Research by dffhrtcv3


									               “It is only an inductive lesson if
               the students engage in
               inductive thinking” (Joyce,
               Showers, &Weil, 1996)

Models For Teaching: Inductive
      By: Kimberly Crowell &
            Ana Bailey
               Natural Resources:
Trees (yes)      Houses (no)      Granite (yes)
Bathtub (no)     Sun (yes)        Fans (no)
Oil (yes)        Tent (no)        Gasoline (no)

Now, find a commonality amongst the positive
 examples and negative examples. Then, make
 a definition.

T-shirt          Mississippi River
Coal             Soil
Cement           Wind
Inductive Teaching: Informal & Formal
• Proceeds from specific to general
   – Draw general conclusions based on particular
   – Example: Detectives
• Most learning that occurs in daily life is inductive
   – Example: Children learn concepts such as happy, tired,
     dog, or ice cream through experiences
• Lessons teach the content AND a higher level
  thinking strategy useful in everyday life!
      Informal Inductive Teaching
• Not necessarily unplanned
  – Fish tank
  – Rabbit
  – Collection of plants
  – Weather stations
  – Collection of books displayed on a table
  – Portion of school yard “adopted” for careful
    observations throughout the year
  – Field Trips
  – Technology
      Formal Inductive Teaching
• Focuses primarily on the students’ interaction
  with information.
• Direct lessons: Teacher presents an idea or
  skill and then cites specific examples of how it
  may be applied.
• Inductive lessons: Students are given
  examples and they figure out the concept or
  generalization that ties it all together.
• Page 213 Bruner’s Structure
               Concept Formation
• Use:
    – Develop Concepts
• Key Attributes/ Student Activities:
    1. List data
    2. Categorize data
    3. Label concepts
•    When planning, two considerations:
    1. Plan a question or problem that will allow students to
       generate a list of data rich enough to include the concept
       you wish to develop
    2. Recognize when students need additional questions to
       assist them in focusing the categories
          Concept Attainment
• Use:
  – Develop concepts
• Key Attributes/ Student Activities:
  1. Examine examples and nonexamples of concept
  2. Identify new exemplars as examples or
  3. Generate rules/criteria for concepts
  4. Develop or receive concept labels
              Inquiry Lessons
• Require students to inquire, examine
  information, make hypotheses, gather data,
  and draw conclusions
• Get students actively involved in discovering a
  generalization that explain a puzzling event or
  set of data.
• Capitalize on students’ natural curiosity and
  desire to find solutions to puzzling or
  problematic situations
            Suchman’s Inquiry
• Use:
  – Form generalizations
• Key Attributes/ Student Activities:
  1. View a puzzling event
  2. Ask “yes” and “no” questions to explain the
     event and/or identify important variables
  3. Test hypotheses by asking questions or
     manipulating variables
  4. Draw conclusions
                  Other Inquiry
• Use:
   – Form generalizations
• Key Attributes/ Student Activities
  1.   Examine data set
  2.   Make hypotheses regarding data
  3.   Test hypotheses on additional data
  4.   Draw conclusions
**Fascinating inquiry projects can be conducted
   when classrooms share data from different
   parts of the country or the world.**
            Authentic Research
• Definition-inductive lessons in which students collect
  and analyze data to draw new conclusions.
• These activities appeal to the way the brain naturally
  learns by engaging students with meaningful,
  complex experiences
• Data is not presented by the teacher
• The results are not identified in advance
• When using authentic research you must always
  make sure the questions are appropriate, there are
  no predetermined answers, and data is always
           Types of Research
• Descriptive Research
• Historical Research
• Experimental Research
        Descriptive Research
• Asks the question, How are things now?
• Main purpose is to portray a current situation as
  accurately as possible
• Includes observations, surveys, and interviews
• Can be conducted in a short period of time
• Easiest type of research for young children
• Examples: school reporting average reading test
  scores for a grade, conducting election polls, observe
  the types of insects found on school grounds
            Historical Research
• Asks the question, How did things use to be?
• Main purpose is to reconstruct the past as accurately
  and objectively as possible
• Appropriate for elementary age students.
• Examples: interview a former mayor about his or her
  term, a book about a pioneer woman based on her
• The main difference between historical research and
  typical library research is the reliance of the historical
  research on primary resources
   • paintings, museum displays, old magazines

   **CAUTION: the younger the students, the closer to home
     we must stay
             Experimental Research
• Asks the question, What would happen if…?

• Designed to investigate cause-and-effect relationships by exposing
  experimental groups to some type of treatment

• Manipulates variables
   – Researcher investigates the effectiveness of a drug

• Students make hypotheses, gather data, and draw conclusions

• Examples: medical studies, studies comparing the effectiveness of
  teaching techniques
         Problem Based Learning
• Definition- learning structured around a complex
• students learn content and process as necessary to
  solve problem rather than being given the problem
  after the skills are learned
   – Started in medical schools
• In a classroom, starts with a problem, which is
  selected by the teacher
 Success of Problem Based Learning….
• Depends on 2 things:
  – The structure of the problem
  – The skill of the teacher in guiding students

  • Teacher shifts between traditional and
    nontraditional roles
• Definition- is the awareness of one’s own thinking
• This is a valuable asset for students’ understanding of content
  and skills of effective learning
• 3 parts of metacognition:
   – Being aware of one’s own commitment, attention, and
     attitude toward a task
   – Exertion of metacognitive control over the learning
   – Student monitors how well the planned strategies are
     working and checks progress made toward the goal
    Steps to Inductive Approaches
                       page 228

•   Exploring data
•   Finding patterns or make hypotheses
•   Test hypotheses
•   Form concepts or generalizations
•   Metacognition
•   Apply understanding in a new situation

* The middle stages (2 and 3) may be repeated as
  many times as necessary.
• Definition- an activity in which students take on a role and
  pretend they are a particular person or thing in order to solve
  a problem or act out a situation.
• Effective tools for enhancing understanding of content and
  developing of social and life skills
• Can be done in small groups or by one group in front of the
• No script
• Brief activity completed in one class session
• Helps students to develop varied points of view by
  considering issues from more than one perspective
     4 Steps in Panning Role-Play
• Select the general problem area to be
• Define the specific situation to be portrayed
• Plan a role for the audience
• Decide how you will introduce the role-play
            Follow these Steps!
• Provide the introductory activities
• Clearly explain the situation to be enacted
• Select students for each role and assign the
  observation task to the audience
• Give the observers a talk to perform
• Conduct the role-play one or more times
• Allow enough time for the students to respond to
  the activity
• Definition- an activity in which students experience a
  simplified version of reality, either through complex extended
  role-play or through electronic “virtual” experiences
• Involves many students over a period of days, weeks, or
• Should include a variety of roles that demand differing
  strengths and weaknesses
• Events should take place as a normal consequence of students
• Students should act as they believe their role demands
• Many simulations are available on computers
      4 Key Questions to Ask When Creating a
•   What is the problem?
•   Who are the participants?
•   What do they have to do?
•   What do they have to do it with?

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