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Realms of Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

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									Realms of Cognitive Development
      in Middle Childhood
               The Life Span
               Human Development
               for Healthcare
               Professionals,
               Chapter 6
Physical and Brain-Related
Changes

   Physical growth is slowing drastically
   Motor skills
    –   By age 6, gross motor skills are fairly well established
    –   By age 10, fine motor skills are established
   Brain Growth
    –   Frontal lobes growing
    –   Myelinization still occurring fairly rapidly
    –   Initial development of logic skills
Cognitive Development

   Piaget’s Concrete Operations
    –   Occurs from roughly ages 6 to 12
    –   Knowledge is constructed, not simply stamped in
    –   Construction occurs as a process of
        accommodation and assimilation
    –   Children at this age are capable of learning how to
        reverse relationships
    –   Formal operational thought: occurs when children
        can start to evaluate their own ideas.
Achievements of the Concrete
Operational Child

   Memory and attention
    –   Memory Terminology
            Sensory Memory
            Short-term (working) memory
            Long-term memory
            Rehearsal
            Recognition and Recall
            Declarative: semantic and episodic
            Nondeclarative: procedural
Achievements of the Concrete
Operational Child

   Memory and attention
    –   Improvements in digit span test
    –   Knowledge base
            Eyewitness memory
            Ability to chunk
    –   Advanced logical thinking
    –   Narrative Skills
    –   Memory Strategies
    –   metacognition
Achievements of the Concrete
Operational Child

   Problem solving Progress in Middle Childhood
    –   By the time children hit the age of 7 or 8, they have
        started to draw upon a wide variety of knowledge
        and experiences to help with solving problems. One
        area where this really takes off is with peer
        interaction.
    –   Cooperative Learning Environments
            Zone of Proximal development
Social Cognition

   Perspective taking and social relationships
    –   Friendship Development
Stage Forms of Shared           Social Perspective        Interpersonal
      Experience                taking                    negotiation strategies



  0   Unreflective imitation    Undifferentiated          Physical force; impulsive
      or enmeshment             /Egocentrism              fight or flight

  1   Unreflective sharing of   Differentiated            1-way, unilateral power;
      expressive enthusiasm     /Subjective               orders or obedience

  2   Reflective sharing of     Reciprocal                Cooperative exchange;
      similar perceptions or    /Self-reflective          Reciprocity: persuasion or
      experiences                                         deference
  3   Empathic sharing of       Mutual/Third person       Mutual compromise
      beliefs and values

  4   Interdependent sharing Intimate/In0depth/Societal   Collaborative integration of
      of vulnerabilities & self (generalized other)       relationship dynamic
                                                          (commitment)

								
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