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					    Presenting Professional Talks

                 J. Ellen Marsden
Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources
                University of Vermont
           Preparing for the talk
Know your audience
 - public, or scientists?
  - what type of introductory material is needed?
    - context, context, context!!
          Preparing for the talk
Know your audience
Know your venue (time limit, facilities)
 - leave time for questions, discussion
  - how big is the room (size of screen)?
  - what ‘tools’ will you need (computer, pointer?)
          Preparing for the talk
Know your audience
Know your venue
Know your message
  - keep it simple
  - have the flow and ‘story’ by heart
          Preparing for the talk
Know your audience
Know your venue
Know your message
Know yourself
  - dress appropriately, look confident
    (balance professional dress with comfort)
    General tips for giving talks
• Use slides as your ‘cue-cards’ to remember what
  to say next, BUT
   – anticipate your slides
   – do not read or describe slides
   – slides illustrate points, they are not THE point
    General tips for giving talks
• Avoid jargon, acronyms
• Use useful names
  – not ‘Orconectes virilis’ or ‘green crayfish’ if ‘first
    invader’ is relevant point
           The point of slides:

To emphasize, not provide, the message

To convey visually what words cannot do effectively

- get away from slides to refocus attention on you
           (don’t hide behind your slides)
The seven deadly sins of giving talks
• Reading from a script/’reciting’ your talk
The seven deadly sins of giving talks
• Reading from a script/’reciting’ your talk
• Talking to the screen, not the audience
The seven deadly sins of giving talks
• Reading from a script/’reciting’ your talk
• Talking to the screen, not the audience
• Typographical erors in your Slides
The seven deadly sins of giving talks
•   Reading from a script/’reciting’ your talk
•   Talking to the screen, not the audience
•   Typographical erors in your Slides
•   Being ‘surprised’ by a slide when it appears (not
    knowing all your slides by heart)
The seven deadly sins of giving talks
• Reading from a script/’reciting’ your talk
• Talking to the screen, not the audience
• Typographical erors in your Slides
• Being ‘surprised’ by a slide when it appears (not
  knowing all your slides by heart)
• Too much text or unreadable text on a slide
                                                                                                                The
             The Rubenstein School
             of Environment and Natural Resources
                                                                                                                UNIVERSITY
                                                                                                                of VERMONT


                                                    Water and Lake Studies
                                                    Forest Ecosystems Health
                                                    Landscape Ecology and Biodiversity




Ecological Economics
       and Design
                                                         Ecology and
Sustainable Forestry
                                                    Environmental Science                                   Landscape Mapping
                                                                                                            Land Use Change
Ecological Planning
                                                              Ecosystem                  Spatial Analysis   Analysis
Watershed Science and
       Planning
                                                             Sustainability               and Modeling      Dynamic Simulation
                                                             and Planning                                   Modeling

                                                               “c
                                                            Human
                                                           Dimensions




                                                              Environmental Policy
                                                              Tourism and Recreation
                                                              Environmental Thought
The seven deadly sins of giving talks
• Reading from a script/’reciting’ your talk
• Talking to the screen, not the audience
• Typographical erors in your Slides
• Being ‘surprised’ by a slide when it appears (not
  knowing all your slides by heart)
• Too much text or unreadable text on a slide
• Apologizing
The seven deadly sins of giving talks
• Reading from a script/’reciting’ your talk
• Talking to the screen, not the audience
• Typographical erors in your Slides
• Being ‘surprised’ by a slide when it appears (not
  knowing all your slides by heart)
• Too much text or unreadable text on a slide
• Apologizing
• Too much content for the allotted time
             Slide content
Any time you use a text slide with complete
 sentences the audience attention is
 distracted from speaker as people read all of
 the words while the speaker is talking and
 trying to convey something useful
              Slide content

• attention focuses first on a new visual
              Slide content

• attention focuses first on a new visual

• complex visuals distract from verbal message
             Slide content
• attention focuses first on a new visual
• complex visuals distract from verbal message
• guide audience attention by highlighting the
  focal point(s)
             Slide content
• attention focuses first on a new visual
• complex visuals distract from verbal message
• guide audience attention by highlighting the
  focal point(s)
• … or by reducing emphasis on previous points
                   Content

•   attention will focus on new visuals
•   avoid complex visuals
•   guide audience attention
•   highlight focal point(s)

        ….and simplify the message!!
General organization
     Title slide
    J. Ellen Marsden
   University of Vermont

   Additional authors
      other institutions




      Funded by
(in cooperation with):
            Format
         FONTS
    Minimum font sizes

  Title Font (36 pt)
       Subtitle font (28 pt)
            Text font (24 pt)

Sans Serif fonts are recommended
Examples: Tahoma                Arial

Serif fonts are not recommended
Examples:       Palatino     Times New Roman
      Organization of my talk:

Introduction
Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusions
            Introduction


Enough information so the audience has a
context, understands why this study is important
                   Objectives

short list of bulleted objectives, each with an action verb:

   • identify lake trout spawning locations
   • quantify egg density
   • determine fate of post-emergent fry
                           Methods
Statolith preparation:
• sagittal otoliths dissected in a Class-100 clean room
• sonicated for 5 min in Milli-Q ultrapure water in ULTRAsonik cleaner
• transferred to clean Petri dish, rinsed three times in Milli-Q water
• mounted with double-sided tape on a petrographic microscope slide
• dried under laminar-flow hood for 24-48 h
• analyzed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass
  spectrometer (LA-ICPMS)
• laser power set to 1.10 Kvolts
                      Methods

Statolith microchemistry analyzed with laser ablation
  ICPMS
                      Methods
Statolith microchemistry: laser ablation ICPMS
                    Results

• Know the ‘rules’ for graphing data
• Keep the graphs “clean”
     focus on data
     reduce stray ‘ink’
     avoid fancy stuff (e.g., 3-D graphs)
• Describe the axes before discussing data
after 48 hours (individuals)                        No Mussels
                               60                                         NSD
  Chironomids remaining

                                                    50% Mussel Coverage
                                                    90% Mussel Coverage
                               45

                               30

                               15

                               0
                                    0.8     1.0                   2.0
                                            0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 1 2.2
                                          Number of O. limosus present
**
Graph pasted from Excel – distracting contrast, unnecessary title,
poor use of space and font size


                           MALL Outer Malletts Bay

                      40       y = 4.2612x + 16.006
        Length (mm)




                      30            R2 = 0.8163
                      20
                      10
                      0
                           0    0.5   1   1.5   2   2.5   3   3.5   4   4.5
                                            Weight (g)
Graph background removed – focus is now on data alone
Density of eggs deposited per m^2




                                    5,000
                                    4,500
                                    4,000
                                    3,500
                                    3,000
                                    2,500
                                    2,000
                                    1,500
                                    1,000
                                     500
                                       0
                                             0.8    1       3           5        7   9
                                            above
                                                        Distance from nest (m)
Under-use of slide space




16000.00

14000.00


12000.00

10000.00
                                                                    cisco
 8000.00                                                            lake trout
                                                                    lake herring
 6000.00


 4000.00

 2000.00


    0.00
           1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921
Unnecessary ink (border), too many digits in y-axis, poor layout

                        16000.00

                        14000.00


                        12000.00
  Harvest x 1,000 lbs




                        10000.00
                                                                                            cisco
                         8000.00                                                            lake trout
                                                                                            lake herring
                         6000.00


                         4000.00

                         2000.00

                            0.00
                                   1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921
                        Too much information - guide the audience through the data….


                      14,000
                                                                         cisco
                      12,000
                                                                         lake trout
Harvest x 1,000 lbs




                      10,000                                             lake herring

                       8,000

                       6,000

                       4,000

                       2,000

                         -
                               1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921
                        Take the data a piece at a time….


                      14,000

                      12,000
Harvest x 1,000 lbs




                                                                          cisco
                      10,000                                              lake trout
                                                                          lake herring
                       8,000

                       6,000

                       4,000

                       2,000

                         -
                               1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921
                      14,000

                      12,000
Harvest x 1,000 lbs




                                                                          cisco
                      10,000                                              lake trout
                                                                          lake herring
                       8,000

                       6,000

                       4,000

                       2,000

                         -
                               1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921
                      14,000

                      12,000
                                                                          cisco
Harvest x 1,000 lbs




                      10,000                                              lake trout
                                                                          lake herring
                       8,000

                       6,000

                       4,000

                       2,000

                         -
                               1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921
The problem of too much data….
Year   Habitat     Survival   Migration   Return   Breeding

1990   Juvenile    30,089      4,147       0.14      1.28


       Sub-adult      374        150       0.40      0.02


       Adult       42,279        871       0.02      1.84

1999   Juvenile    54,075       1,311     0.024      5.02

       Sub-adult   24,503      1,427      0.058      1.93


       Adult       78,578      2,738      0.035      3.35


2000   Juvenile    74,865      3,500      0.047      6.95

       Sub-adult   41,897      1,499      0.036      3.30


       Adult       116,762     4,999      0.043      4.98
Maximize size (within reason) ….
Year   Habitat     Survival   Migration   Return   Breeding

1990   Juvenile    30,089      4,147       0.14      1.28

       Sub-adult      374        150       0.40      0.02

       Adult       42,279        871       0.02      1.84

1999   Juvenile    54,075       1,311     0.024      5.02

       Sub-adult   24,503      1,427      0.058      1.93

       Adult       78,578      2,738      0.035      3.35

2000   Juvenile    74,865      3,500      0.047      6.95

       Sub-adult   41,897      1,499      0.036      3.30

       Adullt      116,762     4,999      0.043      4.98
Emphasize focal data points….
Year   Habitat     Survival   Migration   Return   Breeding

1990   Juvenile    30,089       4,147      0.14      1.28

       Sub-adult      374        150       0.40      0.02

       Adult       42,279        871       0.02      1.84

1999   Juvenile    54,075       1,311     0.024      5.02

       Sub-adult   24,503       1,427     0.058      1.93

       Adult       78,578       2,738     0.035      3.35

2000   Juvenile    74,865       3,500     0.047      6.95

       Sub-adult   41,897       1,499     0.036      3.30

       Adult       116,762      4,999     0.043      4.98
Or highlight important data….
Year   Habitat     Survival   Migration   Return   Breeding

1990   Juvenile    30,089       4,147      0.14      1.28

       Sub-adult      374        150       0.40      0.02

       Adult       42,279        871       0.02      1.84

1999   Juvenile    54,075       1,311     0.024      5.02

       Sub-adult   24,503       1,427     0.058      1.93

       Adult       78,578       2,738     0.035      3.35

2000   Juvenile    74,865       3,500     0.047      6.95

       Sub-adult   41,897       1,499     0.036      3.30

       Adult       116,762      4,999     0.043      4.98
Or highlight important data….
Year   Habitat     Survival   Migration   Return   Breeding

1990   Juvenile    30,089       4,147      0.14      1.28

       Sub-adult      374        150       0.40      0.02

       Adult       42,279        871       0.02      1.84

1999   Juvenile    54,075       1,311     0.024      5.02

       Sub-adult   24,503       1,427     0.058      1.93

       Adult       78,578       2,738     0.035      3.35

2000   Juvenile    74,865       3,500     0.047      6.95

       Sub-adult   41,897       1,499     0.036      3.30

       Adult       116,762      4,999     0.043      4.98
                 Summary

summarize major points, conclusions, or findings;
bullets will generally echo your objectives:

   • lake trout spawn lake-wide
   • egg density is sufficient for population stability
   • post-emergent fry sampling unsuccessful
                   Conclusions

a summing-up of your study (optional; often combined
with summary):

• Lake trout spawning is sufficient for restoration,

     BUT

• Fate of post-emergent fry is unknown
             Acknowledgements
• Funding                          Cooperators
   - Great Lakes Fishery Trust        - USFWS
                                      - VTDFW


• Assistants
   –   Joel Brown          - Anne Warwick
   –   Mary O’Connor       - John Smith
   –   Pete Swashbuckler   - Susan Spey
   –   Fred Black           - many others
           Acknowledgements
 Funding              Cooperators




…and the
field crews!
Questions?
Format tips and ideas
                       Format
• Use visuals to illustrate points (a picture DOES
  say a thousand words)
   – but be sure to include credits on photos




                               Credit: Wes Tibbets, Oneonta College
                 Format
• Many options exist for transitions between
  slides
                 Format
• Many options exist for transitions between
  slides
• some can be cute…
                 Format
• Many options exist for transitions between
  slides
• some can be cute…
• too much can be distracting
                 Format
• Many options exist for transitions between
  slides
• some can be cute…
• too much can be distracting
• … or they can be really annoying!
   Format

use slide space well
Large, bold text can be too
overwhelming (and margins
need to be used efficiently)
             Backgrounds
• White or yellow on blue provides high
  contrast
              Backgrounds
• White or yellow on blue provides high
  contrast
• use different colors to highlight different
  levels of slide (title, bullets)
             Backgrounds


A change of pace can be refreshing…
              Backgrounds
• White on black is useful in well-lit room
  …but can be hard on the eyes in a dark
  room
              Backgrounds
• Fade-out backgrounds are attractive…


• but the text can get hard to see…


• …. as you go down the slide
              Backgrounds
• Be careful of low-contrast colors

• … and jarring contrasts
            Backgrounds
• Remember that ~ 20% of males have some
  degree of color blindness!
          Backgrounds

readability is reduced, audience is
distracted, information transfer is damaged
Attractive but unreadable
    with background
Better use of
background
Even better use of
  background
Interesting background effect – in a dark room,
slide content appears alone, without apparent
‘framing’ of slide
             Mis-use of bullets…

• Piezoelectric component   • Designed to resonate at proper
                              frequency
• Active array or element   • Shapes the sound field in water
  dimension
• Main lobe and side lobe   • Pattern of sound production

• Directivity index         • Amount of focus along
                              acoustic axis

				
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posted:8/21/2012
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