513 C H A P T E R 1 4 Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000 Microsoft® Systems Management Server (SMS) provides a variety of tools to help you deploy Microsoft® Windows 2000 Server or Microsoft® Windows 2000 Professional in an enterprise environment. Project leaders and analysts, Windows 2000 technical analysts, and SMS administrators involved in this process should become familiar with the recommended configurations and procedures described in this chapter. Although these recommendations also work for smaller organizations, the focus is on organizations with at least 2,500 personal computers. You do not need to be familiar with Systems Management Server version 2.0 to understand the information in this chapter. However, you need someone with SMS expertise to perform your Windows 2000 deployment. It is presumed that your SMS infrastructure is in place or that you will put an SMS infrastructure in place prior to deploying Windows 2000. Important differences between SMS 2.0 and Systems Management Server version 1.2 are also presented in this chapter. In This Chapter Using Systems Management Server to Distribute Software 515 Packaging Windows 2000 for Systems Management Server 521 Distributing the Windows 2000 Packages 529 Advertising the Windows 2000 Packages 538 Using Systems Management Server to Ease Domain Consolidation and Migration 549 Examining Differences Between Systems Management Server 1.2 and Systems Management Server 2.0 550 Planning Task List for Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000 551 514 Part 4 Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation Chapter Goals This chapter will help you develop the following planning documents: Windows 2000 Software Distribution Plan Windows 2000 SMS Package Definitions Related Information in the Resource Kit For more information about automating the Windows 2000 upgrades, see “Automating Server Installation and Upgrade” and “Automating Client Installation and Upgrade” in this book. For more information about automating domain consolidation and migration, see “Determining Domain Migration Strategies” in this book. Chapter 14 Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000 515 Using Systems Management Server to Distribute Software Deploying Windows 2000 is much simpler when you use automated installation. However, there are still many tasks involved when you apply automated procedures to multiple servers and client computers throughout your organization. These tasks include: Selecting computers that are equipped for Windows 2000 and that you are ready to support. Distributing Windows 2000 source files to all sites, including remote sites and sites without technical support staff. Monitoring the distribution to all sites. Securely providing enough operating system rights to do the upgrade. Automatically initiating the installation of the software package with the possibility of allowing the user to control the timing. Resolving problems related to the distributions or installations. Reporting on the rate and success of deployment. Systems Management Server can help you with all these tasks. The primary tasks involved in deploying Windows 2000 with SMS are illustrated in Figure 14.1. Start Create a software Prepare to Select clients for distribution plan. distribute the the advertisement. package. Prepare the Distribute the Advertise the distribution package. package’s program. package. Monitor the Migrate the clients. distribution of the package. Troubleshoot the Monitor the distribution of advertisements. the package. Troubleshoot the advertisements. Figure 14.1 Deploying Windows 2000 with SMS 516 Part 4 Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation SMS provides tools for upgrading your current computers but not for the installation of new computers that do not have an operating system already installed. To use SMS software distribution, you must install SMS client components on the destination computers. These SMS components require that the computer has a properly configured operating system. Note The phrase “SMS client” refers to all destination computers regardless of their function. However, you can use your current SMS clients to initiate the installation of Windows 2000 into a new directory hierarchy or disk partition. In this situation, the Windows 2000 installation is a clean installation rather than an upgrade. Note You can also use SMS to help you with other Windows 2000 deployment activities. For more information about using SMS in your Windows 2000 deployment, see “Using Systems Management Server to Analyze Your Network Infrastructure” in this book. Software Distribution with Systems Management Server 2.0 Systems Management Server software distribution is based on multiple components and tasks which allow you to completely control the process. SMS Packages SMS software distribution starts with an SMS package. The package, the basic unit of software distribution, contains the source files for the program and the details that direct the software distribution process. Each package contains at least one program, which is a command line that runs on each targeted computer to control the execution of the package. Programs can direct the installation of software or contain any other command line to be run at each targeted computer. Most packages also contain package source files, such as software installation files, that are used by the program when it runs. Chapter 14 Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000 517 Some software applications provide extensive installation options. Other packages and tools do not. If the program you want to distribute does not provide appropriate setup options, such as unattended operation, you can use SMS Installer to prepare your program for software distribution. SMS Installer can generate attended and unattended installation scripts that you can fully customize. This kind of scripting is not appropriate for the Windows 2000 upgrade. However, it might be useful for packages that are sent prior to the Windows 2000 upgrade to prepare the computer, or for packages that are sent after the upgrade to finalize the configuration. For more information about SMS Installer, see “Creating Self-Extracting Files with SMS Installer 2.0” in the Microsoft® Systems Management Server Administrator’s Guide. You can create a package by using Packages in the SMS Administrator console, or you can create or obtain a package definition file and use the Create Package from Definition wizard. A package definition file is an alternative, noninteractive way to create a package. It is a formatted file that contains all the information necessary to create the package. A package definition file for Windows 2000 is included with SMS 2.0. You can use SMS tools and wizards to create packages from package definition files without user interaction. When a package has been created, use the SMS Manage Distribution Points wizard to choose the distribution points. Distribution Packages also contain information about software distribution, such as the directory for the package source files. Distribution Points are shares on site systems where the package source files are copied for access by client computers. Packages also include information about how and when to update distribution points. For ease of administration, you can group distribution points into Distribution Point Groups. When package files need to be propagated to other sites, SMS compresses these files for sending between sites. You can also create and use a compressed copy of the package source files within the originating site. You can control the distribution of a package by using Distribution Points, which is under the definition of the package under Packages in the SMS Administrator console. 518 Part 4 Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation Advertising After you create the Windows 2000 package, you advertise one or more of the package’s programs to your users by creating an advertisement. An advertisement specifies what program is available to client computers, which computers will receive the advertisement, and when the program will be scheduled for installation. Figure 14.2 shows the software distribution process. When an advertisement is received at an SMS client, the user can still have some control over the scheduling of the package. The advertisement can be run in a special privileged mode so that you need not give privileges to users. You can also run the advertisement so that it operates without any intervention from the user. You create an advertisement by using Advertisements in the SMS Administrator console. Site Server SMS Site Database (SQL Server) Distribution Client Access Point Point (CAP) Target Clients 1. Distribute package source files. 2. Distribute advertisements and package details. 3. Get instructions. 4. Run programs. Figure 14.2 SMS 2.0 Software Distribution Process For more information about SMS software distribution, see the Systems Management Server Administrator’s Guide. Chapter 14 Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000 519 SMS Software Distribution Best Practices With large software distributions, such as Windows 2000, it is important to note the two phases of Systems Management Server 2.0 software distribution: distribution and advertising. Distribution gets the software close to the computers to be upgraded. Advertising initiates the upgrade. With a package as large as Windows 2000, the distribution phase consumes a great deal of resources and problems could arise due to lack of disk space. Therefore, make sure to plan and monitor the distribution phase carefully. After you have successfully completed the distribution phase, begin the advertising phase. Test your distribution by first distributing Windows 2000 only to one site. The initial advertisement of the package should also be sent only to clients at that site. This allows you to test your SMS infrastructure and procedures on a limited scale. As your confidence increases and as capacity allows, you can distribute the package to more sites and increase the scope of the advertisement to include more clients and sites until you eventually include your entire organization. Additional best practices are included in the following discussions of the software distribution process. How SMS Can Help with Windows 2000 Deployment Systems Management Server can be particularly helpful for deploying Windows 2000 in the following ways: Sending Windows 2000 Source Files Out to All Sites SMS has senders that can send files over a wide variety of network protocols and over virtually any kind of network link. Senders provide several benefits over traditional file transfer methods. They can: Use only a fraction of the network bandwidth, allowing other business functions to continue at the same time. Forward packages only during specified hours, such as when most users are not using the link. Check the files as they are transferred so that if the network link fails, the transfer resumes at the latest checkpoint rather than at the beginning of the transfer. Choose an alternate route to the destination. Use the SMS hierarchy to get the packages to the sites, rather than sending the packages to all sites directly from the originating site. Using senders can be beneficial when your sites are remote, particularly if they have no technical support staff. In such cases, you can reliably distribute Windows 2000 software to all sites without interfering with other business functions. 520 Part 4 Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation Monitoring the Distribution to All Sites SMS automatically sends a status message as each step is completed, and you can easily monitor these messages using the SMS status subsystem. Selecting Computers Because deploying Windows 2000 upgrades is a large, complex, high-profile process, you need to deploy it in phases. This spreads out both the network activity and required support. Also, all your computers might not be ready to receive the package at the same time; for example, some computers might not have enough memory or disk space. SMS collects inventory details about your computers and allows you to create queries that select appropriate computers. You can increase the size of the selections as your confidence in the process increases. Collections of inventory details can automatically include any additional computers that now meet the selection criteria. For example, consider a collection that is defined to include computers with 64 Megabytes (MB) of memory or more. If you added 32 MB to an SMS client computer that had 32 MB, it would then qualify to receive the Windows 2000 upgrade and be included in the collection automatically. Securely Providing Enough Operating System Rights Operating system upgrades affect all aspects of a computer and, therefore, require that end users have broad access rights. You might be hesitant to give such broad permissions to users who do not have an in-depth knowledge of computers or of important company policies and procedures. SMS does have special privileges and can run the upgrade in that context. Automatically Initiating the Installation Upgrades can be either automatically initiated or initiated by users. You can set up the process so that even when users are involved, they do not have to choose between complex options. You can give users the option to control the timing so that the upgrade can occur when their computers are not in use. Resolving Problems If the upgrade to Windows 2000 causes problems on a particular computer, SMS has features that help you solve them. The status and inventory information that SMS provides can supply many details about the computer from a central, convenient source —the SMS Administrator console. You can also use SMS remote tools to remotely control the computer, transfer files, or manipulate the computer in other ways (as long as the SMS client is functional). If the user has an incompatible application or an application that might benefit from being reinstalled, you can use SMS software distribution to automatically update or remove it. Chapter 14 Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000 521 Reporting Status SMS status messages are generated not only for the distribution of the package but also for the advertisements and the installation on user computers. You can use these status messages to report on the rate and success of deployment. The steps required to take advantage of these SMS features are described in the procedures that follow. The details for enabling the relevant SMS subsystems and using them effectively are included the SMS documentation. Packaging Windows 2000 for Systems Management Server When you use Systems Management Server to deploy Windows 2000, you must put the Windows 2000 files into an SMS package. You need to create separate packages for Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 Professional. SMS 2.0 includes predefined packages for Windows 2000 Server and Professional. These can be used as the starting point to create your Windows 2000 packages. For each package, SMS obtains the files from a distribution folder. For more information about structuring distribution folders, see “Automating Server Installation and Upgrade” in this book. You must structure the distribution folder as described in that chapter, and include all the auxiliary files required to complete the upgrade, such as the Plug and Play device drivers and answer files. You can even include standard applications, language packs, and service packs. Each predefined Windows 2000 SMS package also contains SMS programs. Each program is a different combination of options that you create for installing the Windows 2000 package. For example, your default program might be to install Windows 2000 with no user intervention. If you want to allow power users to choose options, they need an additional program. All these SMS programs must be compatible with the set of files for the package available at the distribution folder. Preparing the Windows 2000 Server Upgrade Package The following procedure describes how to set up a typical upgrade package for Windows 2000 Server. The first step is to set up the location of the package source files and the predefined SMS package for distributing Windows 2000 Server. 522 Part 4 Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation To create a Windows 2000 Server SMS package 1. Set up a location for the package source files. This process is described in the chapter “Automating Server Installation and Upgrade” in this book. This will include the Windows 2000 files, an answer file, and other files as needed. 2. In the SMS Administrator console, select Packages. From the Action menu, point to New, and then click Package From Definition as shown in Figure 14.3. Figure 14.3 Initiating the SMS Package from Definition Wizard 3. On the Welcome page, click Next. From the Package definition list, click Windows 2000 Server. 4. On the Source Files page, click Create a compressed version of the source, and then click Next. In the Source directory box, enter the path to the package source files (see step 1). Click Next, and then click Finish. If the site server is extremely tight for disk space, you can choose Always obtains files from a source directory from the Source Files page. However, this slows future distributions of the software, and you must ensure that the source directory is always available. Chapter 14 Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000 523 5. When the wizard finishes, select Programs under your new package. In the results pane (the right side of the console), double-click Automated upgrade from NTS 3.51/4.0 (x86). Then verify that the predefined Command line is the correct setup command for your needs. Repeat step 5 for the other programs that you use. To verify that the predefined Command line meets your needs, see “Examining the Windows 2000 Server Package Definition” later in this chapter. Consider specifying an answer file in the program command line, which can allow you to specify a large number of configuration options. For more information about answer files, see “Automating Server Installation and Upgrade” in this book. 6. In the Comment box, enter a comment for each of the programs that you will use. The user can see your comments, so be sure they are descriptive. Give your users contact information, such as the name, phone number, or e-mail address of someone that they can contact for more information. 7. On the Requirements tab for each program, adjust (if necessary) the Estimated disk space and Estimated run time to values that are appropriate for the upgrade you are doing. These values are information for your users. 8. On the Environment tab for each program, verify that Program can run is set to Whether or not a user is logged on. This setting ensures that the program is run with administrative rights, which is necessary for Microsoft® Windows NT® Server upgrades. 9. Click OK to close the program properties box. 10. Select the Windows 2000 Server package, and from the Action menu, click Properties. On the Reporting tab, enter 5.0 for the Version. Verify that the Name is Windows NT and the Publisher is Microsoft. Important Setting these values is necessary for the advertisement status information to be accurate. Otherwise, every execution of the SMS package is recorded as successful even if it aborts or fails. 11. Click OK to close the package properties dialog box. 12. If you want to ensure that users do not upgrade their computers before you are ready to deploy Windows 2000, select Access Accounts under your new package, and in the results pane, delete the Guests and Users access accounts. 524 Part 4 Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation Note that SMS does hide the software distribution shares and that users would require administrative rights on the computers (or the computers would have to be running Microsoft Windows 95 or Microsoft Windows 98) for them to take advantage of these shares. You have to give access to users who are authorized to upgrade to Windows 2000 at a later time. Also, do not adjust the distribution points or create an advertisement at this time. Caution If you want to use security to control who can adjust or deploy the package, see the chapter “Distributing Software” in the Systems Management Server 2.0 Administrator’s Guide. If you require multiple Windows 2000 upgrade answer files to accommodate variations in your upgrades, you must create additional programs for the package in the SMS Administrator console. Each program will specify a different answer file for the winnt32 /unattend switch. Separate answer files allow different groups of computers to be upgraded in different ways while still using just a single package. Systems Management Server 2.0 includes a variety of sophisticated options for packages and their programs. For example, you can specify that the Windows 2000 files be made available with a specific share name at your distribution points. This way they can easily be used by people performing manual upgrades as well as by SMS. The SMS documentation includes complete details on these options. Allowing User Input During the Upgrade Most SMS administrators consider it good practice not to allow user input during package installations. When users buy and install software by themselves, the Setup program generally prompts them for responses, such as which disk to install the software on or what options to install. Every user interaction introduces the opportunity for error that can cause problems. Users might not understand the implications of the answers they provide. If even a small percentage of users makes mistakes, the number of help desk calls can be overwhelming at a time when you are upgrading thousands of computers. Another reason to eliminate user input during upgrade is to allow the installation to occur while no one is present at the computer so that you minimize the inconvenience to users. Chapter 14 Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000 525 Finally, providing all the answers in an answer file ensures that you maintain configuration standards. When you follow those standards, you simplify future computer maintenance and support by reducing the number of variables that could be relevant to a problem. Providing an answer file with all the details required for the upgrade will prevent the Windows 2000 Setup program from asking for user input. If some details are not provided (and the UnattendMode line in the answer file allows it) or if the /unattend command-line switch is not specified, the program prompts the user for the details. An answer file for a server upgrade might look like the following (you must change the JoinDomain line): [Unattended] FileSystem = LeaveAlone UnattendMode=FullUnattended NTUpgrade=Yes [Networking] InstallDefaultComponents = Yes [Identification] JoinDomain = RED1DOM Note You must specify the answer file by using the command winnt32 /unattend:answer.file. The command winnt32 /unattend performs an unattended upgrade, but it gets the information it needs from the current configuration. Examining the Windows 2000 Server Package Definition The Windows 2000 Server package definition that comes with Systems Management Server 2.0 includes predefined programs. Review these programs to understand how the upgrades are performed. The Windows 2000 Server upgrade from Windows NT Server includes the switches /unattend30 and /batch. The first switch, /unattend30, means that you will do an unattended upgrade and that all the required information will be taken from the current installation. The computer will restart 30 seconds after the Setup program completes its first phase, which is when the files are copied to your computer. An answer file is not used. The /batch switch specifies that Setup not display any error messages. This is appropriate when you are sending the package to users you do not want involved in the Setup or if you are running the upgrade when no one is at the computer. However, if there are problems with the upgrade, such as a lack of disk space or an incorrect Start in directory, then this will not be readily apparent, because no error messages will appear. 526 Part 4 Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation However, you need to include error information in the SMS status messages generated as a result of the operation. If you encounter problems in your testing and the status messages are insufficient, remove the /batch switch to allow errors to be displayed during package testing. Also, if the user clicks on the Cancel button during the first phase of the Windows 2000 Setup, the user will not be asked to confirm that they want to stop the Setup. By default, the Start in directory for the package is specified as i386. This is appropriate if the source for the package includes an i386 directory, mirroring the Windows 2000 CD-ROM. However, if the source for the package only includes the files in and below the i386 directory on the CD-ROM, it is not necessary to specify a Start in directory. The estimated disk space and run time values included in the SMS 2.0 package are estimates that might not be realistic for your environment. You might want to increase them. These values are informational only and for the benefit of the user. Notice on the Environment tab that the program is run with administrative rights securely provided by SMS. This is an important benefit when you are upgrading clients that run Microsoft Windows NT Workstation to Windows 2000 Professional. This feature means that you do not have to give administrative privileges to end users. It can also be important when servers are owned by business units and when central administrators have rights on the servers only through SMS. If you include an answer file in the command line of the package program, it allows you to specify many of the options for your upgrade. For example, you can specify which disk Windows 2000 is to be installed on, or whether an upgrade or new installation needs to be done. Preparing the Windows 2000 Professional Upgrade Package To upgrade user computers to run Windows 2000 Professional by using SMS, you must first create a Windows 2000 Professional package. You prepare and use this package in much the same way as the Windows 2000 Server package. Begin by following the procedure to create a Windows 2000 Server package, but be sure to specify that this is a Windows 2000 Professional package. Because there are special issues for Windows 95 and Windows 98 upgrades to Windows 2000, you must create a new program as outlined in the following section. Note Make sure to also create a separate package when you use SMS to distribute Windows 2000 Advanced Server. Although many files and setup details in this program are the same as those in Windows 2000 Server, there are enough differences to require each version to have its own package. You can use the basic Windows 2000 Server package definition as a starting point when creating packages to distribute other Windows 2000 Server versions. Chapter 14 Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000 527 Windows 95 and Windows 98 Upgrades In addition to the differences in the source files, a significant difference between the Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 Professional upgrades is in the answer file when upgrading Windows 95 or Windows 98 clients to Windows 2000 Professional. Computers running Windows 95 or Windows 98 have not been members of a domain (even if the users using them have been logging onto a domain), and have not had local accounts (although they have had local profiles and password list files). Therefore, relevant details must be specified in the answer file, such as the following (you must change the JoinDomain, DomainAdmin, and DomainAdminPassword values): [Unattended] FileSystem = LeaveAlone UnattendMode=FullUnattended Win9xUpgrade=Yes [Networking] InstallDefaultComponents = Yes [GUIUnattended] AdminPassword=Testing123 [Identification] JoinDomain = RED1 DomainAdmin = AddComputers DomainAdminPassword = Restricted A computer that is upgraded from Windows 95 or Windows 98 to Windows 2000 is given a local Administrator account. This account requires a password; you can specify that password in the GUIUnattended section of the answer file or let the user be prompted for it at the end of the upgrade. This password can be read from the answer file by anyone that can access the SMS package share, which is commonly most users. This is not an immediate security risk because the Windows 95 and Windows 98 computers were not secure before the upgrade, due to the nonsecure nature of those operating systems. You might want to set the administrator password to a secure value and begin enforcing limited administrative privileges. You can do this after the upgrade by running a program that sets the password to a value shared only with authorized staff. The password is compiled within the program and is not available to unauthorized staff. You can easily create such programs by using common programming languages or scripting tools, such as SMS Installer. The program can be distributed with SMS, or it can be invoked at the end of the Windows 2000 upgrade by specifying appropriate values in the answer file. 528 Part 4 Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation Although computers that run Windows 95 and Windows 98 are not members of domains, computers that run Windows 2000 must be. Therefore, you need to include the JoinDomain line in the answer file to indicate which domain the computer needs to join, along with an administrative account and password with the right to join computers to that domain. Caution Answer files can be read by unauthorized staff so you need to consider security issues when you create them. However, it is unlikely that people would access the files from an SMS distribution point because the distribution points are hidden and they must know where to look for these details. An appropriate precaution, however, is to use an administrative account whose only right is Add workstations to domain. Another precaution is to add the computers upgraded in this manner to a dedicated resource domain. In that case the administrative account only needs to have rights in that domain, and therefore cannot cause problems in other domains in which you might have account domain controllers or other sensitive computers. The answer file must also specify that you want to upgrade the computers that are running Windows 95 or Windows 98. Do this by including the following line in the answer file: Win9xUpgrade=Yes Without this line, you do a clean install of Windows 2000 rather than an upgrade. During the Windows 95 or Windows 98 upgrade to Windows 2000, the Windows 2000 Setup program eliminates programs that it suspects might be incompatible with Windows 2000. This occurs for some of the SMS 2.0 client components. Windows 2000 provides a facility, called migration DLLs, to ease the migration of such programs. For more information about migration DLLs, see the Microsoft Systems Management Server link on the Web Resources page at http://windows.microsoft.com/windows2000/reskit/webresources. Windows NT Workstation Upgrade Upgrading from Windows NT Workstation to Windows 2000 is quite simple compared to upgrading from Windows 95 or Windows 98. This is because Windows NT Workstation has much more in common with Windows 2000 Professional. For this reason, you can upgrade the Windows NT Workstation without using an answer file, or you can upgrade using a minimal answer file. It is important to set the Environment properties of the SMS program so that it runs with administrative rights, unless users will be logged on and have administrative rights when the package is initiated at client computers. Chapter 14 Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000 529 Distributing the Windows 2000 Packages You need to distribute the SMS package files for Windows 2000 to all sites where you anticipate upgrading computers. Distribution is involved even if you have just one site. Distribution consists of sending the package files to the site, and then getting the files to the SMS distribution points within the site. Preparing to Distribute the Packages Before you distribute the Windows 2000 packages, there are several tasks you must perform to ensure that your SMS hierarchy is ready to receive them. Check the Status of Site Servers and Distribution Points Windows 2000 is a large operating system requiring considerable disk space. Not only are copies of Windows 2000 required for computers to be upgraded, but SMS also needs copies as it moves the package between servers. Therefore, you must review your site servers and distribution points to ensure that they have enough disk space. The easiest way to do this is to go to System Status in the SMS Administrator console, select Site Status, and then for each site, click Site System Status as shown in Figure 14.4. The results pane displays the distribution points and their free disk space. Figure 14.4 Site Status with Distribution Points and Their Free Space 530 Part 4 Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation Ensure Each Site Has an Adequate Number of Distribution Points You might want to limit the number of Windows 2000 upgrades that you perform concurrently at each site. Upgrades can impose a heavy load on the local network and the distribution points. Before you upgrade, you need to experiment in a lab or run a pilot. When you test, use servers that are typical of your distribution points and a typical network. This will allow you to judge how many clients you can comfortably upgrade at one time. If you find that your network is not a bottleneck for the upgrades but that your distribution points are, consider adding more distribution points at the site. For more information about how to add distribution points, see “Distributing Software” in the Systems Management Server Administrator’s Guide. Use Distribution Point Groups Because the Windows 2000 package is quite large and you will use it extensively, make certain that you dedicate distribution points for this package. You can refer to these distribution points as a group. You can create a distribution point group for your Windows 2000 distribution points to reduce the number of administrative tasks. You can create distribution point groups (and add or remove distribution points from the groups), when you are creating or adjusting distribution points. Then, during distribution, you can specify the distribution point groups at the same places that you specify distribution points. Ensure Sender Controls Are in Place If the Windows 2000 package is sent to any site that does not have adequate sender controls in place, it can overload the network link at a time when it interferes with other business functions. Therefore, check the sender controls to be sure they are properly set. The SMS Administrator console includes SMS address definitions for each site. SMS addresses include the SMS site server name, security details for accessing that site, and network transport details (if required). The addresses also include a schedule to specify when high, medium, and low priority transfers can be executed, and how much of the network link can be used at any time of the day. Chapter 14 Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000 531 Ensure Fan-out Distribution Will Work Systems Management Server 2.0 has a feature called fan-out distribution that allows child sites to distribute software to lower sites. This reduces the workload on the site that you use to initiate the software distribution because the software does not then have to be distributed from the initiating site to all sites. This also reduces the workload on the network link between the initiating site and the rest of the sites, which is often the most significant issue. When you are distributing to many sites, copying Windows 2000 over the network many times from any site can cause an unacceptably heavy load. Figure 14.5 illustrates the difference between software distribution with fan-out and without fan-out distribution. Central Site Central Site Site ABC Site DEF Site ABC Site DEF Site MNO Site PQR Site STU Site MNO Site PQR Site STU With Fan-out Without Fan-out Figure 14.5 Two Types of Software Distribution Fan-out distribution occurs automatically if the initiating site does not have an SMS address for the destination site. Therefore, you must use the SMS Administrator console to review the SMS addresses and ensure that the only SMS server with an address to a site is its parent. Select a Test Site To ensure that your plan is complete, distribute the Windows 2000 package to a test site or a small number of sites before sending it to your entire organization. This will enable you to quickly correct problems and to minimize their impact. The test site or sites should be as typical as possible, but at least one site should also represent a high-risk scenario. Examples of such a scenario include deploying with a site server or distribution points that have very little disk space to spare, or having a network link that is particularly slow or unreliable. 532 Part 4 Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation A best practice for this level of testing is to start with small sites that do not have complex requirements. An ideal test site has technical support specialists who are readily available and users who are sympathetic to your goals. At such sites, you can identify solutions for any problems that you might not have built into your contingency plans during deployment planning. As your confidence in your procedures increases, expand your testing to sites that are larger, more complex, or more difficult to support. During the distribution phase, your Windows 2000 deployment needs to be transparent to your users because you have not yet run the upgrades on their computers. Caution is appropriate now but is more critical later in the deployment process. For more information about the tasks presented in this section, see the Systems Management Server Administrator’s Guide. Distributing the Packages to Sites and Distribution Points The basic procedure for distributing packages is presented as follows. When you perform this task, note that all distribution points for all sites are listed, so you can select all the intended distribution points at one time. However, make sure that you first distribute the package to a small number of sites so that you can test your SMS infrastructure and procedures. As your confidence increases and capacity allows, you can include additional distribution points at other sites. For more information about this procedure, see “Distributing Software” in the Systems Management Server Administrator’s Guide. To distribute a Windows 2000 Server SMS Package 1. In the SMS Administrator console, select Packages, select the Windows 2000 package, and then select Distribution Points. 2. From the Action menu, point to New, and then click Distribution Points. The New Distribution Points wizard appears. 3. Click Next to continue past the Welcome page, and select the distribution points you want to use. If this is a test distribution, select the distribution points that you decided on. Also, if you are using distribution point groups, select them now. Note that all distribution points for all sites are listed, so you can select all the intended distribution points now. However, you might do a limited number of distribution points at one time to better manage network traffic. 4. Click Finish to start the distribution. Chapter 14 Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000 533 Caution As soon as you click Finish in step 4, the distribution process begins. You might notice a short delay, due to system processing, package priorities, or sender schedules; however, be prepared for immediate SMS activity. For more information about the flow of a package after you initiate distribution, see “Software Distribution Flowcharts” in the Microsoft® Systems Management Server 2.0 Resource Guide (part of the Microsoft® BackOffice® 4.5 Resource Kit). The Windows 2000 files are compressed into a single file which is then sent to child sites. At each site, the package might then be sent to other child sites, if they have distribution points for this package. Testing the Distribution As the Windows 2000 packages are distributed, verify that they are properly deploying to the distribution points. The section “Monitoring the Distribution,” which follows later in this chapter, describes how you can verify that the packages have arrived at all distribution points and how you can quickly identify any problems. However, you also need to test the distributions to ensure that they are complete and that the directory trees are properly laid out. You do not need to test all distribution points at this level, but make sure to spot-check a few distribution points to confirm that the production distribution is working as you intended. Expanding the Distribution When the first distribution of the package has been completed successfully, you can distribute the package to additional sites and distribution points. The procedure is exactly the same, except that you might want to send to more distribution points at a greater frequency and with less monitoring. You must be sure to distribute the package to sites before advertising the package to clients at those sites. SMS does not make the advertisement available to the clients until a distribution point is available. Distributing by Means of the Courier Sender Network links to some of your sites might be slow or unreliable, or they might already be fully utilized by other traffic. Therefore, sending a large package like Windows 2000 over the network links might not be acceptable. SMS 2.0 includes an alternate sender, called the Courier Sender, that can be used to provide all the benefits of SMS software distribution but without the network overhead normally involved in getting packages to sites. 534 Part 4 Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation With the Courier Sender, the SMS package is copied to CD-ROM or similar media and then sent through mail or by courier to your sites. At the sites, someone puts the CD-ROM into the site server and runs a simple program. From this point on, the software distribution carries on as it normally would. The advertisements, status information, and other information will flow over the network at the times you specify; however, this traffic is small relative to the traffic that the package itself would require. Monitoring the Distribution Distributing Windows 2000 in an organization with many sites takes some time to complete. Some sites will take longer than others due to the speed of the wide area network (WAN) links, the reliability of those links, sender scheduling, and so forth. There is also the possibility that, despite good preparations, some sites or distribution points might have inadequate disk space by the time the package arrives. For these reasons, it is important to give the Windows 2000 distribution adequate time to complete. Monitor it closely to determine if there are any issues to resolve and make sure that the distribution is complete at all sites. System Status Subsystem SMS 2.0 includes a powerful System Status subsystem for monitoring the distribution. The SMS Administrator console includes a System Status node where you can obtain summary and detailed results from the System Status subsystem. You can also obtain the status of the package distribution from the Package Status subnode. Note When you create a package, the definition of that package is immediately distributed to all child sites; however, the actual files for that package, if any, are not distributed at that time. The same package definition is re-sent when the package definition is updated. Status information for the package definition distribution is then available. Therefore, when reviewing package status, make certain you distinguish between the distribution of the package definition and the package files. Software distribution status is summarized at several levels, as follows. Package Status for All Packages When you select Package Status under the System Status, you can see, as shown in Figure 14.6, how many distribution points have been targeted for each package and how many have been installed, are retrying, or have failed. This level is useful to identify how many distribution points, if any, might need intervention. Note the size difference between the original package and the compressed package. The package identification number might also be useful for other purposes, such as troubleshooting. Chapter 14 Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000 535 Figure 14.6 The Status of All Packages At this level there are no status messages to query. Package Status for a Specific Package Below the package status for all packages, you can select each package. At this level you can see, as shown in Figure 14.7, which sites should or should not have the package, and which ones might need intervention. You can also verify that all sites have the same package version, as indicated by the Source Version column. Figure 14.7 The Status of the Windows 2000 Package at All Sites At this level you can select the Action menu and select Show Messages, All to see all the status messages for the package from all sites and distribution points. This can be a lot of messages; and therefore, it is better to review the messages at each site individually. Package Status at the Sites Below the package status for a specific package you can select each site. This level of status checking allows you to see, as shown in Figure 14.8, which specific distribution points within a site might be having problems with the distribution. Figure 14.8 The Status of the Windows 2000 Package at a Specific Site 536 Part 4 Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation At this level, you can select the Action menu and select Show Messages, All to see all the status messages for the package from this site and all its distribution points. The following sequence of messages is typical (the distribution point-specific messages are listed in the next section): 30000 or 300001 — package created or modified 30003 — program created 2300, 2310, and 2311 — distribution manager preparing package 2339 — distribution manager initiating schedule and sender to send the package information (not the package files) 30009 — distribution point assigned 2333 — preparing to send compressed image of package 2335 — distribution manager initiated scheduler and sender to send the package files to the sites 2315 — distribution manager deleted the compressed image of the package When reviewing status messages, notice that each sequence of Distribution Manager activities ends with the message 2301, which indicates that the sequence was successful. This message appears whenever Distribution Manager completes any activities. Distribution Manager is the SMS component that distributes packages from the site server to the SMS distribution points and that initiates the sending of the package to other sites. Package Status at a Distribution Point At the package status at each site, you can select each distribution point. At this level, you can select the Action menu and select Show Messages, All to see all the status messages for the package at this distribution point. The following sequence of messages is typical: 2317 — distribution manager is refreshing package on distribution point (not seen the first time the package is sent to the distribution point) 2342 — distribution manager is starting to distribute package to distribution point 2322 — distribution manager decompressed package to temporary directory (if applicable) Chapter 14 Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000 537 2329 — distribution manager copied package from temporary directory or package source to distribution point 2330 — distribution manager successfully distributed package to distribution point Note The Systems Management Server Resource Guide includes a chapter, “Status Messages,” that lists all status messages and their complete message text. Reporting Package Distribution Status You might want to produce a report of the package distribution status, either for easy reference or to address your own specific requirements. You can perform queries of the package distribution status classes and incorporate the responses in the reporting tool of your choice as is done with other SMS reporting tools. Table 14.1 lists the relevant classes and the category of status information that you can find in each. Table 14.1 Package Distribution Status Classes Class Status Information SMS_PackageStatus Overall summary information about the status of packages on the distribution points. SMS_PackageStatus Information about the status of a given package. Maps to RootSummarizer Package Status in the SMS Administrator console. SMS_PackageStatus Detailed information about the status of a given package by DetailsSummarizer site code. Maps to the package console tree beneath Package Status in the SMS Administrator console. SMS_PackageStatus Detailed information about the status of a given package at a DistPointsSummarizer given site. Maps to the site code under the package console tree beneath Package Status in the SMS Administrator console. Troubleshooting the Distributions Monitoring the software distributions can indicate whether a software distribution has encountered problems at some point. Typically, this is due to lack of disk space, network link difficulties, or server problems. The status message text indicates such problems. 538 Part 4 Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation Isolating the problem is the first step in solving any technical problem. When you know which component failed, you can concentrate your efforts on the appropriate issues. Using the monitoring techniques described earlier will help you to isolate the problem. Also, the chapter on “Software Distribution Flowcharts” in the Systems Management Server Resource Guide includes graphics that show the typical flow of the software distribution process. If you find indications that your software distribution did not make it to a certain point in the flow, there is a good chance that the failure occurred at the previous point in the flowchart. After you have isolated the particular component, understanding how it works can provide clues why it failed. The flowcharts also help with this. In addition, the log files can show what is happening with the component at a very low level; and therefore, what might not be working. The logs are enabled using the SMS Service Manager. The chapter “Software Distribution Flowcharts” in the Systems Management Server 2.0 Resource Guide also includes troubleshooting tips for software distribution. Advertising the Windows 2000 Packages Users can upgrade to Windows 2000 when they receive an advertisement. The advertisements give descriptive information about the package to end users, and they include the details necessary for SMS to run the programs. The advertisements can even be assigned to run at specific times so that the user cannot block the upgrade or so that the upgrade can occur while the user is away from the computer. Selecting Computers to Upgrade An advertisement tells SMS to make available to an SMS collection a specific program within a package. A collection is a very flexible definition of computers, users, or user groups. In the case of a Windows 2000 software distribution, you would initially use collections that are a small number of computers used for testing purposes. Later, you would use collections that are all computers that are ready for Windows 2000. You might subdivide the collection by site or organizational unit. Chapter 14 Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000 539 Collections have the additional benefit of being dynamic; as time goes on, you can add computers to a collection, and the advertisements that are available to that collection automatically become available to those additional computers. If the collection is based on the memory capacity of computers, for example, computers are added to the collection as their hardware is upgraded for Windows 2000. If you install additional memory in a computer, the SMS hardware inventory detects this and records it within SMS. This computer is automatically included in the collection; therefore, the Windows 2000 upgrade is made available to the computer. Other than physically adding the memory to the computer, this is all automatic. For more information about determining which computers in your organization are ready to upgrade, see “Using Systems Management Server to Analyze Your Network Infrastructure” in this book. This includes defining queries to select the computers from the inventory that SMS maintains. You can use these queries to create collections, as described in the following procedure. SMS also provides a sample report, “Windows 2000 Upgrade Candidates by Site and Roles,” which might help with this process. To create a collection of computers ready for Windows 2000 1. In the SMS Administrator console, select Collections. 2. From the Action menu, point to New, and then click Collection. 3. In the Collection Properties dialog box, enter a name for the collection. 4. On the Membership Rules tab, click the New Query Rule button. 5. In the Query Rule Properties box, click the Browse button and select the appropriate query. For example, use a query that you have made to report on the computers that are available to be upgraded to Windows 2000. (For help developing such a query, see the chapter “Using Systems Management Server to Analyze Your Network Infrastructure”). You might have other queries that you prefer to use, such as All Windows 95 Systems or queries that you have defined to include all computers at specific sites. 6. Add query rules and direct membership rules as necessary. Alternatively, at step 4 you might prefer to click the New Direct Rule button and then use the Create Direct Membership Rule wizard to specify the computers that you want to upgrade. This choice might be your best option during testing, especially if you have a small number of arbitrarily chosen computers that you want to run the package on. 540 Part 4 Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation An issue to consider is that SMS 2.0 allows collections to include computers, users, or user groups. Including users or user groups in Windows 2000 might not be appropriate, because users can often log on to different computers. Therefore, each computer that a user logs on to could be upgraded, especially if the advertisement is assigned and runs whether or not the user chooses it. However, the computers that they log on to might not be ready for the upgrade, or the users that usually use the computer might not be trained to use Windows 2000. Caution For more information about using security to control who can adjust or use the advertisement, see “Distributing Software” in the Systems Management Server Administrator’s Guide. Preparing Clients to Receive the Advertisements The computers that you are going to advertise to need to be ready for the advertisement. During the Windows 2000 upgrade, the computer needs to restart several times. If this can occur automatically, the entire upgrade can be accomplished without input from users. Some users put a boot password on their computer. This password is required by the computer itself; and therefore, cannot be circumvented by software. Until this password is entered, the computer will not restart, and the Windows 2000 upgrade cannot continue. Therefore, make sure to advise users to temporarily disable their boot passwords. If this is not possible, someone must be present during the upgrade. The same issue holds true if the computer stops for confirmation during restart because of hardware configuration changes or other issues. Give users advance notice of the upgrade so that they can be sure to close all documents. If users know that the upgrade is imminent, they will also be more inclined to get any training they require, perform backups, and prepare any programs they are responsible for. If you are advertising the package with an assignment to run overnight or over a weekend, any Windows 95 or Windows 98 client computers need a user logged on in order for the advertisement to start automatically. These users might want to use a secure screen saver to prevent others from using their computer while they are away. Windows NT client computers do not have to have a user logged on for the advertisements to start. Advertising the Packages to Computers You now have a Windows 2000 package ready to distribute, you have the right computers selected, and you have the computers ready for the upgrade. The next step is to initiate the process. Do this by creating an advertisement as shown in the following procedure. Chapter 14 Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000 541 To create an advertisement for Windows 2000 1. In the SMS Administrator console, select Advertisements. 2. From the Action menu, point to New, and then click Advertisement. 3. From the Package list, select Microsoft Windows 2000 Server English. 4. From the Program list, select Automated upgrade from NTS 3.51/4.0 (x86). 5. Click Browse, and then select the collection that you are advertising the program to. 6. To set the advertisement to run at a specific time, click the Schedule tab. To add assignment schedules, click the New button. Caution Assigned advertisements run only once for each client they are advertised to. If the advertisement fails at the client computer, the client does not attempt to automatically run it again. This ensures that computers are not caught in an infinite loop of trying to run an assigned advertisement, failing, restarting, and then trying again. Therefore, in step 6, you might also want to select Allow users to run the program independently of assignments. This allows users to run the program ahead of schedule or to run it afterwards if the program fails the first time. Alternatively, you can create a new advertisement at a later time for the computers that failed to upgrade. As with the previous phases of Windows 2000 software distribution, start the advertising on a limited scale and expand as it proves successful. This is especially true now, because end users will definitely be affected by the software distribution. You can expand the advertising by creating additional advertisements, each aimed at different collections, or by adjusting the collection that the advertisement is based on so that it includes more and more computers. Separate advertisements might be necessary to advertise different programs to appropriate collections. For example, the Windows 95 upgrade program should be advertised only to the computers in the Windows 95 collection. Expanding Security on Distribution Points If you restricted access to the package on the distribution points when you created the package, you must now open that access. Do this by using the following procedure. If you are using SMS to run the program using administrative privileges, add the client network connection accounts used in the SMS site as your package access accounts. 542 Part 4 Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation To open security for the Windows 2000 package 1. In the SMS Administrator console, select Packages. 2. Select the Windows 2000 package and then Access Accounts. 3. From the Action menu, point to New, and then click Windows NT Access Account. 4. In the Access Account Properties dialog box, click Set. 5. In the Windows NT Account dialog box, enter the domain and user or group, and specify the Account Type. Click OK to close the dialog box. 6. In the Access Account Properties dialog box, verify that the Permissions are Read. Repeat this procedure as necessary to add additional users or groups. Upgrading Computers When you have Windows 2000 on a distribution point in the same site as the computers to be upgraded, and the advertisement is available at the computers, you can do the following: Schedule the upgrade for a time that is convenient for the user. Report the status of the upgrade. Executing the Advertisement at Each Computer Distribution to all users can be done by means of SMS at a time that you believe is convenient. However, you can give users the option to adjust the date and time, as shown in Figure 14.9, to coincide with a time when they are not using their computers. You can also make the upgrade mandatory at a certain date and time so that users cannot postpone the upgrade indefinitely. Chapter 14 Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000 543 Figure 14.9 Users Can Schedule the Upgrade for a Convenient Time The distribution that you initiate to users will also include appropriate command-line parameters to indicate which auto-answer file to use and other options, so that the setup will be done according to the standards that you have determined. Many organizations do not give their end users full privileges on client computers. This helps to minimize problems that are caused by users making uninformed or unintentional computer changes. However, this lack of privileges would normally stop users from initiating a Windows 2000 upgrade for their computers. SMS avoids this problem by doing the Windows 2000 upgrade in the context of a special SMS security account. Status of the Upgrade at Each Computer When the first and final phases of the Windows 2000 upgrade are completed at the computer, Systems Management Server produces status files that are propagated up the SMS hierarchy. This information can be used to report on the overall progress of the upgrade project or to investigate the status of an individual computer, as discussed in the next section. Customized status files can be produced to indicate specific details relating to the status of the upgrade, if desired. The programs that create these status files are invoked as part of the package execution; and therefore, must be included in its definition. For example, you might want to include such status files if you have the Windows 2000 Setup program initiate post-upgrade tasks. 544 Part 4 Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation Monitoring the Advertisements The SMS status message that reports the progress of the upgrade at each computer can also be used to report the progress of the Windows 2000 deployment as a whole. The number of computers ready to be upgraded, those successfully upgraded, and the locations of failures can all be reported. You can then intervene where any problems have occurred. The System Status Subsystem SMS 2.0 includes a powerful System Status subsystem that allows you to readily monitor the distribution. The SMS Administrator console includes a System Status node where you can obtain summary and detailed results from the System Status subsystem. There is an Advertisement Status subnode that allows you to obtain the status of the advertisements. Status for All Advertisements When you select Advertisement Status under System Status in the SMS Administrator console, you can view the following: How many systems have received the advertisement How many systems have experienced general failures processing the advertisement How many times the advertised program has been started How many times the program has run to completion or failed Various advertisement details An example of this information is shown in Figure 14.10. At this level there are no status messages to be queried. Figure 14.10 The Status of All Advertisements Chapter 14 Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000 545 Status for a Specific Advertisement Below the advertisement status for all advertisements you can select each advertisement. At this level, you can view the following: Which sites have clients that have received the advertisement Which sites contain clients that experienced a general failure processing the advertisement How many times the advertised program has run at each site How many times it ran to completion or failed Figure 14.11 shows this type of status. At this level, there are no status messages to be queried. Figure 14.11 The Status of the Windows 2000 Advertisement Status at a Site At the advertisement status level, you can select each site. From the Action menu, point to Show Messages, and then click All to see the status messages for the advertisement at this site. The following sequence of messages is typical: 30006 — advertisement created 3900 — advertisement processed within a site (distributed to client access points, and so forth) 10002 — advertisement received at a client 10005 — program started 10007 — program failed The message indicates why this has occurred. Common reasons are that the user cancelled the program or otherwise forced it to stop, or the client computer did not have enough disk space. 10009 — program completed successfully At this point the SMS part of the upgrade is done. This corresponds with the end of the first phase of the Windows 2000 Setup (the file upgrade phase). 546 Part 4 Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation 13126 — upgrade completed (will be reported as 10009 if SMS 2.0 SP2 or later is in place) At this point the Windows 2000 Setup is complete. The last two phases (text mode and GUI setup) have ended, and the computer is ready for the user to log on. Reporting Advertisement Status You might want to produce a report of the advertisement status, either for easy reference or to address your own specific requirements. You can perform queries of the SMS advertisement status subsystem and incorporate the responses in the reporting tool of your choice, as is done with other SMS reporting functions. Table 14.2 lists the relevant class and the category of status information that can be found in the class. Table 14.2 Advertisement Status Class Class Status Information SMS_AdvertisementStatusSummarizer Displays detailed advertisement status information grouped by site code. Maps to the advertisement items beneath Advertisement Status in the SMS Administrator console. For more information about writing reports based on the data SMS collects, see the Microsoft Systems Management Server Technical Details link on the Web Resources page at http://windows.microsoft.com/windows2000/reskit/webresources. For the Windows 2000 advertisement status reporting, you will want reports such as the following: Computers that Have Been Advertised to but Have Not Received the Advertisement This report is a comparison of computers that are currently in the relevant collection but do not have a 10002 status message. If the program was advertised before the report, this report will indicate the computers that have not been used lately or that are not properly connected to the network or the SMS infrastructure. Computers that Have Received the Advertisement but Have Not Started the Program This report is a comparison of computers that have a 10002 status message but do not have a 10005 status message. If the program was assigned to run before the report, this report will indicate the computers that have not been used since the advertisement was first advertised or that have become disconnected from the network or the SMS infrastructure. If the program was not assigned, this report will also include computers where the users have chosen not to upgrade yet. Chapter 14 Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000 547 Computers Where the Program Started but Did Not Complete Successfully This report is a comparison of computers that have 10005 status messages but not 10009 status messages. These are likely to be computers where the user has cancelled the upgrade or the computers did not have enough disk space. Parsing the 10007 message description gives more details. If either problem is common, then a report of those specific computers might be appropriate. There is a remote possibility that some computers will fail in such a way that neither 10007 or 10009 status messages will be received. To take that possibility into account, you can have a report of computers with 10005 messages but not 10008 or 10009 messages. For users who have canceled the upgrade, an e-mail reminding them of the importance of the upgrade might be sufficient to resolve the problem. Or, the program can be assigned so that it must happen at a specific time. For other problems, manual intervention might be required (using the SMS remote tools might be sufficient). Computers Where the Program Completed Successfully but the Final Upgrade Has Not Been Received This report is a comparison of computers that have 10009 status messages but not 13126 status messages. These are likely to be computers where the upgrade started but then stopped for some reason. If you run the report during a period of mass upgrades, such as over a weekend, this report can help you identify problems that you can manually correct before the user is aware of them. However, it usually takes an hour or more for the upgrade to progress from the time at which the 10009 message is generated to the point at which the 13126 message is generated. Note SMS 2.0 SP2 includes a fix to the package status reporting system so that the 13126 message is replaced with a 10009 message, which is the correct behavior. The messages are also generated more reliably, and the 10009 message has a meaningful message text, whereas the 13126 message has no text. Therefore, it is recommended that you deploy SMS 2.0 SP2 before deploying Windows 2000 with SMS. After SP2 has been deployed, the report logic will have to distinguish between the two 10009 messages using the message text. Computers Upgraded Per Day This report is a count of 13126 status messages spread over time. This can be useful for monitoring the status of the project overall. 548 Part 4 Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation Troubleshooting Advertisements The advertisement monitoring process helps you to isolate problems, hopefully before the users report problems. Typical problems include lack of disk space, user interference, or package definition errors. The text of the status messages will indicate such problems. Also make sure to verify that the package is available on at least one distribution point at the site. Isolating the problem is the first step in solving any technical problem. If you know which component failed, you can concentrate your efforts on the appropriate issues. Using the monitoring techniques listed previously will help you to isolate the problem. The chapter “Software Distribution Flowcharts” in the Systems Management Server Resource Guide includes graphics that show the typical flow of the software distribution process on the server side. Also in the Systems Management Server Resource Guide, the chapter “Client Features Flowcharts” includes graphics that show the flow on the client side. If you find indications that your software distribution did not make it to a certain point in the flow, then there is a good chance that the failure occurred at the previous point in the flowchart. After you have isolated the component, understanding how it works can provide clues why it failed. The flowcharts also help with this. In addition, the log files can show what is happening with the component at a very low level, which can help you see what might not be working. You enable server logs using the SMS Service Manager, and client logs are always enabled. SMS has several features that can help you resolve problems on client computers, including the following: Remotely control the client computer. Transfer files to the computer to replace files that need updating. Restart the computer. Obtain computer details, either based on the routine inventory or on real-time remote control tools. (Note that the routine inventory is available even when the client is offline.) Upgrade incompatible application software. There will be situations where manual intervention is needed, such as when an upgrade makes it impossible to restart the computer or to connect a computer to the network, or when the SMS client components become inoperative. Chapter 14 Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000 549 Using Systems Management Server to Ease Domain Consolidation and Migration In the past, larger organizations have often had multiple domains. With Windows 2000, the reasons for those domains will most likely disappear, and therefore, consolidating them will simplify computer administration. Migrating to native Windows 2000 domains allows your organization to take full advantage of Windows 2000 features. The chapter “Determining Domain Migration Strategies” in this book discusses the issues of domain consolidation and migration in detail. It also details strategies and techniques that will ease the process of consolidation and migration. SMS can help with this process, and thus Windows 2000 deployment with SMS should be considered in conjunction with domain consolidation and migration. For example, you can use SMS to deliver scripted executions of the DCPromo portion of the upgrade process for domain controllers. The most significant benefit of using SMS for domain consolidation and migration occurs during deployment of the upgrade to Windows 2000. By adjusting the JoinDomain value in the answer file, the computers can be put in the new, consolidated domain. 550 Part 4 Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation Examining Differences Between Systems Management Server 1.2 and Systems Management Server 2.0 Systems Management Server 2.0 is dramatically different from its predecessor, Systems Management Server 1.2. Both versions have similar feature sets, but each version accomplishes the features using dramatically different techniques. If you are planning to use SMS 1.2 to deploy Windows 2000, or for domain consolidation, you need to be aware that software distribution in SMS 1.2 differs from SMS 2.0 in the following ways: Only computers can be targeted for software distribution, and the targeting is not dynamic (new computers that meet the requirements for upgrade must be targeted with new jobs). Windows NT–based computers, where the logged-on user does not have administrative privileges, must be given the Package Command Manager as a Service facility. There is no charge for this addition to SMS 1.2, but you need to deploy this facility before you begin the Windows 2000 deployment. The status subsystem for jobs is more awkward to work with. The originating site for the package must keep a compressed copy of the package. Programs cannot force another program to run before them and cannot be disabled centrally. Windows 2000 computers might not be supported by SMS 1.2 as clients. Therefore as computers are upgraded to Windows 2000, they might stop functioning as SMS 1.2 clients or they might no longer be supported. For more information about SMS 1.2 support of Windows 2000 computers, see the Microsoft Systems Management Server link on the Web Resources page at http://windows.microsoft.com/windows2000/reskit/webresources. Other differences between the two versions are relevant to other SMS features that might benefit your Windows 2000 deployment. For more information about those features and differences, see “Using Systems Management Server to Analyze Your Network Infrastructure” in this book. Chapter 14 Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000 551 Planning Task List for Using Systems Management Server to Deploy Windows 2000 Table 14.3 lists the primary tasks presented in this chapter for deploying Windows 2000 using SMS. Table 14.3 Task List for Deploying Windows 2000 Using SMS Task Location in Chapter Learn concepts related to SMS software Using SMS to Distribute Software and distribution. Examining Differences Between SMS 1.2 and 2.0 Prepare the packages. Packaging Windows 2000 for SMS Distribute the packages. Distributing the Windows 2000 Packages Test the distribution. Distributing the Windows 2000 Packages Monitor the distribution. Distributing the Windows 2000 Packages Troubleshoot the distribution. Distributing the Windows 2000 Packages Report on the distribution. Distributing the Windows 2000 Packages Advertise the packages. Advertising the Windows 2000 Packages Test the advertisements and packages. Advertising the Windows 2000 Packages Upgrade the computers. Advertising the Windows 2000 Packages Monitor the advertisements. Advertising the Windows 2000 Packages Troubleshooting the advertisements. Advertising the Windows 2000 Packages Report on the advertisements. Advertising the Windows 2000 Packages Use SMS to ease domain consolidation and Using SMS to Ease Domain Consolidation migration. and Migration Additional Resources For more information about using Systems Management Server, see the Microsoft Systems Management Server Administrator’s Guide. For advanced information about using Systems Management Server, see the Microsoft Systems Management Server 2.0 Resource Guide, which is part of the Microsoft BackOffice 4.5 Resource Kit. 552 Part 4 Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation BLANK PAGE IMPORTANT: This text will appear on screen, but will not print on a PostScript printer. This page should be the last one in this file; it was inserted by running the InsertBlankPage macro. Do not type any additional text on this page!
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