stop
      users from initiating a Windows 2000 upgrade for their computers. SMS avoids this
      problem by doing the Windows 2000 upgrade in the context of a special SMS security
      account.
      Status of the Upgrade at Each Computer
      When the first and final phases of the Windows 2000 upgrade are completed at the
      computer, Systems Management Server produces status files that are propagated up
      the SMS hierarchy. This information can be used to report on the overall progress of
      the upgrade project or to investigate the status of an individual computer, as discussed
      in the next section.
      Customized status files can be produced to indicate specific details relating to the
      status of the upgrade, if desired. The programs that create these status files are
      invoked as part of the package execution; and therefore, must be included in its
      definition. For example, you might want to include such status files if you have the
      Windows 2000 Setup program initiate post-upgrade tasks.
544   Part 4   Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation


Monitoring the Advertisements
                The SMS status message that reports the progress of the upgrade at each computer can
                also be used to report the progress of the Windows 2000 deployment as a whole. The
                number of computers ready to be upgraded, those successfully upgraded, and the
                locations of failures can all be reported. You can then intervene where any problems
                have occurred.
                The System Status Subsystem
                SMS 2.0 includes a powerful System Status subsystem that allows you to readily
                monitor the distribution. The SMS Administrator console includes a System Status
                node where you can obtain summary and detailed results from the System Status
                subsystem. There is an Advertisement Status subnode that allows you to obtain the
                status of the advertisements.
                Status for All Advertisements
                When you select Advertisement Status under System Status in the SMS
                Administrator console, you can view the following:
                 How many systems have received the advertisement
                 How many systems have experienced general failures processing the
                  advertisement
                 How many times the advertised program has been started
                 How many times the program has run to completion or failed
                 Various advertisement details

                An example of this information is shown in Figure 14.10. At this level there are no
                status messages to be queried.




                Figure 14.10   The Status of All Advertisements
Chapter 14   Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000                        545


      Status for a Specific Advertisement
      Below the advertisement status for all advertisements you can select each
      advertisement. At this level, you can view the following:
       Which sites have clients that have received the advertisement
       Which sites contain clients that experienced a general failure processing the
        advertisement
       How many times the advertised program has run at each site
       How many times it ran to completion or failed

      Figure 14.11 shows this type of status. At this level, there are no status messages to be
      queried.




      Figure 14.11   The Status of the Windows 2000 Advertisement

      Status at a Site
      At the advertisement status level, you can select each site. From the Action menu,
      point to Show Messages, and then click All to see the status messages for the
      advertisement at this site. The following sequence of messages is typical:
       30006 — advertisement created
       3900 — advertisement processed within a site (distributed to client access
        points, and so forth)
       10002 — advertisement received at a client
       10005 — program started
       10007 — program failed
         The message indicates why this has occurred. Common reasons are that the
         user cancelled the program or otherwise forced it to stop, or the client
         computer did not have enough disk space.
       10009 — program completed successfully
         At this point the SMS part of the upgrade is done. This corresponds with the
         end of the first phase of the Windows 2000 Setup (the file upgrade phase).
546   Part 4   Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation


                 13126 — upgrade completed (will be reported as 10009 if SMS 2.0 SP2 or later
                  is in place)
                   At this point the Windows 2000 Setup is complete. The last two phases (text
                   mode and GUI setup) have ended, and the computer is ready for the user to log
                   on.

                Reporting Advertisement Status
                You might want to produce a report of the advertisement status, either for easy
                reference or to address your own specific requirements. You can perform queries of
                the SMS advertisement status subsystem and incorporate the responses in the
                reporting tool of your choice, as is done with other SMS reporting functions.
                Table 14.2 lists the relevant class and the category of status information that can be
                found in the class.
                Table 14.2   Advertisement Status Class
                Class                                     Status Information
                SMS_AdvertisementStatusSummarizer         Displays detailed advertisement status
                                                          information grouped by site code. Maps to the
                                                          advertisement items beneath Advertisement
                                                          Status in the SMS Administrator console.


                For more information about writing reports based on the data SMS collects, see the
                Microsoft Systems Management Server Technical Details link on the Web Resources
                page at http://windows.microsoft.com/windows2000/reskit/webresources.
                For the Windows 2000 advertisement status reporting, you will want reports such as
                the following:
                Computers that Have Been Advertised to but Have Not Received the
                Advertisement
                This report is a comparison of computers that are currently in the relevant collection
                but do not have a 10002 status message. If the program was advertised before the
                report, this report will indicate the computers that have not been used lately or that are
                not properly connected to the network or the SMS infrastructure.
                Computers that Have Received the Advertisement but Have Not
                Started the Program
                This report is a comparison of computers that have a 10002 status message but do not
                have a 10005 status message. If the program was assigned to run before the report,
                this report will indicate the computers that have not been used since the advertisement
                was first advertised or that have become disconnected from the network or the SMS
                infrastructure. If the program was not assigned, this report will also include computers
                where the users have chosen not to upgrade yet.
Chapter 14   Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000                      547


      Computers Where the Program Started but Did Not Complete
      Successfully
      This report is a comparison of computers that have 10005 status messages but not
      10009 status messages. These are likely to be computers where the user has cancelled
      the upgrade or the computers did not have enough disk space. Parsing the 10007
      message description gives more details. If either problem is common, then a report of
      those specific computers might be appropriate.
      There is a remote possibility that some computers will fail in such a way that neither
      10007 or 10009 status messages will be received. To take that possibility into account,
      you can have a report of computers with 10005 messages but not 10008 or 10009
      messages. For users who have canceled the upgrade, an e-mail reminding them of the
      importance of the upgrade might be sufficient to resolve the problem. Or, the program
      can be assigned so that it must happen at a specific time. For other problems, manual
      intervention might be required (using the SMS remote tools might be sufficient).
      Computers Where the Program Completed Successfully but the Final
      Upgrade Has Not Been Received
      This report is a comparison of computers that have 10009 status messages but not
      13126 status messages. These are likely to be computers where the upgrade started but
      then stopped for some reason. If you run the report during a period of mass upgrades,
      such as over a weekend, this report can help you identify problems that you can
      manually correct before the user is aware of them. However, it usually takes an hour
      or more for the upgrade to progress from the time at which the 10009 message is
      generated to the point at which the 13126 message is generated.
      Note SMS 2.0 SP2 includes a fix to the package status reporting system so that the
             13126 message is replaced with a 10009 message, which is the correct
      behavior. The messages are also generated more reliably, and the 10009 message has
      a meaningful message text, whereas the 13126 message has no text. Therefore, it is
      recommended that you deploy SMS 2.0 SP2 before deploying Windows 2000 with
      SMS. After SP2 has been deployed, the report logic will have to distinguish between
      the two 10009 messages using the message text.

      Computers Upgraded Per Day
      This report is a count of 13126 status messages spread over time. This can be useful
      for monitoring the status of the project overall.
548   Part 4   Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation


Troubleshooting Advertisements
                The advertisement monitoring process helps you to isolate problems, hopefully before
                the users report problems. Typical problems include lack of disk space, user
                interference, or package definition errors. The text of the status messages will indicate
                such problems. Also make sure to verify that the package is available on at least one
                distribution point at the site.
                Isolating the problem is the first step in solving any technical problem. If you know
                which component failed, you can concentrate your efforts on the appropriate issues.
                Using the monitoring techniques listed previously will help you to isolate the problem.
                The chapter “Software Distribution Flowcharts” in the Systems Management Server
                Resource Guide includes graphics that show the typical flow of the software
                distribution process on the server side. Also in the Systems Management Server
                Resource Guide, the chapter “Client Features Flowcharts” includes graphics that show
                the flow on the client side. If you find indications that your software distribution did
                not make it to a certain point in the flow, then there is a good chance that the failure
                occurred at the previous point in the flowchart.
                After you have isolated the component, understanding how it works can provide clues
                why it failed. The flowcharts also help with this. In addition, the log files can show
                what is happening with the component at a very low level, which can help you see
                what might not be working. You enable server logs using the SMS Service Manager,
                and client logs are always enabled.
                SMS has several features that can help you resolve problems on client computers,
                including the following:
                 Remotely control the client computer.
                 Transfer files to the computer to replace files that need updating.
                 Restart the computer.
                 Obtain computer details, either based on the routine inventory or on real-time
                  remote control tools. (Note that the routine inventory is available even when
                  the client is offline.)
                 Upgrade incompatible application software.

                There will be situations where manual intervention is needed, such as when an
                upgrade makes it impossible to restart the computer or to connect a computer to the
                network, or when the SMS client components become inoperative.
Chapter 14   Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000                     549


      Using Systems Management Server to Ease Domain
      Consolidation and Migration
      In the past, larger organizations have often had multiple domains. With
      Windows 2000, the reasons for those domains will most likely disappear, and
      therefore, consolidating them will simplify computer administration. Migrating to
      native Windows 2000 domains allows your organization to take full advantage of
      Windows 2000 features.
      The chapter “Determining Domain Migration Strategies” in this book discusses the
      issues of domain consolidation and migration in detail. It also details strategies and
      techniques that will ease the process of consolidation and migration. SMS can help
      with this process, and thus Windows 2000 deployment with SMS should be
      considered in conjunction with domain consolidation and migration. For example, you
      can use SMS to deliver scripted executions of the DCPromo portion of the upgrade
      process for domain controllers.
      The most significant benefit of using SMS for domain consolidation and migration
      occurs during deployment of the upgrade to Windows 2000. By adjusting the
      JoinDomain value in the answer file, the computers can be put in the new,
      consolidated domain.
550   Part 4   Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation


                Examining Differences Between Systems
                Management Server 1.2 and Systems Management
                Server 2.0
                Systems Management Server 2.0 is dramatically different from its predecessor,
                Systems Management Server 1.2. Both versions have similar feature sets, but each
                version accomplishes the features using dramatically different techniques. If you are
                planning to use SMS 1.2 to deploy Windows 2000, or for domain consolidation, you
                need to be aware that software distribution in SMS 1.2 differs from SMS 2.0 in the
                following ways:
                 Only computers can be targeted for software distribution, and the targeting is
                    not dynamic (new computers that meet the requirements for upgrade must be
                    targeted with new jobs).
                 Windows NT–based computers, where the logged-on user does not have
                  administrative privileges, must be given the Package Command Manager as a
                  Service facility. There is no charge for this addition to SMS 1.2, but you need
                  to deploy this facility before you begin the Windows 2000 deployment.
                 The status subsystem for jobs is more awkward to work with.
                 The originating site for the package must keep a compressed copy of the
                  package.
                 Programs cannot force another program to run before them and cannot be
                  disabled centrally.
                 Windows 2000 computers might not be supported by SMS 1.2 as clients.
                  Therefore as computers are upgraded to Windows 2000, they might stop
                  functioning as SMS 1.2 clients or they might no longer be supported. For more
                  information about SMS 1.2 support of Windows 2000 computers, see the
                  Microsoft Systems Management Server link on the Web Resources page at
                  http://windows.microsoft.com/windows2000/reskit/webresources.

                Other differences between the two versions are relevant to other SMS features that
                might benefit your Windows 2000 deployment. For more information about those
                features and differences, see “Using Systems Management Server to Analyze Your
                Network Infrastructure” in this book.
Chapter 14   Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000                    551


      Planning Task List for Using Systems Management
      Server to Deploy Windows 2000
      Table 14.3 lists the primary tasks presented in this chapter for deploying
      Windows 2000 using SMS.
      Table 14.3    Task List for Deploying Windows 2000 Using SMS
      Task                                         Location in Chapter
      Learn concepts related to SMS software       Using SMS to Distribute Software and
      distribution.                                Examining Differences Between SMS 1.2
                                                   and 2.0
      Prepare the packages.                        Packaging Windows 2000 for SMS
      Distribute the packages.                     Distributing the Windows 2000 Packages
      Test the distribution.                       Distributing the Windows 2000 Packages
      Monitor the distribution.                    Distributing the Windows 2000 Packages
      Troubleshoot the distribution.               Distributing the Windows 2000 Packages
      Report on the distribution.                  Distributing the Windows 2000 Packages
      Advertise the packages.                      Advertising the Windows 2000 Packages
      Test the advertisements and packages.        Advertising the Windows 2000 Packages
      Upgrade the computers.                       Advertising the Windows 2000 Packages
      Monitor the advertisements.                  Advertising the Windows 2000 Packages
      Troubleshooting the advertisements.          Advertising the Windows 2000 Packages
      Report on the advertisements.                Advertising the Windows 2000 Packages
      Use SMS to ease domain consolidation and     Using SMS to Ease Domain Consolidation
      migration.                                   and Migration




      Additional Resources
       For more information about using Systems Management Server, see the
        Microsoft Systems Management Server Administrator’s Guide.
       For advanced information about using Systems Management Server, see the
        Microsoft Systems Management Server 2.0 Resource Guide, which is part of
        the Microsoft BackOffice 4.5 Resource Kit.
552   Part 4   Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation



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