NALSAR UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD
Post Graduate Diploma in Aviation Law &
Air Transport Management
1st - Semester
Global Air Safety and Security Regulations
Submitted By Submitted To
Loknath Kashyap Dr. P.C.K. Rvindran
PGDALATM Director IAAM
1st Sem Kalicut
Mapping a Safety Strategy
Blueprint for an Action Plan
Aviation Safety Record
ICAO Aviation Security Programs
Aviation Security and Facilitation Policy Section
Implementation Support and Development (ISD) - Security Section
Universal Security Audit Program (USAP)
Building a greener future
Safety is a high priority for business aviation and its inherent safety culture has resulted in a very
good safety record. The significant attention to aviation safety has evolved over many years of
applying industry good practices, influenced by the demand by aircraft owners for the highest
level of safety. However, the industry recognizes that there is a need for continuous improvement
in order to maintain this level of safety in a rapidly changing aviation system and to make a safe
system even safer.
Continuous improvement in aviation safety, with balance achieved between safety and
efficiency, demands that all participants in the system challenge the processes, the culture and
themselves, to identify weaknesses and to seek corrective solutions. Experience demonstrates
that safety is a good business practice. Although self analysis is important for individuals and
operators, there is also a broader need to view the system as a whole and to develop a system
wide strategic plan, a blueprint or roadmap, to ensure linkages and to foster creativity that will
lead to a better overall system.
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) encouraged such a safety Roadmap at an
Air Navigation Commission/Industry meeting held in Montreal in May of 2005. Subsequently, a
number of organizations worked together through the Industry Safety Strategy Group (ISSG)
consisting of those sectors of the broad aviation system primarily interested in large commercial
aircraft operations (IATA, ACI, Airbus, Boeing, CANSO, FSF, and IFALPA). Subsequently, the
business aviation industry recognized a need to develop a more dedicated supplementary
blueprint focusing on initiatives of the business aviation community.
The development of a business aviation safety strategy was placed in the hands of a team of
business aviation industry representative organizations from the International Business Aviation
Council and its Member Associations, with support from the Flight Safety Foundation (FSF).
The broad objective of the Business Aviation Safety Strategy is continuous improvement of
business aviation safety. The Strategy has been developed by the global business aviation
community to ensure coordination of the many safety initiatives of the industry and to assess and
plan for further improvement. The initiatives in this Strategy list all of the safety programs of the
industry. It is intended that the Strategy serve as the business aviation input to the ICAO Global
Aviation Safety Plan.
The aviation industry as a whole has long been recognized as the global leader in the research,
development and implementation of advanced safety programs. Significant safety advances have
been made in both safety equipment and safety processes. Therefore, a business aviation safety
strategy should recognize and build on progress made by the aviation industry over the Years.
Addressing the reality that the majority of accidents and serious incidents resulting in fatalities occur
during the take-off and landing phases of flights, the Assembly endorsed ICAO's plan to establish a multi-
disciplinary approach to address the critical issue of runway safety. This will bring together
representatives from airlines, airports, air navigation service providers and regulatory authorities. In May
2012, the Organization will host a Global Runway Safety Symposium in Montréal, followed by a number
of regional workshops to identify and further resolve runway safety issues.
The Assembly also endorsed a proactive safety strategy based on the sharing of critical safety information
among governments and industry stakeholders. Greater availability of information in a transparent
process improves the ability to better analyze and predict safety risks and to take action before issues
result in accidents. Acting proactively on risk indicators can help to significantly reduce the accidents in
all regions of the world.
In a demonstration of support for the strategy, ICAO signed a Memorandum of Understanding during the
Assembly with the United States Department of Transportation, the European Union, and the
International Air Transport Association for the creation of a Global Safety Information Exchange. ICAO
will coordinate the collection, analysis and exchange of aviation safety information among Exchange
Members and disseminate to the global aviation community.
The Assembly also endorsed ICAO's plan intended to guide the estimated 50 billion dollar investment
that States will make in their aviation infrastructure over the next 10 years. Through the Global Air
Navigation Plan, ICAO acts as global integrator, facilitating harmonization of a variety of large scale
regional program. Initial plans will be introduced to States at a Global Air Navigation Forum in
September of 2011 and finalized in November of 2012 during the 12th Air Navigation Conference.
Mapping a Safety Strategy
A Safety Strategy is best developed and administered using a clear map to effectively illustrate and
manage the accepted direction. Key elements, or safety themes, serve as the foundation upon which safety
initiatives can be formulated and added. Mapping the safety themes is a subjective exercise, so it can most
effectively be done through a think-tank approach involving a number of industry safety specialists.
The conclusion of such an industry analysis was a strategy constructed around the following major safety
2. Codes of Practice (including SMS, training and human factors)
3. Adherence to industry standards,
4. Regulatory Framework (rules and oversight),
5. Data collection and analysis,
6. Safety equipment and tools,
7. Air Navigation and Airport Services,
8. Industry Support Services.
These safety themes can be depicted as a Safety Star which can be used to guide the path of
the Business Aviation Safety Strategy.
International Business Aviation Council (IBAC)
Blueprint for an Action Plan
Business Aviation must continuously reach for the Star. The rays of the Safety Star light the path needed
to achieve aviation safety excellence; the safety target themes or paths form a nucleus around which a
detailed blueprint can be built.
Organizational safety culture means that everyone, from the chief executive down through the entire
company, is committed to continuous safety improvement, always watching for potential hazards and
their associated risks, and then developing and implementing appropriate and effective mitigation to
either eliminate the hazards or reduce the risks to an acceptable level. An embedded safety culture is
arguably the most significant element of the foundation for safety excellence. It is even more powerful
when it includes the elements of a “Just Culture”. Just Culture" is the term used to describe the safety-
supportive balance between system and individual accountability and includes achieving a balance
between an open learning safety culture and the need to hold individuals accountable for their choices.
Where a just culture is inherent and is effectively documented, other elements will more easily fall into
place. Where it doesn’t exist, safety cannot be optimized.
Given the large number of companies operating business aircraft and the diversity in the 14,000 global
operators of business aircraft, universal achievement of a safety culture throughout the industry will be
elusive. Nevertheless, the following activities are planned to help expand the number of companies
committed to a safety culture.
o Develop a brochure that explains the critical importance of achieving a safety
culture in a flight department. The brochure should be targeted at chief
executives of companies that operate business aircraft. It must be developed to
assist conscientious flight department managers to plant the safety culture seed
throughout the company.
o 1.2 Investigate the feasibility of promoting the formation of safety clubs whereby
operators in a given geographical area can meet periodically to discuss safety
Programs and best practices available to them.
o 1.3 Develop tools and guidance material to help the industry to undertake cultural
2. Codes of Practice
The industry must continually learn from itself. Industry Codes of Practice provide the mechanism for the
industry to take innovative new safety and security programs from progressive flight departments and
make them readily available to others. Codes of Practice can also be applied by regulators in rulemaking
as it reduces workload for regulatory agencies and provides an efficient mechanism for the industry and
safety officials to ensure current rules are in place. They also tend to make regulations more succinct, as
reference can be made in the rules to industry codes of practice.
The business aviation industry developed the International Standard for Business Aircraft Operations (IS-
BAO) between 1999 and 2002, and since May 2002 it has been recognized as the gold standard for
companies demonstrating a high level of safety achievement. The ISBAO, a set of performance-based
standards, is readily scalable and has been successfully. implemented by owner – operators, flight
departments, both large and small, and by a number of on-demand air taxi/charter operators i.e. holders of
an FAR Part 135 Certificate or equivalent. A Safety Management System (SMS) is the cornerstone for the
IS-BAO, which provides a mechanism for companies to continuously improve safety. The industry must
routinely challenge itself to assess and improve the Code of Practice. Activities planned for enhancing the
2.1 Annual review by the IS-BAO Standards Board, refinement and continuous improvement
of the industry Code of Practice and delivery of an updated standard to all document
2.2 Obtaining feedback from operators, auditors and other stakeholders on the ISBAO to use
as part of the continuous improvement process.
2.3 Develop and implement a marketing strategy to ensure global awareness and knowledge
of the industry Code.
2.4 Enhance information contained in Member Association web sites.
2.5 Promote alignment between all industry safety programs such as the NBAA Management
Guide and NBAA Professional Development Program, and ensure linkage with the IS-
2.6 Linkage of the safety standard to international and national business aviation regulatory
2.7 Review the industry standards to enhance provisions for training, particularly on human
2.8 Complete an analysis of accidents occurring in the landing phase of operation.
2.9 Complete a study of accidents occurring during training and positioning flights.
2.10 Address means of mitigating identified hazards associated with single pilot
3. Adherence to Industry Standards
Industry codes of practice embodied into an industry standard are developed and maintained by
industry governing bodies. However, it is incumbent on operators to voluntarily apply them and to
continually test their effectiveness. The safety standards will not achieve their objective if flight
departments do not implement and apply them conscientiously.
Mechanisms are needed to ensure that flight departments have a tool by which to measure success and to
affirm regulatory compliance to company executives, insurance companies and other stakeholders.
3.1 Monitor the IS-BAO Certificate of Registration program to ensure auditors remain
current and audits are conducted consistently and thoroughly.
3.2 Research the value of IS-BAO with the insurance industry and capitalize on partnerships
3.3 Publish a summary of the independent analyst’s study of the safety value of the IS-BAO.
3.4 Complete a comprehensive review of NAT Gross Navigation Errors attributed to
3.5 Develop and implement an Education Strategy to help the industry understand industry
codes of practice.
4. Regulatory Framework
Differences in rules and procedures between States around the world represent inherent safety
deficiencies. There is need for harmonized rules, based on realistic and effective international standards.
The business aviation industry strongly encourages contemporary performance based rules for both
commercial and non-commercial operations that are proportional to the risks and are designed to match
modern day operational imperatives.
Activities planned to promote improved rules are:
4.1 Encourage and assist the International Civil Aviation Organization to modernize the
Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) for International General Aviation
Operations (Annex 6 Part II).
4.2 Participate in ICAO and other standards development organizations towards
improvement in regulatory provisions.
4.3 Contribute to the work of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and other civil
aviation authorities to implement realistic and effective rules applicable to general
aviation, consistent with the ICAO SARPS for international general aviation operations.
4.4 Work with EASA and other civil aviation authorities to implement realistic and effective
rules applicable to aircraft conducting commercial on-demand air taxi operations.
4.5 Promote the acceptance and use of ICAO SARPs to facilitate rule harmonization.
5. Data Collection and Analysis
A system of metrics for safety in business aviation provides the critical information needed by the
industry to influence positive change.
ICAO does not collect, analyze or publish safety data for general aviation. The safety data prepared and
analyzed annually by ICAO is focused on commercial operations typically involving large, transport
category turbine- powered aero planes engaged in scheduled and nonscheduled operations (pax and
cargo). This means that while ICAO is in a position to pursue data-driven safety initiatives for this sector
of civil aviation, it is unable to do so for general aviation (Annex 6 Part II).
The IBAC Business Aviation Safety Brief, published annually, is the most comprehensive, if not the only,
source of global safety data for business aviation. Mechanisms are needed to measure the level of safety
achievement and to monitor trends. Concurrently, there is a need to determine weaknesses and
deficiencies so that attention can be focused on achieving safety improvement. There is an ongoing need
to collect and analyze data on aircraft incidents, accidents, safety issues, accident rates and causal factors.
Planned activities include:
5.1 Manage the contract with Robert Breiling and Associates to ensure continuity of data
5.2 Make changes to the Business Aviation Safety Brief to demonstrate the safety value of
the IS-BAO industry code of practice.
5.3 Partner with aircraft manufactures and aviation authorities to share accident, incident and
safety related data and information and improve/validate exposure data (hours/sectors
5.4 Conduct an analysis on reasons for runway accidents involving business aviation
5.5 Explore an arrangement with ICAO such that ICAO could, to some degree, ‘recognize’
the safety data produced by IBAC.
6. Safety Equipment and Tools
Rapid advances over the past couple of decades in aviation electronics have provided aviation with
extraordinary safety enhancements. Continued development of systems such as Enhanced Ground
Proximity Warning Systems and Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems will improve safety even further.
Flight Data Analysis (FDA aka FOQA) has proven its value as a powerful safety tool within the airline
industry and has been proven to be highly cost effective. Annex 6 Part I requires that FDA programs be
implemented by commercial operators.
Business aviation should constantly seek new safety tools, evaluate them and encourage their
introduction. Planned activities are:
6.1 Develop a business aviation policy on Flight Data Analysis including the required
alliances to implement such a program.
6.2 Partner with Flight Safety Foundation and other organizations to promote corporate Fight
Data Analysis (FDA) and to facilitate publication of safety information.
6.3 Conduct analyses of available safety equipment and the associated benefits and provide
relevant information to Member Associations and operators (examples include EGPWS,
6.4 Work with manufacturers, service providers and operators to develop and encourage data
6.5 Monitor development of smoke, fire and fumes detection equipment and determine the
best means to advise operators of the progress.
6.6 Assess the benefits of tools such as Threat and Error Management (TEM) and determine
how best to incorporate these initiatives into the industry code of practice.
7. Air Navigation and Airport Services
Aviation safety is strongly influenced by the quality of the air navigation and airport infrastructure and
services. These services are generally provided by government or private bodies; however, the business
aviation industry must be prepared to assist in the development and monitoring of good standards and the
identification of deficiencies. Industry bodies must be structured and be able to communicate relevant
operational information to flight departments and must assist in the communication of information
regarding changes to systems. Activities planned are:
7.1 Administer an ongoing Advisory Group on Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/
Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM), with participation by operators and manufacturers,
which can continuously serve as an industry focal point and information clearing house to
facilitate the safe, timely and effective CNS/ATM implementation by the business
7.2 Develop a mechanism to contribute directly to ICAO bodies that are tasked with the
standardization, development, implementation and application of CNS/ATM systems.
7.3 Monitor FDA over a period of time to determine if there programs needed to reduce
7.4 Encourage use of Runway Awareness and Advisory Systems (RAAS) to reduce runway
and taxiway errors.
8. Support Services
Business aviation is highly reliant on specialized support services provided for training, flight planning
and operational management. The quality and ready availability of these services have a direct influence
on the level of safety in the industry. Activities targeted at enhancing support services are:
8.1 Monitor and promote the concept of flight department pools for the purpose on sharing
safety management services.
8.2 Collaborate with Member Associations and training service providers to identify and
resolve training issues and to promote good training practices.
8.3 Encourage flight training institutions and operators to expand their simulator training
programs to include operations where greater risk exists.
8.4 Encourage flight planning organizations to ensure aircraft data reflects the actual
performance capabilities of the aircraft for which the calculations are made.
Aviation Safety Record
Developing a Safety Strategy requires an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the system.
The accident record serves as a prime indicator, but the industry must also rely on information derived
from as many additional sources as possible. For example, the willingness to apply effective safety
standards can serve as measure of the safety culture of the industry. Information from regulators and
service providers can also provide valuable data. The International Business Aviation Council routinely
publishes an annual Safety Brief summarizing the accident record for business aviation. Macro
information is provided as well as specific data for three business aviation sub-sectors:
1. Business aviation commercial (on-demand air taxi)
2. Corporate aviation
The record for the three sub-sectors over a five year period (2001 – 2005), which includes all turbine
powered business aircraft, is per the following table
Business Aircraft Accident Rates by Operator Type (Extrapolated) (per 100,000 departures)
Operator Type Departures Total Fatal Total Accident
Fatal (5 yrs) Accidents Accidents Accident Rate
Commercial (Air 7,272,523 317 95 4.36 1.31
Corporate 12,234,674 41 10 0.33 0.08
Owner-operated 12,582,108 128 47 1.02 0.37
All Business 32,179,309 510 160 1.58 0.50
A summary of relevant safety data and conclusions that will assist in determining potential actions
towards improvement are:
1. The accident rate for corporate aviation is essentially the same as the record for scheduled
commercial air transport jet aircraft weighing over 60,000 lbs.1
2. The record for all business aircraft combined is relatively good but there is room for
3. The commercial air taxi rate is significantly higher than corporate aviation and is also
higher than the non-scheduled commercial rate published by Boeing for jet aircraft over
60,000 lbs (0.31 accidents per 100,000 departures). 1
4. The Owner Operated rate is essentially the same as the rate for non-scheduled
commercial jet aircraft weighing over 60,000 lbs. 1
5. The accident rate trend for business aviation over the past five years, using a running five
year average, has no statistically significant change.
6. For jet aircraft, 53% of accidents are in the landing phase. Other most common accidents
are in the take–off phase (18%) and approach phase (10%).1 The air carrier landing
accident rate is approximately 45% (US fleet).2
7. Accidents for Turbo-prop aircraft follow a different trend, with 24% being in the
approach, 23% in the landing, and 14% during the take-off. 1
8. In turboprop operations, 70% of accidents are single pilot operations, whereas 63% of
the total operations are single pilot (Breiling study of US fleet).3
9. Although it is difficult to determine the number of flying hours for jet aircraft single pilot
operations it is noteworthy that one current small jet aircraft qualified for single pilot (SP)
has an accident rate three times higher than dual pilot aircraft of similar type. 3
10. 16.8% of all fatal accidents involved training flights (US fleet). 3
11. Ferry flights (positioning) compose 10% of flights conducted and account for 36% of
accidents. Positioning flights therefore have 5.4 times the likelihood of being in an
accident. (US fleet). 3
12. An independent study of the safety value of the IS-BAO indicates that if the standard had
been implemented and followed, 70% of the accidents could have been avoided (based on
a study of 500 accidents over a five year period).4
13. Within United Kingdom airspace, business aviation operators have a disproportionately
high number of altitude deviations.5
14. Business aviation operations on the North Atlantic have a disproportionately high number
of gross navigation errors (GNEs) and significant height deviations.6
In the case of corporate aviation, the safety record is amongst the best in all of aviation. While there
remains room for further improvement for this sector, the record of the other two sectors warrants
The Business Aviation Safety Brief is developed primarily using data from a broader study completed for
IBAC by Robert E. Breiling and Associates. Examples of other useful sources include incident data from
service providers and regulators, such as navigational errors and height keeping deviations.
An ICAO diplomatic conference held in Beijing, in September 2010, adopted two international air law
instruments for the suppression of unlawful acts relating to civil aviation, to further criminalize the use of
civil aircraft as a weapon and of dangerous materials to attack aircraft or other targets on the ground.
The Assembly built on this achievement by recognizing the need to strengthen aviation security
worldwide. In a Declaration, unanimously adopted by participants, international commitment was
reaffirmed to enhance aviation security collaboratively and proactively through screening technologies to
detect prohibited articles, strengthening international standards, improving security information-sharing
and providing capacity-building assistance to States in need.
The Assembly put its full support behind a comprehensive, new ICAO aviation security strategy. It
highlights key priorities, such as identifying and preventing new forms of attack before they occur,
streamlining security checks so that they remain effective but are not duplicated unnecessarily, and
improving the capabilities of States to oversee aviation security.
ICAO Aviation Security Programs
With the benefit of hindsight, it may seem hard to imagine how the need to address acts of sabotage,
unlawful seizure of aircraft and the use of civil aircraft in terrorist attacks (as was the case on 11
September 2001) could have been overlooked by the drafters of the Chicago Convention, ICAO’s
founding charter and corner piece for international technical legislation in the field of civil aviation. In
1944, however, no one foresaw such security threats and the need to address them.
When security did arise as a serious issue in the late 1960s, the Chicago Convention was adapted to
provide an international framework for addressing acts of unlawful interference. In the years since, ICAO
has become the world leader in developing aviation security policies and measures at the international
level, and the enhancement of aviation security worldwide remains a key objective of the Organization.
Provisions for international aviation security were first incorporated into the Chicago Convention in 1974
(Annex 17 — Security), and since then have been improved and updated 11 times. ICAO has also
provided States with guidance material to assist with the implementation of the security measures
contained in Annex 17, the primary document being the Security Manual for Safeguarding Civil Aviation
Against Acts of Unlawful Interference (Doc 8973 – Restricted).
Initially, ICAO’s security-related work focused on developing Standards and Recommended Practices
(SARPs) for inclusion in Annex 17. Over the years, its work in the field of aviation security has
broadened and today is essentially carried out in three inter-related areas: policy initiatives, audits focused
on the capability of Contracting States to oversee their aviation security activities, and assistance to States
that are unable to address serious security deficiencies highlighted by audits. Security audits are
performed under the Universal Security Audit Programme, which is managed by the Aviation Security
Audit (ASA) Section. Short-term or urgent security-related assistance to States is facilitated by the
Implementation Support and Development (ISD) Programme, which is managed by the ISD Section, and
longer term project assistance is available from the ICAO Technical Co-operation Bureau.
Policy work is focused primarily on maintaining the currency of Annex 17 and related guidance material
such as Doc 8973, a significant challenge considering the nature of the threat, which is always evolving.
Security policy is the responsibility of the Aviation Security and Facilitation Policy (SFP) Section, which
promotes the implementation of Annex 17 through seminars and workshops attended by experts from
airports, airlines and law enforcement agencies, as well as through the dissemination of guidance
In addressing the evolving threat to civil aviation, ICAO relies on the advice of experts who sit on the
Aviation Security Panel. Established in the late 1980s, the Panel is currently comprised of 27 members
nominated by States, as well as five observers from industry. Together with the ICAO Secretariat, the
Panel actively develops ICAO security policy and responses to emerging threats, as well as strategies
aimed at preventing future acts of unlawful interference. The Panel has met 21 times since its formation,
most recently from 22 to 26 March 2010.
Aside from the AVSEC Panel, other bodies of experts that play a pivotal role in ICAO’s security work are
the Ad Hoc Group of Specialists on the Detection of Explosives and the International Explosives
Technical Commission. These specialists focus on keeping up to date the Technical Annex to the
Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection, which entered force in
1998. Each State party to the Convention is required to prohibit and prevent the manufacture in its
territory of unmarked plastic explosives.
ICAO’s other activities in the field of aviation security include efforts to enhance the security of travel
documents and improve the training of security personnel. In addition, ICAO provides support for
regional security initiatives with the aim of strengthening aviation security globally.
Travel document security is addressed by the Machine Readable Travel Document (MRTD) Program.
Under this initiative, ICAO developed the worldwide standard for machine readable passports (MRPs).
Over 170 States had issued MRPs that comply with the ICAO standard by 1 April 2010, the deadline for
achieving compliance. ICAO is also concerned with the facilitation of international air transport, which
involves the expeditious passage of passengers, crews, baggage, cargo and mail across international
boundaries. Closely aligned with security processes, facilitation matters are addressed by the Facilitation
With respect to security training, ICAO develops course material on a range of topics for use by civil
aviation administrations and a network of regional security training centers. This material covers such
subjects as airline and cargo security and, of course, crisis management. Training workshops and
seminars are conducted on a regular basis.
All of ICAO’s initiatives in the field of aviation security rely, both globally and regionally, on
cooperation amongst States and all other stakeholders. The overarching goal is to enhance global security
by implementing uniform security measures around the world, a goal that cannot be achieved without an
unswerving commitment by all concerned.
Aviation Security and Facilitation Policy Section
The Aviation Security and Facilitation Policy (SFP) Section of the Aviation Security Branch is
responsible for the management of three closely inter-related programs concerned with aviation security,
facilitation and machine-readable travel documents (MRTDs). A primary activity is the development of
new and amended Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) for the security and facilitation of
international air transport. These are promulgated in technical annexes to the Chicago Convention,
specifically Annex 17 — Security, and Annex 9 — Facilitation. The Section also has a mandate to ensure
the development of technical specifications for machine readable passports (MRPs), visas and official
Among other things, the SFP Section manages its programs by:
o developing and updating Annex 17 and Annex 9 to the Convention on International Civil
Aviation (also known as the Chicago Convention);
o managing and overseeing the work program of the Aviation Security (AVSEC) Panel and
the Facilitation (FAL) Panel, as well as their respective working groups;
o updating and maintaining the ICAO Security Manual for Safeguarding Civil Aviation
Against Acts of Unlawful Interference (Doc 8973) and Doc 9303 — Machine Readable
o maintaining the Technical Annex to the Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives
for the Purpose of Detection;
o providing support to the Ad Hoc Group of Specialists on the Detection of Explosives
(AH-DE) and the International Explosives Technical Commission (IETC);
o managing and overseeing the work program of the Technical Advisory Group on
Machine Readable Travel Documents (TAG/MRTD) and its working groups;
o promoting implementation of security- and facilitation-related SARPs, and providing
assistance to member States with the development of their MRP programs; and
o Providing support to various governing entities at ICAO, in particular the Assembly,
Council, Air Transport Committee (ATC) and Committee on Unlawful Interference
The SFP Section is also responsible for fostering cooperation on security and facilitation matters with
other United Nations agencies and international bodies. Among the many entities with which the SFP
Section coordinates its work are the UN Counter Terrorism Committee (UN CTC), World Health
Organization (WHO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International Air Transport
Association (IATA) and Airports Council International (ACI).
Implementation Support and Development (ISD) - Security Section
The primary objective of ISD - Security is to support the initiative of ICAO Contracting States that have
significant security deficiencies, as identified through the ICAO Aviation Security Audit Program (USAP),
in their effort to implement their corrective action plans and thus enable them to meet their aviation
security obligations. ISD - Security also promotes partnerships and collaborative agreements among States,
industry, international financial institutions and various stakeholders to coordinate security assistance.
The mandate for the Security Program of the Implementation Support and Development Section was
determined at the 36th Session of the ICAO Assembly by Resolution A36-3: Implementation Support and
Development (ISD) Program – Security. ISD's operational mandate consists of four pillars:
o providing States with urgent or short-term security-related assistance
o providing Regional Assistance to the States
o promoting Global Cooperation
o providing States with support in the development and delivery of training programs
The ISD - Security Section contributes to implementation support and development activities aimed at
strengthening the capacity building efforts of States and enhancing their capability to implement
International Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) through the development, organization and
coordination of relevant seminars, workshops and assistance projects.
In terms of training, ISD - Security provides support to regional, sub-regional and national security
training efforts by overseeing the development of appropriate training packages and providing support to
ICAO Endorsed Training Centers in the development and delivery of training programs. In support of
these activities, ISD oversees the Aviation Security Training Centers (ASTCs), and the Aviation Security
Training Packages (ASTPs).
Additionally, ISD - Security is responsible for managing the Aviation Security Professional Management
Course (PMC) which was developed by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in
collaboration with the John Molson School of Business at Concordia University.
Please note that while this is a not-for-profit site and you are welcome to browse through the content for
your own research purposes, most of the material on this site is subject to copyright and may not be
reprinted in other documents without the written permission from ICAO.
Universal Security Audit Program (USAP)
The ICAO Universal Security Audit Program (USAP) represents an important initiative in ICAO's
strategy for strengthening aviation security worldwide and for attaining commitment from States in a
collaborative effort to establish a global aviation security system.
The program, part of ICAO's Aviation Security Plan of Action, provides for mandatory and regular audits
of all ICAO Contracting States. The ICAO audit assesses the State's capability for providing security
oversight by determining whether the critical elements of a security oversight system have been
implemented effectively. Thus, the USAP serves to promote global aviation security by identifying
weaknesses in each State's oversight of its aviation security activities and, if required, providing suitable
recommendations for mitigating or resolving such shortcomings.
Implementation of the program began with the first security audit in November 2000. The second cycle of
security audits commenced in January 2008, and is expected to conclude in 2013. In addition to security
audits, the program entails audit follow-up visits that focus on the implementation of corrective action
To promote transparency and mutual confidence between States, information on the level of
implementation of the critical elements of an audited State's aviation security oversight system is
available to all ICAO member States on a restricted website.
Building a greener future
According to Giovanni Bisignani the Director General & CEO of IATA. Aviation is responsible for 2%
of global CO2 emissions and by 2050 will represent 3%. Aviation is a small part of a major problem –
that of climate changes. But our carbon footprint is growing and this is not acceptable. To be blunt, the
issue of the environment will limit our future until we move our thinking from tactical to strategic.
The first step in developing a strategy is vision. At IATA’s AGM in 2007, I challenged our industry to
build our future on the vision of an industry that does not pollute – zero carbon emissions.
For some, this was a shock. But we have a great track record of turning dreams into reality. In 50 years,
we moved from the Wright brothers’ Flyer to the jet age.
Potential building blocks for a carbon-free future already exist. Fuel cell technology is here. A solar-
powered aircraft is being built. And we can make fuel from biomass – algae – today.
The way forward is marked by four challenges.
In the short term, we must cut up to 18% of aviation fuel that is wasted as a result of inefficient
infrastructure and operations. This represents more than 120 million tonnes of CO2 per year.
Implementing an effective Single European Sky alone would save 16 million tonnes annually.
In the longer term, technology must lead our efforts to build a zero carbon emission aircraft in the next 50
years. The world’s leading aerospace nations must coordinate basic research, and then compete to apply it
effectively. Governments and fuel suppliers must focus on alternative fuels. We aim to have 10% of
airline fuel needs from alternative fuel sources by 2017.
In the meantime, we need a global approach with a shared commitment by governments. IATA’s message
to governments is clear. Improve infrastructure, invest in technology and provide financial incentives to
drive development. Only then should economic measures such as emissions trading be considered. For
this, ICAO must deliver a global solution to aviation emissions that is fair, voluntary and effective.
ICAO’s relevance rests on its ability to deliver.
Finally, environmental responsibility must become a core promise—alongside safety and security—to the
2.2 billion passengers that fly every year.
Working together with a common vision and a clear strategy will deliver great results.
IATA’s Four-Pillar Strategy
o Economic measure
Technology is an important driver of progress. Accelerated development of cleaner, alternative fuels and
more advanced technology for air traffic management and airframe and engine design is absolutely
IATA, manufacturers and fuel suppliers are jointly working on an action plan focusing on short, medium
and long term measures. In the short term, the potential exists to realize emissions reductions by
identifying and applying product enhancements and modifications for the current fleet.
For the medium term, possibilities must be explored to accelerate fleet renewal and to introduce the latest
technologies as early and as widely as possible.
Commercialization of sustainable biofuels must also take priority. For the longer term, joint initiatives
should be launched to identify and develop radically new technologies and aircraft designs.
ICAO and industry should develop medium and long-term technology goals for engine fuel burn
and CO2 emissions, accompanied by appropriate fuel performance indicators and metrics.
ICAO should develop global specifications for cleaner, alternative fuels. Research &
development (R&D) investments in these fuels must be increased and coordinated.
ICAO should promote a predictable investment horizon and a stable regulatory environment to
foster R&D efforts.
ICAO should support a technology roadmap with clear long-term goals to be jointly developed by
manufacturers, suppliers, airlines and regulators worldwide.
More efficient aircraft operations can save fuel and CO2 emissions by up to 6%, according to the IPCC in
its 1999 special report on aviation. IATA is compiling industry best practices, publishing guidance
material, conducting airline visits and establishing training programs to improve existing fuel
In 2007, IATA updated its fuel efficiency goal. It expects airlines to reduce their fuel consumption per
revenue tone kilometer (RTK) by at least 25% by 2020, compared to 2005 levels. This will save around
345 million tonnes of CO2 emissions during that period.
Achievement of the IATA fuel efficiency goal will be predominantly driven by very significant
investments in the continuous renewal of airline fleets. Increasing load factors also play an important part.
The IATA goal does not, however, take account of additional operational and infrastructure
improvements, which, if pushed beyond historical trends, could yield significant extra benefits.
IATA aims to raise environmental standards by extending existing fuel conservation programs
and promoting environmental management systems across all airlines.
ICAO should update international fuel management regulations (including ICAO Annex 6), for
further fuel efficiency gains.
Infrastructure improvements present a major opportunity for fuel and CO2 reductions in the near term. By
addressing airspace and airport inefficiencies, governments and infrastructure providers could eliminate
up to 12% of CO2 emissions from aviation, according to the IPCC.
Implementation of the Single European Sky and the US NextGen Air Transport System is a top priority
for the progressive harmonization of global airspace management. Flexible airspace access must also
become a reality, especially in Asia where traffic growth is particularly strong.
Governments must adopt policies and remove obstacles to allow airspace and airport
inefficiencies to be cut in half over the next five years, thereby saving 40 million tonnes of CO2
emissions per year.
States and ICAO should implement ICAO’s Global Air Navigation Plan at the regional level and
priorities the development of regional action plans to eliminate inefficiencies and harmonize
global airspace management.
Economic measures should be used to boost the research, development and deployment of new
technologies rather than as a tool to suppress demand. The use of tax credits and direct funding must be
explored as incentives to drive new technology programs.
Punitive taxes do not improve environmental performance. Emissions trading could be a more cost-
effective solution as part of a global package of measures including technology, operations and
But the trading system must be properly designed and implemented on a global and voluntary basis. It
must also be an open trading system, allowing permit trading with other industries.
Economic measures can further be used to engage airline customers in climate change initiatives. IATA is
developing an industry carbon offset program to promote the use of credible, sustainable offset
mechanisms for aviation.
ICAO and IATA should work with international financial institutions to explore new funding
mechanisms to provide clean technologies to the developing world.
IATA supports the development of minimum standards to calculate flight emissions to ensure the
transparency and credibility of carbon-offset facilities offered to the travelling public.
ICAO is urged to adopt a realistic yet ambitious action plan for aviation and climate change,
recognizing the need for a comprehensive package of measures that includes technology,
operations and infrastructure improvements, while also considering the potential for a global
framework to manage aviation’s emissions.
The safety record of business aviation is good, but the industry associations agree that opportunities exist
to develop mechanisms to make it better. The objective of the Safety Strategy is to provide an overview
of all of the existing and proposed safety initiatives of the industry.
The Safety Strategy in this Paper proposes initiation or continuance of a total of 38 actions under eight
principle safety themes. Together they represent the building blocks that will lead to
Continuous safety improvement. Shooting for the Star will be worth the effort. Mapping the strategy is
only the start. The Strategy must be continuously kept alive and challenged. Results must be recorded and
analyzed. Weaknesses must be assessed and the Strategy updated. After it is initially completed it is
proposed that the team that developed the Strategy meet periodically to assess results and to add new
initiatives. It is clear that although some parts of the business aviation community have an excellent safety
record, others warrant attention. This Strategy emphasizes actions required to improve the relevant sub-
sectors. However, the greatest challenge will be to obtain universal recognition and agreement that
improvement is both achievable and desirable. The Safety Strategy presents mechanisms to achieve this
Airlines have improved their fuel efficiency and CO2 emissions 20% over the past 10 years. They are
determined to be at least a further 25% better by 2020, compared with 2005, mainly through huge
investments in fleet renewal.
• Today’s aircraft fly 3 times further on the same amount of fuel than 40 years ago, equal to a
75% fuel efficiency gain per passenger/km.
The newest aircraft (A380/B787) use less than 3 liters of fuel per 100 passenger/km. This
compares favorably with small family cars, but at 6 times the speed.
By 2020, new technologies are expected to be at least 50% more fuel-efficient than today. Noise
at source is expected to be cut by a further 50% and NOx emission, which mainly affect local air
quality, reduced by 80%.
ICAO, IATA, PGDALATM Text Book, web based content.