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“It is only an inductive lesson if the students engage in inductive thinking” (Joyce, Showers, &Weil, 1996) Models For Teaching: Inductive Approaches By: Kimberly Crowell & Ana Bailey Natural Resources: Trees (yes) Houses (no) Granite (yes) Bathtub (no) Sun (yes) Fans (no) Oil (yes) Tent (no) Gasoline (no) Now, find a commonality amongst the positive examples and negative examples. Then, make a definition. T-shirt Mississippi River Coal Soil Cement Wind Inductive Teaching: Informal & Formal • Proceeds from specific to general – Draw general conclusions based on particular examples. – Example: Detectives • Most learning that occurs in daily life is inductive – Example: Children learn concepts such as happy, tired, dog, or ice cream through experiences • Lessons teach the content AND a higher level thinking strategy useful in everyday life! Informal Inductive Teaching • Not necessarily unplanned – Fish tank – Rabbit – Collection of plants – Weather stations – Collection of books displayed on a table – Portion of school yard “adopted” for careful observations throughout the year – Field Trips – Technology Formal Inductive Teaching • Focuses primarily on the students’ interaction with information. • Direct lessons: Teacher presents an idea or skill and then cites specific examples of how it may be applied. • Inductive lessons: Students are given examples and they figure out the concept or generalization that ties it all together. • Page 213 Bruner’s Structure Concept Formation • Use: – Develop Concepts • Key Attributes/ Student Activities: 1. List data 2. Categorize data 3. Label concepts • When planning, two considerations: 1. Plan a question or problem that will allow students to generate a list of data rich enough to include the concept you wish to develop 2. Recognize when students need additional questions to assist them in focusing the categories Concept Attainment • Use: – Develop concepts • Key Attributes/ Student Activities: 1. Examine examples and nonexamples of concept 2. Identify new exemplars as examples or nonexamples 3. Generate rules/criteria for concepts 4. Develop or receive concept labels Inquiry Lessons • Require students to inquire, examine information, make hypotheses, gather data, and draw conclusions • Get students actively involved in discovering a generalization that explain a puzzling event or set of data. • Capitalize on students’ natural curiosity and desire to find solutions to puzzling or problematic situations Suchman’s Inquiry • Use: – Form generalizations • Key Attributes/ Student Activities: 1. View a puzzling event 2. Ask “yes” and “no” questions to explain the event and/or identify important variables 3. Test hypotheses by asking questions or manipulating variables 4. Draw conclusions Other Inquiry • Use: – Form generalizations • Key Attributes/ Student Activities 1. Examine data set 2. Make hypotheses regarding data 3. Test hypotheses on additional data 4. Draw conclusions **Fascinating inquiry projects can be conducted when classrooms share data from different parts of the country or the world.** ACTIVITY!!! Authentic Research • Definition-inductive lessons in which students collect and analyze data to draw new conclusions. • These activities appeal to the way the brain naturally learns by engaging students with meaningful, complex experiences • Data is not presented by the teacher • The results are not identified in advance Caution! • When using authentic research you must always make sure the questions are appropriate, there are no predetermined answers, and data is always available. Types of Research • Descriptive Research • Historical Research • Experimental Research Descriptive Research • Asks the question, How are things now? • Main purpose is to portray a current situation as accurately as possible • Includes observations, surveys, and interviews • Can be conducted in a short period of time • Easiest type of research for young children • Examples: school reporting average reading test scores for a grade, conducting election polls, observe the types of insects found on school grounds Historical Research • Asks the question, How did things use to be? • Main purpose is to reconstruct the past as accurately and objectively as possible • Appropriate for elementary age students. • Examples: interview a former mayor about his or her term, a book about a pioneer woman based on her diaries Continued… • The main difference between historical research and typical library research is the reliance of the historical research on primary resources • paintings, museum displays, old magazines **CAUTION: the younger the students, the closer to home we must stay Experimental Research • Asks the question, What would happen if…? • Designed to investigate cause-and-effect relationships by exposing experimental groups to some type of treatment • Manipulates variables – Researcher investigates the effectiveness of a drug • Students make hypotheses, gather data, and draw conclusions • Examples: medical studies, studies comparing the effectiveness of teaching techniques ACTIVITY!!! Problem Based Learning • Definition- learning structured around a complex problem • students learn content and process as necessary to solve problem rather than being given the problem after the skills are learned – Started in medical schools • In a classroom, starts with a problem, which is selected by the teacher Success of Problem Based Learning…. • Depends on 2 things: – The structure of the problem – The skill of the teacher in guiding students • Teacher shifts between traditional and nontraditional roles Metacognition • Definition- is the awareness of one’s own thinking • This is a valuable asset for students’ understanding of content and skills of effective learning • 3 parts of metacognition: – Being aware of one’s own commitment, attention, and attitude toward a task – Exertion of metacognitive control over the learning process – Student monitors how well the planned strategies are working and checks progress made toward the goal Steps to Inductive Approaches page 228 • Exploring data • Finding patterns or make hypotheses • Test hypotheses • Form concepts or generalizations • Metacognition • Apply understanding in a new situation * The middle stages (2 and 3) may be repeated as many times as necessary. Role-Play • Definition- an activity in which students take on a role and pretend they are a particular person or thing in order to solve a problem or act out a situation. • Effective tools for enhancing understanding of content and developing of social and life skills • Can be done in small groups or by one group in front of the class • No script • Brief activity completed in one class session • Helps students to develop varied points of view by considering issues from more than one perspective 4 Steps in Panning Role-Play • Select the general problem area to be addressed • Define the specific situation to be portrayed • Plan a role for the audience • Decide how you will introduce the role-play Follow these Steps! • Provide the introductory activities • Clearly explain the situation to be enacted • Select students for each role and assign the observation task to the audience • Give the observers a talk to perform • Conduct the role-play one or more times • Allow enough time for the students to respond to the activity Simulation • Definition- an activity in which students experience a simplified version of reality, either through complex extended role-play or through electronic “virtual” experiences • Involves many students over a period of days, weeks, or months • Should include a variety of roles that demand differing strengths and weaknesses • Events should take place as a normal consequence of students actions • Students should act as they believe their role demands • Many simulations are available on computers 4 Key Questions to Ask When Creating a Simulation • What is the problem? • Who are the participants? • What do they have to do? • What do they have to do it with?
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