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					Enhancing Participation
  in Local Governance:
       Experiences from
          the Philippines
Correct citation
Experiences from The Philippines. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Philippines-Canada
Local Government Support Program and SANREM CRSP/Souteast Asia. 197 p.

Published by
       International Institute of Rural Reconstruction
       Y. C. James Yen Center
       Silang, Cavite, Philippines
       !(63-46) 4142417
       !(63-46) 4142420

        Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program
        National Program Management Office
        Unit 1507 Jollibee Plaza
        Emerald Ave. Ortigas Center, Pasig City 1600 Philippines
        !(63-2) 6373511 to 13
        !(63-2) 6373235

        SANREM CRSP/Southeast Asia
        Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and
        Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD)
        Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines
        !(63-49) 5360014 to 20
        !(63-49) 5360016

Printed in the Philippines
ISBN 1-930261-03-9
                         abbreviations & acronyms used

a   ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
        ABSCDP                 Area-Based Child Survival and Development Program

b   ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
        BPT                    Barangay Planning Team
        B-O-T                  Build-Operate-Transfer

c   ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

        CADC                   Certificate of Ancestral Domain Claim
        CADT                   Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title
        CBFM                   Community-based Forest Management
        CBMFA                  Community-based Forest Management Agreement
        CBHP                   Community-based Health Program
        CBO                    Community-based Organization
        CDF                    Countryside Development Fund
        CLCA                   Claveria Land Care Association
        CO                     Community Organizers
        COA                    Commission on Audit
        CPH                    Community Primary Hospitals
        CRM                    Coastal Resource Management

d   ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
        DENR                   Department of Environment and Natural Resources
        DILG                   Department of Interior and Local Governments
        DOST                   Department of Science and Technology
        DSWD                   Department of Social Welfare and Development
        DTI                    Department of Trade and Industry

g   ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
        GIATSD                 Guagua Integrated Approach Towards sustainable Development
        GINTO                  Guagua Integrated Tree Planting Operation
        GO                     Government Officer
        GSIS                   Government Service Insurance System
        GSO                    General Services Officer
h   ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
         HES                    Human Ecological Society
         HRMDO                  Human Resource Management and Development Office
         HRMO                   Human Resource Management Office

i   ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
         ICRAF                  International Center for Research in Agroforestry
         ICRMC                  Intermunicipal Coastal Resource Management Council
         IMIP                   Integrated Municipal Implementation Plan
         IPAS                   Integrated Protected Areas System
         IPRA                   Indigenous People’s Rights Act
         IRA                    International Revenue Allotment
         ISWM                   Integrated Solid Waste Management

k   ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
         KIP                    Key Informant Panel

l   ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

         LADP                   Local Administrative Development Program
         LCCs                   Local Counterpart Committees
         LCEs                   Local Chief Executives
         LGC                    Local Government Code
         LGC-CRM                Local Government Cooperative for Coastal Resource Management
         LGSP                   Local Government Support Program
         LGUs                   Local Government Units

m     ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

         MDC                    Municipal Development Council
         MDCCs                  Municipal Disaster Coordinating Councils
         MFD                    Macro Founders and Developers
         MNDC                   Metro Naga Development Council
         MMDA                   Metro Manila Development Authority
         MOA                    Memorandum of Agreement
         MPMS                   Municipal Program Monitoring system
         MPDC                   Municipal Planning Development Coordinator
         MPTF                   Municipal Planning Task Force
         MRLF                   Municipal Revolving Loan Fund
         MSWDO                  Municipal Social Welfare and Development Officer
n   ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

         NRM                    Natural Resource Management
         NRMC                   Natural Resource Management Council
         NRMDP                  Natural Resource Management and Development Plan
         NVS                    Natural Vegetative Strips
         NIPAS                  Natural Integrated Protected Areas System

p    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

         PAMB                   Protected Area Management Board
         PENRO                  Provincial Environment and Natural Resource Officer
         PHC                    Primary Health Care
         PHIC                   Philippine Health Insurance Corporation
         PNP                    Philippine National Police
         POs                    People’s Organization

s   ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

         SANREM                 Sustainable Agricultural and Natural Resources Management
         SDC                    Social Development Committee
         SSS                    Social Security System
         TNCs                   Trans-National Corporations
         ToP                    Technology on Participation

            ne of the major changes sweeping the world today is the increasing recognition of the changing role of local
            governments in development and rural reconstruction. Undergirding these changes is a realization that
            participation is a key to good local governance.

Assessing the global context of these changes, Corrigan, Hayes and Joyce (1999), observed that the role of local governments
has changed in the following areas over the recent years:
! The way in which local government influences local issues
! The issue of democracy for local government
! The delivery of services by local government
! The way in which local government views the public
! Local government being more honest and providing people with more information

Indeed, where before, local governments were relegated to playing secondary roles as mere agents and implementors of
policies and programs crafted by the national government, now, their role as major actors in the development process has
been recognized. As pointed out above, local governments play a fundamental role in defining local issues, many of which
are transformed into national issues and concerns. They serve as the bedrock for democracy. They are in the forefront of the
delivery of basic services. They have become increasingly aware of viewing the public as their client. And they have realized
the value of being more transparent in the conduct of the business of governance by making information available to the

For many people in the rural areas, the local governments are the government. What the local government is, so is the
national government. If the local government is inept, corrupt and sluggish, the national government is perceived to be
likewise. But if local governments are dynamic, creative and responsive to the people’s needs, so will government institutions
in general be seen. As frontliners , the extremely vital role of local governments cannot be overemphasized.

It is within this context that this book on Enhancing Participation in Local Governance: Experiences from the
Philippines is very timely. In 1992 when the Philippines boldly embarked on sweeping reforms that radically transformed
the nature of local governance in the Philippines: a Local Government Code was enacted that transferred, through the process
of devolution, substantial powers and authorities to local government in recognition of their frontline roles in local
governance. They were made responsible for the delivery of basic services at the local level, that included health, agriculture,
social services and certain aspects of environmental management. The Code transferred some 70,000 personnel from the
national to the local governments. Financial resources were made available to local governments by substantially increasing
their internal revenue allotment shares. It encouraged the emergence of entrepreneurialism among local governments.
Finally, the Code lay the foundation for active citizen participation and involvement in the process of local governance.
This source book zeroes in on the participatory approaches in local governance which is a key feature of the devolution
process in the Philippines. As a source book, it tried to incorporate the vital aspects of the specific topics on local governance
as drawn from the original materials surveyed. It points out other references that may eventually be referred to by the reader.
This book will indeed be useful for all stakeholders in local governance, be they local government practitioners at the local
or national level, trainors, researchers and academics.

It is divided into three major parts: Part I discusses the various perspectives and issues relating to broad concepts of
decentralization, devolution and governance. Part II shares some of the more successful experiences in public sector reform
and the adoption of modern management approaches and techniques in the areas of local governance, including local
development planning, as well as financial and disaster management. Finally, Part III highlights some successful
experiences in other local development endeavors such as health service delivery, natural resources management and the
promotion of local economic development. Underlying all these is the fundamental ideology and spirit of participation and
active involvement of the people.

This source book contributes to telling the story of good local governance in the Philippines. The modest experience of the
Philippines may provide information - and perhaps be a source of inspiration - to other countries in the region that have
embarked on a similar path of decentralization and participatory approach to local governance.

The IIRR - through the leader of this project, Mr Enrique G. Mercaida, should be commended for its efforts in contributing
to the general discourse on local governance through this source book.

                                                                                                     Alex Brillantes Jr Ph.D.
                                                                                                            Associate Professor
                                      University of the Philippines National College of Public Administration and Governance
                                                                   Executive Director, Local Government Academy (1993-1997)
                                                                            Director, UP Local Government Center (1989-1991)

Corrigan, Paul, Mike Hayes and Paul Joyce, Managing in the New Local Government, London: Kogan Page Ltd, 1999.

                                                             ENHANCING PARTICIPATION IN LOCAL GOVERNANCE: EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES

          his project to produce this resource book was carried out and completed through the combined efforts and support of
          persons and institutions whose current work is geared towards the promotion of sustainable development through
          the institutionalization of good governance, enhancement of active local participation and empowerment at all
levels of the government and in all fronts of society. In this connection, we wish to acknowledge the invaluable assistance
provided by the following: the Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program (LGSP), the Center for Local and
Regional Governance of the U.P. National College of Public Administration and Governance, SANREM-CRSP/Southeast Asia
of the Philippine Council of Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) and the
International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR), whose key officers and staff comprised the Steering Committee (SC)
for the project.

Ms. Joy Rivaca-Caminade led the project team at IIRR consisting of Mr. Celso Amutan, Mr. Jeff Oliver and Ms. Lilibeth Sulit.
in the sourcing, editing and repackaging of relevant studies and materials, and the systematic organization and facilitation
of SC meetings and publishing work, respectively. For the clerical and administrative support, our commendation goes to Ms.
Shirley Caparas and Ms. Renell Pacrin. Ms. Ma. Stella Oliver undertook the editing and initial major desktop publishing
tasks. Mr. Ariel Lucerna provided the illustrations. Ms. Hannah Castañeda undertook the final desktop publishing and
prepared this document for print. The cover design and production was undertaken by Mr. Celso Amutan.

Special mention is due to the members of the Steering Committee who gave suggestions regarding the content of the
resource book and for facilitating the logistical requirements: Dr. Proserpina D. Tapales, Dr. Alex B. Brilliantes, Jr. and Dr.
Victoria A. Bautista of the University of the Philippines; Ms. Marion Villanueva, Mr. Rene Garrucho, Luz L. Rodriguez and
Atty. Evelyn Camposano - Jiz of Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program; Dr. Rogelio Serrano of SANREM-
CRSP Southeast Asia at PCARRD; and Dr. Julian F. Gonsalves of IIRR who assisted throughout this project and helped in
conceptualizing this effort, carefully reading drafts of this resource book and suggesting improvements.

Funding for this production came primarily from SANREM-CRSP/ Southest Asia, Philippine Council of Agriculture, Forestry
and Natural Resource Research and Development Supplementary support was provided by the Philippines-Canada Local
Government Support Program.

Indeed, the whole effort would not have been possible without the constant encouragement and guidance of Dr. Julian
Gonsalves, and the wholehearted support of Dr. Pratima Kale, President of IIRR and Ms. Victoria Rialp also of IIRR.

Finally, and most of all we would like to thank the authors whose work have been featured in this publication.

                                                                                                   Enrique G. Mercaida, MPA
                                                                                                 former Associate Senior Specialist
                                                                                     International Institute of Rural Reconstruction
                               how this resource book came to be
                               how this resource book came to be

       he project to produce this resource book was conceptualized
                                                                                            Flow of activities
       as early as January 1999. Its primary objective was to
       document existing participatory approaches and best                        Identification of an initial list of topics
practices, tools and techniques on local governance from LGUs, NGOs,
the academe and other development organizations in the Philippines           Formation of multi-agency steering committee
and to compile them into a user-friendly and easy to read form.                  representing major projects, donors,
                                                                              government agencies, NGOs and academe

 A Steering Committee (SC), composed of local governance
practitioners and representatives from Philippines-Canada Local                  Revision of topics based on the inputs
                                                                                        of the steering committee
Government Support Program, SANREM-CRSP/Southeast Asia and
UP-NCPAG, was organized to actively support the publication process
(from the selection of topics to the review of the final output). The               Collection of available materials
                                                                              (modules, published documents, case studies)
International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR) took the lead
role in coordinating the collection and acquisition of existing
published materials                                                             Critical review/planning of materials and
                                                                              preparationOf revised/repackaged first drafts

Meeting at the Philippines-Canada Local Government Support
Program, UP-NCPAG and PCARRD, the SC finally approved the                     Revision and repackaging of second draft
concept note, along with the list of topics and helped review the draft
in its various stages. Six months spent in collecting the required
materials (e.g. modules, published documents, case studies and their
                                                                               Editing, desktop publishing and printing
critical review), rewriting and compiling these materials. In July
1999, an early draft of the intended resource book was produced.
Copies were furnished to the aforementioned partner-organizations                             Distribution

for their feedback. The revised first draft was made available only in
January 2000 as difficulties were encountered in meeting some of the
financial requirements of the project. SANREM-CRSP, Philippines- Canada Local Government Support Program and IIRR
providing the much needed financial assistance insupport for the costs incurred for SC meetings, rewriting and editing of
materials/documents, desktop publishing/layout, artwork and final printing of the resource book.

It is hoped that this resource book will make a difference, basically because of the wide range of topics covered in a single
compilation and the manner in which it was repackaged and presented. There is always a value in patiently soliciting
feedback, getting comments and suggestions from as many people as possible since such process opens up other rich sources
of related information. This resource book will be useful for trainors, local planners and development practitioners since it is
a collection of field-tested, people centered approaches. More importantly, however, is the knowledge management agenda
served by this publication: readers are provided short summarized versions of previously published/ unpublished materials in
a single compilation. They can then seek further information from the original sources listed at the end of each article.

          uring the last two decades a revolutionary shift by development players (i.e. government, civil society
          organizations and the business sector) has taken place, from a centralized system of government to a more
          democratic and decentralized one. In a recent study entitled A Survey of Capacity-Building Initiatives of NGOs
Toward Good Local Governance, it is claimed that as governance is decentralized, more local energies can be harnessed
and mobilized for local development. Further, the same study asserts that the more democratic the participation in
governance is, the more responsive and effective governance becomes. This proposition reinforces the observation that
effective governance depends largely on :

! the skills with which the government governs;
! its ability to provide for the efficient delivery of public goods and services; and
! the empowerment of the people to be able to actively and responsibly participate in governmental decision making
  processes relative to programs and projects that should benefit them in the first place.

It is very encouraging to note that recent developments in governance and local participation manifest the strong resolve and
interest of governments in the use of participatory methods, the importance of which has been underscored by the UN
Agenda 21. Many governments, including the Philippine government, recognize that as they remain to be the biggest
development agency in the country, they must act as facilitator and enabler of progress towards sustainable development,
coordinating efforts of various stakeholders rather that attempting to undertake country-wide development on its own.

Local government units (LGUs) in the Philippines have placed a high premium on the value of using successful experiences
and field-tested ideas. This can be seen in their continued interest to introduce, develop, document and institutionalize
innovative approaches and best practices, in managing the affairs and activities of the government and promoting the
participation of their constituencies.

A milestone in the promotion of local participation, autonomy and governance was the enactment and implementation of
the 1991 Local Government Code (LGC) of the Philippines. This legislation devolves certain powers from the central to the
local governments so that they will become self-reliant communities and effective partners in national development. The
Code, which is designed to help foster a responsible and accountable local government, has also empowered LGUs to increase
their revenues through taxation of mining, fishery, forestry and other resource development activities.
Moreover, the Code has paved the way for joint partnerships with the private sector through build-operate-transfer schemes,
bond floatation and easier access to loans from the banking system. Finally, the Code has also elicited the participation of
civil society organizations in local governance through representation of NGOs and POs in special bodies (i.e. local
development councils, local health board and local school boards), thus allowing the promotion of accountability and

While there have been problems and lapses in the Code’s implementation, the consensus is that in many parts of the
country, major benefits have been derived from local-level partnerships resulting in the improved delivery of public services
and the promotion of sustainable development.

The successful experiences on local governance in the Philippines need to be documented and shared. This gave rise to the
idea to produce a resource book on tested approaches in local governance, including the methods and tools adopted by the
various development actors across the country. Although excellent literature on the subject already exist, some of these
related materials are hard to find and are often highly technical in content and usually not available in summarized forms.
Many previous publication efforts have emphasized the legislative framework, guidelines and case studies. Some of these
materials are often highly technical and usually not available in summarized form. They may not also be available in
single, easy-to-use compilations. In this light, the project aimed to come up with a user-friendly resource book on the
subject for use by trainors, local government officials, planners and workers from NGOs and other development

The project features a unique compilation of field-tested approaches from a wide range of local government initiatives and
projects in the Philippines. All articles are based on existing literature and secondary materials. Sources are indicated at the
end of each article. It is hoped that after reading the short summary pieces , the reader will become interested to seek the
basic and original sources. Each article can be read separately and can stand on its own. Readers are encouraged to use these
materials provided the original authors are acknowledged.

The resource book is divided into three chapters. Chapter One presents various perspectives on the concepts, frameworks,
principles, issues and challenges in the pursuit of decentralization and local governance and, ultimately that of genuine
and sustainable development. Chapter Two shares some of the successful experiences in public sector reform or the adoption
of modern management approaches and techniques in the areas of governance such as local development planning as well
as financial management. Chapter Three highlights similarly successful experiences in other development endeavors, (i.e.
health service delivery, natural resource management, local economic promotion, among others).

                                                            ENHANCING PARTICIPATION IN LOCAL GOVERNANCE: EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
T            A             B             L            E                      O    F
C            O             N             T            E            N          T   S

List of abbreviations and acronyms used
How this resource book came to be

Chapter 1: Good Governance for Genuine and Sustainable
Sustainable Development in the Philippines Context                                1
Sustainable Integrated Area Development                                           7
The Philippine Local Government System                                            13
The Local Government Code of 1991                                                 16
Decentralization in Governance                                                    21
Trends in the Implementation of Devolution in the Philippines                     26
The Challenge of Good Governance                                                  29
The Local Government as a Catalyst of Economic Development                        31
Modern Management in Philippine Local Governance                                  38
Efficient Delivery Systems and Public Accountability                              42
NGO-PO Participation in Local Governance                                          44

Chapter 2: Public Sector Reform through Modern Management
              Approaches and Technology
Organizational Development in LGUs                                                50
Human Resources Development and Management in LGUs                                54
Financial Management Innovations in LGUs                                          59
Enhancing LGUs Fiscal Administration                                              64
Tax and Administrative Codification for Efficient Local Governance                69
Property and Supply Procurement in Local Governments                              74
Successful Municipal Management Innovations                                       77
Municipal Level Development Planning                                              79
Basic Strategies In Municipal Development Planning (The Ilog experience)          82
Basic Strategies and Methods in Municipal Development Planning (The Iloilo        89
Development Planning at the Barangay Level                                        94
Chapter 3: Exemplary Practices In Participatory
Decentralizing Natural Resources Management                                 102
Landcare as an Innovative Approach in Natural Resources Management at the   106
    Local Level
Local Government Innovations in Watershed Management                        114
LGUs and Tree Farms: Partners in Community Resource Generation and          118
    Environmental Protection
LGUs’ Role in Protected Areas Management under the NIPAS Law                123
Local Governments in Coastal Resource Management                            128
LGUs in Marine Reserves Preservation and Management                         133
Homelots for the Poor: The San Carlos City experience                       138
Primary Health Care: Issues from the field                                  145
Primary Health Care as a Devolved Responsibility                            149
Establishment of Community Primary Hospitals in the Hinterlands             155
Establishment of a Province-wide Community-based Health Program: The        158
    AlayKa Palawan Experience
Empowering People and LGUs through Health Insurance                         162
Transforming the Mainstream: Mainstreaming Gender in Local Governance       166
LGUs in Disaster Management                                                 172
LGUs in Integrated Solid Waste Management                                   176
The Leagues of LGUs as Aggressive Shareholders in Governance                181

Foreign-funded Programs / Projects Related to Local Development and         186
    Municipal Development
Municipal Development Fund Projects                                         188
Foreign-funded Programs / Projects Related to Local Development             191
Steering Committee                                                          195
Publication Development                                                     196
The Publication Production Staff                                            197

               1   ONE

                                evelopment actors - government,
                                non-government organizations (NGOs),
  governance                    academe, the business sector and
                         people’s organizations (POs) have been driven
  for genuine            by the necessity to look back and review

& sustainable
                         concepts, issues and approaches to
                         development, governance and local

development              participation vis-a-vis the ever-changing trends
                         and realities of development work. Concerns
                         now focus on accelerating the pace of
                         development but with a deliberate shift
                         towards genuine and sustainable development,
                         good governance and people-centered
                         development. These challenges have grown
                         bigger especially in developing countries like
                         the Philippines. The problem of poverty and
                         marginality that affect the majority of the
                         population remain.The impact of rural
                         underdevelopment, resource depletion and
                         pollution, the inadequacy of food supplies
                         limited social services, the erosion of traditional
                         values, including graft and corruption in
                         government, the alleged ineptitude of
                         bureaucrats and personalized politics have
                         done irreparable damage and squandered the
                         country’s now scarce natural resources.

                         During the past decade, these development
                         actors- (institutions and organizations and
                         partner-beneficiaries of development
                         assistance) have tried to address the problem of
                         poverty and marginality on the basis of a
                         growing realization of the continuing relevance
                         of an integrated, holistic approach to
                         development and the primacy of decentralized
There have also been efforts at various levels
to balance economic and technological
progress with societal, ecological and human
development concerns. One concrete action
step in this regard was the launching of the
Philippine Agenda 21 in July 1995 as the
government’s response to the commitment at
the 1992 Earth Summit. As the country’s
blueprint for sustainable development, the
document embodied the common ground for
collective action among the various

Another earlier milestone in the country’s
development history was the enactment of the
1991 Local Government Code (LGC) or
Republic Act (RA) 7160. It is considered a
landmark legislation as it envisioned the
complete administrative autonomy of local
government units and some degree of political
autonomy as it provided for the devolution of
certain powers from the central to the local
governments. The Code also called for active
partnership among non-government
organizations and that of local government
units. Specifically, it provided mechanisms on
initiative and referendum, cooperative
undertakings, recall of local officials,
representation in local special bodies,
mandatory and periodic consultation with the

This chapter attempts to present the various
perspectives, frameworks and strategies on
sustainable development and local governance.
Sustainable Development in the
Philippine Context

           ny concept of development, especially a multi-stakeholder approach to sustainable
           development, is implicitly or explicitly grounded in both an image of society and a shared
           vision of the development path of that society.

Sustainable development must therefore take into
consideration the reality of the Philippine context.
The image of society that guides Sustainable                    Civil Society                                      Government
Development in the Philippines recognizes that the
key actors in any critical and principled
partnership or conflict regarding sustainable
development are the government, business, and                                       DEVELOPMENT
civil society (Figure 1). To humanize
development, there must be interplay of market
forces, state intervention, and civil society
participation.                                                                         Business

                                                                  Figure 1. Key Actors in Sustainable Development

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                                                                                                  EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                  The existence and recognition of the three key actors in multi-stakeholder or counterparting processes, in
                  turn, point to an equally significant reality: the functional differentiation (not division) of modern
                  society into three realms, interacting with but independent from each other. These three essential societal
                  dimensions - economy, politics, and culture, are the realms where the key sectors are active and from
                  which the actors derive the substance for their dialogue and interaction with each other (see Figure 2).
                  This image of society animates the vision, parameters, and strategies of sustainable development.

                                            HUMAN BEING

                                         CULTURE            POLITICS


                  Figure 2. The Three Essential Dimensions of Society in Relation to Nature, the Human Being and
                  Sustainable Development

                  Business is the key actor in the realm of the economy where the central social concern and process is the
                  mutually beneficial production and distribution of goods and services to meet the physical needs of
                  human beings. Government is the key actor in the realm of politics where the central social concern
                  and process is participatory, democratic governance and rule making to secure the human rights of all
                  citizens including justice and equity. Civil society is the key actor in realm of culture where the central
                  social concern and process is the development of the social and spiritual capacities of human beings in
                  order, to advance the frontiers of knowledge, to achieve clarity and coherence of values and to advocate
                  the public interest. The three key actors in sustainable development can simply be viewed as the most
                  organized and significant representatives of the prevailing social processes in each of the three essential
                  dimensions of society.

The multi-stakeholder or counterparting approach in Philippine Agenda 21 recognizes that while these
realms are functionally differentiated, they are interacting, dynamic and complementary components of
an integral whole. Creative social unity and harmony can, therefore, only occur from a respect and
appreciation of the mutually enhancing perspectives and roles of the key actors in these dimensions of
society and ultimately of their free choice to collaborate towards achieving the higher, common good of

Society and its key actors, in pursuit of sustainable development, are bounded by two key considerations.
On the physical and material side, the key actors must nurture the integrity and carrying capacity of the
varied ecosystems, landscape ecologies, and ultimately the biosphere of the earth. On the human side, the
key actors must also affirm that their respective social processes empower the freedom, creativity, and
caring capacity of individuals who are the essence of society (Figure 2). Hence, the pursuit of sustainable
development is grounded on the primacy of people and nature in the development process.

          Thus the essence of sustainable development is in the harmonious integration of a sound and
viable economy, responsible governance, social cohesion/harmony and ecological integrity to ensure that
development is a life-enhancing process. In this context, the ultimate aim of development is human
development now and through future generations. Failing this, development is bound to be ‘jobless’ and
‘ruthless’ (in the realm of the economy), ‘rootless’ (in the realm of culture), ‘voiceless’ (in the realm of
polity), and ‘futureless’ (in the realm of nature) as detailed in the 1996 UNDP Human Development

Philippine Agenda (PA) 21 is a consensus response by Philippine society to the following four questions:

! What is sustainable development?
! What is the situation with respect to sustainable development?
! Where do we want to go?
! How do we get there?

Philippine Agenda 21 envisions a better quality of life for all through the development of a just, moral,
creative, spiritual, economically vibrant, caring, diverse yet cohesive society characterized by appropriate
productivity, participatory and democratic processes, and living in harmony within the limits of the
carrying capacity of nature and the integrity of creation.

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                                                                                                EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
    Substance-wise, PA21, simply put, is the country’s highest framework for development. Memorandum Order 399,
    dated 26 September 1996, directs all government agencies to review their policies, plans and programs and to realign
    these with PA21. The plans to be revised include Philippines2000 and its component frameworks, policies, and

    PA21 is also, arguably, the highest policy framework for civil society. In 1996 the leaders of more than 5000
    organizations under the informal banner of the Asia Pacific Sustainable Development Initiatives (APSUD) rallied
    around PA21 as their framework for negotiations with government on APEC. Even those who questioned APSUD’s
    stance in APEC did not oppose PA21; rather they questioned the sincerity of government in carrying out the promises
    they made to have the Individual Action Plan (IAP) governed by PA21.

    Process-wise, PA21’s Principles of Unity (POU) is the consensus product of government and numerous organizations
    within civil society. The government’s version of the POU was reconciled with civil society’s version of the POU. And
    together, civil society and government, in different parts of the Philippines, crafted the final POUl. All told, more than
    20 regional consultations and 3 national consultations were convened to discuss PA21.

    PA21 was produced under the guidance and supervision of the Philippine Council for Sustainable Development
    (PCSD), Office of the President. The PCSD was created by President Ramos to ensure that all government
    undertakings are consistent with the global Agenda 21 commitments the Philippine government made at the Earth
    Summit in Rio. The number “21” means twenty-first (21st) century.

    SOURCE: Center for Alternative Development Initiatives (3/27/2001)

                      This vision of society provides a guiding framework for sustainable development where the parameters and
                      strategies of sustainable development are operational throughout society. The Philippine Agenda 21
                      approach adheres to the following principles of sustainable development:

                      1. Primacy of Developing Full Human Potential. People are at the core of development

                      2. Holistic Science and Appropriate Technology. The search for solutions to the complex milieu
                         of development problems has to be undertaken with the perspective that situates specific problems in
                         the larger social and ecological context. This approach facilitates the development and use of
                         appropriate technology.

                      3. Cultural, Moral and Spiritual Sensitivity. Nurturing the inherent strengths of local and
                         indigenous knowledge, practices and beliefs while respecting the cultural diversity, moral norms and
                         spiritual essence of Filipino society.

                      4. Self-determination. Respecting the right and relying on the inherent capacity of the country and
                         its peoples to decide on the course of their own development.

5. National Sovereignty. Self-determination at the national level where the norms                 Sustainable Development
   of society and the specifics of the local ecology inform national governance.                  Principles
   Includes human and environmental security as well as achieving and ensuring
                                                                                                   ! Development of Full
   security and self-reliance in basic staple foods. Recognizing the crucial role of                     Human Potential
   farmers and fisherfolk in providing for the nutritional needs of the nation.                    ! Holistic Science &
                                                                                                         Appropriate Technology
                                                                                                   ! Cultural, Moral &
6. Gender sensitivity. Recognizing the important and complementary roles and the                         Spiritual Sensitivity
   empowerment of both men and women in development.                                               !     Self-Determination
                                                                                                   !     National Sovereignty
                                                                                                   !     Gender Sensitivity
7. Peace, Order and National Unity. Securing the right of all to a peaceful and                    !     Peace, Order and
   secure existence.                                                                                     National Unity
                                                                                                   !     Social Justice, Inter-, Intra-
                                                                                                         Generational, and Spatial
8. Social Justice, Inter-, Intra-Generational and Spatial Equity. Ensuring                               Equity
   social cohesion and harmony through equitable distribution of resources and                     !     Participatory Democracy
                                                                                                   !     Institutional Viability
   providing the various sectors of society with equal access to development                       !     Viable, Sound & Broad-
   opportunities and benefits today and in the future.                                                   based Economic
9. Participatory democracy. Ensuring the participation and empowerment of all
   sectors of society in development decision-making and processes (and to
   operationalize intersectoral and multisectoral consensus).

10. Institutional viability. Recognizing that sustainable development is a shared, collective and
    indivisible responsibility which calls for institutional structures that are built around the spirit of
    solidarity, convergence and partnership between and among different stakeholders.

11. Viable, sound and broad-based economic development. Development founded on a stable
    economy where the benefits of economic progress are equitably shared across ages, communities,
    gender, social classes, ethnicities, geographical units and across generations.

12. Sustainable population. Achieving a sustainable population level, structure and distribution
    while taking cognizance of the limited carrying capacity of nature and the interweaving forces of
    population, culture, resources, environment and development.

13. Ecological soundness. Recognizing nature as our common heritage and thus respecting the
    limited carrying capacity and integrity of nature in the development process to ensure the right of
    present and future generations to this heritage.

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                                                                                                 EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                  14. Biogeographical Equity and Community-Based Resource Management. Recognizing that
                      since communities residing within or most proximate to an ecosystem of a bio-geographic region will
                      be the ones to most directly and immediately feel the positive and negative impacts on that ecosystem,
                      they should be given prior claim to the development decisions affecting that ecosystem including
                      management of the resources. To ensure biogeographic equity, other affected communities should be
                      involved in such decisions.

                  15. Global Cooperation. Building upon and contributing to the diverse capacities of individual

                  Republic of Philippines. Philippine Agenda 21- Principles of Unity. Philippine Council for Sustainable Development.
                      September 26, 1996.

                  Center for Alternative Development Initiatives (3/27/2001)

                  Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM).

Sustainable Integrated Area
Development (SIAD) as the Evolving
Framework in Participatory

SIAD is Sustainable
                                                                                           SIAD is a framework for
SIAD strives for a sound, broad-based and viable economy. It envisions vibrant economic    promoting local development
development in an area. Economic sustainability is rooted in mobilizing the skills,        that incorporated the
                                                                                           concepts of
talents, capital and culture of local communities and utilizing resources that             sustainable development (SD).
stimulate the local economy.                                                               As the name depicts, SIAD
                                                                                           pursues a kind of
                                                                                           development that is
SIAD seeks to establish a socially cohesive society. The key stakeholders and major        sustainable, integrated, and
sectors come together to set priorities and agree on principles of unity so as to draw     area-based.
common courses of action oftentimes translated into their formulation of realistic and
doable plans.

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                                                                                          EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                                                                         SIAD is ecologically sustainable. SIAD, serving both
                                                                         as framework and tool for local development,
                                                                         builds upon a community-based approach to
                                                                         management of local resources. Planning and
                                                                         management of resources is anchored on the
                                                                         carrying capacities of the resources or the

                                                                         SIAD is culturally sustainable and gender sensitive.
                                                                         SIAD recognizes that, ultimately, culture is vital to
                                                                         economic and political development. SIAD
                                                                         encourages maximum feasible participation of
                                                                         communities in development processes. The
                                                                         community's values, culture, spirituality and
                                                                         morals become the foundation stones of a SIAD

                  SIAD seeks to address the full needs of human beings in the community. It aims to develop the full range
                  of human potential. It therefore gives priority and bias to the needs of the marginalized and
                  economically deprived sectors in the community. SIAD planning integrates their knowledge, skills and
                  creative energies into the process of SD.

                  SIAD builds upon responsible governance. Sustainable development requires responsible governance.
                  Given the wide-ranging concerns of the community, SIAD necessitates an integrated process of multi-
                  sectoral participation and community involvement at all levels of government and in all phases of the
                  planning process.

                  SIAD is Integrated
                  SIAD incorporates the concerns and concepts of PA 21. It endeavors to mirror in concept and practice, the
                  wide-ranging vision, framework, principles, parameters and strategies of PA 21.

                  SIAD integrates the various sectors of development. It allows the various sectors to come and work together
                  towards sustainable human development. Health services, housing, education, infrastructure, agriculture
                  and fisheries can now move and complement each other toward achieving the development vision and
                  goals of the community.

                  SIAD harmonizes potentially conflicting imperatives of local society. SIAD endeavors and works towards a
                  mutually beneficial and harmonious interaction between the potentially conflicting interests and
                  influences of the business, government and civil society. Using the SIAD framework, each of the key sector
                  collectively pursues a unified strategy for holistic development.

SIAD is area-based
SIAD is rooted in a bio-region which include both the towns and cities, or the urban centers and rural
areas. Pursuing local development is done on a clearly delineated and geographically defined area of
unit. A SIAD area then is taken as an active vessel of development, with the area itself assuming certain
physical attributes that could point to either its potential or constraints to development efforts.

The SIAD area as a planning unit may be defined using the ecosystem approach or by adopting the
administrative political boundaries as the basis for delineating it for planning purposes. The Philippines,
owing to its archipelagic character, has good cases of SIAD initiatives that use the ecosystems as the
approach adopted in planning and management.

Laying down the foundation and enabling conditions for multi-stakeholder
partnership and participatory governance: The 1991 Local Goverment Code
(LGC) in Philippine Agenda 21

!   1991 LGC is considered as a landmark
    legislation that opened several windows for
    participation of Non-Government
    Organizations, People's Organizations (Pos)
    and the Private Sectors. It also established a
    favorable policy environment of LGU-NGO/PO
    cooperation. Some of the windows for
    participation are:

    # NGO/PO representation in the Local
      Development Councils (LDCs) and other
      Local Special Bodies (LSBs)
    # Local Sectoral Representation in local
      legislative bodies
    # Mandatory Consultations with LGUs and other concerned sectors in the community
    # LGU-NGO/PO partnerships, joint ventures and undertakings

Gaps between policies and realities on the ground
After almost 10 years of implementing the LGC, implementation of the law may still be far from ideal as
major issues and concerns remain that impede the realization of the objectives and intent of the Code.
Many of these issues relate to the inability of some LGUs to appreciate the roles of the non-government
sectors in the local governance processes. Put it another way, government and non-government sectors
have varying perspectives in development, both in terms of approaches and substance which remain to be
irreconcilable sans the process of inter-sectoral deliberation and consensus building.

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                                                                                              EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                   !    The Philippine Agenda 21 (PA 21), SIAD as the Localization Framework

                   PA 21 is the highest development policy in the Philippines as it embodies the agenda of the country for the
                   21st century. It draws key insights from the lessons learned from decades of development efforts. It ensures
                   that all government undertakings are consistent with the Global Agenda 21 commitments made by the
                   Philippine Government at the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit in 1992.

National Mandates and Legislative Measures in Support                       As the highest policy framework, PA 21 also opens
of PA 21 Operationalization:                                                an unusual opportunity between civil society
                                                                            organizations and government agencies, including
 ! MO 399 issued in September 1996 directs all government
     agencies, including LGUs, to review their policies, plans and          LGUs, for principled partnerships in pursuit of
     programs as to realign these with PA 21                                local sustainable development. Civil Society
                                                                            Organizations (CSOs) are non-government and
 ! MO 47 issued in January, 1999 strengthens the
     implementation and localization of PA 21 by directing LGUs             non-market organizations that are active in
     to formulate and implement their respective SIAD plans                 pursuit of the public interest.
     building on the existing planning structures and mechanisms

                   SIAD has become the operational framework for PA 21 localization, the essential element being the
                   development of multi-stakeholder/tripartite-multipartite partnerships, giving recognition to the
                   functional differentiation, not division, of society into three dimensions: Polity, Economy, and Culture.
                   Key actors in these three realms are Government, Business and CSOs, respectively.

                   SIAD: proposed process framework

                   The SIAD process champions and integrates the participation of these sectors at all levels of engagement.
                   Since sustainable development addressed a wide range of problems, it necessitates the involvement of all
                   key institutions of CSO, government and business to fully appreciate the different dimensions of
                   development issues.

                   !    Constituency Building. This is the most extended phase, even a continuing process undertaken by
                        civil society organizations to prepare and fortify their ranks toward forging principled partnerships
                        with other major stakeholders (government, business), in the area.

                   Critical Activities involve:
                       # Networking and mobilizing the community-based organizations around mutually-defined
                             "burning issues" or development concerns. This issue serves as a rallying point for these groups
                             and organizations to pursue in their engagement.
                       # CSO strategizing and advocacy to enlist participation of concerned sectors in drawing up courses
                             of action to respond to the issue identified, and further defining the role/s of other major sectors
                             i.e., government, and the mechanisms to resolve or address that issue.

    #    Developing capacities, organizationally and skills wise to enable the NGOs and POs effectively
         engage with other key stakeholders leading toward substantial resolution of issues or, responses to
         sector-based concerns and agenda. More often, having an organized federation or network of CSOs
         gives a distinctive advantage to these sectors in terms of acquiring a level of leverage in their
         engagement with government or other major stakeholders.

!   Consensus Building. The stage where the various key sectors from government, NGOs/POs and
    business come together and try to explore possibilities of working together in an activity, project or on
    a more strategic basis such as in local development planning including the identification of strategies
    to implement the plan. This phase usually involves:

    #   Leveling off on the issue/problem, that nature of the problem that the stakeholders want to be
  # Agreeing on what to be achieved, identify options, strategies, targets, activities
  # Identify/Organize mechanisms that can best pursue the management and implementation of
        options, strategies, activities
! Mainstreaming. Describes the stage wherein the community, through the CSOs are able to
  participate in mainstream development planning, implementation and policy formulation processes
  of local governance and along the way effectively incorporates SD concerns and agenda in plans,
  polices, programs and projects of government. Mainstreaming in development processes maybe
  manifested through

    # Creation/reactivation of relevant mechanisms or bodies that are multi-sectoral in character with
      multi-stakeholder participation such as the Local Development Councils (LDCs), Municipal
      Environment and Natural Resource Council, Fisheries and Aquatic Resource Management
      Councils (FARMCs), Protected Area Management Board (PAMB), among others.
    # Development of an Action or Development Plan, Programs and Projects that directly respond to
      identified concerns and priorities
    # Installed mechanisms within the CSOs to ensure adequate representation and information
      sharing within the sector

!   Institutionalization. This means that the multi-stakeholder mechanisms begin to acquire the
    necessary legal mandate and fiscal support for their dynamic and vibrant operations. This include the
    regular adoption of participatory tools and processes used and continuously innovating on these tools
    and processes.

!   Advocacy. This could be done internally within the concerned sector, i.e., CSO or across sectors in line
    with their organizing objectives (of consolidation or expansion) for Sustainable Development. Policy
    Advocacy is emphasized here to ensure the existence of a favorable policy environment to partnership
    initiatives and for their potential replication in other areas.

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                                                                                               EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                   Moving ahead: confronting challenges and discerning opportunities

                   Fuller localization of PA 21 and enabling local governance as an effective strategy and venues brings into
                   fore certain challenges that have to be confronted as well as opportunities that NGOs and Pos, along with
                   concerned LGU partners have to consider:

                   ! Continuing need for local organizational/institutional strengthening and capacity building to
                      manage SD and SIAD
                   ! Grapple with the effect of political turnover (e.g. change in administration) which impacts on the
                      continuity of SD planning and implementation
                   ! Continuing challenge of raising public awareness on SD and SIAD
                   ! Need for integrated strategies in resource generation, maximizing available local resources for SIAD

                   In facing the complex challenge of achieving Sustainable Development, it would be worthwhile to look at
                   and transform the challenges into potential advantages. Pursuing multi-stakeholder partnership offers
                   vast opportunities such as:
                   ! Venues for building higher level trust and understanding
                   ! Opportunity for synergizing initiatives for common goals
                   ! Building upon each other's comparative advantages as distinct sectors with unique qualities/resources
                   ! Venues for conflict resolution

                    Lopez, Divina Luz. Participatory Governance and SIAD: Proposed Framework. Philippine Partnership for the
                        Development of Human Resources in Rural Areas. March 2001

                   Perlas, Nicanor. SIAD Guidebook, A Framework for the Localization of Philippine Agenda 21. Philippine Council for
                         Sustainable Development. September 1999

                   Philippine Partnership for the Development of Human Resources in Rural Areas (PhilDHRRA) PA 21 Localization
                         Project and the People Participation Support Component of the Governance and Local Democracy project as
                         presented during the SIAD Conference on March 14-15, 2001 held at the Palm Plaza Hotel, Ermita, Manila

The Philippine Local
Government System

       he Philippine local government system, as
       of the year 2000, is composed of 78
       provinces, 95 cities, 1,514 municipalities,
42,000 barangays, one metropolitan government and
two autonomous regions in the Muslim South. All
these represent local authorities that have the
capability to assume the great burden of development.
An important development of the decentralization
scheme in the Philippines is the continued and
increased role of local governments in national
development. A pre-condition to a meaningful
assumption of this role is an efficient and effective
local bureaucracy.

At the base of the local government system is the
barangay government, which reflects the “home-rule”
concept. However, in the case of the Philippines, its
implementation apparently has gone beyond the
technical and financial capabilities of the barangay. Thus, many of them are                Local governments translate
ineffective in complying with the ever-increasing delegation of development and service     abstract national government
delivery responsibilities. What become imperative under the circumstances are               programs into meaningful
                                                                                            specific projects, in response
continued reform measures to strengthen administrative and fiscal capabilities of the       to the needs and aspirations
barangay.                                                                                   of the people.

A set of criteria (income, population and area of jurisdiction) is needed for the creation of these local
government units (LGUs). In a unitary system such as the Philippines, there is no intervening level
between the national government and the LGUs. The President’s power of general supervision is delegated
to the Department of Interior and Local Government.

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                                                                                            EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                                              Inter-governmental Relationships

                                                           Department of Interior
                                                           and Local Government

                                                              Highly-urbanized               Regional
                                                                    cities                   Agencies


                            Barangays                 Barangays             Barangays


                             Barangays                                          Line of supervision
                                                                                Service delivery      ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○   ○


In the Philippines, the                       Consisting of multi-tiered political units, the Philippine local government system
constitutional – legal basis of               performs the primary functions of interest articulation and political representation,
local governments is Section 1,
                                              including socio-economic development, all designed to improve the quality of life of
Article X of the 1987
Constitution, which provides that             their constituencies.
the political subdivisions of the
state are the provinces, cities,
municipalities and barangays.
                                              The corporate powers of local governments are:
The constitutional provision                  ! continuous succession in its corporate name;
likewise, mandates the creation               ! to sue and be sued;
of regional governments. Being
                                              ! to have and use a corporate seal;
community - based political
institutions, local governments               ! to acquire and convey real or personal property;
are the closest to the people of              ! to enter into contracts; and
the whole governmental system.
                                              ! to exercise powers as granted to corporations.

Local governments are not liable to injuries or damages to person or property arising from its acts or
omission of local officers or employees while in the performance of other official functions.

While the Constitution guarantees the existence of local governments, they perform their functions and
tasks primarily guided by the provisions of the LGC, which is the bible in the local government

At present, the local governments are at a crossroad of veering towards greater local autonomy and
decentralization while at the same time, assuming increasing roles in national development and
increasingly complex responsibilities in the delivery of basic services.

Sosmeña, Gaudioso C., “Decentralization for Rural Development in the Philippines”. Second Project Review
    Meeting on Decentralization for Rural Development. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. September 29 - October 3, 1986.

Tapales, Proserpina D., Perfecto L. Padilla and Ernita T. Joaquin. Modern Management in Philippine Local
     Government, Philippines: German Foundation for International Development and Local Government Center –
     CPA-U.P., 1996. pp. 8-9.

                                                                          ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:          15
                                                                                                 EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
The Local Government
Code of 1991

                                                                    Gov ilippin
                                                                       ern e Lo
                                                                               nt C cal


             s a landmark legislation, Republic Act No. 7160, more commonly known as the Local
             Government Code (LGC) of 1991, introduced sweeping changes in the Philippines’ political

The Code transferred substantial power, functions and responsibilities from the national
                                                                                                  The LGC drastically shifted
government to the local government units (LGUs) , allowing the impetus for change                 power from the central
and development to originate from the local communities. It redirected the country’s              government to the local
development thrusts and encouraged a shift from nationally driven to locally driven               governments. Its end goal is
                                                                                                  to unleash the potentials at
strategies. Furthermore, it transferred the responsibilities for the delivery of basic            the local level.
services to the LGUs, including appropriate personnel, assets, equipment, programs and

The delivery of various aspects of basic services that used to be the responsibility of the national
government are now devolved to the LGUs. These basic services include:

!    field health and hospital services and other tertiary services;
!    social welfare;
!    community-based forestry;
!    projects on agricultural extension and on-site research;
!    public works funded by local fund;

! school building program;
! tourism facilities;
! promotion and development; and
! telecommunication services and housing projects for provinces and cities and other services such as
  investment support.

From the ‘organizing’ standpoint, the Code has altered the mode, configuration and level of services that
local governments provide. Having bestowed greater powers and responsibilities on Philippine local
governments, there is now a common awareness of the need to improve their organizational processes and
performance. Hence, the Code embodies a major rationale for the development of local government
organization in a number of ways. The code:

!   enlarges local bureaucracy because of the devolved personnel and programs;
!   expressly grants local governments the authority to implement organizational reforms in order to
    perform effectively in a decentralized setting;
!   increases the financial capacity of LGUs;
!   allows local governments to seek alternative forms of service delivery;
!   provides for popular participation in decision-making and program implementation; and
!   localizes accountability.

Globalization and Local Government

Globalized competition induces vulnerability among nations whose
industries and services cannot meet international standards of quality
and cost-effectiveness/cost-competitiveness. Even public organizations,
in as much as they shape policy and provide various kinds of support to
private development activities, must meet these criteria to avoid
becoming irrelevant. In relation to local government, globalization has
the following impacts on organizational improvement:

!                                                  performance.
    It creates pressure to maximize organizational performance

    Organizations that ignore constant improvement lose out and
    eventually die down. The repercussions for government organizations
    may be less dire, in the sense that governments are not meant to
    create profit. Nonetheless, their experience illustrate attainable
    management reforms towards maximizing the potentials of
    organizations, including local governments.

                                                                      ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:         17
                                                                                            EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                   !    It makes more people aware of the choices open to them.

                        Information technology enables a great segment of the population to be more informed of the
                        activities of the government and the economy. Such awareness educates them of their opportunities
                        for political participation. This also empowers the public to identify crucial gaps in local government
                        services. If not addressed, it may compel their constituents to seek from the private sector, often at the
                        cost of political support.

                   !    Globally competitive organizations tend to be leaner, personnel-wise and management-

                        Higher production is registered by companies even with lesser layers of management and sizes of
                        human resources. These characteristics are related to a host of management innovations that they
                        continually improve.

                        The challenge to improve and develop local government organization comes from the external
                        environment as well as the additional responsibilities brought about by devolution. The remaining
                        task now is to identify what specific aspects of the organization need reforms and what resources are
                        available to accomplish them. Consciousness and will are only the beginning, but they will keep LGU
                        on track.

                                        Issues and concerns

                                        Implementing the provisions of the LGC has not been exactly smooth sailing, considering
                                        the number of intervening factors that delayed its smooth implementation.

                   The issues and concerns on devolution include:

                   !    upgrading of the position of devolved personnel particularly the municipal social welfare offices;
                   !    residency and prerequisite of appointment of devolved personnel;
                   !    low priority of LGUs on matters regarding devolved personnel;
                   !    inequitable distribution of Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA);
                   !    non-functionality of the Local Health Board;
                   !    disparity of salaries between devolved health workers and LGU personnel; and
                   !    non-receipt of salary increases.

                   Problems encountered
                   ! Culture of suspicion and insincerity works against the participation of NGOs and POs in local
                   ! Many non-government organizations (NGOs) and Peopl’e’ Organizations (POs) find it difficult to
                      sustain their involvements as they have to adapt to new systems and procedures as well as bureaucratic

!   The need to strengthen marginalized sectors of civil society as well as build up the
    capabilities of the state to resist crisis-causing interests, which include:
    # lack of basic information on government programs;
    # lack of effective institutional mechanism;
    # need for tax incentives;
    # lack of appropriate mechanism for channeling direct government organizations
       (GOs) support to NGOs;
    # question of accreditation; and
    # selectivity of GOs for dealing with NGOs.

                  The Devolution Master Plan

                  The Master Plan for 1993-1998 for the sustained implementation of the LGC played a
                  key role in the implementation of the Code. Formulated after intensive consultations
                  with the various stakeholders, the plan was adopted by the President in October 1994 to
                  serve as the framework for the Code’s implementation. Indicators and milestones
                  regarding Codal implementation are likewise included.

The following are 20 areas of concern in the mandatory review of the LGU of 1999:

!   Equitable distribution of IRA, increase the share of LGUs in the proceeds of the exploitation of
    national wealth and provide LGUs a share in local e-vat collection.
!   Enlarge and diversify revenue raising and credit and financing option to lower classes of LGUs.
!   Enhance basic service delivery and expand regulatory powers to LGUs in crime prevention and
    environmental protection.
!   Encourage national government agencies to expand devolution and decentralization process through a
    Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) with LGUs prepared to perform basic services and regulatory
!   Establish incentive system to promote LGU-NGO cooperation in the management and in the delivery
    of basic services.
!   Repeal rules and regulations discouraging LGUs to mobilize and use private investment resource
    flotation, deferred payment plans, cash account or secured borrowing.
!   Expand operational control and supervision over local police to administrative control and
!   Stop the creation of mandatory positions in the local governments requiring the use of local funds.
!   Resist unfunded mandates and oppose the implementation of national programs and projects that
    require funding by local sources.
!   Define the supervisory power of the president over local officials and LGUs.
!   Require mandatory consultation and approval of LGUs in the implementation of national projects in
    their respective jurisdiction.
!   Devolve public works with local application and rationalize road construction and maintenance.

                                                                       ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:        19
                                                                                            EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                   !    Power to reclassify agricultural lands to meet developmental plans and programs of LGUs.
                   !    Adopt the honoraria system for all barangay officials.
                   !    Integrate national and local developmental plans.
                   !    Limit the use of Countryside Development Fund (CDF) to the approved local development plans.
                   !    Strengthen and improve the function and management of local special bodies.
                   !    Streamline the process of recall and people’s initiative to promote participatory democracy.
                   !    Provide certain provincial officers administrative supervision over municipal officers to maintain
                        efficient delivery of basic services.
                   !    Expand franchise and licensing powers of LGUs over public utilities.

                   A quiet revolution is going on in the countryside proving that devolution is working. Due to the increased
                   powers and responsibilities of local governments, innovativeness and creativeness at the local level has
                   been endangered by the Code. And before long, these LGUs will no longer need the assistance of regional
                   offices or even national offices in performing their expanded tasks and responsibilities. Likewise, NGOs
                   and POs have been encouraged by the Code to be active participants in the process of governance at the
                   local level. Thus, partnerships between various sectors, GOs and NGOs alike, have been endangered.

                   Mistal, Teresita M. “Operationalizing Devolution in Regional Offices and Local Authorities.” in Local Government
                        Bulletin. P.C. LGC-CPA-UP, Volume XXXII. No. 2-4. April – December, 1997.

                   Joaquin, Ma. Ernita T. “Organizing for Development” in Local Government Bulletin. Q.C. LGC-CPA-U.P., Volume
                        XXXII. No. 2-4. April-December, 1997.

Decentralization in

           ecentralization refers to the systematic and rational dispersal of
                                                                                     Decentralization is not an end in
           governmental powers and authority to lower level institutions to          itself but a means to achieve desirable
           allow multi-sectoral decision-making, better administrative and           ends such as democracy, equity and
                                                                                     efficiency. However, decentralization
political penetration of national government policies into areas remote from
                                                                                     is not a panacea for social and
the central government. This is especially applicable to countries like the          economic ills. While there are many
Philippines whose basic problem is the inability of the government to                reasons for this principle, the
                                                                                     supporters of centralization can also
penetrate many parts of the country because of the structure of its archipelago.
                                                                                     give strong reasons for continuing it.

Likewise, it allows greater representation by various political, religious, ethnic
or tribal groups in decision-making, which enable their voices to be heard. Furthermore, it leads to greater
administrative capability among local governments and private institution in the regions and provinces.

                                                                         ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:        21
                                                                                              EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                                                                          Decentralization and local autonomy

                                                                          Local autonomy is the ability of local
                                                                          communities to govern and serve themselves, to
                                                                          determine their own future, as well as to initiate,
                                                                          integrate, make decisions and take action with
                                                                          minimum outside direction, approval, help or
                                                                          other forms of intervention (particularly by the
                                                                          central authorities).

                                                                          It implies an attitude of assertiveness, self-reliance
                                                                          and confidence that the local community knows
                                                                          better where its interests lie and how to best pursue
                                                                          them. It involves, first, the right of local entities
                                                                          to administer their own affairs freely in accordance
                                                                          with their own will and second, the right of the
                                                                          local citizenry to determine that will.

                   Furthermore, it is the operationalization of the human ascent to full development, liberating a
                   community of individuals from the constraints and restrictions of forces irrelevant to the concept of
                   “home-rule” and the consent of the governed. As an empowered / organized community, the citizens are
                   thus, able to produce intended and foreseen effects among themselves.

                   Types of decentralization
                   ! Decentralization of power or authority from the highest level of the institutional hierarchy to the
                     lower levels of the same organization.
                   ! Ministries or departments establish a system of regional or local administration to facilitate decision-
                     making and more responsive delivery of services.
                   ! The transfer of functions and powers can be temporal and can be recalled by the authority who made
                     the transfer.

                   ! The devolution or absolute transfer of power from the central government to local authorities through
                   ! People are given the opportunity to govern themselves so they can have mastery and control of their
                     own environment.

Other decentralization schemes
! Use of PARASTATAL semi-autonomous bodies that perform specific governmental functions (e.g.
  regional development authorities and individual estates empowered to perform certain corporate
! Privatization or the transfer of governmental functions to non-government organizations (NGOs).
! Complementation, which includes prototypes of decentralization schemes (e.g. small efforts of local
  communities, which take initiatives with or without outside help to get organized for their own

                   Advantages of decentralization

!   Increased access to central government resources and institutions by people living in previously
    neglected rural regions.

!   The introduction of decentralization policies increased the capacities of local bureaucratic and
    political leaders in some countries to put pressure on central government agencies and leaders to
    obtain larger amounts of national resources for local development.

!   In many developing countries, the administrative and technical capabilities of local organizations
    have been improved due to increasing, though still limited, experiences in running their own affairs.

!   A number of new organizations have been established, mostly in Asia and Latin America, at the
    regional and local levels to plan and manage development.

                   Disadvantages of decentralization

!   There seems to be a kind of twisted view in developing countries about the desirability and feasibility
    of transferring powers and responsibilities from central ministries to other organizations. This is
    characterized by the granting of authority and power, at least on a formal level, to local government
    units (LGUs) while continuing to be indifferent in providing the necessary financial and human

!   There are evidences to show that there has been very little success in the pursuit of decentralization
    policies in Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia.

                                                                         ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:          23
                                                                                                EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
 Criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of decentralization

 ! The extent to which decentralization contributes in achieving broad political objectives manifested in the
     promotion of political stability, mobilizing support and cooperation for national development policies.

 ! The extent to which decentralization increases administrative effectiveness. This can be shown by promoting
     greater cooperation among units of the national and local governments, including NGOs to encourage close
     cooperation in the attainment of mutually acceptable development goals.

 ! The extent to which decentralization contribute to the promotion of economic and managerial efficiency by
     allowing governments both at the central and local levels to achieve development goals in a cost-effective manner.

 ! The extent to which decentralization increases government responsiveness to the needs and demands of various
     interest groups within the society.

 ! The degree to which decentralization contributes to greater self-determination and self-reliance.

 ! The appropriateness of the means, by which policies and programs are designed and carried out to achieve the

Source: “Decentralization for Rural Development in the Philippines.” Second Project Review Meeting on Decentralization for Rural
     Development. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. September 29 – October 3, 1986.

                     Factors affecting decentralization

                     Capability of implementing agencies
                     Apparently, this is not highly developed among the agencies that were given the task of implementing
                     decentralization. Their capabilities suffer as far as the following are concerned:
                     ! ability to identify development problems and opportunities ;
                     ! ability to identify or create possible solutions to development problems ;
                     ! ability to make decisions and resolve conflicts; and
                     ! ability to mobilize resources.

                                                               Inter-organizational relationship
                                                               The ideal state would be for central, regional, provincial and
                                                               lower-level governments to get their acts together. Experience
                                                               shows, however, that there are many sources of friction – political,
                                                               ideological and personal matters.

Political environment
The local political history and structure also constitutes a very important source of obstacle, which must
also be studied. Opposition might come from local elites whose power and authority in the locality might
be undermined by decentralization.

In the Philippines, the relationship between local and central governments is highly developed. People
have been used to running to somebody important to solve their problems. Habits of dependency develop
through time and these are reinforced by economic conditions. Poor people can hardly be empowered
because of their dependence on rich people. Unless people’s economic conditions improve, the habits of
dependency will just continue to persist.

Resources for program implementation
Most LGUs belong to poor territories. Thus, even if they have been given
resource-generating powers, there is very little revenue to generate because of
the very limited tax base.

Political support is another resource needed. Decentralization is almost always
perceived as a diminution of central authority. To this extent, many central level officials oppose
it. Furthermore, local officials do not wholeheartedly support decentralization efforts for one reason or

Endriga, Jose. “Decentralization: Concept and Strategy for Local Development”, in Reform of Centralized
     Administration Structures in Southeast Asia – The Contribution of Local Administration to Economic and
     Social Development. Local Government Development Foundation and Konrad Adeneur Foundation. Manila,
     Philippines, 1996. pp. 5-10.

National Seminar on Decentralization Towards Rural Development – Reading Materials. Local Government
     Center, UPCPA, Manila, 1986.

Sosmeña, Gauidioso, Jr. Decentralization and Empowerment. Local Government Development Foundation. Manila,
    Philippines. 1991.

                                                                          ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:         25
                                                                                                EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
Trends in the
Implementation of
Devolution in the Philippines

         he implementation of the Local Government Code (LGC)                The RFAs documented by the Governance and
         has been regularly monitored by periodic Rapid Field                Local Democracy Project (GOLD) have
         Appraisals (RFA) conducted by the Associates in Rural               documented many good practices at the local
                                                                             level. These best and good practices have
Development, Inc. with the support of the USAID through the Local            proven that transferring power to local
Development Assistance Program in the early nineties and then                authorities and local communities could result
through the Governance and Local Democracy Program.                          to good governance. It has been seen that
                                                                             local governments can do things differently-and
                                                                             better - at the local level given adequate
The eighth Rapid Field Appraisal conducted in the October 1998               powers and authorities.
identified a number of trends as far as the progress of devolution in
the country is concerned. These are the areas of local finance, inter-local cooperation, and private sector
participation in local governance and organizational and human resource development.

On local finance

!   Local governments are increasingly looking at credit finance options. Local governments traditionally
    relied on their internal revenue allotments (IRAs) and local taxes to generate finances. Now, local
    governments have begun to explore the avenue of borrowing from banks - both government and private
    banks - to finance local development efforts.
!   Even if local governments have begun to explore borrowing directly from banks, there has been a
    prudent (and conservative) attitude especially among lower class local governments to borrow,
    considering the inability of other local governments to meet their financial obligation.
!   While local governments appreciate the continuing importance of the IRA, they have stepped up efforts
    and explored options to access external sources, such as Official Development Assistance, getting their
    right share from national wealth located within their jurisdiction, etc.
!   Local governments have been seen to be more innovative in generating local resources. These include
    build-operate-transfer arrangements, joint ventures, bond flotation, etc.
!   Local government has also increased their local investment initiatives.

On inter-local and local government-private sector

! Collaboration and cooperation between different levels of
  government - vertical collaboration, say between the province,
  city, municipality and barangays - have become more apparent.
! There has been an increase in horizontal and inter-local
  cooperation among the same local governments.
! In terms of local-national government cooperation, local
  governments have begun to take ownership of appropriate
  national programs implemented in the area, where before these
  were seen as impositions by the national government.

On private sector participation on local governance

! There has been an increase in local government-private sector partnership. Where before, local
  governments tended to carry out development efforts on their own. Now, they have become more open
  to seeking out partnerships with the private sector for effective governance.
! Mechanisms for civil society participation in local governance, through local special bodies, have
  begun to be institutionalized.

                                                                       ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:         27
                                                                                             EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                   On local organizational development and human resource development

                   !   Local governments have begun to explore innovative ways in organizational development.
                   ! Local governments have not invested enough in comprehensive human resources development (HRD)
                       concerns. When the financial pinch-hits, it is usually the HRD and training concerns that are first
                   Not to overemphasize, these are some of the very areas where local governments have begun to be creative
                   and innovative towards the general purpose of good local governance.

                   The LGC has laid the policy infrastructure for good governance at the local level. While there may be
                   challenges and problems, these are not enough to devail the devolution process, much less reverse it.
                   Philippines countryside is dotted with many good and best practices.

                   Brilliantes, Alex B. Jr. Doing Things Differently and Better: Innovations Among Philippine Local Governments.
                         EROPA 45 th Executive Council Meeting and Seminar on Administration in Transition. 25 - 29 October 1998.

The Challenge of Good

          he recent move to create a Presidential Commission on Effective                     If governance is to be
          Governance may be viewed as recognition of the fact that, at the heart of           brought about, it is
          many of our problems today is the quality of governance. This observation is        necessary to focus on three
                                                                                              fundamental institutions: the
definitely not new considering that many local and international organizations                civil service and
including the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and the United Nations                   bureaucracy, local
Development Program have concluded that governance-related issues and concerns such           governments and non-
                                                                                              governmental and people’s
as prevalent graft and corruption, lack of transparency and absence of meaningful             organizations.
citizen participation are actually the reasons for the continued underdevelopment and
poor performance of many third world countries, the Philippines included.

!   The Civil Service Commission of the Philippines, being the primary agency responsible for human
    resource development of the 1.3 million-strong Philippine bureaucracy has played a big role in the
    continuing search for responsive institutions and processes. Fundamental questions such as “what is
    the proper role of government in the delivery of basic services” continue to be addressed.

!   The implementation of decentralization and local autonomy in the Philippines with the enactment
    of a radical local government code at the beginning of the decade is the second major area where the
    debate on governance continues to rage. The imperative for decentralization takes place within a
    historical context or highly centralized political and administrative institutions that have shown
    themselves to be irrelevant in this day and age of global competitiveness.

                                                                       ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:        29
                                                                                            EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                   !    A third area in the debate on governance that must be addressed refers to the role of civil society, non-
                        government organizations (NGOs) and People’s Organizations (POs) and the private sector in
                        governance. As suggested earlier, because of the general inability (some would say failure) of
                        government to govern, alternative and complementary structures, institutions and processes to
                        governance have evolved and developed.

The possible changes and obstacles in the operation of government work

1. That there continue to be “lags” in areas of administrative structures and processes. This means that reforms
   introduced may be articulated at the level of policy (e.g. a Civil Service Reform Law or a Local Government Code).
   However, these reforms have to be operated at the organization level, and it is entirely possible that existing
   processes and procedures may not be able to cope with the (radical) demands of the changes (hence the term

2. When developing partnerships and cooperation between the public and private sector towards reform, it is
   necessary for civil society (business, the private sector, NGOs, POs, etc.) to develop new perspectives about the

3. Existing practices of graft and corruption, and rent seeking behavior in the bureaucracy — local, national — can
   continue to subvert the process of reform in governance.

4. The so-called “absorptive capacities” of institutions targeted for reform may continue to be a challenge to good
   governance reforms. The typical problems in this regard include the availability of qualified technical manpower
   personnel within the institution.

5. Long established auditing rules and procedures could serve as obstacles to reform and change.

6. Identifying and delineating areas of cooperation vertically (national and local governments), horizontally (among
   local governments, and also between government and civil society) may be difficult considering among other things,
   the problem of “turfing” among these different levels of institutions.

7. There is the ever-present challenge of lack, or inadequate financial resources that may be needed to accompany
   reforms. Governments always lack financial resources, and changes and reform, no matter how well meaning and
   even grandiose, have to be adequately funded. Thus, augmenting funds, through counter-parting with the private
   sector may be considered.

8. Finally, developing “measurable” indicators, standards and benchmarks of good governance, may serve as a
   challenge considering the accurateness and reliability of existing data in the country.

                   Brilliantes, Alex B. Jr., “The Challenge of Good Governance”. The Kybernam Group, Inc. 1999.

The Local Government as a
Catalyst of Economic

          t present, local governments face the challenge of going beyond their traditional and primary
          role of being service providers and to fulfill their alternative function as an economic entity.
          Many local governments recognize now that they have to take an active role in securing the
economic well-being of their constituents and provide an environment that is conducive to growth.

 Their economic role is in fact reiterated in the 1991 Local Government Code (LGC). “With
 devolved powers and authority, they are provided with avenues to organize more systematic
 interventions into the local economy for more enterprising activities in the local areas.”

In a larger perspective, local economies are the building blocks of the national economy. While national
economic development is principally the task of the central government, local governments play a crucial
role in the national economic strategy, as regional and global competition for markets and resources

                                                                        ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:        31
                                                                                             EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                                                                           The local government as an economic

                                                                           Local government is traditionally viewed as an
                                                                           employer and a provider of goods and services. One
                                                                           of its main responsibilities is to provide
                                                                           employment opportunities to its constituents and
                                                                           see to it that every citizen has a decent job. More
                                                                           often than not, the local unit becomes a “welfare”

                   Recently, however, this traditional role has been de-emphasized. The local government today is viewed
                   more as an enterprise engaged in economic
                   activities aimed at developing and diversifying
                   the local economic structure. As such, it has to
                   perform functions as promoter of inward
                   investment and as an investor in businesses
                   where the private sector fails to come in. Aside
                   from being an investor, the local government is
                   also considered as a big client of business
                   enterprises in the locality. Services like the
                   provision of supervisory and skills training for its
                   employees can be supplied by private
                   organizations, which are engaged in such kind of

                   Issues and concerns

                   Financial constraints of LGUs

                   Despite the increased budgetary share of the local government units (LGUs)
                   from the national government, many LGUs, most especially the municipal
                   governments still do not have enough resources to embark on more
                   enterprising activities in their respective localities. This could be partly
                   attributed to increased expenditures because of its devolved functions and
                   services as mandated in the Code.

                   Though loans and credits availed from financial lending institutions can
                   be another source of funds, only a number of local units have availed
                   themselves of such facilities due to the strict requirements imposed by
                   banks and other lending institutions. The lower income class
                   municipality cannot qualify for substantial loans to finance capital
                   improvement projects.

Even partnership with the private sector remains unpopular among rural-based LGUs. In areas where there
is not much economic activity, the private sector appears to be hesitant in constructing facilities in joint
venture with the LGU, more so when the economic situation magnifies the non-profitability of such

Inadequate technical capacity of LGUs
Many LGUs do not have the technical capacity to plan and implement development programs and
projects. As observed, most LGU’s staff are not technically trained to come up with an economic and/or
land use plan, which would serve as the framework for promoting the local economy. These LGUs are also
found to be lacking in data-banking services and promotional activities that is normally needed for an
aggressive, systematic, coordinated and appropriate marketing of investment potential.

Lack of political will or commitment
A number of LGUs have a sound economic plan. Yet, many of the projects, which have been prioritized for
implementation, remain on paper because the local chief executives do not want to implement them, for
some reason or another. They lack the will to push for the completion of these projects due to political

Insufficient support systems for economic promotion
National agencies, such as Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), which are mandated to promote local
economic development in collaboration with LGUs are not able to extend the needed assistance as they
lack the manpower in the field. Aside from this, the DTI also does not have sufficient resources at the
regional and provincial levels to engage in a more active and sustained effort for economic promotional
activities (i.e. preparation of feasibility studies, promotion of products, marginal/entrepreneurial skills
development and conduct of seminars on investment opportunities).

The need for shifting mindsets of LGU officials
Current challenges and demands from the environment strongly call for role shifting by LGUs.
Unfortunately, many local officials do not view the local government as an economic unit, playing the
role of an “entrepreneur.” Indeed, they have not imbibed the entrepreneurial spirit, which would propel
them to take a more proactive role in creating more enterprising activities in the local area.

              Existing /emerging innovative strategies

              Local governments have the advantage of first-hand knowledge of local conditions,
              resources and other factors that are significant for local economic development. These
              include physical infrastructure, facilities, manpower, availability of land and the like.
              Their access to data and information, combined with a thorough analysis, also gives them
              ample opportunity to define problems and objectives and to determine the appropriate
              strategies. Apparently, the strategies resorted to by some local governments were chosen
              based on the peculiar conditions, needs and objectives of their respective areas. Some of
              these strategies include:

                                                                        ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:         33
                                                                                              EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                                                                          Making available sites and premises for
                                                                          Backed-up by sufficient and reliable data, the local
                                                                          government would be able to identify a
                                                                          strategically located site with adequate
                                                                          infrastructures and facilities that will attract
                                                                          prospective investors to establish their business.

                   Sourcing external funds for local public enterprise
                   Much needed funds could be obtained by tapping other economic sectors in the community who could be
                   attracted to invest in the area and collaborate with them on a project that would serve their mutual
                   interest. Modifications which can be adapted are: the “Build-Operate-Transfer” (B-O-T) or “Build and
                   Transfer” scheme, joint and cooperative ventures with private organizations, credit financing, lease and
                   outright sale of economic enterprises.

                   Organization of teams and economic promotion units
                   Assigning a unit or forming task forces or groups within the local government organization could also
                   hasten the effective and efficient implementation of the economic plans of the LGU.

                   Collaborating with private investors, NGOs and other groups
                   Relevant sectors and actors (i.e. private enterprises, NGOs, POs and other groups in the economic
                   development process) who can contribute resources, ideas and skills must be deliberately involved. Serving
                   their mutual interest, such a strategy can also ensure the attainment of the economic aims of the local

                   Strengthening internal administration
                   LGUs must invest efforts and resources to assess and upgrade internal capabilities. This would result in
                   the improved performance of the economic functions of the local unit, in particular, and public services,
                   in general. A sound and financial management, efficient personnel, effective service delivery systems and
                   the presence of municipal land use plan all work towards enabling the LGUs to perform its economic role
                   more efficiently with regards to systems and procedures and lead to better coordination and control of
                   program and projects.

                As early as 1986, Mayor Manuel P. Santiago of the municipality of Guagua, Pampanga had already
                envisioned the Guagua Integrated Approach Towards Sustainable Development (GIATSD). Within the
                broad GIATSD framework is the component project of Guagua Integrated Tree Planting Organization
                (GINTO), particularly the propagation of ilang-ilang and sampaguita seedlings. Promotive of
                environmental conservation and sustainable development, the project showcased a successful
                collaboration among the people, the local leaders, the devolved personnel from national government
                agencies and the Department of Science and Technology (DOST).

The project began in 1989 when DOST experts introduced to the local farmers a new extraction technology for
ripened and dried ilang-ilang and sampaguita flowers. While it would take a long time before oil extraction could be
done and earn money from, the considerable demands for garlands and ornamentals created a desire for immediate
conversion of fresh flowers into cash. Nonetheless the goal was set to plant and propagate the seedlings and
eventually pursue commercial oil extraction in the late years.

The project beneficiary caretakers, mostly farmers and out of school youths were encouraged by the municipality to
propagate seedlings. The beneficiaries signed a contract with the municipal government accepting their obligation to
care for the plants. The LGU allocated P50,000 from the municipal budget for the project. The ilang-ilang seedlings
were given free while the sampaguita seedlings were given on a loan basis payable within 18 months, with minimal
interest. The municipality then purchased the propagated seedlings and distributed them to be grown by qualified and
interested constituents. Agricultural technicians from the Department of Agriculture (DA) assigned in the different
barangays monitored the program regularly.

The project accomplished both economic and environmental gains. Alongside the project on hand-made paper
products, the project on the propagation of ilang-ilang and sampaguita seedlings and tree planting benefited more than
2,000 families, resulting in the generation of an additional P50M in income for the municipality.

Adopting sustainable development as a strategy and goal
Initiating development, which would sustain viable livelihood activities
for local constituents without jeopardizing the natural environment
must be encouraged. In fact, these can be combined with efforts to
preserve the natural ecology of the community.

   An economic promotion project that is anchored on the
   philosophy of sustainable development can serve the purposes of
   economic gains and environmental conservation.

Direct intervention in creating jobs
LGUs could also facilitate the supply of labor and ensure that unnecessary impediments to employment
generation are removed. However, there are cases when local governments may have to directly intervene
and create employment opportunities for its constituents. This may be realized through the
implementation and funding of small-and-medium-scale livelihood projects or cooperative programs
that can generate jobs and provide additional income.

                                                                      ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:        35
                                                                                           EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                Several years prior to 1992, Naga City experienced a heavy influx of migrants from the surrounding
                poor areas. In addition to having to provide employment to these migrants, corresponding strains in the
                delivery of basic services as well as greater social problems in the city were felt. Inevitably, Naga City
                leaders were faced with the challenge of modifying the city’s inward-looking development thrust by
                placing greater consideration for the less developed areas around it.

                Using the concept of integrated area development, Naga City officials initiated the move to maximize the
urban-rural linkage between the city and its 12 neighboring municipalities to work toward common economic goals.
This resulted in the establishment of the Metro Naga Development Council (MNDC) in October 1992. Mayor Jess M.
Robredo of Naga City chaired the council. Overall, Naga City led the MNDC to pool the effort and resources of 13
LGUs, including national government agencies and the private sector in the province. The implementation of MNDP
projects is not supposed to prevent member LGUs from pursuing other activities in their locality. The overriding aim
is to identify each member’s role to enhance the entire economy of Metro Naga in the most productive and efficient
manner. Fortunately, the private sector has been very receptive and has, in fact, offered to work together with the
Council in pursuit of various sectoral programs. Other than the investors who have sought to match their investment
decisions with the plans and programs of the Council, the Naga City Chamber of Commerce and Industry, a
consortium of NGOs along with the Ford Foundation, the Ateneo de Naga Center for community development and
the senior citizens of Metro Naga became active supporters and participants of the MNDC projects and activities.

                   Inter-LGU cooperation
                   The resources consolidation of contiguous LGUs to undertake a common project that is beneficial to them
                   must be encouraged. Therefore, the assignment of a staff that will work on a full-time basis for the
                   cooperation becomes a priority. This staff can provide the requisite administrative and technical
                   backstopping to ensure the continuity and success of projects implemented by the member-LGUs.

                   Bond flotation/credit financing
                   Though not too many local governments have actually utilized this instrument of indebtedness, bond
                   flotation has served the economic purpose of supporting self-liquidating and income-generating projects,
                   which local governments are determined to pursue. The ability of the local government to generate the
                                                         interest of prospective investors to invest in municipal supported
                                                         economic activities and capital investment projects is crucial.

                                                              Formation of cooperatives
                                                             LGUs must also initiate the organization of cooperatives and provide
                                                           the necessary assistance and inputs at critical points in the life of the
                                                         cooperatives. Such assistance may involve management training,
                                                       provision of capital through loans and/or grants, market linkages and
                                                       production inputs.

Establishment of special economic zones
Local government must plan, designate and implement special economic zones, as certain businesses
require conversion of land or site into an industrial estate, construction or rehabilitation of
infrastructures, facilities, factories or workshops. The primary concern is to maximize the economic
potential that may be derived from the presence of these special economic zones.

                  Mandaluyong, one of the recently created cities in the country, is moving fast alongside its more affluent
                  neighboring local government in Metro Manila. The fact is the city government of Mandaluyong has the
                  distinction of becoming the first local government to enter into a B-O-T arrangement with a business
                  consortium, the Macro Founders and Developers (MFD) to construct, to operate and manage its own
                  public market. When the original market burned down in 1990, the government lost a good source of
                  income. Local authorities had to find a way to construct a new one as soon as possible, but the local
                  government of Mandaluyong had no budget for public works, more so for a public market.

 By resorting to the B-O-T scheme, the city
 government was able to construct a public market
 and a commercial complex. The city government
 admits that the program’s success was a product
 of the support and encouragement of the various
 sectors in the area. Some P6M was allotted from
 the city government’s General Fund for the
 operation of the new public market. The
 commercial complex was expected to operate at a
 cost of P15M annually, but income was expected
 to register at around P20M yearly. As projected,
 while serving some 60% to 75% of Mandaluyong
 residents, the new market would likewise
 accommodate around 500 stall holders and a
 similar number of personnel or more who would
 be employed by the establishments in the complex
 or contracted by MFD for the maintenance and
 security of the market. In addition, the land in
 which the complex was constructed was estimated to appreciate in value from P10,000 to P20,00 per square meter.
 This could generate greater potential income for the city government.

 MNDPs area-based strategies included: 1) the identification of area-specific economic ventures from food to industries
 and services and support systems from which a labor-intensive processing/manufacturing sector and an integrated and
 diversified agricultural sector could evolve; and 2) the promotion of tourist attractions for the whole region.

Legaspi, Perla P. Caobo, Wilhermina L., and Ma. Ernita T. Joaquin. Local Economic Promotion in the Philippines.
     Q.C.: LGC_PAKSA, U.P. and Public Administration Promotion Center, German Foundation for International
     Development, 1996.

                                                                             ENHANCING PARTICIPATION    IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:         37
                                                                                                    EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
Modern Management in
Philippine Local Governance

          odern management involves creative and innovative approaches to management problems.
          These include non-bureaucratic mechanisms that do away with procedures, which slow
          down processes, experiments with solutions not tried before, or provide greater impetus to
previous managerial experiments.

For the local government units (LGUs), modern management techniques are meant to:

! provide greater efficiency in the delivery of area-wide
! upgrade and improve human resources capacity in
  keeping with the resurgence of the democratic spirit; and
! involve people in the processes of decision-making as
  well as in the implementation of public policies and

Many modern innovations are found in the areas of internal
management, reforms in organization and management,
human resource management and financial
administration. These in turn lead to greater efficiency in
systems and procedures and lead to better coordination and
control of program and projects.

In the Philippines, the passage of the Local Government Code (LGC) of 1991 provided the needed
mandates for the use of modern management approaches to local governments by:

! giving them the responsibility for the administration of basic services;
! providing them the means to increase their revenues;
! involving people in local policy-making bodies; and
! helping the advocacy door open to them.

These innovative approaches have improved the delivery of local services and increased the revenue of LGUs
in the Philippines. It is important to note that with the presence of many innovations, there was less
reliance on the local coffers. Instead, the LGUs were able to mobilize different sectors for financial

Evidence had shown that the success of innovative programs lies in the involvement of the people in the
different aspects of activities. Cooperation among the private sector, religious groups and non-government
organizations (NGOs) was effectively utilized in many areas such as in the provision of safe water supply
and the active participation of women in the provision of health care activities.

                                                                       ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:        39
                                                                                            EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
 There may not be conscious                 Local government units have used the LGC to initiate and implement development
 attempts to adopt modern                   activities, which would sustain viable livelihood for its people and to maintain a safe
 management strategies in
 their technical forms, but the
                                            and healthy environment for local constituents. Localized efforts formed integral parts
 strategies do utilize aspects of           of the national agenda on sustainable human development, which in turn is part of the
 these modern techniques.                   global agenda on sustainable development

                    Framework for modern management
                    Careful utilization of human resources and their own powers can successfully bring about “mediation of
                    change” through organizational development, human resource development and management, financial
                    management and internal control.

                                                              “Mediation of Change”
 Local Government Units                                Management Interventions and Strategies

 Human Resources

 * Indigenous employees
 * Devolved employees
   Devoted                                              ! organizational
 Powers                                                 ! human resources
                                                          development and
 *   Traditional                                          management
                                                                                             Local Development Outcomes
 *   Non-traditional

 Financial Resources

 *   Local sources
 *   External sources                                                                                ! • Social Economic
                                                                                                           Social development
 Leadership                                                                                          ! • Econimic development
                                                                                                           Economic developmen

 People’s Participation                                                                              ! •Democratic governance
                                                                                                          Democratic governanc

 Local special bodies                        democratic accountability
 Alternative delivery systems                joint economic ventures

                                            SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGES

Source: Modern Management in Philippine Local Governance. LGC/ DSE. 1996.

                    On the other hand, these interventions need further boost from the people through:
                    ! participation in local governance through representation in local special bodies;
                    ! assistance in providing alternative delivery system;
                    ! joint economic ventures with LGUs; and
                    ! provision of checks to maintain democratic accountability.

If efforts from the LGUs and the people are sustained, the intervention will lead to local development
outcomes to propel and sustain social and economic development and enhance democratic governance.

Tapales, Proserpina D., Perfecto L. Padilla and Ernita T. Joaquin. Modern Management in Philippine Local
     Government. Philippines: German Foundation for International Development and Local Government Center –
     CPA – V.P., 1996 pp. 111-114.

                                                                        ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:         41
                                                                                              EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
Efficient Delivery Systems and
Public Accountability

Delivery systems

      or an institution to be widely visible, it must be efficient and effective in manning its
      delivery system. Delivery systems refer to both the internal organizational network of the
      institution that delivers a particular service and the clientele that the institution serves.

Institutional efficiency may manifest itself in terms of a highly performing internal             Strategies that allow a
                                                                                                  mutually reinforcing set of
management and a delivery network responsive to the requirements of the end users.                functional arrangements
Furthermore, delivery systems, as an area to consider in strategy building in                     between institutional
institutional sustainability, are valid and always relevant.                                      delivery systems and its
                                                                                                  clientele will ultimately lead
                                                                                                  to institutional effectiveness.
A standard measure of effectiveness is the capacity to create awareness among the
clientele that they can do something for themselves without the coercive and primary
influence of the state (e.g. when community leaders mobilize local resources for their own good) and the
translation of people’s hopes and aspirations into one collective political action in the process of

Public accountability

The concept of public accountability refers to the
responsible use of power and the rational execution of duties
and functions delegated to those who will administer them.
This is a crucial condition for effective decentralization.

Those who are to assume delegated functions and powers
must not only exercise them for the public interest but must
also be vigilant of the ethical and moral implications of
their actions. This is the first cardinal rule necessary in the
transfer of power.

Types of public accountability

Internal accountability – at each level in a hierarchical organization, public officials are accountable
to those who supervise and control their work.

External accountability – being responsible to concerned authorities outside one’s department and
organization for actions carried out.

Public accountability- insulates the bureaucracy from partisan and unnecessary public censure. At the
same time, it provides a framework for making and implementing government
decisions responsibly.

                   How can accountability be sustained?

                   ! Effective use of administrative tools that can measure the performance of public
                     agencies (e.g. measures on how a public agency uses its resources and achieve its
                     institutional goals).
                   ! Making the agency conscious of the need to develop its capacity or to innovate in
                     making adjustments internally within the organization to ascertain its relevance
                     and responsiveness to its constantly changing environment.
                   ! Improve the capacity of a public office to predict how it should carry out its
                     programs in the future to make the public agency predictably accountable (i.e.
                     describing its mission and committing its resources in achieving its vision / goals).

Sosmeña, Gaudioso Jr. Breaking the Cocoon: Bureaucracy Reborn Local Government Development Foundation and
    the Konrad Stifftung. Manila, Philippines. 1995.

Sosmeña, Gaudioso Jr., Decentralization and Empowerment. Local Government Development Foundation. Manila,
    Philippines. 1991.

                                                                       ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:         43
                                                                                             EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
NGO-PO Participation in
Local Governance

P       articipation deals largely with the issue of power,
        the probability that one actor within a social
        relationship is in a position to carry out his own will despite
resistance and the basis on which this probability rests.

Empowering one’s self involves claiming a share of the power held
mainly by the powerful. This necessitates the acknowledgment of a
stronger and a more powerful entity outside one’s self. Furthermore,
reforms aspired for will remain ineffectual unless affirmed and
consolidated by the current power structures.

               Level                                                        Measure of success

               Policy                         ! Adoption and legislation of the non-government organization/ People’s
                                                 Organization (NGO/PO) development program either in whole or in part by
                                                 the government
           Civil society
                                              ! Strengthening the NGOs and POs that can keep the government accountable
                                                 and responsible to community needs
                                              ! Expanding the democratic space in which NGOs and POs function, increasing
                                                 their political legitimacy and improving the attitudes and behaviors of
                                                 government officials and elites toward NGOs and grassroots groups

                  Variables to be considered

                  ! The organizational ability of an NGO/PO to pursue its objectives and programs;
                  ! Opportunities for participation provided by the government; and
                  ! Receptiveness of local government officials to NGO/PO participation in governance

                  Indicators of effective participation

                  ! Adaption of NGO/PO program by the LGUs
                  ! A more responsive and accountable government; and
                  ! Increased political legitimacy of NGOs and POs.

 Active civil society participation in local governance has led to a redefinition of the notion of governance in the
 Philippine context, one that goes beyond the formal structures and processes of governments. Over the past six
 years, various consultations have been initiated and conducted by the NGO community to review the Code, make
 proposals to amend it and study pending legislations on people participation and electoral reform. One such example
 is the National Coordinating Council on Local Governance (NCCLG) that operated from 1993 to 1996. It served as
 an umbrella network for NGOs that developed advocacy strategies to meaningfully implement the codal provisions for
 NGO participation in local governance.

The 1991 Local Government Code (LGC) recognized the inability of LGUs to perform
the increasing responsibilities delegated to them by decentralization because of the:

! LGU’s limited financial and technical resources;
! limited capability of local government systems and officials; and
! need for an intersectoral convergence approach to development.

Thus, the LGC mandates that LGUs enlist the support of POs and NGOs in the
                                                                                            Empowerment is multi-
formulation and implementation of development policies and program. As the Code             dimensional-cultural,
itself formulates specific mechanisms and guidelines on which to base a potential           economic and political.
                                                                                            Without political
partnership between LGUs and the NGO-PO community, various venues of participation
                                                                                            participation, there is no
have been provided:                                                                         empowerment and without
                                                                                            participation in governance,
                                                                                            there is no genuine
! representation in local special bodies;                                                   participation. Without
! sectoral representation in local legislative councils;                                    participation of NGOs and
! mandatory consultations for national projects;                                            POs, there is no genuine
                                                                                            participation and no effective

                                                                       ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:       45
                                                                                           EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                   ! accountability mechanisms of recall;
                   ! financial assistance from LGUs for socio-economic development undertakings;
                   ! joint ventures and privatization of local government enterprise; and
                   ! local initiative and referendum.

                    Enabling and disabling factors for participation
                    Enabling factors                                   Disabling factors

                    ! openness and cordial relations between           ! mutual suspension and mistrust
                    ! positive cultural environment                    ! traditional politics
                    ! establishment of appropriate structures          ! rivalry between the sectors
                    ! acceptance of NGOs of the need to deal           ! non-institutionalization of programs and
                      with government                                     projects

                   Through the LGC, decentralization, people empowerment and the struggle for power disadvantaged groups
                   become intertwined. Various venues or opportunities for participation hoped to spur the organization and
                   mobilization of the marginalized sectors. Conversely, the more critical, organized and active the local
                   citizens are, the more the structures and processes of decentralization are strengthened. Various sectors
                   working together can achieve self-reliance and ensure public accountability.

                                        Possible fields of LGU-NGO / PO partnerships

                   !   Policy formulation
                   !   Local service delivery
                   !   Local structures and systems
                   !   Representation in local special bodies
                   !   Joint programs and projects
                   !   Administrative of justice
                   !   Environmental management

                                        Difficulties encountered in building strategic partnership with the

                   ! Lack of skills of both parties which make them unable to effectively utilize local development
                   ! NGOs/POs have yet to constitute an effective consultative and feedback process with their constituents
                   ! The negative attitude of local officials toward the LGCs
                   ! The nature of LDCs as purely recommendatory

                Factors affecting LGU-NGO / PO partnerships

                Facilitating Factors
                ! openness of LGUs to NGO partners
                ! good historical ties with LGUs

                NGO/PO related
                Facilitating Factors
                ! track record
                ! resources
                ! capability
                ! expertise
                ! networking

The role of civil society, NGOs and POs and the private sector in good governance is considered very
important. In fact, experiences over the past five years have revealed that these various sectors -civil society
in general – have begun to play a key role as pressure groups, initiating projects either on their own or in
collaboration with the LGUs and in involving themselves in the delivery of basic services to the people,
which is at the heart of good governance.

Unlike before, local officials are now more open and willing to understand the nature of developmental
NGOs and POs. However, to further solidify and sustain this partnership and cooperation between the
public and the civil society towards reform, it is necessary that both sectors continue to develop new
perspectives about their respective development goals, programs and projects, and their basic needs and

Addaba, Fernando T. “An overview of the Research Literature on NGO-PO Participation in Local Governance” in
     Local Government Bulletin. LGC-CPA-V.P. Volume XXXII Nos. 2-4, April – December, 1997.

Brilliantes, Alex B. Jr. “The Challenge of Good Governance.” The Kyberman Group, Inc. December 1999.

Brilliantes, Alex B. Jr. Decentralization, Devolution and Development in the Philippines. UMP_Asia. Occasional
      Paper No. 44. June 1999.

People’s Participation in Local Governance. Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs. Ateneo de Manila
     University, Quezon City, Philippines, 1995.

Zialcita, Fernando et. al., People’s Participation in Local Governance: 4 Case Studies. Ateneo Center for Social Policy
      and Public Affairs, Quezon City, 1995.

                                                                               ENHANCING PARTICIPATION     IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:          47
                                                                                                        EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES

   Public sector
                                eing the biggest development agency in
                                any country, government is mandated to
reform through                  provide for the efficient delivery of
                         socio-economic services such as health,
      increased          education, agriculture and livelihood. By the

                         nature of its functions and with the realities of
                         increasing demands for government’s services

 and improved            and subsidies, any government must endeavor
                         to improve and expand its administrative
  management             structure and machinery and enhance its
                         operational capacities. This is done not only to
                         achieve economy and efficiency in public
                         service but also to undertake the task of nation

                         For governments to perform their mandate
                         and functions, they must be able to adapt to the
                         rapid changes and exigencies of the
                         environment both from within and outside the
                         administrative organization. Past Philippine
                         administrative experience was suffused with
                         serious problems and difficulties which put to
                         question the government’s organizational and
                         technical capacities to achieve its
                         developmental goals and objectives. These
                         problems, which were complex and pervasive
                         affected the whole governmental system and
                         operations. This often involved over
                         centralization, limited facilities and resources,
                         personnel shortage, rigid budgeting and
                         programming of resources, highly standardized
                         procedures and uniform packaged outputs,
                         among others.
The timely passage of the Local Government
Code of 1991 made it possible for the
government, particularly the LGUs, to develop,
introduce and adopt some modern
management strategies and tools. These in
effect provided order and stability to the
business of government - that of improving the
delivery of local services and increasing its
revenues to sustain and expand the scope of
such services.

To date the continuing search and testing for
more innovative management interventions
remain. Such interventions are expected to
pave the wave for the transformation of local
bureaucracies into effective catalysts for
change, enabling the realization of programs
and projects identified with and by the LGU’s
immediate constituencies: local people.

Chapter Two describes and analyzes some
modern strategies and techniques which have
been used by LGUs in the areas of
organizational development, human resource
development, financial management, fiscal
administration, among others. This chapter
also presents the relevant laws and regulations
and administrative policies and some of the
environmental, institutional and organizational
problems that provided the context and the
bases as for these management innovations.
From the experience, additional insights and
suggestions are forwarded for the eventual
possible adoption by other LGUs in their
respective efforts and functions.
in LGUs

         rior to devolution, local governments in the Philippines were already providing services
         with their own complement of personnel, administrative machinery and local funds in the
         four basic areas (Health, Agriculture, Social Welfare, and Environment and Natural Resources).
The local government units (LGUs) nearly always attempted to supplement national government
provisions and oftentimes, field agents of the four national departments were called upon to lend
logistical support.

Field workers were under the supervision of the local chief executives. However, with their compensations
being received from the national government, effective control was in the hands of regional directors as
officers of the respective departments. Field agents usually have their official workstations near the
provincial capitol or city or municipal government halls. When devolution started, these field offices were
converted into technical assistance and monitoring arms of the national government.

    G                   Organizational character-                     Organizational purpose                  Beneficiaries/
 provision                 istics of the LGU                                                                    Objects

 Section 3b             Accountable, efficient and            To meet priority needs and service              Communities
                        dynamic structure and                 requirements
                        operating mechanism

 Section 18             Effective and efficient               Responsible for the implementation of               LGUs
                        organization                          development plans, program objectives and

 Section 76             Structure and staffing pattern        Takes into consideration service                    LGUs
                        subject to CSC standards              requirements and financial capability
                        and guidelines

Source: Modern Management in Philippine Local Government. LGC-UP. 1996.

Organizational development and the Local Government Code (LGC)
During the first months up to the first year of the implementation of the new LGC, there was little
makeover, except that the number of personnel had risen tremendously. In fact, a typical LGU would
simply lump the devolved function with all the other processes and activities of the LGU, without pausing
to reconsider the new alignment of responsibilities and resources that the LGU now obtained. Before
devolution, provinces, cities and municipalities were organized in the following manner.

Typical LGU organizational chart

                                                            Local Chief                          Local Sangguniang
                                                             Executive                             Panlalawigan

                                                          (if there is one)

        Office                      Office                     Office                      Office                          Office

                   *An administrator’s position is mandatory only for cities under the Batas Pambansa 337, the Code’s precursor.
                   Source: Modern Management in Philippine Local Government. LGC-UP. 1996.

The evolution process

The expansion of powers of local government in development planning and development finance
eventually revealed the inadequacy of existing organizational set-up and management procedures. The
process entails local determination of its own needs, local discovery of appropriate tools to address those
needs and the local interpretation of the changes happening around them.

As proposed, the internal management processes are separated (but still on an equal footing) from the
direct-public services. Those at the bottom are in constant contact with the beneficiaries of the LGU
services. Those above cater to the needs of the LGU to plan and map out strategies to keep it effective.

Some LGUs have abolished some offices, created new ones, merged with others, and streamlined divisions
among them to reflect new responsibilities they must discharge.

                                                                              ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:         51
                                                                                                    EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                                                             Organizing for economic promotion

                                                             Creation of an office for economic enterprise
                                                             development and management in some LGUs
                                                             In the past, this function was lodged within a division in the
                                                             local treasury, being one of the means for income generation.
                                                             But with the expanded LGU functions and powers in the Code,
                                                             many local chief executives of well-off LGUs conceived of having
                                                             an organizational device for the purpose of economic
                                                             development (i.e. regulating existing enterprises in the area,
                                                             developing cooperatives, promoting investment and
                                                             formulation of related policy recommendations).

                   Formation of economic development task forces
                   The local department heads and key leaders from the business sector comprise these task forces.

                   Creation of organizational mechanisms such as a Cooperative Office and a Federation of
                   Puroks to:
                   ! harness people’s participation in decision-making;
                   ! facilitate credit and financial support to help address the people’s livelihood needs; and
                   ! collaborate with other public and private organizations in the areas of training and extension,
                        monitoring and evaluation.

                   Organizing for people’s participation

                   Representatives of accredited People’s Organizations (POs), non-government organizations (NGOs) and
                   individuals of good community standing were elected by their peers to sit on the board s (i.e. Development
                   Councils, Art. 182; Pre-qualification Bids and Awards Committees, Art. 183; School Boards, Art. 184; Health
                   Boards, Art. 185; Peace and Order Councils, Art. 186; and People’s Law Enforcement Boards, Art. 187).
                   These bodies generally act as advisers to the local Chief Executive and perform evaluation functions
                   concerning development programs, educational budget priorities, bids and awards, peace and order, and
                   health programs. Likewise, they serve as checks on the Chief Executive’s program.

                   Almost all LGUs in the Philippines have constituted local special bodies. The initial months were bogged
                   down by problems as charges of political manipulation, harassment and fraud were hurled by NGOs
                   against local officials, business leaders and political figures. Mistrust between LGUs and NGOs rooted in
                   their perception of opposing ideologies and the notion that “NGOs are often unfamiliar with government
                   mechanisms, weak in interpersonal skills in relating with local officials and do not know yet what they
                   can do with the Code to advance the interest of their sectors.”

Conceptual framework for NGO initiatives

                                                                  Local development outcomes

                                                                  1. Effective planning and implementation at
                                                                     the local levels
                                                                  2. Sustained benefits from development
 NGOs                                                                activity
                                                                  3. Local capacity created and on-going so that
 1.   Type of NGO initiative                                         groups and communities can manage
 2.   Location and level of NGO operation                            development activities
 3.   Type of local development task                              4. People gain increased voice in decision-
 4.   Relations with the local government                            making
 5.   Strategic orientation and capacity

      !   Orientation and approach
      !   Financial strategy
      !   Organizational strategy                                 1. LGU policies, legislation and action
      !   Institutional linkage and policy strategy               2. LGU administrative capacity to reach
                                                                     people at the grassroots
                                                                  3. Priorities and content of development
                                                                     strategy and programs
                                                                  4. Organizational channels favored for
                                                                     implementing development activities
 Donor agencies                                                   5. Level of funding and resources available for
                                                                     development activities
 1. Level and type of funding
 2. Technical and management assistance
 3. Policy guidance and advocacy                                  Macro-environment

                                                                  1. Level of political stability
Adapted from Riker, J. “Contending Perspective for Interpreting   2. Status of the economy
Government-NGO Relations in Southeast Asia: Constraints,          3. Degree of foreign donor intervention in
Challenges and the Search for Common Ground in Rural                 economy
Development,” in Government-NGO Relations in Asia:
Prospects and Challenges for People Centered Development.
Ed. By N. Heyzer, J. Rikker, and A. Quizon, Kuala Lumpur: Asia
Pacific Development Center, 1995:25.

 To date, mistrust has been gradually overcome as cases of successful LGU-NGO ventures in community organizing,
 resource mobilization and project management and implementation proliferated. The current openness between LGUs
 and NGOs is an indicator of effective decentralization.

Tapales, Proserpina D. Perfecto L. Padilla, Ma. Ernita T. Joaquin with Eden V. Santiago. Modern Management in
     Philippine Local Government. LGC-UP College of Public Administration and German Foundation for
     International Development, Philippines, 1996.

                                                                            ENHANCING PARTICIPATION    IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:         53
                                                                                                   EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
Human Resources Development
and Management in LGUs


         The initial expansion in scope of government activity vis-à-vis its workforce happened at the
         national level and then eventually radiated to the local level as the local government units
         started delivering devolved and new programs and services. Considered as the most notable
development at the local level is the passage of the Local Government Code in 1991 that effectively
devolved substantial powers, functions and responsibilities from the national government to the LGUs. In
terms of personnel complement, the number of devolved employees from different agencies reached a total
of 70,498 as the transfer were completed in October 1993.

!    Department of Health (DOH)                                         -      46,107
!    Department of Agriculture (DA)                                     -      17,667
!    Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)             -         899
!    Department of Budget and Management (DBM)                          -       1,650
!    Philippine Gamefowl Commission (PGC)                               -          25
!    National Meat Inspection Commission (NMIC)                         -           9

                                                               TOTAL           70,498

With the implementation of the Local Government Code (LGC), the mandate of the transfer of personnel to
the local governments in support of the devolution of certain functions and services posed problems of salary
rates in the case of the transferred personnel. In fact, Philippine local government unit (LGU) personnel
complement has greatly increased because of devolution. When the transfers were completed in October 1993,
the number of devolved employees from different agencies reached a total of 70,498.

                  Problems encountered

                  !   initial mistrust between devolved employees and bureaucrats;
                  !   low financial absorptive capacity of LGUs;
                  !   snags in the transfer of salaries during the transition year;
                  !   misallocation of positions in some departments;
                  !   questions of loyalty to the local Chief Executive;
                  !   non-absorption of some personnel with political problems;
                  !   non-assurance of career advancement and capability-building; and
                  !   resignation of some in order to avoid having to join local governments.

Among the other major human resource concerns that local governments must immediately address,
particularly those in low-income areas, include:
! the clamor by the local employees for salaries comparable to those being received by their counterpart
    employees from the national government, particularly the health workers;
! ceilings on budget for personal services;
! lack of a Human Resource Management and Development Office (HRMDO) that shall spearhead
    human resource planning and implementation in the local government;
! lack of adequate career development plans and capability-building programs including management
! outdated job designs and performance review systems; and
! need for changes in recruitment and promotion policies and procedures.

                  Measures and processes adopted to address common human
                  resource concerns

                  Adoption of systematic human resources planning
                  ! Evaluative analysis of the personnel complements of the organizational units;
                  ! Ascertainment of the reasonable number and appropriate classes of positions needed
                    by the LGUs;
                  ! Projection of the estimated number of employees who may be retiring, resigning or
                    transferring to other jobs; and
                  ! Termination of personnel services because of organization overhaul.

                                                                      ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:         55
                                                                                            EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                    Establishment of HRMOs in LGUs
                    LGUs of small provinces and cities have been further strengthened with the designation of an HRM Officer
                    under the Office of the Governor or Mayor.

                    Introduction of the career executive service vis-à-vis top-ranking officials of the LGU
                    This has provided extended vertical and horizontal mobility for local personnel, which in effect motivated
                    their performance and enhanced their careers.

                    Conduct of continuing management development and capability-building programs for local
                    officials and employees such as:
                    ! Joint conduct of Local Administrative Development Program (LADP) by the Local Government Center-
                      UP-NCPAG and Local Government Academy;
                    ! Distance Learning / Education Program designed by the University of the Philippines; and
                    ! Conduct of job-related, hands-on training that involves the examination of real problems in real time
                      by employees most closely identified with the job.

                    Some other preventive or remedial measures that may guide local officials and
                    functionaries vis-a-vis issues and problems on Human Resource Management

                    !    On human resource planning

What may be done?

Maintaining an accurate information concerning the composition, capabilities and assigned tasks of the local employees.
An organized, accurate and updated information system needs concerted efforts of both the local management and
employees. It is not only the responsibility of the OHRM to rationalize the personnel records but the individual
themselves should be involved particularly in supplying the required information.

                    !    On recruitment and selection

What may be done?

Strengthening of the Personnel Selection Board (PSB) which may push the LGU to strictly comply with the civil service
policy of upholding the principles of merit and fitness in the selection of its personnel. This system can significantly
upgrade the quality of future local personnel through proper screening of prospective applicants and employees for

Other actions that LGUs may consider:
 ! help skilled personnel who may be promoted, to require the needed education requirements
 ! conduct review classes to help non-eligible acquire civil service eligibility and to enable them to eventually upgrade
     their positions.
 ! attract highly qualified personnel by offering, if they can, additional benefits/compensation to make them
     comparable with what the private sector offers.

!    On detailing of personnel

What may be done?

Detailing of personnel from one office to the other is supposed to be done based on the needs of the requesting office.
This requires a thorough analysis of personnel records to ascertain if the personnel being detailed has the skills
necessary to perform the job and that there is really a need on the part of the department for said personnel

!    On compensation and benefits

What may be done?

Financially burdened LGUs may find ways to fully compensate their respective employees. For instance, benefits like
amelioration allowance may be given on a staggered basis. In more affluent ones like in Metro Manila, they may give
more financial benefits to their employees as long as they are within the limits prescribed by law.

!    On performance evaluation

    What may be done?

    LGUs should re-orient themselves in order to assign a new meaning to performance evaluation. They should review
    their performance evaluation system and develop it into something that can help the LGUs achieve their goals while
    improving employee performance. Performance evaluation should be used as a basis in making important human
    resource decisions.

!    On human resource development

What may be done?

Contents of capability-building program being offered by various training institutions are beyond the control of LGUs
but they can be more selective in sending their employees…The LGUs may address the idea of providing equitable
human resource development opportunities by:
 1. Creating policies regarding the availment of capability-building opportunities; and
 2. Developing their own programs to meet the needs/priority thrusts/programs of the organization and upgrade the
    administration and technical capabilities of management and employees as well.

The appraisal of the Local Sanggunian is important to be able to implement the HRD program of the LGU through the
allocation of financial and logistical resources.

!    On career development

What may be done?

LGUs should see the importance of developing a career management system for its employees by providing
opportunities as well as funding that would support capability-building and other activities designed to upgrade
individual performance. A well-designed career development program for LGU personnel is imperative.

                                                                      ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:        57
                                                                                           EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                   !    On The creation and strengthening of the office for Human Resource Management

What may be done?

The greater responsibility for the management of human resources calls for the creation of a separate and distinct office
for Human Resource Management in every LGU. Much of the personnel-related problems, from disorganized personnel
records, non-observance of the principles of merit and fitness in the recruitment and selection process, unutilized
results if the performance evaluation system, absence of a human resource development program and career
management system, may be given proper attention and greatly facilitated if an adequately staffed OHRM is created.

                   Tapales, Proserpina D., Perfecto L. Padilla, Ma. Ernita T. Joaquin, with Eden V. Santiago. Modern Management in the
                        Philippine Local Government. LGC-UPCPA and German Foundation for International Development. Philippines.

                   Sajo, Tomas A., Eden V. Santiago and Ma. Ernita T. Joaquin. Handbook of Modern Management in Philippine Local
                         Government. Center for Local and Regional Governance. National College of Public Administration and
                         Governance, University of the Philippines and German Foundation for International Development. Philippines.

Financial Management
Innovations in LGUs

         he passage of the Local Government Code (LGC) has lent more importance to sound financial
         management in Philippine local governments. Not only have transfers in the form of LGUs
         share in Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) increased (from 30% to 40%), a lot of opportunities
for revenue generation [bond flotation, lease/purchase scheme, credit finance, enterprise promotion and
build-operate-transfer schemes] are now open to local governments.

In managing, developing and controlling financial operations and other economic development
functions, local governments can explore many options allowed by the Code. These possibilities may
enhance local fiscal position and enable local government units (LGUs) to carry out well-financed

                  Issues of inter-governmental relations in financial management

                  National government influence
                   The national government’s role in local financial management extends beyond
granting LGUs more money (e.g. IRA). It influences the allocation of resources,
personal services and also the internal process of collecting and accounting of

Restrictive policies
Local officials complained that national agencies like the Commission on
Audit (COA) have not yet adjusted their regulations. Likewise, they have not
provided guidelines supportive of fiscal decentralization despite the fact
that new powers were already granted to local government pursuant to
the LGC. The Rapid Field Appraisal noted this in the areas of
Build-Operate-Transfer (B-O-T) schemes, bond financing,
revenue utilization and asset disposal.

                                                                       ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:        59
                                                                                            EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                   Unfunded mandates
                   The creation of “unfunded mandates” continues to burden local governments. These mandates concern
                   the congressionally approved benefits to local health workers, the use of their 20% development funds and
                   even the recent Commission on Elections resolutions on LGUs partially funding the May 1997 barangay
                   elections. In the absence of adjustments from national financial agencies, local governments are thus,
                   constrained in using local finances in the way they see best. Tied to the unfunded mandates issue is the
                   uncertainty that may be faced by local governments once the national government incurs a deficit. The
                   Code provides that when this happens, the President is authorized to make the necessary adjustments in
                   the IRA (Section 284 C) in consultation with the Department of Budget and Management(DBM),
                   Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG), Congress and local government representatives.

                   Need for modern financial systems
                   Based on the experience of local governments in the first
                   five years of the implementation of the Code, only a few
                   have taken steps to improve their fiscal situation. Some
                   have adopted new revenue ordinances, but have not
                   imposed new taxing powers. Collection efficiency of
                   local taxes remains low and methods used in revenue
                   estimation remain traditional. They have not exerted
                   extra effort in generating more revenues to match
                   revenue from external sources. LGUs dependence in the
                   IRA is deepened by the bigger amount of allotment and its automatic release. In both revenue generation
                   and budgeting systems, the issue of access and management of information are considered crucial. Other
                   lingering problems include:

                   ! Borrowing and other non-traditional schemes to fund income-generating projects remain limited.
                   ! Absence of a development plan and/or the weak vertical and horizontal integration of plans (i.e. a lot
                     of LGUs have little discipline or patience to wait for submission from the lower levels nor for review
                     and integration at the higher levels).
                   ! Local governments remain traditional in the kind of development projects funded out of the
                     Countryside Development Fund (CDF) of their District Representatives. Without discounting the
                     benefits that may be generated by these projects (which are mostly infrastructure projects), they do not
                                                                                       make up a whole plan for the
                                                                                       development of the locality. Thus,
                                                                                       such projects are not maintained
                            F                                                          primarily because the local
                                                                                       government has not planned for their

!    The composition of expenditures remains focused on general government expenditures. Expenditures
     for social and economic services have not improved. The budget is practically devoted to the payment
     of expenses on personal services, maintenance and operating expenses and hardly shows its relationship
     with the targets or services that the LGU intended to provide for the fiscal year. Again, this reveals gaps
     in the planning and budgeting and lack of guidance and vision in LGU operations.

Capabilities and attitude of finance employees in revenue generations and administration
Efforts at maximizing revenues fall short when management processes remain unaltered and
when the human resource component lack the needed skills. For example, the yield from
taxation depends a lot on the coordination between involved officers as well as those of the

Local governments are way behind with the use of
information technology because of its perceived cost and
because of attitudes held by many local employees. An
example is the “fear” of using a personal computer for
lack of training. It not only results in efficiency loss but
also upholds an attitude that old ways are still better
than new ones, even if the latter’s benefits are greater.

With respect to local development planning, a lot of LGUs have little discipline or patience to wait for
submission neither from the lower levels nor for review and integration at the higher levels. Similarly at
the national level, national agencies draw up their plans without tangible participation by local
authorities. Caught in the middle of these exercises, local planners need a lot of creativity indeed.

                    Marikina evolved from a small town famously known for producing export-quality shoes into one of the
                    most progressive and dynamic cities of Manila. It has traditionally prided itself as the ”Shoe capital of
                    the Philippines” where its shoe industry generates resources and provides employment for most of its
                    people. The glorious place it holds, complemented by competent leadership greatly influenced and
                    contributed to whatever transformation Marikina has achieved today.

                   Revenue generation is one aspect of local governance
    where Marikina had shown an exemplary performance. Marikina’s total
    income (local and external sources) steadily showed an increasing trend
    over the past five years. Its average annual income for some period
    (1992 to 1997) amounted to P338.8 million. As of August 1997, the
    city has already collected 93% of all its tax collectibles. This is a
    remarkable feat, which is not commonly found in LGUs.

    (continued next page...)

                                                                            ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:         61
                                                                                                  EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
Since taxes from real properties are said to be the most stable and productive tax base of LGUs, Marikina has been
concentrating its efforts on real property tax collection campaigns aside from other taxes. These major activities
consist of the following:

General revision of real property assessment
Marikina undertook a general revision of real property assessment beginning in 1994, which effectively increased its
revenues. This explains the 81% growth rate in real property tax collections.

Taxation of idle lands
Marikina charged a four percent levy on idle lands and in doing so, the owners of idle lands were encouraged to
improve or sell their properties. Improvement of the lands mean additional income for the city because of permit fees
that must be secured/paid (e.g. building permit, excavation permit, etc.)

                                             Rigid tax collection campaign
                                             To supplement the real property tax collection efforts, the Treasurer’s Office for
                                             the past several years has been sending eight local revenue collection officers to
                                             the field everyday. They are given a quota to visit 20 tax payers/houses on a daily

Other revenue generation strategies

The city administration is constantly on the
move to look for ways and means that could
increase the city’s coffers. These include:

! designation of additional parking areas and
  collection of parking fees (minimum of
  P5.00 for the first three hours plus P10.00
  for every succeeding hour); and
! collection of P2.00 from public utility
  jeepneys for the use of designated loading
  and unloading areas.

Proposed revenue generation strategies

There are many other innovative strategies of generating revenues most of which are notably suggested by the city
treasurer. Some are just waiting to be implemented while some are still under deliberation by the Sangguniang
Panlalawigan or under study by the Chief Executive.

! Computerization of treasury operations
It is perceived to enhance the delivery of a fast and efficient service to the taxpaying public and to ensure
transparency of operations. Marikina received a P3M financial assistance from the Metro Manila Development
Authority (MMDA) for its computerization program.

! Imposition of night parking fees
There are streets in the city, which are used as parking spaces of residents particularly during the night. Aside from
depriving the public of unhampered use of roadway, illegally parked vehicles also cause accidents from time to time.

 The proposal plans to charge the concerned residents at least P3,000 per year for every car parked overnight on the

 ! Rehabilitation of the Marikina Sports Complex
 The city now owns the Marikina Sports Complex building
 which it acquired from the province at P15M. Situated at a
 four-hectare lot including the area occupied by the
 provincial hospital, Marikina plans to have the stalls
 improved and lease them to private businessmen. At
 present, the city has rehabilitated the complex and now
 charges P2.00 for the use of the swimming pool and a
 minimal entrance fee for those who would like to play.

 ! Establishment of a mini-hospital
 Another possible source of income is the establishment of a
 mini-hospital (with a 20-bed capacity). This includes a plan
 to call up all medical practitioners residing in the city to
 render at least one hour a day of public service. Payment for
 their services will depend on the people’s capacity to pay.

Tapales, Proserpina D., Perfecto L. Padilla and Ernita T. Joaquin. Modern Management in Philippine Local
     Government. Philippines. German Foundation for International Development and Local Government Center-
     CPA-U.P., 1996. pp. 44-59.

Santiago, Eden V. Case Study No. 3 “Financial Management Innovations in Marikina”. pp.100-110.

                                                                          ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:          63
                                                                                                 EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
Enhancing LGUs’ Fiscal

          oday, as we enter the third millenium, local governments are under the
          tremendous pressure to meet the challenge to perform and play a significant
          role in the pursuit of development, considering the currency crisis obtaining
in the Asian region. With increasingly shrinking resources, local governments are in      Local fiscal administration
the quandary as to ways and means to carry out their two-fold mandate of delivering a     refers to the natural, effective
wide array of basic services and keeping the wheels of development running.               and efficient conduct of the
                                                                                          fiscal functions and
                                                                                          operations of local
Improving the financial status and operations of local governments to enable them to      government units which
                                                                                          embrace the systems,
carry out their mandate is the foremost concern. This concern compels them to give
                                                                                          structures, processes and
emphasis on the administration of their fiscal and other economic resources. An           human resources involved in
efficient and effective local fiscal administration becomes imperative for them.          revenue allocation and
                                                                                          utilization. In addition, such
                                                                                          conduct of fiscal affairs is
The 1991 Local Government Code (LGC) still daunts many local government units             governed by laws and is
(LGUs), especially on using one’s devolved powers in dealing with local revenue           affected by the fiscal policy
                                                                                          environment, which defines
generation and utilization. Until serious efforts are undertaken to improve the fiscal    central-local and inter-LGU
administration of LGUs, local governments may not be able to face the challenges posed    fiscal relations.
by the 1991 LGC.
                                                                                          Celestino, Malvar and
                                                                                          Zipagan Sr., 1998: 5

                    Problems confronting a local government’s fiscal administration

!   The Local Treasury’s inefficient handling of its two main tasks: revenue collection and accounting and

    Some personnel with no specific functions were assigned to undertake various assignments. This
    practice often results to an overlapping of functions and buck passing. In most cases, nobody takes
    responsibility of admitting errors or mistakes.

!   Poor filing system.

    It usually takes office personnel an average of thirty minutes to an hour just to retrieve a single data
    on tax collected.

                    Strategies/activities LGUs should undertake:

!   Conduct of training programs focusing on fiscal accountability, technical capability
    building and effective systems and strategies for revenue generation and resource
    mobilization Such training could be done back-to-back with orientation on special economic
    enterprises/areas (e.g. slaughterhouse and public management) since a significant amount of the
    annual income is derived from these establishments.

!   Formulation of program/work systems The use of a flowchart for revenue generation provided
    each personnel assigned in revenue collection a more detailed task and responsibility.

!   Instilling the value of fiscal accountability among staff and taxpayers. The head of the
    Revenue Collection Committee/ Municipal Treasury, with the Mayor’s full support, exerts full effort to
    instill the value of paying local taxes to their own staff who, in turn, did the same to the taxpayers.

    Insight into the experience...

    “Fiscal administrations cannot be learned nor implemented overnight. It entails a step by step implementation and constant
    exposure to the said field.”

    With the right attitude and commitment, things learned during capability-building programs can be brought back to
    make a difference in local government.

                                                                           ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:          65
                                                                                                  EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                   Continuing trends, lingering problems

                   After almost five years of greater fiscal autonomy, there is evidence that the content and performance of
                   local fiscal administration has undergone some significant changes.

                   !    Local governments’ share in economic activity has taken a slight turn upwards, and deviated from the
                        previous trend. Local government revenues and expenditures have registered a growing share in total
                        general government revenues and expenditures in GNP, and per capital terms. This is however
                        attributed mostly to the enlarged internal revenue allotment.

                   !    The national governments played a major role in the fiscal decentralization process. On the one hand,
                        the vertical fiscal relations were improved in terms of enhanced local taxing powers, improved shares
                        from national internal revenue collections, reduced government intervention in revenue planning,
                        budgeting and spending and in selection of fiscal personnel.

                        But despite said improvements in local fiscal administration, some patterns remain and so are the
                        problems that go with them that have been there even before the enactment of PD 231.

                   !    Local governments continue to treat the IRA as a dole out, depend on it as it has become more regular
                        and predictable and have not exerted greater effort in raising revenues through the exercise of their
                        taxing powers.

                   !    The collection efficiency in real property tax remained low; and the property valuation used in
                        assessment, outdated.

                   !    Local governments continue to rely on one or two local taxes for revenue. The real property tax and
                        the business tax remain the two major local taxes from which local units generate substantial
                        amount or revenue. This is not suprising considering the absence of tax bases in many LGUs. Even the
                        more prosperous LGUs have not shown extra effort in raising revenue from other taxes, fees and
                        charges. Apart from the fees and charges listed in the code, LGUs have not come up with ways to
                        augment their local income.

                   !    Use of borrowing and non-traditional schemes to fund income-generating projects remains limited.

                        We can only cite the experience of Cebu Province, the Municipality of Victorias in Negros Occidental,
                        Legaspi City, Claveria, Mizamis Oriental and Naga City in the issuance of local bond to finance a local
                        project. This observation augurs well to the traditional and conservative character of LGUs.

!   The absence of a development plan is also a problem that affects not a few LGUs. The importance of
    having a well-conceived, well-studied development plan need not be stressed. It is very imperative for
    LGUs to produce such a plan, to map out their vision for the locality, come up with relevant programs
    and projects, estimate with accuracy the amount of money it needs to raise, how this could be raise.

!   On the expenditure side, local governments remained traditional in the kind of development projects
    funded out of the 20% Development Fund and those funded through the pork barrel of their District

    An examination of the projects listed among those included in the 20% Development Fund would
    show that these are mostly infrastructure projects with little forward on backward linkages to more
    pressing needs of the locality. Without discounting the benefits that may be generated by these
    projects, they however do not make up a whole plan for development of the locality. The 20%
    Development Fund funds a host of small projects every year without the benefit of a long term plan.

!   The composition of expenditures remains focused on general government expenditures. Expenditures
    for social and economic services have not improved. The budget is practically devoted to the payment
    of expenses on personal services and general government expenditures with little money left for social
    services and economic services or capital outlay.


The Code offers local fiscal authority broad enough for local governments to have a meaningful local
autonomy and it is up for them to prove themselves capable of managing their own affairs, achieving the
goals of their community and that of the nation. Local governments are therefore expected to maximize
their taxing powers; impose new taxes; adopt the maximum rates provided in the Code; raise collection
efficiency; religiously collect fees and charges, adopt new tax ordinances; use legal remedies in tax
collection; and other resources to improve the fiscal status.

The challenge to the national government is to consider suggestions to provide continued assistance to
local governments. Improvements are needed with respect to a more equitable distribution of the
internal revenue allotment, nationwide tax mapping of real properties, higher allocation in the national
budget for interlocal projects prioritized by the Regional Development Councils, equitable distribution of
ODA and continuous training and retraining of personnel on local fiscal administration, among others.

                                                                        ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:        67
                                                                                             EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                   Lacuesta, Agnes and Roberto Tordecilla. Fiscal Administration in the Municipality of Alimodian, Iloilo” in A Breath
                        of Fresh Air-Exploring the Possibilities of Local Government Management. ed. by. Letty Tumbaga. CIDA-LGSP
                        Regional VI and Atone Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs (ACSPPA) Philippines, 1998. pp. 113-121.

                   Cuaresma, Jocelyn C., and Simeon A. Ilago. Local Fiscal Administration. Local Government Center-College of Public
                        Administration. University of the Philippines and German Foundation for International Development. Philippines.
                        1996. pp. 125-129.

Tax and
Codification for
Efficient Local

         odification is the act of systematically compiling and arranging the written collection of valid
         and existing laws classified by general subjects into one or more volumes. In the case of local
         governments, this is done in its ordinances, resolutions, executive orders and other regulations
that have the force of law over the community in which they have been adopted.

The importance of codification

The codification process serves to eliminate ordinances and other rules that are obsolete, duplicative,
invalid, unenforceable or of limited duration. Valid and current rules and regulations are codified to
minimize, if not eliminate, wrongful legislation and administration. The process also offers the chance
to write new rules to complement, augment or supplement existing ones. It also facilitates the effective
exercise of regulatory powers by local authorities.

Process in the formulation of tax and administrative codes

Pre-drafting stage
All general ordinances of the municipality are collected, classified
and arranged in chronological order (by date of legislation).

                                                                        ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:         69
                                                                                              EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                                                                               Updating the ordinances involve:

                                                                               !    Discarding all ordinances that have been
                                                                                   totally revoked, duplicated, not within the
                                                                                   taxing powers of the municipality, are
                                                                                   contrary to declared national policy or
                                                                                   provide for an administrative or regulatory
                                                                                   measure which is discriminatory in nature
                                                                                   to the conduct of business or calling.

                   !     Integrating ordinances that are amendatory to the basic ordinances that remain after discarding the
                        others. Earlier amendatory ordinances, which have in turn been changed also by later amendments,
                        need not be reflected anymore. These are then classified into major sections like health and
                        sanitation and peace and order, among others.

                   Revision stage
                   This stage includes drafting the Code for
                   subsequent review and approval by the
                   Sangguniang Panlalawigan, as well
                   as examination of existing ordinances
                   for correction, improvement and
                   inclusion in the Code.

                   Bottlenecks in tax and administrative codification

                   1. Limited number of personnel (i.e. from the Sangguniang Bayan (SB) Secretariat or the Municipal
                      Treasurer’s Office) working on the updating and revision of ordinances.
                   2. Lack of supplies and equipment that hampers the drafting of the Codes.
                   3. Unavailability of counsels to answer legal questions that arise during the drafting of the Codes.
                   4. Necessity to brief or convince newly elected officials who did not appreciate the project.

Strategies/activities involving tax and administrative codification

                                                                    Conduct of conference-workshops
                                                                    Sessions on the relevance of improving
                                                                    the local Revenue Code (of the
                                                                    municipalities and basic concept of
                                                                    administrative codification in the
                                                                    local legislative process) were held.
                                                                    Municipal treasurers, SB secretaries, SB
                                                                    members, and other municipal
                                                                    officials participated in the sessions.

Forming local counterpart committees
Successful municipalities organized Local Counterpart Committees
(LCCs), one for tax codification and another for administrative
codification. The LCC was formed to coordinate the actual
codification of the tax and administrative ordinances. The
Municipal Vice-Mayor heads the LCC on tax codification, while the
chairperson of either the SB Committee on Ways and Means, Finance
or Appropriations acts as the vice-chairperson. For the LCC on
Administrative Codification, the chairperson is still the Vice-Mayor
while the vice chairperson is the SB Committee Chairperson on Rules.

Survey of Revenue Codes
Subsequent activities (of the consultants) included an initial review of the current revenue codes of the
(participating) municipalities, an assessment of the current administrative ordinances to establish a
database to improve the regulatory powers of the SB, as well as a hands-on training on the process of
codifying administrative ordinances.

                                              Comprehensive work plan
                                     (Based on LOGODEF-supported project proposal)

 First month:
 1. Meeting with municipal officials to explain the nature, purpose and requirements of the project and their respective
 2. Designation of coordinators and local counterpart project team.
 3. Definition of roles and responsibilities of parties concerned.
 4. Identification of sources of materials of the study.
 5. Programming the search, retrieval and replication of study materials.
                                                                                                         (continued next page...)

                                                                        ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE:         71
                                                                                              EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
Second month:
1. Evaluation of administrative and tax materials to separate the useful from the obsolete.
2. Collation and review of usable materials.
3. Classification of materials by general subjects.

Third and fourth months:
1. Writing of first drafts of the codes.
2. Sectoral consultation with external consultants.
3. Series of conferences with counterpart team.
4. Review of initial accomplishments.

Fifth month:
1. Presentation to the Mayor, Vice Mayor and Members of the Sangguniang Bayan of the following documents:
    a) Final draft of the Code of Administrative Ordinances
    b) Final draft of the Code of Tax Ordinances and Tax Laws
    c) List of obsolete ordinances for consignment to the municipal archives.
    d) Legislative guides for predictive ordinances
    e) Draft of omnibus ordinance for the adoption of the Code of Administrative Ordinances and the Code of Tax
       Ordinances and Tax Laws.

2. Computer encoding of legislative records.

                A model LGU that is Kalibo, Aklan

                On November 29, 1995, the Sangguniang Bayan of Kalibo passed Municipal Ordinance No. 95-0024, “An
                Ordinance Enacting the Revised Municipal Revenue Code of the Municipality of Kalibo, Province of
                Aklan” which was eventually signed by the Municipal Mayor. The Municipal Treasurer started collecting
                taxes, fees and levies based on the provisions of the new ordinance on January 1, 1996.

                The Revised Municipal Revenue Code of the Municipality of Kalibo consists of seven major chapters:

Chapter I. General Provisions – includes the title and scope of the Code, definition of terms and rules of
  construction (i.e. how the provisions should be interpreted)
Chapter II. Municipal Taxes – contains the types and rates of taxes to be collected on businesses, peddlers,
  motorized and non-motorized tricycles, etc.
Chapter III. Permit and Regulatory Fees – taxes and fees to be collected include mayor’s permit on business,
  permit fees for cockpit, registration fees on fishing boats, dog license fee, etc.
Chapter IV. Secretaries Fees – this chapter contains provisions for the collection of secretary’s fee, fees on local
  civil registry, sanitary inspection fee, etc.
Chapter V. Municipal Charges – this chapter contains market fees, slaughter and corral fees, fishery, charges for
  parking, etc.
Chapter VI. General Administration and Penal Provisions – this chapter details the collection and accounting
  of revenues , civil remedies for collection, and general penal provisions.
Chapter VII Final Provisions – this chapter contains the applicability and repealing clauses, together with the
  affectivity of the code.

The codification of the administrative code started late in 1994 as the SB Secretariat initially concentrated their efforts
on the codification of tax ordinances.

Using a similar technique in tax codification, the SB Secretarial drafted the document chapter by chapter – allowing
the Sangguniang Bayan members to concentrate their efforts on only one particular topic at a time, enabling them to
scrutinize the documents more thoroughly.

 Unlike in Tax Codification, the SB Secretariat and members of the Sangguniang Bayan had to undergo follow-through
 training in Administrative Codification for six days financed by the local government of Kalibo. Three LOGODEF
 consultants served as trainers and facilitators.

 The Sangguniang Bayan and the Municipal Mayor eventually approved the administrative code.

 The Administrative Code of Kalibo contains the following:

 Vision Statement
 Chapter 1        -           General provision
 Chapter II       -           Rules of Procedure for the Sangguniang Bayan
 Chapter III      -           Municipal Contracts, Personnel Policies and Records
 Chapter IV       -           Peace and Order
 Chapter V        -           Health and Sanitation
 Chapter VI       -           Comprehensive Town Plan, Land Use and Zoning
 Chapter VII      -           Public Market and Slaughterhouse
 Chapter IX       -           Education, Culture and Arts
 Chapter X        -           Tourism Development
 Chapter XI       -           Parks and Monuments
 Chapter XII      -           House Numbering
 Chapter XIII     -           Assistance to Barangays
 Chapter XIV      -           Sale of Liquor

 Unlike the Tax Code, the Administrative Code is
 still undergoing major revisions. The wide array of
 topics included in the Administrative Code made
 the document quite voluminous.

                      Lessons learned

                      In order to attain efficient local governance through proper tax and administrative codification, the
                      following must be present:

 !   Proper planning
 !   Effective strategy
 !   Hardworking and competent staff
 !   Conducive working environment (availability of supplies and equipment)
 !   Supportive municipal leadership
 !   Dedicated Sangguniang Bayan
 !   Support from various institutions and sectors within the locality

 Codification is just one of the many crucial steps for local development. Greater challenges still lie ahead, waiting to
 test the coping ability of local officials.

Anlocotan, Raul and Roberto B. Tordecilla. “Tax and Administrative Codification in the Province of Aklan” in A
     Breath of Fresh Air-Exploring the Possibilities of Local Government Management. Ed. by Letty Tumbaga. CIDA-
     LGSP Regional VI and Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs (ACSPPA) Philippines, 1998. pp. 86-103.

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                                                                                                      EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
Property and Supply
Procurement in Local

        upply and property management covers the recording and inventory, custody of property,
        utilization and disposal of supplies and property of local government pursuant to existing rules
        and regulations. Furthermore, the local supply procurement system has been characterized as a
lengthy and tedious process.

The process of procurement (as provided under the Commission on Audit (COA)
Circular 92-386)

     1        The requesting office fills up a request form detailing the materials and supplies they
              need. Requests are crosschecked with the annual budget of the unit.

     2        The Property Division sets a bidding date and invites potential suppliers. Previously pre-
              qualified suppliers who want to bid are asked to submit price quotations for each item.

              The Procurement Officer prepares an abstract of the bid and selects the lowest price for
              each item as per COA regulation. The abstract is then routed to different signatories in
              the city hall.

              If approved, notices are sent to the winners of the bid. Suppliers are given two weeks to
              deliver and are penalized for any delay. A percentage of their deposit bond is deducted if
              deliveries are late.

     5        Supplies are delivered to the requesting unit in the presence of a Supply and Property
              Officer. Payment is made two weeks after delivery.

                  Problems in supply management

Unresponsive government rules and systems
The units of the city government have quarterly allotments totaling to P10,000/unit without the
mandatory 20% savings. However, the allotment is not enough to cover all the supplies needed by a
particular unit or division for the year thus, affecting supply acquisition.

The departments concerned are not able to take actions or plan their tasks accordingly, due to the absence
of a feedback mechanism or progress report about the status of requests made.

Defective bidding system
The predominance of same bidders and suppliers make the bidding process less competitive. New suppliers
are discouraged from competing for the contracts because of delayed payments and bond deduction in
cases of late deliveries. Palakasan system is still evident during bidding. As such, bidding rules are not
strictly enforced, resulting to complaint from other bidders. At the same time, getting quality goods and
supplies for governments cannot be assured when the criteria for selection during the bidding is the price
and the palakasan system.

The General Services Officer (GSO) is also slowed by the lack of infrastructure. A warehouse or stockroom
for supplies and equipment is required to store advanced deliveries. With the proximity of related offices,
monitoring will be easier and the staff will be maximized.

                  Innovative strategies and activities undertaken to improve supply

Conduct of a procurement and supply management training program
A Project Monitoring Committee composed of officers from the COA and the City Planning and
Development Office was created to formulate the training design. This was done in consultation with key
people from other non-government agencies and other agencies. The training was conducted for the rank
and file, and division heads including the procurement personnel under the Property Office.

The training provided an orientation about the basics of supply and property management. It included a
workshop where participants were asked to suggest ways on improving perceived bottlenecks in property and
supply management.

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                                                                                              EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                     Strategies formulation and implementation
                     The participants themselves identified strategies to shorten the processing of documents to eliminate
                     delays and enable efficient delivery:

                     ! put up a separate procurement office; and
                     ! cut the number of signatories by half and identify new ways of making purchases from more
                       competitive bidders.

                     Other systems installation and empowerment
                     In particular, the procurement-processing period was shortened from one month to one to two weeks. A
                     GSO with 27 personnel and headed by a GSO was created and tasked to address demands like property,
                     supplies, material acquisition/ procurement management. It also oversees the management of janitorial
                     services for the maintenance of cleanliness and sanitation and the upkeep of parks and median island
                     along major thoroughfares of the city. Given the new challenges and the increasing demands on the
                     LGUs, a refresher course to update government employees about property and supply management may be

                   The GSO of Bacolod City was created upon the recommendations of Bacolod City government
                   participants of the Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program, which sponsored a training
                   activity on supply and property management.

                Prior to the training, only a Property Division under the Treasurer’s Office existed. Procurement was
                then a tedious process that needed 16 signatories from different departments. A simple request for a
                typewriter ribbon took two to four weeks of processing before it was approved. It took another two to
four weeks before the requesting department actually got the supplies. The Bacolod City Government decided it was
time for their LGU to have a separate Procurement Division under the GSO.

The creation and expansion of a Procurement Division under the General Services Department promised some
changes in the process:

!    systems improved;
!    the number of signatories decreased by half;
!    priorities were set according to urgency; and
!    things were worked out accordingly.

These changes helped ease some of the inefficiencies of the old system.

However, problems in the procurement process continue to this day. There is still the urgent need for a warehouse to
store old and new supplies and equipment. Some departments get special treatment and do not go through the
normal process of procurement. Politics also gets in the way of bidding processes. These emerging problems have to
be addressed if greater efficiency within the bureaucracy is aimed for.

                      Tumbaga, Letty, Leah Valientes and Nonita Adan. “ Towards a More Efficient Procurement Process in the City
                         Government of Bacolod” in A Breath of Fresh Air – Exploring the Possibilities of Local Government
                         Management. ed. by Letty Tumbaga. CIDA-LGSP Region VI and Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs
                         (ACSPPA) Philippines, 1998. pp. 122 –128.

Successful Municipal
Management Innovations

            anagement innovation requires more than an ad hoc response to a failing local government
            performance. To be successful, it should be based on political initiative and should assume
            the properties of a strategic long-term effort.

A grand design strategy, announced with great political fanfare and outlined in all detail is doomed to
fail. Management innovations in local government require flexible response to initial experiences and
contributions from various stakeholders in the local governance.

The reform drive must come from competent charismatic personalities, able to convince and win support.
Politicians’ support for the new ideas must equally be won for the new ideas.

Broad-based advocacy coalitions (i.e. cross-departmental cluster of senior administrators, politicians,
business sector, civil society and media) must be forged to minimize conflicts.

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                                                                                               EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                                                                                The central government or other higher levels of
                                                                                government must be supportive of the endeavor, at
                                                                                least not oppose it.

                                                                                Networking with other innovators at the national
                                                                                and international level and support by scientific
                                                                                analysis and publication can decisively increase
                                                                                the choices of success. A stand-alone approach
                                                                                would be a fallacy.

                                                                                To be sustainable, initial reform steps must be
                                                                                institutionalized and augmented by reform in
                                                                                other fields of governance.

 Management innovations aiming for economic
 growth must take into consideration recent
 developments in science and technology and                  Sources:
 keep abreast of worldwide economic
                                                             Meyer, Wolfgang. Recent Innovations in Municipal Government. Manila,
 realignments. At the same time, they should
                                                                  Philippines. Konraddeneur Stiftung and Local Government Development
 safeguard gains made in the areas of sustainable
                                                                  Foundation, 1998. pp. 3-5, 12-13.
 human development. True, these innovations
 must be met by the private sector and state
                                                             Tapales,Proserpina D., Perfecto L. Padilla and Ernita T. Joaquin. Modern
 governments alike. However, governments that
                                                                  Management in Philippine Local Government. Philippines. German
 are closer to the earth’s resources and to the
                                                                  Foundation for International Development and Local Government
 people can best meet the manageability and
                                                                  Center-CPA, U.P., 1996. p.2.
 maintenance of these efforts. Thus,
 management innovations are perhaps best
 performed at the level of local government. The
 Philippine experience has shown that indeed,
 local government units (LGUs) have been
 responding to the call for managerial
 innovations, and that, in many ways, they have
 been relatively successful.

Municipal-level Development

        he new Code mandated that all local government units (LGUs) formulate their own local
        development plans. While barangay and municipal governments were doing this prior to the new
        Code, their efforts were largely “for compliance only” to orders from the national government.
However, given the demands of devolution and people-centered development, LGUs felt pressured to
formulate their respective plans based on the situation of their respective localities and the articulated
needs of their people. With limited resources, localities had to be guided by the development perspective
and priorities had to be set.

The process of local development planning at the municipal level, as prescribed by the new
Local Government Code (LGC), is no easy undertaking. It can be plagued by bureaucratic hitches
and can be hampered by cultural nuances, both from the community and government planners who have
become used to doing things the old and “easy” way.

Various approaches to spur local development have been attempted but have been short-lived. The lack of
needed financial and human resources to sustain the efforts and the lack of coordination among national
government agencies do little to ease this situation.

In many cases, the local development councils rarely meet. Most of the local development plans were
mere listings and compilations of past projects. Likewise, most of the plans submitted to the Planning
Officer(s) were short-term and unresponsive to the needs of the community. For many Local Chief
Executives , improving the local development planning process became a priority.

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                                                                                             EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                   Problems in municipal development planning

                   Taking a long and hard look at the composition and competence of the municipal development councils
                   vis-à-vis planning, the following concerns become very apparent:
                   ! lack of knowledge and expertise in the local planning process;
                   ! lack of community participation in the conceptualization, implementation, monitoring and
                       evaluation of program and projects;
                   ! lack of support for operationalization;
                   ! lack of continuing commitment among those involved in the implementation of plans;
                   ! lack of regular contact between members;
                   ! frequent absenteeism;
                   ! lack of measurable objectives and targets;
                   ! lack of funds to support programs and projects;
                   ! confusion in roles and relationships;
                   ! difficulty in coordination due to political differences and unwieldy size of the council;
                   ! failure to submit required plans and documents;
                   ! failure to appreciate the importance of planning and to link plans directly to the budget; and
                   ! failure to prioritize major council objectives and goals.

                   Similarly, the much-desired convergence of participating agencies’ efforts and services in terms of joint
                   planning, implementation and monitoring and evaluation of programs/projects were found lacking due

                   ! the absence of common undertaking of convergence and integration in the pursuit of developmental
                     activities by agency implementers and local government units (LGUs);
                   ! existence of competition rather than cooperation work attitude among high level agency
                   ! difficulties in GO-NGO working relationship; and
                   ! absence of an integrated work program.

                   One can look at development planning as an iterative process of formulating and implementing
                   incremental development plans (as distinguished from the blueprint planning tradition in the past) to
                   achieve total human development and the social transformation of communities involved in it. In effect,
                   development planning provides a logical tool to make community people actively participate in defining
                   and actualizing their own development priorities and programs.

Any program on participatory development planning will have to operate within factors in the external
and internal environment, which could either facilitate or constrain project activities and the attainment
of its objectives, effects or impact in the target areas and population.

In the 1990s, more and more development sectors have recognized the imperatives of people-centered and
integrated planning:

!   It is the people’s categories and criteria, their analysis and plans, their reality and truth that count.
    The fact is, the people constitute the “solution” and not the “problem.”

!   The beneficiary communities that have shared in
    planning, and not just implementing projects
    produced more sustainable results than those who
    have not.

!   The high motivation among development planners to
    learn both “what to know” and “how to do” (together
    with the development participants) the build-up of
    people’s own capacity to realize their potentials as
    agents of their own change, gradually and eventually
    without the assistance (or intervention) of outsiders,
    but fully relying on their own.

Garcesto, Sebastian and Letty Tumbaga. “ Municipal
    Development Planning in the Municipalities of
    Tubungan and Binangonan, Iloilo” in A Breath of Fresh
    Air-Expressing the Possibilities of Local Governance
    Management e.d. by Letty Tumbaga. CIDA-LGSP Region VI
     and Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs (ACSPPA) Philippines, 1998. Pp. 31 – 43.

Provido, Maria Nesza and Letty Tumbaga. “Barangay Development Planning in the Province of Antique” in A
     Breath of Fresh Air – Exploring the Possibilities of Local Government Management ed. by Letty C. Tumbaga.
     CIDA-LGSP-Region VI and Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs (ACSPPA). Philippines, 1998. pp. 11-

Mercaida, Enrique G., Introducing Participatory Planning Practices with Local Governments Learnings from
     Nueva Ecija PRISP-PP Project. Y. C. James Yen Center, Silang, Cavite, Philippines: International Institute of
     Rural Reconstruction, 1997. Unpublished Materials.

Philippine Rural Institutional Strengthening Program, Department of Agriculture (PRISP-DA). Participatory
      Planning. A Joint Project of the Republic of the Philippines and the Commission of the European Union, Quezon
      City, Philippines. 1996.

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                                                                                                       EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
Basic Strategies and
Methods in Municipal
The Ilog

           evelopment planning at the local level, particularly at the Municipal level, presents a major
           challenge in enabling goods and services to reach intended beneficiaries effectively. A sound and
           responsive plan involves active participation of various stakeholders in its formulation,
implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. With different agencies and organizations engaged in the
planning process, the task of putting different perspective into unified and concerted manner becomes a
problem without a systematic way. The “convergence” strategy, as operationalized by the International
Institute of Rural reconstruction (IIRR) in Ilog, Negros Occidental, Philippines, offers some insights in
enabling participatory planning to happen at the Municipal level.

Planning context

The Area-Based Child Survival Development Program (ABCSDP), a national program assisted by UNICEF,
was implemented in several Philippine municipalities including Ilog in the Province of Negros
Occidental. The Social development Committee (SDC), comprising government and non-government
agencies, managed this program at the municipal level (see organizational structure on p. 61. IIRR
assisted SDC in puttingthe convergence concept into action.

Making convergence work: The IIRR-ABCSDP, Ilog, Negros Occidental

Conduct of training for the Social Development Committee as a collective management body.
The focus of capacity building for the SDC was on program/project management cycle (situation analysis,
objective setting, strategy formulation, work and financial programming, implementation, monitoring,
and evaluation) through the training-sction-reflection-training-action-reflection (TARTAR) approach.

Formulation of an Integrated Municipal Implementation Plan
From separate plans prepared by each of the different implementing
agencies, the Social Development Committee (SDC) came up with a
unified Area-Based Child and Development Program (ABCSDP) plan
for the municipality adapting the following steps:

Situation Analysis
This involved listing of the total number of household heads in each
village by a Key Informant Panel (KIP) composed of 7-15 persons
from the village itself.

The KIP members are the most credible and knowledgeable of the locality and its people. They also
represent the different sectors within the community (e.g. farmers, landless workers, fisher folks, women,

The KIP used the focused targeting method in classifying the households. This method involves the
categorization of households into: A (rich), B (better-off), C (poor) and D (poorest of the poor) using
common socio-economic criteria (i.e. ownership/access to land and resources, income level and sources of
income, type of shelter, family size and other distinguishing characteristics were applicable). The process
ensured that the poorer households with the worst and most number of the malnourished children (with
respect to the ABCSDP target beneficiaries) received the highest priority in terms of service delivery.

                                                        Objective Setting
                                                        The socio-economic stratification of the
                                                        households and their characteristics served as the
                                                        baseline data on project objectives. This was done
                                                        by stating the desired outcome and impact of the
                                                        intervention in a given time frame.

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                                                                                              EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                   Strategy formulation
                   To achieve the given objectives, the SDC reviewed the previous strategies by analyzing its strengths and
                   weaknesses and consequently identified areas for improvement. The analysis revealed the need to
                   systematize the implementation of strategies and activities, and adopt a common framework for all the
                   implementing agencies in the areas of training, organizing, credit extension, monitoring and evaluation
                   and financial management. To ensure systematization and administrative supervision of the work in
                   these aspects, corresponding sub-committees were created.

                  Organizational Structure of the Social Development Committee (SDC)

                                                     Municipal Development
                                                        Council (MDC)

                                                       Social Development
                                                      Committee (SDC)

                                                        General Assembly


                              Secretariat                                                Sub -Committee


                   Training                       Credit                 Sub-Committee        Coordinator &
                 Management                    And Savings               On Organizing        Evaluation Sub-
                Sub-Committee                 Sub-Committee                                     Committee

           Source: Making Convergence Strategy a Workable Management Tool in Integrated Rural
                Development Program. IIRR. March 1994.

Work and financial programming
The SDC is divided into working groups according to the technical specialization of its members and in
line with the four components of ABCSDP:

         Components                 Specialization
         Health                     Maternal and child survival
         Livelihood                 Agri-based projects
         Education                  Strengthening maternal and child survival through formal and non-
                                    formal education
         Self-government            Integrated support services

                                    Each technical working group came up with an annual Work and
                                    Financial Plan identifying the activities to be undertaken by whom,
                                    in what village, the required resources in terms of funds and time,
                                    and the expected outcomes of each activity. The draft of the plan
                                    went through a round of discussion in a plenary to ascertain
                                    consistency with objectives and strategies, attainability of targets,
                                    complementation of efforts, practicality of costs and to level-off
                                    information. It was then approved by the SDC assembly and adopted
                                    as the common program plan for the program in the municipality
                                    known also as the IMIP.

Devolution of the responsibility for resource allocation and management
The IMIP was submitted to the core group of ABCSDP at the provincial level for review and action. Then,
the SDC, negotiated for resources with the different implementing agencies. The difference in
requirement was requested from the donor institution (i.e. UNICEF) through the provincial government.
Subsequently, the financial support granted by the donor was released to the SDC through the Office of the
Provincial Governor as a trust fund in lump sum instead of separate releases to individual agencies as
done before. The SDC correspondingly finalized its systems and procedures of managing the funds at the
municipal level. It also installed mechanisms for control and
transparency by updating and reporting the status of each activity
during the monthly meetings. In this manner, the responsibility
and accountability over the program rested on the SDC at the
municipal, rather than on agency heads at the provincial level.

Establishment of Municipal Revolving Loan Fund (MRLF)
The funds intended for income-generating projects, which used to
be implemented by three different agencies, were pooled into a
single loan fund. The SDC Sub-committee on Credit and Savings
administered this combined fund and is guided by a common set

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                                                                                            EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                   of policies. The sub-committee used the priority listing of beneficiaries as the basis for granting financial
                   assistance. It standardized the rate of interest and secured completion of the same basic requirements.
                   The same beneficiaries became the focus of organizing work, training (technical, project and
                   organizational aspects) and delivery of basic health services. Aside from the financial support, there was
                   convergence and complementation of and by the other essential services to these priority beneficiaries.

                                                             Implementation of Municipal Program Monitoring System
                                                             The SDC formulated a monitoring, coordination and evaluation
                                                             (MCE) system adapted from the conventional MCE system of ABCSDP
                                                             in the province. While using the same monitoring instruments, the
                                                             process flow, however, ensured that gathering, processing and
                                                             utilization of data and information happen meaningfully at the
                                                             municipal level. Before, the agency implementors at the municipal
                                                             level merely served as data gatherers whereby the processing and
                                                             utilization were done at the provincial level. Again, the SDC formed
                                                             a corresponding sub-committee to oversee the task. As monitoring
                                                             and project reports were discussed in the SDC meetings, its members
                                                             were able to use quality data and information to arrive at decisions
                                                             and necessary actions. Likewise, periodic reports were forwarded to
                                                             the provincial level for information and coordination.

Dimensions of convergence achieved

Spatial convergence
This refers to the concentration of services within the defined geographical areas of the municipality called
convergence villages. This was done to prevent the SDC from spreading itself and its resources too thinly. Thus,
interventions were focused in these target villages. Notably, focus on certain spots was necessary to effect impact.

Convergence in target population
This covers the identification and prioritization of intended beneficiaries common to all involved agencies, their
services and projects. In this way, the resources and services of the program were brought to beneficiaries who were
most in need of assistance.

Convergence of institutional mechanisms of service delivery
This facet refers to the systems and procedures in the SDC that were installed and formulated for the implementation
of the program. As expected, the ABCSDP coordinated multi-agency and multi-level efforts (i.e. presence of vertical
and horizontal linkages between delivery units and policy-making bodies at all levels of the local government

Convergence of intentions and actions – Integrated Municipal Planning
This presupposes that objectives, activities and resources of different agencies were complementary and focused on
the common priority beneficiaries and their respective barangays.

Convergence in program/project management-iterative process
This emphasizes a participatory program/project development cycle whereby the SDC was able to manage the
ABCSDP and tailor its strategies and activities according to the needs of the people in the community. Apparently,
both the beneficiaries and the implementors of the program played active roles in the development process.

Components of convergence

Shared philosophy, principles and concepts of development
Everyone involved in the implementation of the ABCDSP must have a common
understanding of the philosophy and principles of a poverty-focused integrated
development program. Likewise, the concepts akin to the program (i.e. people’s
participation, self-reliance, sustainable development, appropriate technology, community
organizing and social laboratory) are accepted and internalized by both planners and
implementors. The efforts of the members must also be recognized and appreciated to
prevent conflicts as well as enhance integration.

Decentralized decision making and resource allocation
This pertains to the ability of the SDC, the body tasked to manage the ABCSDP at the
municipal level to make decisions and mobilize resources toward the achievement of
objectives. Specifically, this role calls for the committee to:

! plan activities and determine the kind and amount of resources needed to carry out
  such activities;
! acquire the resources needed to implement such plan; and
! manage the day-to-day affairs of the program.

Thus, the program management role as well as the authority and accountability over the
use of financial resources were devolved to the municipal level. These tasks were performed
earlier by the implementing agencies at the provincial level.

Integrated program management
These are the unified systems and procedures adopted by SDC, which were meant to make
convergence happen. The aspired outcome was the development of a unified plan for the
municipal ABCSDP, which would serve as the guiding instrument of all the program

Through the Integrated Program/Project Planning, Programming and Budgeting System,
the SDC members identified their common target beneficiaries and specified intervention.
This was done in an orchestrated fashion to prevent duplication and conflict of efforts as
well as occurrence of gaps. Concerted moves were demonstrated in the scheduling of
training activities whereby the technical skills of the implementors were deliberately
chosen to complement each other. The cycle of training–action-reflection was adopted as
a standard procedure to internalize the technical inputs.

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                                                                             EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
 The four mutuals of convergence

 The four mutuals make up one of the basic elements in the practice of rural reconstruction. It promotes convergence
 by enhancing teamwork. These mutuals are:

 1. Mutual knowledge
 Knowing each other’s goals, objectives, programs and services, as well as strengths, weaknesses, resources and
 limitations, both professionally and personally. This point of commonness permits each one to understand respective
 standpoints and, thus, tailor expectations.

 2. Mutual trust
 A broader familiarity of each one brings about better anticipation of reactions and dynamics of the interaction. The
 individuals are able to employ more effective coping mechanisms, thereby, reducing the chances of conflict.
 Furthermore, the atmosphere of communication is enhanced since there is a greater chance of being understood for
 certain behavior.

 3. Mutual respect
 To express thought openly while others are willing to listen and understand message eventually command mutual
 respect. This stance results to a feeling of importance of personal worth and dignity by the persons involved.

 4. Mutual help or teamwork
 With mutual knowledge, mutual trust and mutual respect in place, the individuals of the project team are bound to
 extend spontaneous support at any hint of need. Assistance is provided in a manner that is mutually beneficial and
 complimentary to the rest of the members. Hence, work is expected to be more effective and efficient.

                                         Shared Philosophy,
                                           Principles and
                                            Concepts of
                                                                                                                 Convergence of
                                                                                                                  Program and
                Decentralized                                 Integrated Program/
               Decision-making                                  Project Planning,
                and Resource                                   Programming and
                 Allocation                                    Budgeting System

                                                    Operational Framework of Convergence

Source: Making Convergence Strategy a Workable Management Tool in Integrated Rural Development Program. IIRR. March 1994.

                     Sabio, Eduardo A. Making Convergence Strategy a Workable Management Tool in Integrated Rural Development
                          Program. Working Paper No. 41. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang Cavite, Philippines.
                          March 1994.

Basic Strategies and Methods
in Municipal Development
(The Iloilo Experience)

       he implementation of the Philippines-Canada Local Gevernment Support Program provided a
       strong foundation to strengthen the capacity of national and regional government authorities in
       planning, programming and project implementation. LGUs from the provincial to barangay levels
have since exercised greater authority in their fiscal and decision-making tasks. More importantly, they
have been able to successfully plan, prioritize investment and implement projects and take more effective
control over the necessary financial and human resources. Presented below are some lessons on Municipal
Level Planning drawn from an experience in Iloilo.

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                                                                                             EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                   Formation of a municipal project technical team composed largely of municipal career
                   The team’s members include the Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator, Budget Officer, Local
                   Civil Registrar, Engineering Assistant, and the Secretary to the Mayor whose main responsibility is to
                   ensure continuity in plan formulation, implementation and evaluation.

                                                             Conduct of a series of training programs with the following
                                                             major components:

                                                             !   Training program on development orientation. The aim is
                                                                 to update the participants on the status of present development
                                                                 situation vis-à-vis the aspirations of the LGC to assist the
                                                                 members of the MDCs in conceptualizing social development

                   !    Teambuilding on community leadership and mobilization training. This was designed to
                        clarify leadership roles to strengthen teamwork and bring about effective working relationship among
                        council members.

                     Sustaining people’s initiatives

                     … while members of the MDC enhanced their skills in data collecting for their communities and
                     now appreciate the importance of a collective vision that can help generate commitment, concerns
                     over the sustainability of the gains are evident especially with the MDC membership changing with
                     each new administrator.

                     The local chief executive has to have the political will to institutionalize the planning process.
                     Without political will, the gains so patiently won can be easily lost. Time and the lack of correct
                     practices are two possible variables that can work against municipal development planning.

!   SEP training of trainors. This was designed to promote program sustainability. Regular MDC
    members and the Municipal Project Technical Team attended the training.

!   Socio-economic profiling and collection training. Participated in by the MDCs, the Project
    Technical Team and the local chief executives and/or their representatives, this was designed to develop
    skills in research data collection.

!   SEP data analysis workshop. This is where the Municipal Project Technical Team reduced the
    data collected into a meaningful whole through classification, tabulation and determination of
    measures of central tendency.

!   V isioning and strategic planning workshop. Local chief executives, MDCs and the MPTTs
    reflected upon the ideal scenarios for their municipality, the mission they jointly defined, and
    representative programs and projects that gave substance to the vision.

!   Training on resource sourcing and mobilization. This was designed to allow MDCs to locate
    resources (financial and in kind) that can be tapped to deliver priority programs, projects and services
    defined under the Medium-term Development Plan of the Municipality.

Plan formulation and integration
The MDCs formulated the long-term and annual
socio-economic development plan and policies
based on the consolidated needs of the barangays as
articulated in their respective Barangay
Development Plans. All the barangay captains
occupied majority seats in the MDCs. As such, their
needs were considered during the municipal plan
formulation. Other integral processes or activities
undertaken were:

!   Situation/needs analysis. This activity
    essentially identified gaps in service delivery,
    the extent to which basic needs are met, service
    demand and supply gaps, the interrelationship
    of needs for sectoral planning, development
    constraints and weaknesses (SWOT analysis), and evaluation of on-going programs and projects. In
    effect, it provided an overall account or a profile of the economic, social, physical and institutional
    conditions of the locality or the barangay. Moreover, based on the profile, critical development
    problems and potentials of the municipality were identified.

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                                                                                                EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
Formulating the development plan                             !   Formulation of the Municipal Medium-term Development
framework                                                        Plan. The situational analysis provided the basis for the
                                                                 formulation of the development goals and objectives. Appropriate
1) Summarizing the causal interrelationship of
   the problems and issues identified in the                     development policies and strategies were identified to achieve the
   needs assessment.                                             formulated goals and objectives. The development plan
                                                                 framework at the municipal level took into account the
2) Goal formulation was based on the
   question “WHERE DO WE WANT TO                                 identified vision, goals, objectives and strategic options embodied
   GO,” given the LGU’s problems/needs and                       in the barangay development plans. As it were, the municipal
   resource potentials and constraints.
                                                                 planning activities were based on the consolidated barangay
3) Objective setting or concretizing/specifying                  development plans as well as in collaboration with the barangay
   goals-answering the question “WHAT DO                         captains during the MDC planning sessions. Moreover, barangay
                                                                 programs and projects, which could not be funded by the 20%
                                                                 development fund were prioritized and then submitted for
4) Strategy formulation or defining the ways of                  integration into the municipal plan and investment program.
   achieving the targets set, or “HOW DO WE
   GET” (using SWOT analysis).

                                                             !  Arrangement for sectoral plan coordination and
Composition of the MDC by Sector                                integration. Integration of sectoral plans developed by the
! General Public Services
                                                                concerned sectoral or functional committees and other offices
! Education, Culture and Sports/Manpower                        then became the responsibility of the Municipal Planning
  Development                                                   Development Coordinator (MPDC). To do this, the MPDC had to
! Health, Nutrition and Population Control
! Labor and Employment
                                                                analyze and crosscheck sectoral plans for possible inconsistencies,
! Housing and Community Development                             conflicts, duplication or omission before the municipal plan
! Social Security, Social Services and Welfare\                 could be finally integrated. The analysis of all identified sectoral
! Economic Services (agriculture, trade,
  industry, tourism, etc.)
                                                                projects involved examining projects for common purpose,
! Other Sectors:                                                geographical area or infrastructure requirements.
  # Land use planning                                        Coordination and integration is achieved by:
  # Infrastructure planning

                   ! Forging a strong LGU-NGO partnership by encouraging the involvement of people’s organizations in
                     the sectors they were most interested in. Sectoral committees were also formed to serve as advisory
                     bodies to the LGU for investment programming and budgeting. Moreover, recommendations on
                     sectoral plans were sought from special bodies on health, the school board, and the peace and order
                   ! Holding of sectoral dialogues/meetings. While sectoral planning activities were going on, dialogues
                     among sectors were conducted at the MDC to ensure inter-sectoral issue awareness. The close
                     correlation among factors within and outside the sector justified the need for an integrated approach
                     to planning among these productive sectors.

                For the Municipalities of Bingawan and Tubungan of Iloilo, various approaches to spur local
                development have been attempted but have been short-lived. The lack of the needed resources to
                sustain the efforts and the lack of coordination among national government agencies do little to ease
                this situation.

              Mayor Zafiro Palabrica of Bingawan decided to use his skills and development orientation to facilitate
              true changes in his community. Dissatisfied with the manner of local development planning in
Bingawan, he initiated consultations and dialogues with the local development council and was backed by a supportive
MPDC. He saw that many plans failed to maximize the development interventions offered by national government
agencies and NGOs.

The local chief executive of Tubunga, Iloilo, Mayor Pedro Tagabi, upon his entry into government, expressed the same
sentiment. He was irked by his municipality’s local development planning process, which proved to be quite
ineffective. The local development council rarely met. Most of the local development plans were mere listings and
compilations of past projects. Most of the plans submitted to the Planning Officer were short-term and unresponsive
to the needs of the community.

For both local chief executives, improving the local development planning process became a priority. It was timely
that the Provincial Government of Iloilo, aware of this prevalent deficiency among its LGUs, designed a capability-
building project to augment the knowledge, skills, and orientation of their local development planners. Training and
consultations were conducted from the municipal down to the barangay level. The Municipalities of Bingawan and
Tubungan participated actively and benefited from the program, which was supported by the CIDA-Local Government
Support Program.

Garcesto, Sebastian and Letty Tumbaga. “ Municipal Development Planning in the Municipalities of Tubungan
    and Binangonan, Iloilo” in A Breath of Fresh Air-Expressing the Possibilities of Local Governance Management
    e.d. by Letty Tumbaga. CIDA-LGSP Region VI and Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs (ACSPPA)
    Philippines, 1998. Pp. 31 – 43.

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                                                                                                  EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
Planning at
the Barangay

          arangay development planning is a basic mechanism that local
                                                                                           A Barangay Development
          government units (LGUs) need to adopt for promoting people participation         Plan is an official document
          towards local development. It is important for barangays in terms of             of the barangay wherein the
                                                                                           problems, needs and
deciding in advance what should be done to develop the community, improve basic            aspirations of the community
services and upgrade the quality of life of its constituents. It maximizes the use of      are identified, prioritized and
barangay resources on programs, projects and activities that are priority needs of the     pursued on the basis of
                                                                                           available resources.

               Best planning practices at the barangay level

              Activation/orientation of the Barangay Development Council (BDC) and the
              barangay planning body. The BDC is tasked to mobilize people’s participation in local
development functions, prepare barangay plans, and monitor and evaluate the implementation of
national and local programs and projects. An assessment of the BDC status was first done to identify the
influence of BDC organization and provide assistance in organizing the BDC sectoral committees.

Formation and legitimization through a Sangguniang Bayan resolution of a Barangay
Planning Team (BPT). The BPT was authorized to undertake planning and budgeting with the
agreement that their proposed development plan and budget has to be submitted and approved by the BDC
and the barangay council.

 Effects of participatory planning

 ! Broadening the number of people in the municipalities and barangays with knowledge skills and attitude supportive
    of participatory planning. The constituents, in particular, saw the advantage of taking part in planning.

 ! Promotion and internalization of participatory planning process involving the people themselves and
    accomplishment of more tangible outputs (i.e. Strategic Development Plan, Annual Investment and Operational
    Plans, Project Concepts and/or Proposals).

 ! Partnership of the government, NGO and other private sectors, which provided for coordinative and collaborative
    arrangements between them.

 ! Flexible and appropriate planning tools and methods that made possible the introduction of necessary changes
    mutually agreed upon by program/project managers and the people themselves.

 ! Provision of technical assistance to local government units/officials functioning as municipal trainors in barangay
    development planning.

Conduct of training in the localities
with the BDCs clustered into five
barangays. The training included topics
on various development perspectives and
development planning processes (i.e.
situational analysis, participatory rural
appraisal tools and technologies, adult
learning, facilitation techniques, use of
appropriate media, problem identification,
objective setting, map preparation and
interpretation, investment prioritization and
preparation of a simple budget proposal).

Working with barangay officials and other sector leaders to schedule the activities and
encourage participation and attendance. The schedule of activities had to be done primarily by
the BPT, dividing the work among them and assigning each member to a particular segment or sub-area
in the barangay.

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                                                                                            EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                   Mapping. Led by the BDC and /or BPT, participants are involved in preparing the physical maps of the
                   barangay (e.g. transect, location map and designate, and interpret map symbols).

                   Situation Analysis. Again led by BDC and/or BPT, the residents were involved in developing and
                   preparing simple instruments for data collection, environmental assessment including agro-socio-
                   economic conditions affecting the barangay and the presentation of the data gathered during barangay,
                   purok and sitio assemblies.

                   Identification and prioritization of potential growth areas. From the situational analysis, the
                   people, through the facilitation of the BDC and/or BPT identified agro-socio-economic growth areas,
                   analyzed these potential areas of growth and finally compiled all the data pertinent to them. The same
                   data made it possible for the BDC and/or BPT, together with the people to rank problems and needs
                   according to their importance to the community, identify available or potential resources (funds, projects/
                   programs, technical expertise, community capabilities and natural resources) and develop a barangay

                   Formulation of development vision and strategies. At this particular stage, the community
                   should be in full realization of the barangay’s situation and potential. Together with the barangay
                   officials, the people then got themselves involved in the development of the vision and goals of their
                   community, identifying the development strategies applicable at the barangay level, and purposively,
                   coming up with a strategic plan (say for the next five years) to be validated and adopted eventually by the
                   whole barangay constituents.

                   As observed, these vision and mission statements often reflect sustainable, equitable and gender responsive
                   perspectives, which in effect were adopted by the people themselves. Many of them envisioned their
                   communities to be self-reliant, industrialized, developed, clean, complete with facilities, God-fearing, and
                   vigilant of natural and human resources.

                                                       Preparation of plans (development, investment and
                                                        operational). In formulating their respective plans, barangay officials
                                                         reviewed their lessons assisted by competent provincial and municipal
                                                          trainors (i.e. the Provincial Planning and Development Officer and the
                                                            Municipal Planning Task Force (MPTF) and constantly referred to
                                                              their manuals (as provided for/under the Department of Interior
                                                                and Local Government (DILG) circulars) for the various concepts
                                                                and processes. Considerable time was also utilized in conducting
                                                                either a barangay assembly or sitio and purok meetings to
                                                                analyze and validate the information to be incorporated in the
                                                                Barangay Development Plan and Budget. The final Barangay
                                                                Plan and Budget was submitted for approval through an
                                                                endorsement by the Sangguniang Barangay.

Preparation of project concept/proposal for external funding. The municipal trainors led the
barangay officials in the preparation/writing of project proposals to be submitted to prospective donors for
funding. Based on the topography of the involved barangays, there was an apparent diversity in the
investment priorities especially in resource management. Upland barangays lined-up such projects as
sloping agricultural technology, ecological awareness, reforestation/tree planting along lakes, small water
impounding, high value crops production, livestock production and nursery establishment. Lowland
barangays identified the need for pre-and postharvest facilities, and inland fishery production. Coastal
barangays concentrated on coastal rehabilitation (artificial reef and marine sanctuary) and the
administration/management of bangus fry production and marketing.

Monitoring and evaluation. Integral in the
plan was the setting of a monitoring and
evaluation framework to gauge the effect and
impact of the project on its intended beneficiaries.
The assessment was considered essential in
providing necessary feedback on the project’s
operational efficiency and effectiveness. To pursue
the same, the data to be gathered and analyzed
would include outputs and outcomes of activities
(as indicators of performance), problems and
solutions or remedies undertaken and impact
indicators vis-à-vis the results of the planning
process and the plan itself.

The barangay units viewed their little strides towards institutionalizing barangay development planning
as a major step in the realization of the bottom-up/grassroots planning approach. Although they faced
problems (e. g. administrative timidity in the implementation of ordinances and weak project
implementation), they recognized their big gains in terms of attaining people empowerment and
countryside development.

 Identified project effect and impact indicators

 !   Number of pool trainors developed
 !   Participatory planning mechanisms instituted
 !   Institutional arrangements for sectoral coordination
 !   Member of organized and capable BDCs
 !   Number of barangays institutionalizing barangay development planning LGSP-Antique Experience

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                                                                                              EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                   Little strides, big gains: Barangay development planning after the interventions

                   ! Barangay officials were able to determine the nature and status of their locality’s development,
                      hence, they felt better equipped to formulate plans that were reflective of and responsive to the
                      needs of their constituents.
                  ! Barangays can now make more realistic plans with very little assistance from the municipal
                      development officers.
                  ! To many barangays, the investments priorities made after the training were much improved
     compared to past formulations. In the past, barangay plans catered to self-serving politicians. These recent
     investment lists embodied socialized housing, sanitary toilets and potable water projects, among others.
!    Strong partnership between the government and the private sector (e.g. NGOs giving technical and financial
     assistance during the plan preparation stage) substantially contributed to the enhancement of barangay planning
     towards an improved quality of life among the people.
!    BDCs became active as they went through the various stages of organization and re-organization and were heavily
     involved in the planning process.
!    Most barangay officials noted a change in their view of leadership - from merely administering day-to-day activities
     to being proactive, foresighted and anticipative - changes that had relevant impact on their locality. They likewise
     recognized that traditional politics and becoming self-serving leaders would end their political careers as it did their
!    Barangay officials were innovative enough to institutionalize certain mechanisms (others called it “gimmick”) to
     encourage more people participation in the planning efforts (e.g. a raffle with door prizes, assignment of a teacher
     or adviser per purok to represent the people during assemblies, passing an ordinance requiring a penalty of P15.00
     per household for those who failed to give a valid excuse for not attending the meeting).

                      Issues and problems of the barangay development planning
                      (based on the DA-PRISP Nueva Ecija experience)

                      ! The planning coincided with the planting season, hence the limited attendance and participation
                        of some Barangay Planning Team members and residents.
 !    Unsupportive barangay officials.
 !    Low or minimal support of some local chief executives (LCEs).
 !    Limited, if not the absence, of transportation facilities and supplies for use by the MPTFs.
 !    The “wait and see” attitude of barangay residents and high expectations from projects after the planning activities.
 !    Apprehension on the part of the MPTFs as to the effects of the local barangay election and other political

                                          Loopholes in project planning and implementation

                                          Funding. Many municipalities have not been able to implement the training due to lack
                                          of counterpart funds.

                     Lack of preparatory materials. As observed, much of the time of resource
                     persons/trainors was spent researching on topics assigned to them so the handouts
                     were submitted only after the training.

                               Lack of NGO involvement. Some municipalities do not have NGO
                               representatives because the municipal mayors did not give them office orders
                               to attend the training. Lack of coordination between the Project Management
                               Staff and NGO regarding selection of participants also contributes to this

Logistical problems. The delay in the reproduction of the manual due to the
breakdown of computer units, much more the inaccessibility of computers from other
municipal offices involved, presents problems in the project implementation.

                                         Time factor. The BDP trainees found the ten-day program
                                         inadequate to develop the required planning skills. After the
                                         training, they still have to review the manual and other materials
                                         on hand prior to plan preparations.

   Pre-conditions for successful participatory planning

   ! Strong commitment and support of the local chief executives and other municipal officials and staff
   ! Close coordination between the Municipal Development Council (MDC), BDC and the MPTF and BPT
   ! Strong interest, commitment and support of barangay officials/sector leaders and their constituents
   ! Well-synchronized scheduling of MPTF and BPT activities both in terms of time availability of barangay officials
     and residents and the regular tasks and responsibilities of the MPTFs made their mother agencies/departments
   ! Further training of MPTFs and BPTs in the areas of resource mobilization or fund sourcing, project feasibility
     study preparation, linkaging and networking
   ! Sufficient municipal funding to cover necessary field expenses and logistical requirements of barangay
     development planning
   ! Full implementation/completion of barangay projects identified by the people themselves

Provido, Maria Nesza and Letty Tumbaga. “Barangay Development Planning in the Province of Antique” in A
     Breath of Fresh Air – Exploring the Possibilities of Local Government Management ed. by Letty C. Tumbaga.
     CIDA-LGSP-Region VI and Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs (ACSPPA). Philippines, 1998. pp. 11-

Mercaida, Enrique G., Introducing Participatory Planning Practices with Local Governments Learnings from
     Nueva Ecija PRISP-PP Project. Y. C. James Yen Center, Silang, Cavite, Philippines: International Institute of
     Rural Reconstruction, 1997. Unpublished Materials.

Philippine Rural Institutional Strengthening Program, Department of Agriculture (PRISP-DA). Participatory
      Planning. A Joint Project of the Republic of the Philippines and the Commission of the European Union, Quezon
      City, Philippines. 1996.

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                                                                                                       EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES

Other exemplary
                                     ttuned to the administrative
                                     management changes taking place over
   field-derived                     the past decade, innovative approaches
                            and methods in program and project
     practices &            administration have been tried, both at the
                            national and local levels. Approaches and
  innovations in            methods have arisen from the recognition by
                            government, non-government and private sectors,
governance and              , of the adverse effects of centralized and
                            standardized systems, operational guidelines and
   participatory            procedures being handled in a top-down fashion.
                            These are usually more informal, inovative and
   development              cost-effective approaches, which are based and
                            influenced by community-felt issues. Hence, it is
          efforts           imperative that greater organizational flexibility in
                            programs and operations ensure that programs
                            and services respond to the localized needs of the
                            people. The programs and projects introduced
                            and implemented include: natural resource
                            management, health, education, development
                            planning, etc. All of these have great potential for
                            addressing the goal of alleviating poverty and the
                            achievement of sustainable and equitable
                            development. Some specific capacity-buiding
                            programs intended to strengthen local
                            governance through the provision of assistance to
                            LGUs and civil society organizations in improving
                            local government performance have likewise
                            been undertaken.

                            This chapter highlights the innovative
                            approaches, strategies and techniques adopted
                            in the various development programs and
                            projects implemented in recent years by
                            several donor agencies, local government
                            support organizations, the academe and other
                            development organizations. The results or
                            benefits and the problems are also cited. It is
                            hoped that the readers (i.e. development
                            practitioners and stakeholders) maybe able to
                            draw lessons from the experiences shared.
Decentralizing Natural
Resources Management

         here are three key events supporting the decentralization and devolution of Community-Based
         Forest Management (CBFM).

1. The provisions on environment of the Local Government Code (LGC) of 1991 devolved
   significant functions, powers and responsibilities to local government units (LGUs). In particular,
   Section 15 of the Code mandated LGUs to ensure the rights of inhabitants to a balanced ecology and to
   undertake initiatives for community-based forestry efforts as well as to protect the natural ecosystem.

2. Enactment of Presidential Executive
   Order No. 263 (July 1995) adopted
   the community-based management as the
   national strategy to ensure the sustainable
   development of the country’s forest resources
   and provide mechanisms for its
   implementation. This led to the creation
   of the process and procedures for the
   Community-Based Forest Management
   Agreement (CBFMA) – a 25-year
   production-sharing arrangement entered
   into by a community and the government
   to develop, utilize, manage and conserve a
   specific portion of forestland.

3. Enactment of Indigenous People’s Rights Act of 1997 (IPRA, Republic Act 8371)
   established definitions, principles and rights related to resource management in ancestral domains.
   The Act and its implementing rules and regulations strengthened the role of indigenous peoples and
   provided participatory guidelines for the recognition, delineation and award of the Certificate of
   Ancestral Domain (CADC) or Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title ( CADT).

                  Emerging problems in decentralizing natural resources management

Strong People’s Organizations (POs) are keys to a successful CBFM implementation. However, a number
of serious problems are evident in the field. These include:

! Many POs lack the organizational and technical capacity to properly manage commercial aspects
  related to CBFMAs.
! Many communities lack working capital and have little or no previous financial management
! POs need to function as business enterprises and most have difficulties in negotiating fair market
  forces, finding affordable transport, arranging payments, assuring quality and scaling standards for
  forest products and meeting pre-payment requirements of the Department of Environment and
  Natural Resources (DENR) for forest charges.
! DENR field offices are usually unable to provide all the assistance needed by forest communities,
  especially with regard to cooperative business management.

To overcome these problems, it is essential to strengthen the capacity of POs and to develop effective
partnerships among DENR, LGUs, POs and the private sector to make CBFM productive, profitable and

                  Problem areas in implementing LGUs’ devolved environmental functions

! LGUs’ lack administrative and financial
  capacity to assume responsibilities in
  environmental management. The LGUs
  complain of not having office space and funds
  to pay for the salaries of devolved national
! There is limited technical expertise to
  undertake environmental functions. Worse,
  many LGUs are still unaware of the LGC’s provisions on local governments’ roles and responsibilities
  in natural resources management.
! Duplication also presents a problem as the Code grants local executives specific functions to enforce
  environmental regulations similar to that of DENR officers. Confusion over areas of responsibility
  has, in many times, led to inefficiency.
! While municipalities are generally granted responsibility over program implementation, provincial
  governments are granted law enforcement functions. Such division of labor may, in one way or
  another, work to weaken the effectiveness of community-based projects.

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                                                                                             EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                                                                         !   The continued problem of elite dominance in
                                                                             the rural landscape also poses a problem. It is
                                                                             a sad fact that wealth and power remain to be
                                                                             concentrated in the hands of landlords, some of
                                                                             whom maintain control on the local citizenry
                                                                             with their private armies. Given this scenario,
                                                                             the Code may be used by local political clans to
                                                                             strengthen their economic resource base.

                    Some innovative features/practices in natural resources management

                    ! Organize a multisectional Natural Resource Management Council (NRMC), which represents a cross-
                      section of community groups, local legislators, and municipal and provincial government line
                      agencies that, by good will, serve as voluntary local planners.
                    ! Make available research-based information and technical assistance from different local, national and
                      international stakeholders and partners.
                    ! Undertake capacity building activities with the NRMC, to level off the council members’ expectations
                      and roles and to address the information needs and planning skills of the diverse members.
                    ! Adopt the Technology on Participation (ToP) approach developed by the USAID-funded Governance
                      and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project – in eliciting information and ideas from the planning
                      participants during workshops on envisioning, strategic directions and action planning.
                                                                             ! Systematically verify and consult
                                                                                with local government officials at
                                                                                the barangay and municipal levels
                                                                                and with local people during public
                                                                                assemblies. The different barangays
                                                                                passed a resolution to manifest
                                                                                their approval and support of the
                                                                             ! Legitimize the plan by the
                                                                                Legislative Council (Sangguniang
                                                                                Bayan), and assuring executive
                                                                                support through the approval of the
                                                                                Municipal Ordinance that set forth
                                                                                the implementing guidelines of the

! Implement the plan using a participatory approach. This approach utilizes the presence and
  participation of various GO and NGO partners in the area by inviting them to focus their work towards
  achieving the objectives of the plan. A formal partnership was forged by the LGU and various
  stakeholders in implementing the plan through a Memorandum of Understanding signed by all
  concerned parties.
! Contributing financially to the implementation of the plan from the budget allocation for its Human
  Ecological Society (HES) Program, as mandated in the implementing guidelines of the LGC.

                    Lessons learned

                    ! Local Natural Resource Management (NRM) planning and implementation may
                      not necessarily require a large working capital and a highly structured                        Keys to
                      bureaucratic procedure.                                                                        success:
 ! Many local governments in the Philippines have the potential to manage their own natural
   resources. Therefore, forest management authority, functions and responsibilities can be                          Partnerships
   decentralized, just as municipal agricultural offices have been devolved.                                         Collaboration
 ! LGUs can tap the resources of different external programs and coordinate, channel and focus                       Cost-sharing
   them to help resolve local environmental and resources degradation problems.

                In 1996, a unique, local-level NRM planning process began in the Municipality of Lantapan, Bukidnon
                Province. This process was supported by research-based information and technical assistance from the
                consortium partners, although such a plan was not conceived as an initial objective by Sustainable
                Agricultural and Natural Resource Management (SANREM). At that time, the mayor of Lantapan felt
                that the municipality would benefit from a plan wherein all the scientific and research outputs that had
                been assembled are incorporated. The SANREM partners made significant contributions to the
                planning framework and the technical contents of the municipal Natural Resource Managment and
 Development Plan (NRMDP). The International Center for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) helped to influence the
 perception of local planners that, indeed, natural resource conservation and management can be profitable. ICRAF’s
 technical contribution to the plan was cased mostly from its research work on soil and biodiversity conservation.

 The NRMDP was adopted by the Lantapan Sangguniang Bayan (Legislative Council) in March 1998, and is the first of
 its kind in the Philippines. It is a five-year indicative plan, with the following vision - “A stronger community partnership
 towards a well managed natural resources and ecologically balanced environment for a sustained development in Lantapan by
 the year 2000.”

 The plan is presently being implemented. ICRAF is maintaining a strong partnership with the local government to
 help achieve mutual goals and benefits for the farmers of Lantapan. This is achieved through collaboration with the
 LGU in institutional development and working directly with the farmers on technology development, dissemination
 and adoption.

Lai, Chun K., Delia Catacutan and Agustin R. Mercado. “Decentralizing Natural Resources Management:
      Emerging Lessons from ICRAF Collaboration in Southeast Asia.” International Seminar on Decentralization
      and Devolution of Forest Management in Asia and the Pacific. DENR/FAO/RECOFT, Davao City, Philippines,
      November 03 – December 4, 1998.

Molintas, Dani “To Wound a Forest and Threaten a Culture for Energy,” Rural Reconstruction Forum. Quezon City:
     Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement. Volume 2, No. 3. pp13-18.

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                                                                                                  EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
Landcare as an Innovative
Approach in Natural Resources
Management at the Local Level

       andcare is a method that rapidly and inexpensively diffuses agroforestry practices among
       upland farmers. This method is based on the premise that farmers have an innate interest and
       willingness to learn, adapt and share knowledge on new technologies that allow them to earn
additional income and to conserve natural resources, at the same time. It is an emerging approach that
empowers local governments and communities to effectively and inexpensively disseminate conservation
farming and agroforestry practices.

This method depends on self-motivated communities responding to community issues not imposed by an
external agent. Approaches that are founded on well-grounded theory are more likely to effect a more
permanent and positive change.

Landcare groups are supported by the government and are networked to ensure that ideas and initiatives
are shared and disseminated. Local communities and the government working together to change the
way the land is used is an important feature of Landcare.

Steps involved in Landcare

Select sites with good potential
This is to bring conservation farming technologies to
where it is needed most – on sloping lands where soils
are prone to erosion and degradation. This initial step
also involves meeting with key leaders in the LGUs
(municipal or provincial), interested farmers and
other stakeholders. Their understanding of the issues
that need to be addressed, as well as their willingness
to support and complement the program, are very
crucial to the success or failure of Landcare at a given

                                                            Expose key farmers to successful
                                                            technologies and organizational methods
                                                            The aim is to develop strong awareness among
                                                            prospective key actors of the opportunities to
                                                            effectively address production and resources
                                                            conservation objectives through the new
                                                            technologies. The success of these activities
                                                            can be measured through the development of
                                                            enthusiasm to adopt the technologies within
                                                            the community. Exposure activities include:

                                                            ! organization of cross visits to the fields of
                                                              farmers who have already adopted and
                                                              adapted the technology successfully into
                                                              their farming systems;
                                                            ! provision of training activities for farmers
                                                              in the target communities to learn about
  the practices; and
! provision of opportunities for farmers to try out the technologies on their lands through unsubsidized
  trials to convince themselves that it works as expected. If so, these farmers become the core of a
  ‘conservation team’ to diffuse the technology in the municipality.

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                    Organize conservation teams at the local level
                    Once it is clear that there is a critical threshold of
                    local interest in adopting the technologies and a spirit
                    of self-help to share the knowledge within and among
                    the villages of a municipality, the conditions are then
                    in place to support the implementation of municipal
                    conservation teams. A team is composed of an
                    extensionist either from the Deaprtment of Agriculture
                    (DA) or the Department of Environment and Natural
                    Resources (DENR), an articulate farmer experienced in
                    the application of the technology and an outside
                    technical facilitator.

                                                  Farmer Expert

                                         Technician              Researcher                  Conservation Team Approach

                                                                                             The team initially assists
                                                                                             individual farmers in the
                   Barangay                            Barangay                Barangay      implementation of their desired
                  Consultation                        Consultation            Consultation   conservation farming practices.
                                                                                             Later on, seminars and training
                                                                                             at the village level are conducted
                    Interested                                                 Interested
                     Farmers                                                    Farmers
                                                                                             if the need arises.

                            Establish contour hedgegrows with the farmers

                    Barangay                                                   Barangay
                    Landcare                                                   Landcare

                   All Famers                   Farmer-to-Farmer               All Famers

Evolve Landcare farmers’ organization
If and when the pre-conditions are in place for a
Landcare farmer’s organization, then the
facilitator may assist the community in
developing a more formal organization. A key
ingredient of success is to identify and nurture
leadership skills among prospective farmers in
vision and organization. This involve arranging
for special training in leadership and management
for the farmer leaders and exposing them to other
successful Landcare organizations.

Each barangay (village) may decide to set up its own Landcare
Association chapter and barangay conservation team. Some villages
may organize Landcare Association sub-chapters in their puroks or
sitios (sub-villages). A purok conservation team usually includes a
local farmer-technologist, the purok leaders and the district kagawads (councilors). The purok-level
teams are the front-liners in conservation efforts, providing direct technical assistance, training and
demonstration to farmer households. Conservation teams at the barangay and municipal levels backstop

At the municipal level, the Landcare Association is a federation of all of the barangay Landcare chapters.
The municipal conservation team is part of the support structure, which also includes other organizations
that can assist the chapters (e.g. DA, DENR, NGOs).

The Landcare Association may opt to be registered as a PO (in the legal form of a cooperative, association
or corporation).

Attract local government support
Local government can provide crucial political and
sustained financial support to the Landcare
Association to meet its objectives. The
municipality has its own funds that are earmarked
for environmental conservation. These can be
realigned to Landcare activities that enhance
natural resource conservation. The municipality
can be encouraged to develop a formal natural
resource management plan such as the one in
Lampatan, which can help guide the allocation of

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                    The barangays can also allocate financial resources from their regular IRA through the Human Ecological
                    Society (HES) program, which represents one-fifth of the total development funds of the barangay. These
                    funds can be used to organize the conservation teams and Landcare Association activities at the barangay
                    and purok levels, and support training and honoraria for resource persons.

                    External donor agencies can best support Landcare development by allocating resources for leadership and
                    human resources development, communications equipment (e.g. handheld radios) and transportation
                    (e.g. motorcycles) to enable Landcare leaders to maximize their time.

                    Structure of the Claveria Landcare Association (CLCA)

         Municipal Level
                                                •   President, Claveria Landcare Association
                           Landcare             •   Municipal conservation team
                          Association           •   Presidents of all village Landcare chapters
                                                •   Mayor
                                                •   Chairman, Committee on Agriculture &
                                                    Environment, Municipal Council
                                                •   Municipal Agricultural Officer
                                                •   MOSCAT College staff
                                                •   ICRAF staff

         Village Level

                           Landcare                                                               Barangay
                           Chapter 1            •   Landcare chapter president                     Landcare
                                                •   Village conservation team                     Chapter 24
                                                •   Agriculture Technician
                                                •   Chr. Agri. & Env. Comm.
                                                •   Barangay captain

         Sub-village Level

                          Sub-village           Actors                                         Sub-village
                            (sitio)                                                              (sitio)
                                                •   Sub-chapter Landscape president
                           Landcare                                                             Landcare
                                                •   Sub-village conservation team
                         Subchapter 1           •   Households                                Subchapter 8
                                                •   Agric. Technician
                                                •   Chr. Agric. & Env. Comm
                                                •   District councelor
                                                •   Sub-village president

Monitor and evaluate
Monitoring is necessary to assess the progress of the activity and
use outputs for strategizing activities or planning actions to make
the program more dynamic and relevant to the need of the target

For monitoring purposes, International Center for Research in
Agroforestry (ICRAF) has a record of all those who have attended
training or have been assisted with establishing Natural
Vegetative Strips (NVS) on their farms, as well as of farmers who
requested assistance. Details on farming and conservation
practices, training and follow-up needs are recorded on a
diagnostic card, which is updated on regular follow-up visits by
ICRAF staff. The leaders of the CLCA chapters and sub-chapters support this activity by distributing and
collecting the diagnostic/ evaluation cards to and from the sub-villages and new CLCA members.

                                                                           Conservation farming

                                                                           The specific activities of the
                                                                           Landcare Association members
                                                                           vary according to their needs and
                                                                           interests, as well as their
                                                                           biophysical and socioeconomic
                                                                           situations. Some of the many
                                                                           activities that have been or are
                                                                           being developed as focal areas
                                                                           for Landcare Association work

!   Establishing NVS along contours to reduce field or farm-level soil erosion. This was the initial farmer-
    generated technology that launched the organization of Landcare in Claveria.
!   Planting perennial crops on or just above the NVS to increase farmers’ income and enhance soil and
    water conservation.
!   Planting trees to increase family income through production of timber, fuel wood and other tree
    products in farm forests, boundary plantings, or other arrangements.
!   Planting high-quality fruit trees to provide income and better nutrition for the household while
    enhancing the environment.
!   Adopting minimum-tillage or ridge-tillage farming systems. Ridge tillage has been successfully
    adopted with the existing draft-animal cultivation practices and is being further tested on farms.

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                                                                          The evolution from simple soil conservation
                                                                          practices to a more complex agroforestry system
                                                                          occurs over time as farmers continually
                                                                          experiment, innovate and adapt technologies that
                                                                          are well-suited to their conditions. Generally,
                                                                          farmers start with the establishment of natural
                                                                          vegetative filter strips. Next, they establish
                                                                          communal or individual nurseries and plant
                                                                          perennials on or above the NVS. Farmers can
                                                                          cultivate annual cereal crops up to the fourth year,
                                                                          particularly if the strips are not too close to each
                                                                          other. When tree canopies shade out the crops
                                                                          therefore making it no longer profitable to grow
                                                                          annuals, farmers graze their livestock beneath the
                                                                          trees. The trees (mostly Gmelina arborea) can be
                                                                          harvested 8-12 years after planting. The farmers
                                                                          then resume annual cropping. This system earns
                                                                          more income than the traditional practice of
                                                                          micro-cultural cropping .

                 In 1996, ICRAF supported Landcare dissemination activities in Claveria, Misamis Oriental, Philippines,
                 as a direct response to farmers’ request for technical assistance in conservation farming. The technical
                 and institutional innovations led to the formation of the Claveria Association, which was then formally
                 registered as a PO with the Philippines Securities and Exchange Commission in September 1997. By
                 December 1998, 59 Landcare groups have been established in 19 barangays in the Municipality of
                 Claveria. Most of these Landcare groups were based in the purok or sitio, where farmers can interact
                 with each other more frequently.

 These Landcare groups have successfully extended conservation farming based on NVS to about 2,000 farmers and
 established 205 communal and individual nurseries that produced hundreds of thousands of fruits and timber tree
 seedlings that are planted on the NVS or along farm boundaries. They were also able to get funding for 75 draft
 animals for dispersal to Landcare members who had none.

Decentralization and devolution of natural resource management at the grassroots enable governments to
allocate resources and provide policy support to complement farmer-and community-led efforts to conserve
resources for sustained production and use. The Landcare approach provides:
! a vehicle for interested farmers to learn, adopt and share knowledge about new technologies that can
    earn more money and conserve natural resources;
! a forum for the community to respond to issues that they see as important;
! a mechanism for local governments to support; and
! a network to ensure that ideas and initiatives are shared and disseminated.

Lai, Chun K., Delia Catacutan and Agustin R. Mercado. “Decentralizing Natural Resources Management:
      Emerging Lessons from ICRAF Collaboration in Southeast Asia.” International Seminar on Decentralization
      and Devolution of Forest Management in Asia and the Pacific. DENR/FAO/RECOFT, Davao City, Philippines,
      November 03 – December 4, 1998.

Molintas, Dani “To Wound a Forest and Threaten a Culture for Energy,” Rural Reconstruction Forum. Quezon City:
     Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement. Volume 2, No. 3. pp13-18.

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Local Government Innovations in
Watershed Management

           watershed is the total land area that
           contributes to the flow of a river, stream or
           creek. Its boundary can be located on the
ground by connecting all the highest points of the area
around the river, stream or creek, where water starts to
flow when there is rain. It is not man-made and it does
not recognize political boundaries.

Contrary to common perception, a watershed may not
have any vegetation or wildlife. It may or may not even be under the
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) control. It does
not have to be steeply sloping and its river, stream or creek may not
necessarily be flowing continuously.

The need to save our forests and watersheds is gaining increasing attention. The frequent occurrence of
flashfloods, landslides and water shortages in many areas of the country has made more people aware
that protecting the watershed means safeguarding life and property and protecting the water supply.
Similarly, problems of upland poverty, forest denudation and wood shortages in the upland areas have
pointed to the need for innovative ways of providing income to various sectors, especially the poor, and of
meeting the demand for wood, while protecting the natural forests.

The challenge of environmental management is new and local governments are only beginning to
discover new possibilities for action. In this regard, local government units (LGUs) have several
constraints. These include:

! lack of planning data such as information on forest resources;
! limited expertise for forest land use planning;
! lack of information on kinds of initiatives allowed under existing policies and programs governing
  forests and watersheds; and
! perception that local governments have limited powers for apprehending and prosecuting illegal
  loggers and other violators, and for resolving conflicts over competing uses of forest lands.

Emerging local government practices

Local government innovations in watershed management and forest protection vary depending on local
conditions. These innovations focus on achieving the interrelated objectives of maintaining ecological
stability, protecting the water supply and improving the lives of resource-poor upland communities. This
also includes promoting the use of the watershed as a planning unit and adopting appropriate land use
planning techniques.

                The provincial government of Sarangani and the municipalities of Claveria in Misamis Oriental and
                Villaverde in Nueva Vizcaya, among others, have taken this initial step. They have allocated funds for
                orientation and training programs on forest land use planning as part of a more comprehensive land use
                plan. The forest land use plan is enforced as part of an overall land use plan and zoning ordinance.

                The City of Naga also followed this approach in planning the rehabilitation of the Naga River. Siltation
 and pollution increasingly threatened not only the river’s ecosystem but also its cultural importance. In formulating
 the Strategic Management Plan for the Naga City River, government planners, citizen leaders and resource persons
 agreed to focus on the river’s watershed as the planning unit. They delineated the watershed into four zones (high
 population density, agricultural, timberland, and riverbank/easement).

These approaches allowed local governments to determine better the biophysical and socio-economic
features and uses of the forest and watershed and to set priorities for action. Moreover, the stakeholders
involved became aware that their actions on the environment are interdependent and that watershed
management consequently requires their mutual cooperation.

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                    Addressing the needs of upland communities

                    All watersheds in the Philippines are practically occupied by upland communities. Rather than uprooting
                    them, local governments made the resolve to assist poor upland communities and involve them in forest
                    protection and watershed management.

                  The municipalities of Kiamba, Maitum and Maasim in Sarangani implemented projects under the
                  Community-Based Forest Management (CBFM) Program. The local governments protected and
                  managed a portion of the forest recently abandoned by a lumber company whose timber license
                  agreement has expired. Activities were carried out in coordination with a multi-sectoral task force.
                  The municipal government’s initial activities included forestland use planning, community mapping and
                  community organizing.

The City of Cebu maintained a Hillyland Resource Management Program that supported the farming and marketing
needs of upland farmers as leverage for encouraging soil and water conservation practices. The city also collaborated
with a large non-government organization (NGO)-led multi-sectoral group advocating for the conservation of the city’s
watershed, the Mananga. A key collaboration point is the incorporation of strict watershed protection measures in the
city’s land use plan and zoning ordinance.

The local government-led multi-sectoral Municipal Planning and Development Council of Magsaysay in Davao del Sur
mobilized an Upland Agricultural Development Program. Its objectives included: assisting upland farmers through
appropriate farming technologies, livelihood projects, community organizing and training, reforestation, and watershed
protection. The initial results were very encouraging. Soil conservation practices have been applied. Furthermore,
small livelihood projects (i.e. poultry and cattle dispersal, mango production and bio-intensive gardening) have led to
increased incomes.

                    Mobilizing citizen involvement

                    Local governments can implement and sustain projects by mobilizing popular support. Projects can
                    challenge the citizenry’s spirit of volunteerism and sense of civic responsibility and further drum up
                    support through festive activities.

                Faced with a heavily denuded watershed, a threatened water supply and a seemingly public apathy
                toward the environment, the city government of Baguio pilot-tested an “Eco-Walk Project.” Under this
                project, school children trekked to the Busol watershed as part of their class activity. There, they learned
                in situ about the forest ecosystem, particularly its link to Baguio’s water supply. The students also learned
                how to plant trees properly as each participating class was assigned an area to reforest.

 The project has become a community activity. Three years since the project started, a total of 15,000 elementary
 students have participated. Government employees, teachers, youths and civic groups have also joined to reforest
 areas not accessible to students and to do other support tasks. Now, the once denuded watershed is once again alive
 and teeming with life. As the trees grow, values of volunteerism, cooperation, partnership and ecological concern also
 continue to take root within the community.

                For Iloilo, it was the flashfloods that brought the message loud and clear: Save the Maasin Watershed.
                The provincial government promptly established the Maasin Watershed Task Force. This is a multi-
                sectoral group composed of the provincial and city governments, three municipal governments, DENR,
                media, various NGOs, private corporations and educational institutions. Focusing on the 6,000-hectare
                watershed, the Task Force initiated the “Alay Tanim” program which mobilized 5,000 people for mass tree
                planting. It also implemented the “Adopt a Tree Park” program, which designated specific areas for
                particular groups or organizations to reforest and protect. As an added incentive, a stewardship
 agreement was reached with selected residents in the surrounding areas to help enforce regulations protecting the
 trees and other forest products. The task force also made sure that farmers who used to depend on the forest had
 alternative jobs and had access to agroforestry-based livelihood projects.

Directly managing selected forest areas

In coordination with the DENR, local governments can opt to directly manage certain portions of forest
for other uses.

               The provincial government of Cotabato, for example, designated the 645-hectare Amas Reforestation
               Project as the “Cotabato Provincial Forest and Eco-tourism Park.” The Park was used for scientific,
               educational and recreational purposes. It also served as a seed production area and had a botanical
               garden. The Park was co-managed by the provincial government, DENR and the Philippine National
               Police. The joint venture is truly promising in terms of its objectives and management strategy.

 Both the municipal government of Sta. Fe and the Provincial Government of Nueva Vizcaya undertook a similar
 project. The local governments have entered into an agreement with DENR to manage and transform a portion of the
 11,664 hectares Consuelo Reforestation project into a forest park, principally for “nature-based” or “eco-tourism”
 purposes. The management involved forest protection, along with sustainable income-generating and bio-diversity
 conservation activities.

Helping resolve conflicts over land use

Local governments can help resolve conflicts over land use, which occasionally impede forest protection

               In Nueva Vizcaya, about 77 percent of the province’s land area is classified as forest reserve. In as much
               as many communities are either already settled in or economically dependent on these areas, problems
               on land tenure and resource use abound. To help address these issues, Nueva Vizcaya’s Provincial
               Environment and Resource Council created the Tenure and Resource Use Task Force, composed of
               representatives from government agencies, NGOs and POs in the province.

                  Governance and Local Democracy Project (GOLD). “Local Government Innovations in Watershed Management,”
                      Occasional Paper No. 98-07. Makati City, 1998.

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LGUs and Tree Farms:
Partners in Community Resource Generation
and Environmental Protection

         or the most part, local governments are mandated to protect
                                                                            What is tree farming?
         forests and watershed within their areas of jurisdiction
         through direct protection and reforestation efforts. However,      Tree farming is the planting, care and
this strategy may be too costly in the long run if pursued as the only      maintenance of trees for profit through the
                                                                            initiative of small farmers, community
alternative. To date, the more innovative among these local                 organizations and private groups. It differs
government units (LGUs) have addressed environmental protection             from conventional reforestation in the sense
and local resource generation in the promotion and establishment of         that it is not subsidized by the government
                                                                            and is intended for commercial purposes.
tree farms.

Tree farms provide additional income and employment opportunities not only for families and
communities involved but also for local governments. Tree farms also help protect the environment by
checking soil erosion, increasing water yield and indirectly reducing the pressure to extract wood from
natural growth forests.

As any other budding enterprise, tree farming oftentimes encounter barriers to realize its full potential.
Among these barriers are:
! government regulations resulting in cumbersome procedures or too much red tape;
! the misconception that permits for cutting trees and transporting lumber must still be secured even
    for trees which farmers themselves planted; and
! the need for clear information materials and quality inputs (i.e. seedlings and adequate technical
    support services).

Emerging local government practices

Identifying areas and ensuring rights to harvest
Pursuant to the law, local governments must ensure the proper and efficient inventory and registration of
plantations, which could help identify and locate idle lands as well as establish legal rights of
participants to the land.

                In Bohol, the provincial government has been negotiating with the Department of Environment and
                Natural Resources (DENR) for the creation of an “Executive Committee” to assist the Protected Area
                Management Board (PAMB) of the Rajah Sikatuna National Park. The committee will operationalize the
                park’s management plan, which designates areas for sustainable use, multiple use and buffer zones.
                Once these zones are delineated, tree farming may then be undertaken in appropriate areas.

 In Loboc, Bohol, each barangay was encouraged to establish a one-hectare forest plantation to support the
 municipality’s thriving furniture industry. In support of this strategy, the local government helped acquire the needed
 lands either through donations, direct purchase and/or leasehold.

Providing benefits and incentives for stakeholders
Given the varying needs and concerns of different stakeholders (i.e. landowners, claimants and
entrepreneurs), local governments should offer a variety of benefits and incentives to all stakeholders

 The Bukidnon Environment Small-Scale Tree Farm Project aims
 to establish tree plantations inside areas covered by the
 Integrated Social Forestry Program. The provincial government
 provides financial support in the amount of P7,500 per hectare,
 while the tree planter provides labor for three years. Of the
 total amount, P1,500 is used for project management and
 supervision, while the remaining P6,000 is given directly to the
 tree planter in the form of cash and/or farm inputs. The farmer
 repays the amount with 15 full-grown trees on the 10th year of
 the farm’s operation.

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                                                               For stakeholders (i.e. landowners and claimants without
                                                               tenure-related problems), other benefits may be more
                                                               attractive. In Dumarao, Capiz, a tax holiday was declared
                                                               exempting lands planted to at least 1,000 seedlings per
                                                               hectare from being assessed a realty tax for a period of
                                                               five years. This encouraged the farmers to plant more
                                                               trees. Landowners were expected to resume paying taxes
                                                               when they harvest the trees.

                                                             Landowners with less definite investment plans for their
                                                             farms may be encouraged to engage in any type of Tree
 Farm Leasehold. Under this scheme, individuals or groups lease land from a landowner and agree to give the
 landowner a share of the income from the trees to be harvested after a specified number of years. Sharing
 arrangements may be 72-25, 70-30 and 60-40 in favor of the developer or 50-50, depending upon factors such as the
 species planted, the location and productivity of the land.

 Special incentives and strategies may be designed for specific groups
 and situations. In the “Trees for Tuition Fees” Program, the
 provincial government of Siquijor endorsed and supported
 agreements wherein the Parents-Teachers’ Association of a school
 leases land from a local owner-benefactor, specifically for tree
 farming purposes. The program has sown hope among parents that
 at least five trees of Gemini or Acacia Mangium planted by their child
 in the first grade may be worth P20,000 in 10 years, when that
 child enters college. The provincial government provides the
 seedlings and technical assistance for this program. The same
 strategy has also been implemented in Bohol.

                    Disseminating information on government policies and regulations

                    Local governments should work more closely with the proper government agencies, particularly the DENR
                    in disseminating policies and permit regulations and requirements for harvesting and transporting trees.

                  As a matter of policy, the harvesting of premium species (e.g. narra, molave, kamagong, ipil-ipil, etc.) on
                  private lands is closely regulated and requires a Private Land Timber Permit from the Secretary of the
                  DENR. The extraction of fast growing trees species (e.g. ipil-ipil) on the other hand, has been
                  deregulated. These policies, notwithstanding other government agencies such as the Philippine
                  National POlice (PNP), DENR and other non-government organizations (NGOs) and LGUs, still require
                  special cutting and transport permits. This practice discourages the farmers from planting trees.

 To avoid these hassles, the farmers must obtain Certificates of Registration and Verification for planted trees. Local
 governments, therefore, can work closely with the DENR in order to disseminate this policy. In Cotabato, for example,
 the provincial government organized a dialogue among the Provincial Environment and Natural Resource Officer
 (PENRO), tree farmers, wood processors, lumber dealers, and furniture makers to discuss problems and solutions
 related to licensing procedures (e.g. the collection of inspection and inventory fees, documentation flows and
 checkpoints documentation). A similar effort can be undertaken to focus on policies and permits for harvesting
 planted trees.

Sharing the establishment cost

Local governments respond to farmer’s financial needs by extending assistance in cash or in kind (e.g.
seedlings and other planting materials) either for free, as a loan or as part of a sharing of an exchange
arrangement. This practice is done to encourage farmers to establish tree farms.

Illustrative joint production-sharing schemes

  Local government with actual sharing scheme                             Tree planters’ equity


      P6,000 per hectare to farmer for labor and inputs          Repay with 15 standing trees after 10
      plus technical assistance (Bukidnon Environment            years
      Small-Scale Tree Farm or BEST Project)

      Cash payment of P5 per three year old tree plus            Establish three-year-old tree farms
      technical assistance (Quezon, Bukidnon’s
      Greenbelt Program)

      Small grant of P10,000 to barangay for nursery-            Barangay to produce seedlings
      related costs (Alamada, Cotabato)

      Cost of seedlings (Cotabato’s Plant Now Pay                Repay in cash after 18 months from
      Later Plan)                                                earnings


      Seedlings (Zamboanga del Norte’s Plant Now Pay             Repay in cash from sale of harvested
      Later Plan)                                                trees)

      Seedlings plus technical assistance (Palawan’s Tree        Provide land and labor
      Resources for Economic and Environmental

                The lack of trainers should not be a deterrent either.
                Bohol and Palawan have prioritized training of local
                officials and potential leaders who can become future
                trainers or “subject-matter specialists.” In Bohol,
                specialists from various sectors teamed up to train
                community development practitioners on tree
 enterprise, agroforestry and silviculture, among others. The
 trainees constitute a provincial training crop, which will
 eventually manage the training of other farmers.

 Local governments can take other initiatives to enhance learning
 and exchange among tree farmers. Just like in Palawan, they can
 establish a model farm to demonstrate ways to make trees grow.
 Or they can protect alternative modes of cooperation, such as

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 the alayon or work group followed in Basak Larena, Siquijor. Every Sunday, members of the Basak Upland Resource
 Management Association pool their labor to plant trees in the farm of one of their members. They do this in each
 farm until each member establishes a small plantation.

                                                           In some cases, local governments can play an essential role in
                                                           bringing about a more coordinated and integrated support
                                                           services program. In Makilala, Cotabato, the provincial
                                                           government went beyond helping farmers own the estate sold to
                                                           them by the Makilala Rubber Development Corporation or
                                                           “Makrubber” under the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform
                                                           Program. The local government launched the KABALIKAT
                                                           Rubber Development Project, which helped organize 60-farmer
                                                           beneficiaries into a cooperative. Since then, the project assisted
                                                           the cooperative to:

                                                           !   obtain credit and farm inputs;
                                                           !   negotiate the sale of their produce to Makrubber;
                                                           !   establish nurseries;
                                                           !   purchase equipment;
                                                           !   conduct training programs; and
                                                           !   seek additional income opportunities.

                    Extending support services

                    Local governments may provide technical support in terms of training and extension services to tree
                    farmers for them to better manage their farms and achieve optimum lumber yield. In addition, local
                    governments can play a key role in bringing about a more coordinated and integrated support services

                 Where resources are available, local governments can sponsor
                 seminars, particularly on nursery development and silviculture. They
                 can also help send farmers to visit and learn from other successful
                farms. Even with limited resources, local governments
                need not be less effective. They can encourage
                farmers to share in shouldering some of the
                training costs. In Bohol, tree farmers agreed to pay
a small registration fee to help provide for the honoraria of
resource speakers. In Cuartero and Maayon, Capiz, farmer-
participants brought their own lunch during a seminar, thus
reducing the training costs on the part of the local government.

                    Governance and Local Democracy Project (GOLD). “ Growing Trees to Save the Forests: LGUs and the Promotion of
                         Tree Farms”, Occasional Paper No. 98-05. Makati City, 1998.

LGUs’ Role in Protected Areas
Management under the NIPAS

                ith environmental protection becoming a global concern, the Philippine Congress enacted
                Republic Act Number 7586 on June 1, 1992, which provides for the establishment and
                management of the Natural Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) and defines its scope
and coverage.

NIPAS refers to the classification and administration of all designated protected areas in order to maintain
essential ecological processes and life support systems, preserve genetic diversity and ensure sustainable use
of resources found therein. A “protected area” refers to identified portions of land and water set for
protection, preservation and management against human exploitation because of their unique physical
and biological significance and diversity.

Established categories of protected areas

!   Strict nature reserve
!   Natural park
!   Natural movement
!   Wildlife sanctuary
!   Protected landscapes and seascapes
!   Resources reserve
!   Natural biotic areas
!   Other categories established by law, conventions
    or international agreements wherein the
    Philippine government is a signatory.

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For each protected area, peripheral buffer zones have to be established, if necessary, to protect the
designated area from activities that are directly and indirectly harmful. A general management planning
strategy serves as a guide in formulating plans for each protected area. The management planning
strategy should, at the minimum, promote the adoption and implementation of innovative management
techniques including:

!   zoning;
!   buffer zone management for multiple use and protection;
!   habitat conservation and rehabilitation;
!   diversity management;
!   community organizing;
!   socio-economic and scientific researches;
!   site-specific policy development;
!   pest management; and
!   fire control.

The management planning strategy provides guidelines for the protection of the indigenous cultural
minorities, other tenured migrant communities who have close coordination with local agencies of the
government, non-government organizations (NGOs) and the private sector.

                    Problems affecting the protected areas

                    !    Farming systems that generally involve clearing and burning secondary forests or
                         fallowed lands near the end of the dry season, which causes degradation of large
                         areas adjacent to or within the park.

                    !    Unregulated collection of forest resources (primarily fuel
                         wood, vines, bamboo, timber for construction and fruits),
                         which occurs evenly throughout the year, especially in
                         areas of easy access.

                    !    Illegal logging
                         especially in the
                         evergreen and semi-
                         deciduous forests
                         aggravated further
                         by weak enforcement
                         of laws (e.g. permits
                         or collection

!   Conflicting land claims that lead to ambiguity over ownership
    and a situation of open access leading to the degradation of a
    protected area.

                                                          !   Bad experiences of some residents with some
                                                              organizations that have come and gone.
                                                              This results in suspicion and indifference by
                                                              the locals on efforts that new “faces” and
                                                              organizations undertake. In some instances,
                                                              religious affiliations also result in inaction
                                                              or non-participation.

                                                          !   Likewise, beneficiaries also complain that
                                                              agencies and the projects they undertake are
                                                              fleeting and have no tangible impacts.
                                                              Some projects are launched and are just
                                                              abandoned later.
!   Lack of support from the local government officials, such that direct contact between the intended
    beneficiary/residents and the local leaders is seldom made.

!   Some protected areas do not provide adequate livelihood. Consequently, many residents have to
    migrate to work.

            Strategies/solutions undertaken

            Creation of a Protected Area Management Board (PAMB) as the policy-making
            body of the NIPAS law.
            The PAMB is composed of the Regional Executive Director, one representative each from the
            autonomous regional government, the municipal government, the barangays within the
            jurisdiction of the protected area and the tribal communities; three representatives from
            local NGOs; and one representative from the national government agency involved in
            protected area management, usually the Department of Environment and Natural
            Resources (DENR).

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                    The PAMB, by a majority vote, decides on the
                    budget allocations, approve proposals for funding,
                    and decides on matters related to planning,
                    peripheral protection and general administration
                    of the area in accordance with the general
                    management strategy.

                    This includes training/orientation on balanced
                    natural resource use and its relationship with
                    effective and accountable governance; development
                    planning administration and legislation
                    particularly in relation to the Integrated Protected
                    Areas System (IPAS); and collective
                    implementation and monitoring system.

                    Usually, the local chief executives, the planning
                    officers, the NGOs and community through their
                    People’s Organizations (POs) or Community-based
                    Organizations (CBOs) are involved.

                                                                           Enlisting/enhancing the involvement of NGOs
                                                                           and other groups or sectors in the
                                                                           development of their areas particularly in the
                                                                           implementation of the IPAS.
                                                                           These NGOs could take the role of lead
                                                                           implementor and coordinator of the project and be
                                                                           mainly responsible for its day-to-day operations.
                                                                           They are to report directly to the Local Chief
                                                                           Executive (i.e. Provincial Governor). For effective
                                                                           implementation, a project manager and staff (of
                                                                           prescribed number) could be assigned to the project.

                    Adoption of a community-based data information and monitoring system as approved/supported
                    by the community residents.

                    Formulation of policies and programs duly approved by the PAMB en banc and their
                    Examples are the Comprehensive Land Use Plans, conduct of Regenerative Agriculture training and their
                    application, promotion of indigenous livestock, raising and provision of seeds and other technical

                  Mount Kanlaon, the highest peak in the Visayas, was proclaimed a National Park on August 8, 1934
                  by virtue of Proclamation Number 721-34. The law defined the park area coverage at approximately
                  25,000 ha of lush tropical forest and stipulated that the park be considered a distinct resource,
                  protected for purposes of maintaining rich biodiversity. Man’s harmful activities, however, adversely
                  affected the conditions of Mt. Kanlaon. Once a delightful forest, it has become almost denuded. The
                  original area of the park has been reduced and transformed. A recent survey of the towns and cities
                  surrounding the park disclosed that San Carlos City and Kanlaon City has only 11,457 ha of
                  forestland. La Castellana, Canlaon and Murcia on the other hand, have 1,500 ha of cogonal area, 537
 ha of contract reforestation project area, 475 ha of impact reforestation area, 279 ha of Kabisig reforestation and 328
 ha titled properties. The condition of the Mount Kanlaon National Park has alarmed a great number of people,
 resulting to efforts on all fronts to rehabilitate,
 protect and preserve the park.

 To protect Mt. Kanlaon, the Developing
 Sustainable Communities in Protected Areas Act, a
 capability-building system under the NIPAS law,
 was passed in 1992. In partnership with Paghiliusa
 sa Pagdidaet-Negros, the local governments in Mt.
 Kanlaon and the Local Government Support
 Program – CIDA, the system aimed to develop the
 capability of the Province as well as the affected
 constituent LGUs on the conservation,
 development and management of Mt. Kanlaon’s
 rich and diversenatural resources.

 At the same time, tangible environmental programs
 have been incorporated into the LGUs respective
 local development plans and environmental laws.
 The relevant councils tasked to manage the projects under NIPAS have been set up and core groups have been
 formed in the surrounding communities to assist in protecting the Park.

The challenge ahead

Like any other environmental project, the challenge lies in sustaining the efforts initiated especially at the
community level. This can be attained by making sure that structures in place continue to function and
active people participation is continuously nurtured. The bottom line is how efforts can contribute to the
proper management of a natural resource that is fast diminishing.

Saban, Maria Fe and Letty Tumbaga, “Developing Sustainable Communities in Protected Areas under the NIPAS
    Law”, in A Breath of Fresh Air-Exploring the Possibilities of Effective Local Government Management . ed. by
    Letty Tumbaga. CIDA-LGSP Region VI and Ateneo Center for Policy and Public Affairs 1998 pp. 74-84.

International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR). “Mt. Palaypalay ICDP Proposal to BCN-BSP”. Silang, Cavite,
      Philippines. May 1995.

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                                                                                                    EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
Local Governments
in Coastal

           coastal zone is comprised of various systems, including natural systems (i.e. estuaries,
           watershed and coastal seas) and socio-economic systems (i.e. agricultural production system
           and urban settlements).

Its geographic extent may include areas within a landward limit of one kilometer from the shoreline,
which includes mangrove swamps, blackish water food, nipa swamps, estuarine rivers, sandy beaches, and
other areas reached by tides. Likewise, it includes a seaward limit of 200 in isobaths which include coral
reefs, algae flats, sea grass beds and soft, bottom travelable areas.

                                                                         Factors contributing to the
                                                                         deterioration of coastal ecosystems

                                                                         !   Construction and reclamation activities for
                                                                             industrial, urban and airport development
                                                                         !   Conversion to fish/salt ponds and rice fields
                                                                         !   Pollution and water disposal
                                                                         !   Fishing with explosives/cyanide
                                                                         !   Proliferation of stationary fishing gears
                                                                         !   Pesticide from agricultural run off
                                                                         !   Conversion to tourist spots

The policy to boost the export of primary products in order to improve the country’s foreign exchange
position opened the door to uncontrolled extraction of coastal and marine resources. State policy is not
only biased to world export, it also favors elite commercial fishing at the expense of small artisan fishers.
The elite gained the most from export trade and is mainly responsible for over-fishing and destruction of
the marine and coastal ecosystems.

Organizing principles in restoring and enhancing natural capacities

Community stakeholdership
Local communities who have the most to gain or lose from the use of resources should have primacy in
managing it.

Systems perspective
CRM must be viewed and carried out within the framework of the coastal ecosystem and relevant systems.
To treat any program (e.g. Fisheries Sector Program) and its components from a sectoral perspective will
be incompatible with the principle.

Local Government Cooperation for Coastal Resource Management (LGC-CRM)
An effective way to solve environmental concerns of coastal areas is to organize collaboration of affected
communities led by their respective local governments. Whatever initiatives undertaken by local
governments could serve as an initial step in a long-term process towards a community-based CRM
program. Moreover, the same initiatives can facilitate partnerships between the local government units
(LGUs), governmental agencies and local non-governmental and People’s Organizations (POs) in
promoting sustainable growth and development in their communities.


!   Generate awareness among LGUs, government
    agencies, non-government organizations
    (NGOs) and POs or representatives from the
    fisher folk communities about environmental
    issues/ problems affecting the coastal area and
    the communities around it.

!   Organize and mobilize an Intermunicipal
    Coastal Resource Management Council
    (ICRMC) to serve as a coordinating body and
    sustaining mechanism for all collaborating

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                                                                                               EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                         partners (government organizations (GOs), NGOs, POs) to plan, implement, evaluate and promote
                         policy advocacy about the issues involved.
                    !    Likewise, a Project Management Committee can be organized to specifically oversee project
                    !    Conduct planning and other capability-building workshops on environment, gender and participatory
                         development perspectives and processes relevant to CRM.
                    !    Formulate a comprehensive CRM plan including a zoning plan, action plans or watershed and
                         mangrove reforestation, organic farming, community education and organizing, women’s
                         empowerment and feasibility studies in microenterprise and alternative livelihood projects.
                    !    Conduct follow-up on training, refinement of strategies designed during previous trainings,
                         expansion of the inter-municipal ICRMC at the municipal and barangay levels (particularly the
                         coastal barangays) and the formation of community organizers and facilitators to train the fisherfolk
                         of the coastal barangays.
                    !    Document and popularize development issues and lessons gained.

                                         Issues and problems in CRM implementation

                    !    Differences between the project implementors cause several delays in the implementation of some
                         project activities.
                    !    Conflicts between LGUs involved and the existing policies on fund disbursement result to constant
                         delays in the release of funds and eventually hampers the sustainability of the CRM efforts.
                    !    Lack of municipal funds for the implementation of project activities in their respective areas is
                         aggravated by the lack of technical know-how on the part of LGUs and officials of government
                         agencies to prepare project proposals for external sourcing of required funds.
                    !    NGO participation and coordination is lacking because some local government officials continue to
                         perceive local NGOs as their rivals.
                    !    The momentum in undertaking activities is derailed due to constant changes in political leadership
                         and officials’ priorities.

                                     ! Promote and undertake alternative income-generating activities utilizing existing
                                         resources and capacities in the area.
                    !    Fully implement ICRM plan to stare off economic dislocation resulting from the implementation of
                         the zoning plan and fisheries ordinance.
                    !    Mobilize existing POs to explore middle grounds for cooperation with the local government and other
                         agencies, including NGOs. Thus, there is a need for organized and skilled POs at the grassroots level.
                    !    Promote and undertake gender-friendly schemes and activities to guarantee the recognition of women-
                         related issues.

               Batan Bay, Tinagong Dagat is a threatened ecosystem. While it remains a very productive fishing
               resource, it is deteriorating. At present, there is an alarming rate of siltation due to denuded watersheds,
               mangrove deforestation, harmful farming and fishery practices in the area as well as the unregulated
               proliferation of stationary fishing gears, which also pose hazards to navigation. The need for alternative
               livelihood activities has also become apparent.

                In a joint resolution among the Aklan provincial government, FSDP-UP, and the municipal governments
of Batan, Altavas and New Washington, the “Local Government Cooperation for the Coastal Resource Management of
Altavas, Batan and New Washington” was launched. It became the Philippines-Canada LGSP first project in Region VI.
The two-year capability building project was envisioned to safeguard, sustain and enhance the environment of Batan
Bay and its tributaries.

The project encountered serious problems including management problems, inter-governmental conflict, lack of local
funds to finance CRM project implementation, opposition from fisher folk groups and absence of NGOs during the
implementation stage, which delayed its implementation. Despite these difficulties, the project boasts of several

! The level of awareness regarding the
    environmental issues affecting the bay and
    the need to protect it was heightened.
!   The three municipalities to govern fisheries
    and water activities in the Bay drafted a
    fishery law. The law was integrated into the
    local development plan and was observed.
    The integration of the law into the
    provincial development plan is being
!   Ten thousand pesos form the municipality’s
    Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) was
    allocated by the LGU of New Washington
    to protect the Bay from illegal fishing.
!   The government of Batan declared some
    areas of the Bay as a fish sanctuaries.
!   Mangrove areas of the Bay were reforested.
!   Some fish gears (e.g. fishnets with small
    eyes, tahungan) were declared illegal.

                  Lessons learned

                  ! Advocacy is very important in raising the level of consciousness of people about
                      environmental issues. The struggle for social change always starts with changes in the
                      perception of people. Environmental issues affecting major sources of livelihood are the best
    starting points in organizing communities towards more vigilant actions.

! CRM is a venue that encourages the productive cooperation of LGUs, POs, NGOs and the academe.
    Institutions that usually have diverse perspectives and interests can work together given a common issue. A
    stronger sense of commitment towards environmental issues and community empowerment has increased
    especially among LGU people. This is necessary for the significant implementation of project objectives and for
    LGUs to go beyond petty politics. This also gives the academe the best chance to make scientific studies/

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                                                                                            EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
    researches significant to the needs of the community. On the other hand, POs and NGOs should consider this
    collaborative project as an opportunity for them to participate and assert their interests in the design,
    implementation and management of developing projects.

 ! Participatory management is necessary to encourage involvement of various sectors in the
    implementation of social development projects like CRM. Policies, both in the management and field
    levels, should be threshed out among affected sectors. Their active and substantial participation ensure a smoother
    flow of operations in the management level where policies are agreed upon with the different interests considered.

 ! Community development should mean development of people in the lowest rung of the social
    ladder. CRM as a social development project should address the issue of the lack of access and control of
    resources by marginalized sectors. Cooperatives should be seen as a venue where structural changes can be made.
    Thus, there is a need for membership and participation of people from the low-income groups.

 ! Serious consideration on gender issues should be made if substantial project impacts on women
    are desired. A project’s sensitivity to gender issues takes more than just segregating the number of women
    participants vis-à-vis that of the men in training, as well as in community organizations. Analysis should be done
    about the women’s level of participation in decision-making, planning, implementation and management processes
    in both family and community activities. These crucial tasks are usually the domain of the men, as in the case of
    ICRMC where women’s participation is hardly visible.

                    Espano, Agenes, “Local Government Cooperation for Coastal Resource Management (LGC-CRM) in Batan Bay”,
                         Local Governance Journal. LGSP Regional Project Management Office, Jaro, Iloilo City. Vol. I. No. 1, January –
                         March, 1998. Pp. 25-34.

                    Legaspi, Nora and Gerry de Asis, “Aklan Baywatch: Coastal Resource Management in Batan Bay, “in A Breath of
                         Fresh Air-Exploring the Possibilities of Effective Local Government Management. Ed. By Letty Tumbaga
                         CIDA_LGSP – Region VI and Ateneo Center for Policy and Public Affairs, 1998. P.67-73.

                    Serrano, Isagani R. “The Role of NGOs in Coastal Resources Management”, in Rural Reconstruction Forum.
                         Quezon City: Philippines Rural Reconstruction Movement, April – June, 1993. Pp. 26-28

                    Training Manual on Integrated Coastal Management: Philippines. Handout 1: The Coastal Ecosystem and other
                         Resources in the Coastal Zone. DA-BFAR, DENR-CEP, DOST-PICAMPD, HARIBON, ICLARM and IIRR, Silang,
                         Cavite, Philippines, 1998.

LGUs in Marine Reserve
Preservation and Management

            verfishing, destruction of marine habitats and the resulting decline in fish catches
            affects small-scale fishermen throughout the Philippines. The establishment of marine
            protected areas is a recognized and proven strategy for resource conservation and
management. The protection and management of marine areas can result in marked increases in
fish growth and yields. Marine reserves protect breeding populations of corals, mollusks, fishes,
shrimps, mangroves and seagrass from which neighboring depleted areas can be recolonized. Local
government units (LGUs) play a critical role in establishing and managing marine reserves and
protected areas.

What is a marine reserve?
A marine reserve is an area within the coastal zone where resource extraction is either banned or
highly regulated. It may be a part of a single or a combination of any of the major coastal
ecosystems (coral reefs, mangroves, seagrasses, soft-bottom communities). Resource utilization in
these areas is strictly managed, hence, resources are protected.

Also, marine reserves conserve biodiversity to support local fisheries and are venues for education,
research, and habitat restoration. These areas also provide an environment for low- impact
aquaculture managed and organized by coastal communities.

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                                                                                        EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
  Zoning system of a marine reserve

                 Buffer zone
                                                                                  Resources in marine reserves
                                                                                  may be viewed as “common
                                                                                  property” for the exclusive use
                                                                                  by a community. Various
                                                                                  sectors of the community
                                                                                  therefore “own” or have an
                                                                                  interest in the use,
                                                                                  management, and protection
                                                                                  of marine reserves.
                                                               Seagrass bed

                                                               High coral cover
                                                               Gradual slope
                                                               Steep slope

                                         Core zone

                                                                                     ! Advocacy
  Fisherfolk                                                                         ! Collective action
  ! Direct users
                                                     RES INE

Researchers                                                                          ! Enabling legislation
! Resource monitoring                                Stakeholders                    ! Law enforcement

Legislative and legal support
The protection and allocation of marine and inland aquatic
resources is enshrined in the laws of different states. In the            Fisherfolk who depend on the
Philippines, this is amply stated in the 1987 Philippine                  sea for their livelihood and from
                                                                          the improved fishery as a
Constitution which gives preference to subsistence fisherfolk.            consequence of establishing a marine
Being direct-users, fisherfolk are day-to-day managers in the use
                                                                          Researchers who conduct studies to
of these marine resources. This requires collaboration with LGU,          monitor the status of resources in marine
which provide the enabling legislation that makes protective              reserves as an input to management
management actions binding to all stakeholders.                           decisions.

                                                                          Non-government organizations
Key legislations in recent years have empowered and given both            (NGOs) are the ones that guide collective
the LGUs and fisherfolk greater control over their resources in           action and advocacy among resource-
municipal waters.
                                                                          Local government units (LGUs)
                                                                          provide the institutional framework and
                                                                          legal basis for any individual or collective
Co-management of marine reserves                                          management actions.
Enabling national legislation allowed the evolution of co-
management schemes involving the participation of all
stakeholders in the decision-making process, which is a                Fishery laws         External institutional
requirement to sustain management intervention strategies such         and policies         support
                                                                                             " National agencies
as marine reserves.                                                                            - Department of
                                                                                                 Agriculture (DA)
Administered by the LGU, the Fisheries and Aquatic Resource                                    - Department of
                                                                       LGU                       Environment and
Management Council (FARMC) is a multi-sectoral body of                 " FARMCs                  Natural Resources
fisher’s organizations, NGOs, the LGU and government agencies                                    (DENR)
that regulates resource use by all stakeholders. FARMCs provide a                              - Department of
                                                                                                 Interior and Local
legitimate forum to raise fishery-related issues and problems.                                   Government (DILG)
The LGU and the fisher’s organization, often with the assistance                             " NGOs
of an NGO, national agencies and a federation of fisher’s                                    " Academic institutions
                                                                                             " Federation of Fishers’
organizations, conduct a series of general assemblies, and                                     Association


  Marine reserves have proliferated in many coastal municipalities in the Philippines and elsewhere as a
  result, in part, of the global conservation movement in recent years. Indeed, this has been a welcome and
  innovative move, especially in coastal communities where resource overfishing has been rampant. However, in
  the rush to adopt a novel strategy, the basic norms of establishing and managing marine reserves, have been
  overlooked, resulting in the non-sustainability of management measures. Physico-biological factors and, most
  importantly, sociopolitical considerations are oftentimes ignored. Marine reserves can be an effective resource
  management tool when concerns of all stakeholders have been and will be considered. Sadly, many marine
  reserves in the country are “paper” reserves, with no credible conservation measures being applied.

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                                                                                        EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                                                consensus-building activities aimed at arriving at solutions
 Related Philippine Laws
                                                suitable to the community. The LGU enacts fishery-related laws
  " The Local Government Code of                and policies recommended by the FARMC, thus, minimizing
     1991 (Republic Act 7160) provides          conflicts in resource use. Compliance with these regulations is
     LGUs greater and exclusive access to
     their coastal resources. Without prior     monitored and enforced by the municipal and barangay
     approval from the national                 (villages) councils, and deputized fisher-wardens.
     government, LGUs are authorized to
     issue licences for and collect fees from
     several fishery activities in municipal
     waters. Municipal waters extend 15
                                                LGU support of marine reserves: Two examples
     km from the shoreline. The Code does
     not explicitly stipulate the
     establishment nor governance of            Malalison Island, Culasi, Antique
     marine protected areas in municipal        The island community of more than 100 households consists of
                                                subsistence fishers, having monthly incomes below the national
  " The Fisheries Code of 1998                  poverty level. Before 1990, the island’s reef fishery was typically
     (Republic Act 8550) allows LGUs            open-access, with island and other fishers from neighboring
     and municipal Fishery and Aquatic
     Resource Management Councils               coastal barangays engaged in illegal and destructive fishing.
     (FARMCs) to recommend to the               Contradicting national fishery laws encouraged the encroach-
     national government the declaration of
                                                ment of commercial fisheries in municipal waters (including
     closed seasons for the fishery and the
     establishment of at least 15% of the       the island) becoming a source of conflict. Coastal resource
     total coastal area in municipalities as    conservation among island fishers was practically non-existent.
     fishery reserves and sanctuaries. Local
     representation is emphasized in
     municipal FARMCs. Together with            This scenario changed in 1990. An exclusive fishery-use zone of
     barangay (village) FARMCs created in       one square kilometer was initially enacted by a Culasi municipal
     1995 by Executive Order 240,               ordinance in 1990, followed by another ordinance in 1991,
     municipal FARMCs may recommend
     the enactment of relevant fishery          permitting the deployment of artificial concrete habitats in the
     legislations to the municipal council.     protected zone. Organized island fisherfolk succeeded in getting
                                                the Culasi municipal council to declare the entire waters of
  " The National Integrated
     Protected Areas System (NIPAS)             Malalison Island for the island fishers’ exclusive use. The
     Act of 1992 (Republic Act 7586)            banning of commercial fishing and destructive gears was
     provides the legal mechanism for the       implemented. In 1995, acting again on the petition of the
     establishment and management of
     protected areas that will each be          organized fisherfolk and the barangay FARMC, the Culasi
     directly managed by a Protected Area       municipal council declared one of the island’s reef fishing
     Management Board (PAMB). With
                                                ground a marine sanctuary closed to any form of fishing. No
     assistance from the Department of
     Environment and Natural Resources          serious violation of the sanctuary has yet occurred. To date,
     (DENR), protected areas are enacted        resource monitoring of the island’s marine resources by the
     by presidential decrees and then by
     national legislation. Like the FARMC,
                                                organized fisherfolk together with SEAFDEC researchers provides
     local representation is strong in the      advice to management decisions. Since co-management
     PAMB. The PAMB implements a general        arrangements have been in place, performance indicators (equity,
     management strategy or plan, which is
     formulated in consultation with both
                                                efficiency and sustainability) have improved, particularly in
     national and local stakeholders.           their perceived control over fishery resources, fair allocation of
                                                access rights, and participation and influence in fishery

Sablayan, Mindoro Occidental
Exploited by local municipal fishers and by commercial fishers from elsewhere, the reefs of
Sablayan have become sources of conflicts among contending users, including sports diving
enthusiasts who have frequented Apo reef. In 1980, the national tourism agency declared Apo reef a
marine park and, through a municipal ordinance, a tourist zone and marine reserve in 1983. Over
the years, however, enforcement of protective management has failed to the detriment of reef
resources, since local stakeholders were not fully consulted. Local fishers resisted this plan to protect
Apo reef and other neighboring reefs in the municipality. Clearly, the approach of establishing a
marine reserve in the area had to change. Therefore, with the assistance of university researchers, an
NGO, and LGU extension workers, public consultations and dialogue were initiated with local
fishers until, in 1995, Apo reef was declared a “natural park” under the NIPAS Act and nearby reefs as
municipal marine reserves. Municipal fishers were organized into a cooperative. Other livelihood
options were extended to members of the cooperative to mitigate the impact of regulating fishing
in their reefs. The LGU deputized fisher-wardens or Bantay Dagat to patrol Apo and neighboring
reefs to ward off poachers in the area. Fishery co-management of the marine reserves has continued
to date, particularly in educating all stakeholders the value of conservation of their coastal
resources. There is good rapport between fishers and the LGU. Fishers have reported an improvement
of their daily catch from outside of the marine reserves. In addition several fish, sea turtles, and
migratory birds have returned to the area.

                      Lessons learned
                      " Consultations and dialogue among all stakeholders is essential in ensuring
                         the sustainability of marine reserve management.
                      " Empowered and enlightened fisherfolk can effectively share in the
                         management and use of marine reserves.
                      " Research-based information is important in arriving at decisions and in
                         formulating policies.
                      " Management of marine reserves can be sustained by instituting an acceptable
                         cost-sharing scheme which confer on the local fishing community some
                         equity rights. This serves as motivation for them to continuously support the

Agbayani, R.F., D. B. Baticados and S. V. Siar. 2000. Community fishery resources management on Malalison
       Island, Philippines: R & D framework, interventions and policy implications. Coastal management, 28: 19-
Baticados, D. B. and R. F. Agbayani. 2000. Co-management in marine fisheries in Malalison Island, central
       Philippines. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 7: 1-13
Roberts, C. M. and N. V. C. Polunin. 1991. Are marine reserves effective in management of reef fisheries?
       Reviews in fish biology and fisheries, 1: 65-91.
Siar, S. V. R. F. Agbayani and J. B. Valera. 1992. Acceptability of territorial-use rights in fisheries: towards
       community-based management of small-scale fisheries in the Philippines. Fisheries research, 14: 295-304.

                                                                       ENHANCING PARTICIPATION    IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE: 137
                                                                                               EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
Homelots for the Poor:
The San Carlos City experience

         rban areas in the Philippines share certain characteristics. More often than not, the impressive
         infrastructures in the metropolis are deceiving facades of its ugly side. The cities' fast growth
         brought both blessings and curses. Ironically, any economic boon had corresponding social costs.
The swelling urban population for example consistently bred social ill - squatter colonies which
multiplied faster than they could be monitored, and threatened to negate whatever gains a particular city
had achieved. Insecurity of land tenure hounded the squatters who were conscious that there was a
temporary residency that could be revoked anytime.

While many city governments attempted to address the squatting problem, only a few succeeded. There
were other concerns that muddled the whole issue. For example, there were the "professional squatters"
who were either individuals or groups who occupied land without the express consent of the landowner.
These professional squatters actually had sufficient income for legitimate housing. Or they could be those
who had already availed of government housing or a homelot project, which they then sold, leased or
transferred to another party and then settled illegally in the same or another site. There were also the
"squatting syndicates" that consisted of groups of persons engaged in the business of squatting for profit.

Indeed, the problem of squatting and squatters had complex socio-political and economic components
that needed to be addressed by the city governments.

The Legal Basis
The granting of corporate power to a local
government unit, particularly by Sec. 22 (4) of R.A.
7160, empowered it to acquire land for a housing
program. Before the enactment of the Code,
approval by the national government had been
required for any major undertaking of local
government units.

The devolution of some powers of the Housing and
Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) to the
Sangguniang Panlungsod (City Council)
accelerated the local implementation of housing
or homelot projects. Sec. 458 (2) (x) empowered
the Sangguniang Panlungsod to process and
approve subdivision plans.

Sections 34, 35 and 36 of the Code encouraged the LGUs to cultivate productive relationships with peoples'
organizations (POs) and the nongovernment organizations (NGOs). It allowed the LGUs to enter into
cooperative arrangements with the POs and the NGOs to ensure better delivery of certain basic services,
capability-building and livelihood projects which were important components of any local housing or
homelot projects.

A year after the approval of the Local Government Code, Republic Act No. 7279, otherwise known as the
Urban Development and Housing Act (UDHA) of 1992, was passed to address the issues of homelessness and
squatting. The Act sought to provide socialized housing and homelots to the underprivileged and the
homeless in the urban areas. LGUs were required to identify and register all beneficiaries within their
territories to ensure that only bona-fide beneficiaries can avail of the low cost housing projects. They were
likewise directed to identify, in coordination with the National Housing Authority (NHA), the Housing and
Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB), the Land Management Bureau (LMB), and the National Mapping
Resource Information Authority (NMRIA), those lands for socialized housing and resettlement areas of the
squatters. The Act specified that in the identification of the areas for socialized housing, the availability
of basic services and facilities, accessibility and proximity to job sites and other sources of livelihood
should all be considered by the LGUs.

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                                                                           Lote Para sa Mahirap
                                                                           San Carlos City in the province of Negros
                                                                           Occidental is a classic example. It had 3,233
                                                                           squatting households composed mostly of pedicab
                                                                           drivers, fish and vegetable vendors, construction
                                                                           builders, and dockworkers among others. In
                                                                           February 1992, a big fire broke out that rendered
                                                                           hundreds of squatter families homeless. The
                                                                           situation posed a daunting challenge to the
                                                                           incoming administration of Mayor Rogelio

                                                                             Assuming office in July 1992, Mayor Debulgado
                                                                             immediately initiated the "Lote para sa Mahirap"
                                                                             resettlement program, with fire victims and
                    squatters on government lots as priority clients. The first phase of the program relocated 588 squatters
                    into their own lots without any downpayment. The lots were to be paid in easy installment terms -
                    Php5.00 a day, five days a week, for five years.

                    Phase II of the program was turned over on the second week of March 1998 to 69 beneficiaries who were
                    among the lowest paid local government employees. Without the program, it would have been impossible
                    for them to acquire their own lots. With the entry of Alger Foundation, 35 more housing units were built
                    for qualified city government employees. A unit cost Php150,000.00 payable through salary deductions.
                    Phase III was completed with 187 households as beneficiaries.

                                                   PHASE I                   PHASE II                   PHASE III

                                                               LAND AREA

                    1. Total area              4.6989 hectares            1.7750 hectares            2.7155 hectares
                    2. Saleable area           3.3152 hectares            1.1025 hectares            1.5294 hectares
                    3. Lot size                54 sq. meters              90 sq. meters              54 sq. meters
                    4. Number of lots          598                        124                        228


                    1. Acquisition             P2,135,655.00              P1,331,250.00              P1,765,075.00
                    2. Development             7,767,185.80               1,558,731.25               4,505,000.00
                    3. Others                  344,943.75                 0.00                       0.00

                    TOTAL                      P10,247,784.55             P2,889,981.25              6,270,075.00


                    1. Value                   P100.00/sq. meter          P155.00/sq. meter          P125.00/sq. meter
                    2. Recovery                P3,315,200.00              P1,708,875.00              P1,911,750.00
                    3. Subsidy                 P11,592.95/lot             P9,525.05/lot              P19,115.46/lot
                    4. Mode                    P5.00/day Mon-Fri          Package                    P5.00/day Mon-Fri

Project Activities
1. Acquisition of low cost lands for
   residential sites. The Appraisal Committee
   passed resolutions detailing the manner of
   acquisition of lands for the program. The
   Committee prescribed that the buying scheme
   be on a cash basis to make it more attractive to
   the landowners . The areas covered by this
   program were previously sugarcane fields. In
   the 1980's, when sugar prices plummeted, a
   number of sugarcane planters abandoned their
   plantations due to heavy operational losses.
   The lands were neglected for a long period of
   time. These lots were acquired by the San
   Carlos City government through direct
                                                                            2. Subdividing into
                                                                               economical sublots. The
                                                                               topographic surveys were
                                                                               done by the City Planning
                                                                               and Development Office.

                                                                            3. Installation of
                                                                               infrastructures. Road
                                                                               networks, drainage system,
                                                                               water system, power lines,
                                                                               school buildings, and sports
                                                                               and sanitation facilities were

4. Identification and Orientation of beneficiaries. The city government required that all target
   beneficiaries secure a certification from the Office of the City Assessor attesting to the fact that they
   did not own any land in the city. The process was meant to identify the legitimate squatters. In
   compliance with the UDHA Act, the city government sought to disqualify professional squatters and
   members of the squatting syndicates.

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                    5. Sale of sublots in cash or by installment.
                       Two buying options were available to the
                       beneficiaries: one-time full payment or
                       installment payments. The total cost of the 54 sq.
                       meter lot was Php5,400.00 at Php100.00 per square
                       meter. The beneficiaries can decide to pay the full
                       amount of Php5,400.00 on install the lot at
                       Php5.00 per day, for 5 days a week (Php25.00/week)
                       or P100.00 per month for a period of five years.

                                                                             6. Transfer of houses to the project site.
                                                                                The LGU provided flat bed truck, while the
                                                                                community assisted in the physical transfer of
                                                                                new and recycled materials for the houses.

7. The Transfer of Certificates of Titles for fully paid
   sublots. The transfer of certificates was normally done within
   one to two weeks after full payment was made.

                                                                             8. Training. Training in community
                                                                                organization, skills for livelihood activities and
                                                                                mother-child care were conducted. Aside from
                                                                                the City Social Welfare and Development Office,
                                                                                the ALGER Foundation also conducted training
                                                                                sessions on value formation, leadership, simple
                                                                                bookkeeping, and candle making. Preferred
                                                                                clientele for the said seminars were the
                                                                                members of the cooperative, mother-
                                                                                beneficiaries, and wives and married daughters
                                                                                of beneficiaries, particularly for the mother-
                                                                                child care training sessions.

9. Monitoring and Evaluation (M & E).
   The Monitoring and Evaluation were
   undertaken upon the suggestion of all sectors
   involved in the program. These were done
   during the monthly meetings, where everybody,
   especially the beneficiaries, felt free to express
   their concerns and problems. Possible
   solutions were advanced, and in cases where
   problems could not be resolved, these were
   elevated to the concerned agency of the LGU.
   The city mayor and the concerned agencies
   visited the resettlement site once every three
   months to listen to comments and feedback of
   the beneficiaries on the program. These were
   then consolidated and analyzed by the
   concerned officials to identify areas for
   improvement and undertake the needed

Problems Encountered and Hurdled

1. Opposition by the squatters to the relocation. The families were hesitant to leave, not because
   the resettlement area was unacceptable to them, but because of the feeling of dislocation from their
   old community. This opposition was neutralized when federation officers discussed the benefits of
   relocation and when families where resettled in clusters or groups. Initially, the relocated residents
   were complaining about the lack of transportation to and from the relocation site.

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                                                                                              EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                     2. Some beneficiaries were delinquent in repayments. It was observed that the added expense of
                        Php6.00 to remit the Php5.00 daily payment discouraged some beneficiaries to regularly pay their
                        dues. The project had only one full-time staff to manage all the payments which were not closely
                        monitored nor immediately recorded. In response , the city government hired a regular collector, who
                        doubled as monitoring officer at the site, plus a record officer to document all information relative to
                        the project. These resulted to improvements in collection and a decrease in the number of delinquent

                     3. Lack of classroom facilities. The sudden influx of schoolchildren created a classroom shortage.
                        Responding to the problem, the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) through the
                        Local School Board built additional classrooms using local funds, released by the city administration.

                     Benefits of the Program
                     Land Ownership. The program addressed the core issue of the squatting problem - residential lot

                     !   A well-planned, organized community. The program resulted in the creation of compact, well-
                         planned, and organized community.

                     !   Improved delivery of services. With the creation of a compact community, the delivery of basic
                         services became more equitable, efficient and inexpensive. Health, livelihood, and educational needs
                         were addressed directly. Financial assistance was granted to the local electric cooperative so that power
                         could be provided the resettlement area.

                     !   Improved housing structures. Assured that they would eventually own their residential lots,
                         beneficiaries gradually improved their dwellings.

                     !   The provision of potable water. Deepwells for potable water were drilled in every block.

                     !   Self-management. The program empowered the beneficiaries to manage their own affairs, to the
                         organization of the Fatima Village Association.

                     Extracted from an original case written by Prof. Edel C. Guiza and Daniel B. del Rosario, Jr. for the Pook Foundation
                          and Asian Institute of Management. 1998.

Primary Health Care:
Issues from the field

        tudies on Primary Health Care and PCHD performance were very remarkable during the devolution
        period. Regions varied in their contributions in the conduct of these assessments. Prominent
        regions were the National Capital Region and Region XI. NCR contributed in conducting
interregional assessments and pursuing explanatory type of studies, whether qualitative or quantitative to
demonstrate the impact of PHC. Contributions of other areas could still be improved by enhancing their
capacities to go beyond the descriptive type of studies. On the whole, impact studies demonstrated the
significant effect of the participatory approach in improving the health situation of the communities
where this emerged. This pattern was further confirmed by other approaches applying the participatory
approach, thus strengthening the value of PHC approach.

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                                                                                            EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                    Many Issues have been raised regarding the implementation of Primary Health Care (PHC). A summary of
                    these issues are raised as follows:

                    1. Preparation of the Local Chief Executives (LCEs) for PHC
                    LCEs have a critical role to play towards the implementation of PHC under the new Local Government
                    Code. The issue that can be raised is the LCEs’ level of commitment to the paradigm of PHC. Since it took
                    some time for PHC to shift from a community-oriented to a community-based perspective at a time it was
                    being mobilized directly by the DOH, it may as well be difficult to expect LCEs to appreciate the
                    perspective if there is no conscious effort to propagate its essence. As area-based manager, LCEs are in a
                    position to orchestrate the efforts of various sectors not earlier provided. Under devolution, they have a
                    direct role to play in local development activities. Whether or not the LCEs are able to mobilize the
                    appropriate persons to propagate PHC may spell the difference in its successful implementation.

                    2. Preparation of the DOH Representative to the Local Health Board
                    The key persons who could mobilize for legislative action and financial support for health activities and
                    strategies are the DOH representatives to the Local Health Board. Another provision that empowers the
                    DOH Representative is the Barangay Health Workers Incentives Act since he/she has a direct role to play in
                    accrediting the Barangay Health Workers (BHW), the volunteer workers in the community.

                    3. Distinguishing PHC as a Strategy from Primary Care
                    Care should be made in utilizing the term PHC when what is referred to is the delivery of primary care
                    services. PHC is a philosophy and implies propagation of strategies to implement different phases of the
                    management cycle. On the other hand, primary care connotes a level of health care which could be
                    packaged and delivered to a group of people. Policy statements and advocacy materials should be able to
                    distinguish between primary care and PHC as a strategy.

                    4. BHW as CO Workers or Service Delivery Workers or Both
                    Past efforts in PHC demonstrated the major contribution of BHWs in the delivery of primary care services
                    and in serving as a link between the community and the public health delivery system. The contribution
                    of most BHWs in the community organizing process had been mainly in the propagation of activities
                    directed or promoted by the local health unit or the BHW himself/herself, instead of performing the role
                    of facilitator. The issue therefore consistently raised in the past had been: should the BHW perform the
                    role of a multipurpose worker responsible for both community organizing and health service delivery, or
                    should his/her main task be focused on one function only? The difficulty with serving the role of a
                    multipurpose worker is the numerous tasks absorbed by the BHW, especially for health services alone. On
                    the other hand, performing one particular task (as CO worker or health worker) could enable him to
                    specialize on one role. However, focusing on health function alone should not excuse the BHW from
                    upholding the participatory methodology. Should the emphasis be on the health service function? The
                    responsibility of community organizing can be fulfilled by other workers in the community such as those
                    connected with NGOs, POs and the LGUs. This therefore requires active networking with the other service
                    delivery workers who could perform the CO function effectively.

Thus, options could be offered to the LGUs regarding the possible roles which could be undertaken by the
! Perform a multipurpose role if the BHWs have the capability to perform community organizing role
   and health service delivery;
! Perform the technical function in health if there are existing support structures which could assume
   the function of community organizing; or
! Determine who among the BHWs can assume the function of a community organizer with the rest
   performing the task of health service delivery.

5. Monetary vs. Non-monetary Benefits
One issue regarding the passage of the Barangay Health Workers Incentive Act is the mandatory
provision for LGUs to provide monetary incentives in the form of hazard allowances and meal allowances
to BHWs. The difficulty in making LGUs responsible in sustaining the provision of these incentives is the
tendency to associate volunteer workers with the requirements and visions of the government and not of
the people. Monetary incentives could be tantamount to considering BHWs as appendages of the LGUs and
could be a political leverage of the local executive.

Non-monetary incentives can be associated less with political manipulation since the basis for obtaining
the benefits (i.e. credits to Step Ladder Education) is anchored on standards which are not subject to the
discretion of the awarding authority.

In this light, more mobilization efforts can be undertaken in order to formulate community-based
financing schemes as possible sources of monetary incentives of BHWs instead of drawing the incentives
from the government.

6. Continue Positioning PHC in the MBN Approach
The Minimum Basic Needs (MBN) approach under the Social Reform Agenda started by the Ramos
Administration, provides other methodologies which can enrich the perspective of PHC. One is the
propagation of MBN strategy itself which focuses on the prioritization of primary requirements for
survival, security and enabling needs before focusing on secondary requirements. These requirements have
already been propagated and validated in various regions and can serve as the framework for intersectoral
collaboration and convergence.

At the national level, DOH can continue to position itself for MBN advocacy since the basic commitments
for PHC can be attained through this approach. In fact, most of the indicators for PHC are in the area of
health. This could mean being an active participant in advocacy by highlighting the significance of the
community-based approach, setting up a community-based information system, and focused targeting,
apart from providing the rationale behind the inclusion and monitoring of basic health indicators.

Within the DOH, this means advocacy and propagation of MBN as a means to propel PHC. This could be
continuously be advocated to local executive through its Field Office representatives, through the
developed health personnel.

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                    Monitoring the success of PHC through the involvement of the BHWs and the community in MBN can be
                    included in its indicator system.

                    7. Propagation of Partnership for Community Health Development to Demonstrate
                    The processe applied in Partnership for Community Health Development (PCHD) where non-government
                    organizations served as the conduit of the Department of Health in advocating PHC, can be advocated to
                    demonstrate the significance if convergence and the participatory methodology. This can be included as
                    examples in the capability-building programs for DOH personnel and the LGUs. It can also be a showcase
                    for the capability-building programs in MBN to demonstrate the lessons which can be learned in the
                    partnership effort.

                    8. Process Documentation as a Methodology
                    Process documentation, an activity which had not been given much attention in previous efforts for PHC,
                    is an important activity to undertake in order to capture the dynamics involved in community
                    mobilization. Most of these indicators formulated focused on activities undertaken by BHWs, the number
                    of training programs undertaken, and the net effect of participation in the reduction morbidity and
                    mortality. However, information on the manner of and the persons involved in planning, implementing
                    and assessing these activities had not been given much attention. This can be assigned to devolved health
                    personnel and the technology should be passed on to BHWs.

                    9. Need for Training in the conduct of impact evaluation in the different regions
                    The unevenness of studies on the impact of PHC necessitates that capacities be built for the different
                    academic research institutions on the methodological requirements for this type of study. This will ensure
                    immediate feedback of results and empowerment of regional academic-research institutions to have a role
                    to play in introducing policies and preparing advocacy materials that are attuned to their local socio-
                    cultural situation. Initial efforts of such organizations as the Health Research Network composed of
                    academic-research institutions, had substantial impact in improving the capabilities of the regions in
                    conducting assessment studies. Many reseraches had been reaped as a result of its efforts.

                    Bautista, Victoria A. A State-of-the Art Review of Primary Health Care: Two Decades of Government Initiative.
                         Quezon City: University of the Philippines-National College of Public Administration and Governence, 1999.

Primary Health Care as a
Devolved Responsibility

          rimary Health Care (PHC) is a strategy of enhancing
                                                                               What is Primary Health Care?
          health and related development requirements of an
          individual, the family and the community to ensure that              It is a phrase that is often misunderstood, but
they achieve a decent level of living. It is not a program nor a               is significant to local government units (LGUs).
                                                                               This is because this responsibility has been
service. PHC should not be equated with delivering primary care
service.                                                                       transferred from the Department of Health
services like immunization, maintenance of environmental                       (DOH) to local Chief Executives (LCEs) when
                                                                               the Local Government Code (LGC) of 1991
sanitation and improving the nutritional condition of the
                                                                               was passed. Based on Chapter II, Section 17 of
households. To implement PHC means that community members                      the LGC, it is the responsibility of local Chief
are mobilized to get organized, to enable them to actively                     Executives, especially of Mayors and Barangay
                                                                               Captains, to implement PHC.
participate in community development activities to respond
to their basic needs, like health. They must be organized to make
sure that a leader is elected or identified to represent the views and preferences of the members in a local
development organization (such as the local development council, the planning body of the LGU).

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                                                                         Importance of involving People’s
                                                                         Organizations’ (PO) in local development

                                                                         The involvement of People’s Organization (PO)
                                                                         involvement is important in local development
                                                                         planning because an organized group in the
                                                                         community is a more effective venue for sharing
                                                                         problems, views, visions and preferences of the
                                                                         members. We cannot rely on an individual who does
                                                                         not originate from an organized group to represent the
                                                                         views of the community. There is no venue by which
                                                                         this person is able to draw ideas that will be conveyed
                                                                         to a local development body, like the local
                                                                         development council. At best, this person will only
                                                                         convey his/her own personal view.

                    Likewise, an organized people’s group can identify a person who they think can represent their needs and
                    views. This would avoid selection of representatives by local officials since they are allies and partners in a
                    political party.

                    Furthermore, operating through an organized group, community activities (i.e. maintaining clean
                    surrounding area) can be done with ease than doing the activity alone.

                    When was PHC launched?

                    PHC is a commitment of the Philippines, together with other countries, at the Alma Ata Conference in
                    Russia in 1978. It was launched in the country in 1979 and was piloted in selected provinces in each
                    region, until it was formally implemented nationwide in 1981. The initial years of PHC entailed
                    changing the outlook of health workers to make community members less dependent on them for health
                    care needs. The health workers were taught how to motivate community volunteers for health (Barangay
                    Health Workers) to assist the national health office to mobilize their respective communities in health
                    activities. When devolution was passed in 1991, the responsibility of community mobilization has been
                    delegated to the LGUs.

                    Importance of PHC implementation

                    It is important to make people feel that they have the capacity to take care of some of their basic needs.
                    They will have more confidence in themselves if they are trusted that there are activities that they can do
                    on their own (i.e. maintaining the cleanliness in their surrounding area, keeping the immunization
                    record of ones children and cooking nutritious food for the family).

As community residents begin to assume
responsibility for their basic health and related needs,
the government can give more attention to more
complicated problems requiring technical expertise.
For instance, when community members agree to keep
their front yards clean, they are in effect saving on
hiring the services of a street sweeper. The barangay
can devote its resources to other expenses. Also, in
some areas where malnutrition is a problem, instead
of local health workers imparting micronutrients,
mothers assume the responsibility of cooking
nutritious foods for their children.

Mobilizing POs to participate in local decision-making will enable
local development workers to appreciate indigenous resources or
technologies. For instance, the effects of sambong to cure uric acid or
lagundi for kidney problems, would not have been made possible if citizens had
not been given an opportunity to share these resources. However, the technical expertise
of DOH is essential in validating the dosage and packaging these herbal medicines into
tablets or tea.

                                                                          Enabling the citizens to assume
                                                                          responsibility for managing their
                                                                          health needs gives them a sense of
                                                                          self-respect and self-reliance. There
                                                                          are many activities that can be done
                                                                          as a community which could make
                                                                          the citizens feel important if they
                                                                          are able to share their time and
                                                                          resources. In fact, it is difficult to
                                                                          sustain these activities if they don’t
                                                                          have a role in conceptualizing and
                                                                          implementing them. These
                                                                          activities could even “die” with the
                                                                          end of the term of a political leader
                                                                          who just initiated projects without
                                                                          due consultation of the citizens.

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                    Community members in community development activities

                                                             Involving community members in the development process entails
                                                             opening opportunities for them to interface in situation analysis,
                                                             planning, implementation and monitoring/evaluation.
                                                             These processes are the common activities undertaken in the
                                                             management of programs and projects.

                                                              Situation analysis involves gathering of information to
                                                              determine the condition in a locality. The data gathered serve
                                                              as the bases for sound decisions in the planning process.
                                                              Planning is the stage when projects are identified in order to
                                                              meet the locality’s needs and how existing resources are able
                                                              to match these activities. The local development council in the
                                                              barangay conducts this activity. Implementation is the stage
                                                              when the LCEs oversee the execution of the plans. Monitoring/
                                                              evaluation entails an assessment if the projects are implemented
                                                              according to schedule and if the projects improve the
                                                              condition of the community.

                    To involve the community in the different phases of management, the citizenry must be empowered. This
                    can be done in the following ways:

                    !    In the conduct of situation analysis: community members can participate in gathering
                         information, processing and analysis of the data as a team to ensure that consensus is developed on
                         problems which can be given priority attention. They can use the minimum basic needs (MBN)
                         information system as a starting point as this utilizes indicators of the basic requirements to attain
                         quality of life. This system is being implemented with the support of the Comprehensive and
                         Integrated Delivery of Social Services, under the Department of Social Welfare and Development
                         (DSWD). However, there are provinces whose governors have initiated a 100 % coverage of their
                         barangays with MBN, such as Davao del Norte.

                    !    In the planning process: it is important for community residents to get involved in the
                         identification of projects which they can undertake and those requiring the support of government, in
                         response to their priority needs. Participation in local government planning can be effectively
                         undertaken if:

                          #   Community residents can elect leaders of their community organization who can represent them
                              in local development councils, the planning body in the locality.

                          #   There is direct consultation by POs and /or the local government with the community, through an
                              assembly, to validate the projects identified to resolve priority problems. Some barangays have
                              organized puroks (sub-villages) as a venue for more effective participation.

!   In implementation:Community members can
    serve as partners of government in the execution
    of development projects by providing services or
    material resources and not merely as recipient of
    services. In the Primary Health Hospital in Negros
    Oriental, volunteers took care of driving the
    ambulance. Relatives also took care of cooking the
    food of the patient.

!   In monitoring and evaluation: Community
    residents can gather information about their
    condition or help in collecting data on fellow
    residents on the status of the implementation of
    development projects. Community residents can
    likewise serve as partners of government in
    summarizing and analyzing information on the
    general condition of the community. The
    information they gather can be the basis for the
    determination of more appropriate projects and what improvements can be made in managing the
    projects. The MBN information system can be applied as a tool in determining the quality of life of
    the community. Additional information/instructions on MBN can be obtained from the National
    Anti-Poverty Commission and the DSWD.

Responsibilities of LCEs in the
implementation of PHC

Local Chief Executives have the
responsibility of organizing the
community, especially at the barangay
level, in order for the residents to get
involved in community projects
concerning health and related projects.
This can start with the identification of
frontline workers from government and
non-government organizations (NGOs)
who have the knowledge and expertise in
community organizing.

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                 Are there known examples which have implemented PHC?

                 One good example is the PHC Federated Women’s Club of Surigao city. This was launched in 1986
                 through the effort of a midwife. This started with 300 members in 1986 and by 1998, it boasted of
                 7,200 members. The federation has won two times from the Health and Management Information
                 System Award of the DOH. It also became a finalist of for the Galing Pook award.

  Why did this organization merit these awards? This is because the federation has initiated community
  projectsthrough its own initiative. The projects are not only in the area of health like maintaining deep well,
  environmental sanitation, feeding centers, and herbal gardens. It has also initiated income- generating projects like
  packaging herbal medicines and setting up a
  health insurance system. The federation has
  also motivated the men and the children to
  set up their own respective groups.

  From the award money from HAMIS, the
  federation constructed a PHC Training Center
  which the women maintain. They even cook
  in this Center when there are training
  programs. This has served as the source of
  their livelihood.

  Health status improved in the community as a
  result of the active participation of the
  women. To show the women’s commitment to
  assess the improvement in the quality of life
  in the area, they regularly conduct program
  reviews where they invite the local officials
  and technical people to see how they fare.

                    Victoria A. Bautista and Angelito Mnalili, Gabay sa Primary Health Care. Quezon City: Community Health Service of
                          the Department of Health and UP College of Public Administration: 1998.

Establishment of
Hospitals in the
Hinterlands                                                                CPH

        he Community Primary Hospital (CPH) is a modification, if not an embodiment, of the
        concept of Primary Health Care (PHC). It is a partnership approach among the community,
        the government and the private sector or non-government organizations (NGOs). It underscores
the importance of community leadership and initiative in the identification of health related problems
and in seeking their solutions in the context of total socio-economic development efforts. Health
education, proper nutrition, environmental sanitation, immunization, prevention and control of locally
endemic diseases and the promotion of natural and herbal medicines are the elements of PHC.

Reasons for innovation

The distance, difficult terrain and poor road conditions,
especially during the rainy months, make it next to
impossible for the people to avail of hospital
services in the poblacion.

Likewise, the shortage of hospital beds, the concentration of a
greater proportion of the population in the mountain areas and the
isolation of these areas from the cities made it difficult for them to
avail of medical services.

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                    Thus, CPHs in the mountains serve not only as centers offering primary hospital services in far-flung and
                    isolated areas but also for comprehensive preventive health care. There are times, though when CPHs
                    render secondary hospital services, depending on the ability of the doctors.

                                         Strategies/Activities undertaken

                    !    Access to the 20% development fund for the construction of the community primary
                         hospital. In Negros Oriental, the governor provided P350,000 for the said undertaking. Likewise, the
                         Barangay Council of Kalumboyan donated two hectares of land for the proposed facility.

                    !    Deployment of community organizers to the pilot barangay. This is undertaken to lay the
                         groundwork for the community primary hospital to conduct social investigation, baseline surveys and
                         analysis and to ensure community support for the project.

                                                                            !   Promotion of the spirit of
                                                                                volunteerism, or Bayanihan, among
                                                                                community residents. In Bayawan,
                                                                                residents rendered their share for the
                                                                                construction of the CPH. Instead of paying
                                                                                them the minimum wage, they were paid half
                                                                                the amount. Likewise, income generating
                                                                                projects were set up, through the initiative of
                                                                                Silliman University.

                    The Kalumboyan CPH

                    The hospital building has two five-bed wards, a doctor’s office and quarters, an emergency treatment
                    room, an operating/delivery room, two comfort rooms for male and female and a separate toilet and
                    bathroom for the staffs. Except for the divider, which separates the doctors’ and nurses’ quarters, all walls
                    are made from wood and nipa. Outside the building is the ambulance garage, a communal kitchen and
                    comfort room. Three small nipa huts which serve as sleeping quarters for the relatives of patients and a
                    herbal and vegetable garden in the backyard. Electricity is provided through a solar panel at the rooftop of
                    the building.

                    The CPH’s modest structure also houses a pharmacy where the inventory of essential drugs like antibiotics,
                    drugs for deworming, tuberculosis drugs and IV fluids are enough to last until the next procurement.

 The Pilot Site and Catchment Area

 Barangay Kalumboyan is 23 km away from the town proper where the Bayawan District Hospital is located. It is
 situated in a valley with a road that is passable only during the dry months and hardly accessible during the rainy
 season. Because of the poor road conditions, few vehicles ply this route.

 The CPH has a catchment area of about 324 square km covering 12 barangays with a total population of 37, 546. In
 1998, the average per capita income of the area was P816 per annum.

 The leading causes of mortality are diarrhea, upper respiratory tract infection, intestinal paratism, wounds and
 bronchitis, among others. The leading causes of mortality are broncho-pneumonia, stab and gunshot wounds,
 bleeding peptic ulcer, gastroenteritis and septicemia.

              Managing the CPH

The CPH is managed by a development board. The barangay captain of the barangay where the CPH is
located chairs the board, while the Chief of the CPH (one of the doctors) serves as the vice-chairman. All
the other barangay captains in the catchment area automatically serve as board members, together with
the Department of Education Culture and Sports (DECS) representative, the Sangguniang Kabataan
Chairman and a representative from the religious organization. The board designates a treasurer to take
care of the funds for the CPH and an auditor to monitor disbursements. The Board prepares and approves
an annual report, on which an annual procurement plan is based.

During the monthly meetings of the Boards, matters related to hospital operations and maintenance like
the purchase of drugs and medicines, fund drive, the repair of ambulance, or a new roofing for the
hospital are discussed and decided upon. The agenda for the meeting is sent to the members in advance,
together with the minutes of the previous meeting. The Chief recommends what drugs and medicines will
be purchased and in what quantities. His recommendations are then sent to the Board for approval.

Impacts on health
! The general health condition of the people has improved since the establishment of the CPHs.
! There are more out-patients and less in-patients in both Kalumboyan and Amio. This may be an
  indication that the CPH is doing well in terms of preventive and promotive health drives.
! Drawn from the success of the CPH, the provincial government has adapted a similar management
  mechanism for its provincial hospital and five district hospitals.

“Community Participation in Health Services Delivery” in Devolution Matters – A Documentation of Post-
    Devolution Experiences in the Delivery of Health Services. Manila: DOH and Local Government Assistance and
    Monitoring Service. pp. 43-52.

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Establishment of a
Health Program:
The AlayKa Palawan

        he concept of establishing community-based health programs (CBHPs) in the county draws its
        inspiration form the twin goals set by the Department of Health: Health for ALL by the Year 2000
        and Health in the Hands of the People by 2020. Devolution paved the way for LGUs to pursue
health programs, which are community-based.

CBHPs are unique innovations of non-government organizations (NGOs). While the strategy of
community organizing is borrowed from the NGOs, a CBHP like the Alay sa Kalusugan ng Palawan or
Alay Ka Palawan is instituted and sustained by the Provincial governments of Palawan. It is a
(government organization) GO working as an NGO.

What makes Alay Ka Palawan unique is that its scope is province-wide, while other CBHPs have limited
target areas.

Being the first province-wide CBHP in the Philippines, the AlayKa Palawan is a magnified version of
previous efforts of NGOs to “empower” the people through health. This is done by arming them with
relevant knowledge about health and medicine and with organizing and analytical skills that ensure
collective strength and voice.

Its aim is to create a people-centered health program at the grassroots level where the people themselves, in
coordination with health workers, address health and not medical concerns.

  Alay Ka Palawan does not set up CBHPs, the people do. It merely presents the concept of CBHP to the people. The
  people then become aware of the circumstances surrounding their health problems. Alay Ka Palawan steps in to
  facilitate the organization process that the people may continue to organize and train them. Their end goal is to
  draw up solutions to their own community’s health problems and to make them self-reliant. The community decides
  its own priorities and sets up its own health programs.

  As a facilitator, Alay Ka Palawan helps provide resources from government agencies or NGOs to fund the
  implementation of these community health projects.

                  General strategies / activities undertaken

                  Identification and endorsement of a community (province) – health program
                  Community health leaders and health-oriented NGOs may start discussions on the
                  prospect and possibility of launching a CBHP.

A CBHP may be finalized by an executive order (from the office of the Governor) and consequently
endorsed by the Sangguniang Panlalawigan (Provincial Board) through an appropriate resolution.
Depending on the needs and circumstances, such resolution/ legislation may define the legal structure of
the Program.

Formal launching of the province-wide CBHP attended by key leaders, NGOs and POs in the
With respect to Alay Ka Palawan, one significant output of the launching exercise was the signing of a
Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) among the provincial government, the NGOs and POs to support the

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                                                                            Information dissemination
                                                                            Seminars are conducted, brochures and newsletters
                                                                            on AlayKa Palawan are distributed and radio
                                                                            broadcasts are aired as information dissemination

                                                                            Community organizing
                                                                            Community organizers from Alay Ka Palawan go
                                                                            to communities willing to adopt the program to
                                                                            help facilitate community organizing. This
                                                                            strategy is based on a simple yet effective concept:
                                                                            the multiplication process.

                    Starting with a small core of committed workers, barangays are organized into health communities.
                    Each barangay then adopts another barangay where re-echo seminars on CBHP are conducted. Ideally,
                    each community must have a Community Organizer (CO) counterpart with whom Alay Ka Palawan’s
                    own CO can readily transfer its skills and knowledge. This encourages the early development of self-

                    Training of CO counterparts is required to equip them with the proper skills, attitudes and know-how in
                    implementing CBHP in the communities.

                    Alay Ka Palawan has developed an effective network among agencies, which it can tap to help resolve
                    issues and concerns related to its work. These agencies provide assistance in the form of financial support
                    for food and travel expenses of COs, provision of training paraphernalia and equipment and manpower in
                    the form of trainers and resource speakers.

                    Alay Ka Palawan does not propose to provide surefire solution to the people’s problems. It only hopes to
                    ease their burden by utilizing its skills in networking, to bring the people’s problems to the attention of
                    concerned agencies or institutions.

                  Specific strategies / activities undertaken

!   Establishment of the TANGAY Foundation, which started as Friends of Palawan’s Provincial
    Hospital. This is an NGO, which seeks support for improving the facilities of Palawan’s provincial
    and peripheral hospital.

!   Establishment of BAHATALA, which provides rehabilitation services and domiciliary care for the
    patients of the Palawan Hospital. This is the pillar of the PHO’s CBHP.

!   Establishment of Palawan Herbal Medicine and Production
    Program, which helped in improving people’s perceptions of
    and trust in community-based health approaches. It hopes to
    put up a large-scale herbal processing plant to be managed by
    PKP so it can subsidize cooperative medical care in the

!   Undertaking of the health personnel development program to
    improve the quality and quantity of medical and health
    professionals and workers in the province.

AlayKa: Leading Palawan to People-Powered Health in Devolution Matters – A Documentation of Post-Devolution
    Experiences in the Delivery of Health Services. Department of Health – Local Government Assistance and
    Monitoring Service. Manila. pp 67-73.

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People and
LGUs through

         ocal health insurance operates through the pooling of funds (called premiums) among a group
         of persons. In a health insurance scheme, these premiums are to be used to cover the member’s
         medical expenses in the event of an illness. On the other hand, the government is relieved of
fiscal strains because there is a ready source of funds available to assure the effective delivery of health
services to the people.

                 The problem situation and impetus for local
                 health insurance

The present national social health insurance covers only the employed -
Social Security System (SSS) for private workers and Government Service
Insurance system (GSIS) for public sector workers- under Program I (PI) of
Medicare. Sectors not covered by any form of social insurance are the
unemployed, the indigents and the self-employed who are most vulnerable to
health problems.

The present practice is for indigents and low-income workers to enter public
hospitals as charity patients. The Department of Social Welfare and
Development (DSWD) and public hospitals shoulder the direct costs of their
expenses. These people are usually not given adequate health services, if they
are accommodated at all.

The Philippine Health Insurance (PHIC) recognizes this inadequacy and has taken steps to expand the
Medicare PI by instituting Progam II. The PII is an insurance program designed to cover those who are not
formally employed.

The Medicare PII operates with local government units (LGUs) as partners of the PHIC. The PHIC provides
the technology and initial assistance and the LGUs act as the administrator. The program is implemented
in certain LGUs via a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) signed by the PHIC and the Municipality.

                   The Sampaloc, Quezon local health insurance experience

                   The social health insurance adopted in Sampaloc, Quezon is the Medicare PII, which is
                   very appropriate for municipalities where a good percentage of its population belongs to
                   the non-formally-employed sector.

Strategies/activities undertaken

!   Conduct of exploratory, consultative meetings/dialogues between local chief
    executives, barangay captains and purok leaders and representatives of the PMCC.                     .
    During these meetings, the PMCC Team elaborated on the dynamics of the program, the rules and
    responsibilities that local officials have to assume to make the program work. As it turned out, the
    local officials appreciated the benefits of the program.

!   Endorsement by the Sangguniang Bayan through a Board Resolution requesting
    PMCC to implement the program in Sampaloc.

!   Briefing of the
    townspeople about the
    program. The meeting
    presided by the personnel of
    the PMCC was attended by
    local officials, Department
    of Health (DOH)
    consultants, barangay health
    workers and senior citizens.
    Among the topics presented
    to the body was the possible
    benefit package for the

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                    !    Signing of the MOA between the PMCC and Sampaloc town officials. Under the MOA,
                         PMCC was tasked to supervise the program and provide technical assistance. On the other hand, the
                         local government was assigned membership recruitment, collection and remittance of contribution,
                         and information dissemination.

                                          !                                                                .
                                              Implementation of recruitment and renewal policies. For the Sampaloc
                                              Program, the PMCC set a minimum membership base of 700 members for it to
  The life and sustainability of
  any social insurance program                become sustainable. To meet the requirement, the following activities were done
  depends on the number of                    and are continued to be undertaken:
  members enrolled. All things
  being equal, the more members,
  the better.                                 a.   Both the Senior Citizen’s Group and the Quezon Womens’ League took
                                                   active part in program promotion and active recruitment. The Women’s
                                                   League even set-up a fund that lends money to its members for premium

                         b.     The Farmers’ Association of Sampaloc has adopted the turnuhan scheme to help them pay their
                                premiums. The turnuhan involves an arrangement where a group of people regularly pool its
                                money and gives a certain percentage of it to a certain person at a chosen time.

                         c.     The purok leaders were also constantly prodded to increase recruitment for the program in their
                                areas. Purok tally boards monitor the recruitment campaign. The number of those enrolled in
                                the purok are indicated on the boards.

                         d.     The Mayor gives barangay and municipal officials a monthly quota for new recruits (i.e. a
                                counselor is required to enroll at least five new members every month).

                    Effects and initial impact

                    !    The municipality is now relieved from shouldering the direct costs of medical services for indigent
                         patients. These costs are now borne by the insurance fund.

                    !    The municipal government is now in a better position to allocate more resources for public health
                         concerns and innovative preventive measures that will implement the clinical and direct approach of
                         the insurance program.

                    !    In the light of devolution and the fiscal constraints of the municipalities, the local health insurance
                         aids the LGU to overcome health costs.

                    !    Hospitals were relieved from charity cases as the indigents can now pay for their services through the
                         health insurance.

                   Lessons learned

                   ! A more intensive information drive may be necessary to help the people of Sampaloc to
                       appreciate the value of a social health insurance program. Many residents, including those who
                       have signed up as members, have not yet fully understand the mechanics of the program. Its
                       rules and regulations still need to be further explained.

! Sampaloc, so far, has been the only municipality that is able to continuously expand its membership, largely due to
    creative recruitment approaches. Moreover, it shows the value of community participation and a determined
    leadership in the establishment of an effective local health insurance system.

! Sampaloc is not a pioneer in health insurance, but its experiences represent a treasure chest of lessons from
    which other LGUs and local officials can learn from.

“Empowering the People and the LGUs through Health Insurance” in Devolution Matters – A Documentation of
   Post-Devolution Experiences in the Delivery of Health Services. Department of Health-Local Government
   Assistance and Monitoring Service. Manila. pp. 53-59.

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Transforming the Mainstream:
Mainstreaming in Local Governance

       articipatory local governance is a major principle enshrined in the 1987 Philippine Constitution.
       The 1991 Local Government Code follows on the full implementation of such mandate. Among
       the key principles and strategies cited in the Code is the participation of people's organizations
and non-governmental organizations in local governance.

Women are among the key stakeholders in local governance because they…
! are almost 50 % global and local community population;
! are half the producers of economic goods and services.
! are in the money economy: in wage employment, trading and the informal sector.
! are in the non-money economy: in child bearing, child rearing, caring for & nurturing the weaker
  members of the household and the community, in domestic labor and subsistence agriculture.
! are citizens, voters and community leaders.

Gender Issues in Local Governance
Global and Philippine statistics bear the fact that
men dominate leadership, power and decision-
making positions and processes in various levels of
society - at home, in the community, in the
economy, in politics and governance (UNDP-
Human Development Report, 1995; Philippine
Plan for Gender Responsive Development, 1995-

While women have increasingly taken on active
public role in society, their participation in politics
and governance continues to be limited. In 1995,
there were 9 women governors out of 75, or 12 %. In                                         The 'social relations of
1998, this improved slightly to 12 women out of 77                                          gender' or 'gender' for short,
                                                                                            refers to the socially
governors or about 17 %.                                                                    constructed roles and
                                                                                            responsibilities of women
In 1995, there were only 3 women out of 67 city mayors, or a measly 5 %. In the 1998        and men. This includes
                                                                                            expectations held about
elections, there were now 8 women out of 83 mayors, or 10 % only.                           characteristics, aptitudes
                                                                                            and likely behavior of both
Among municipal mayors, there were 125 women out of 1,536 or 8 %. in 1995. This             women and men, i.e,
                                                                                            femininity and masculinity.
improved to 21 % with 233 women winning the 1998 election.                                  This historically evolved
                                                                                            into a dominant worldview
There are more women elective officials at the barangay level but still a fraction          that women are the 'weaker
                                                                                            sex' while men are the
compared to men. Even as more women voted in 1995 elections, with voter turn-out rate       `stronger' sex.
of 71 %., they remain largely unable to influence policy and decision-making as
legislators, chief executives and top administrators at both the national and local         Society now came to
                                                                                            stereotype women's
levels. Even as few women occupied high posts in government, their agenda did not           primarily role in home-
consistently champion improvements in women's status.                                       based and unpaid
                                                                                            reproductive tasks (e.g. child
                                                                                            bearing, child rearing,
                                                                                            housekeeping and other
                                                                                            nurturing activities) while
                                                                                            men's primarily roles are as
                                                                                            breadwinners, leaders and
                                                                                            decision makers in the
                                                                                            public domain. This belief
                                                                                            system brought about a
                                                                                            situation where women do
                                                                                            not share the same power
                                                                                            and prestige, status and
                                                                                            social position as men's.
                                                                                            Such reality limits women's
                                                                                            participation in decision-
                                                                                            making and the assumption
                                                                                            of leadership positions.

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                    While there is constitutional provision for women's sectoral representation in local development councils,
                    this has yet to be fully implemented. It was only in the 1998 elections that a women's sectoral party,
                    Abanse! Pinay, won a seat under the party list system at the National Congress.

                    Women's limited political representation consequently render local development plans blind to gender
                    issues. Majority of local officials and LGU personnel were not aware of gender issues and had no inputs by
                    way of a gender orientation. They therefore did appreciate addressing gender concerns alongside other local
                    governance issues.
                    The major gender and development issues that local governance must monitor and respond to are:

                                                                             !   Women and Poverty - There is high rural
                                                                                 female unemployment and male
                                                                                 underemployment causing out migration,
                                                                                 especially among women. There is the
                                                                                 predominance of women and child labor in
                                                                                 subcontracting production systems that are
                                                                                 measly paid and are vulnerable to exploitation.
                                                                                 There are no safety nets for the negative effects
                                                                                 of trade liberalization that increase women's

                    Women & Health - There is inadequate support for reproductive health concerns, including their right to
                      contraception and safe pregnancy and motherhood. The delivery of social services on women and
                      health are to be implemented at the LGU level.

                    !    Violence Against Women - Rape, domestic
                         violence, sexual harassment, trafficking of
                         women and other forms of violence against
                         women were long considered as private issues
                         that are now considered as human rights
                         violation. LGUs can play an important support
                         role in public education, monitoring, and
                         provision of social services to prevent incidents
                         and support victims and survivors.

!   Women and the Environment - Women
    share culpability in unsustainable farming
    practices. They also contribute to
    environmental conservation.

Policy Mandates for Mainstreaming Gender in
Local Governance
Women have organized their rank and became
active participants in the social movement that
persistently lobbied at local, national and
international fora for policy and community-based
responses to gender issues. Gains slowly yet steadily
came about since the 1975 International Women's
Year Conference in Nairobi until the 1995
International Women's Conference in Beijing. Filipino women from both government
and civil society organizations have been key players in advocating for a gender-
responsive government.

Official Development Assistance (ODA) programs between countries signatory to these
international agreements should uphold and promote these covenants.

                                                                          For its part, the Philippine government
                                                                          embarked in multi-sectoral consultations with
                                                                          women's groups and produced the following
                                                                          key policy and development planning

                                                                           ! Phil. Development Plan for Women
                                                                              (PDPW) of 1989-92 ;
                                                                           ! Republic Act 7192 or the Women in
                                                                             Development and Nation-Building Act of
                                                                           ! Philippine Plan for Gender-Responsive
                                                                             Development (PPGD) of 1995- 2025;
                                                                             and the
                                                                           ! The Gender and Development (GAD)
                                                                             Budget as provided for in the annual
                                                                             General Appropriations Act (GAA) since
                                                                           ! Joint DBM-NCRFW-NEDA circular for
                                                                             LGUs to submit a GAD Plan in their
                                                                             Local Development Plans as basis for
                                                                             allocating a LGU GAD Budget that
                                                                             should be at least 5 % of the total.

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                                                          Women's Agenda: Gender Equality and Gender Equity.
                                                          Gender Equity refers to the allocation of power and resources in ways
                                                          responsive to the needs and interest of women and men. Given that
                                                          power and resources are in the hands of men in society, gender equity
                                                          strategies should be directed toward a distribution of these factors to

                                                           Gender and Development (GAD) framework . GAD espouses a
                                                           recognition of the unequal gender relations between women and
                                                           men in all aspects / sectors of development. It proceeds from the
                                                           premise that culturally defined roles have reinforced the unequal
                    gender relations, resulting in the marginalisation of both sexes in varying circumstances and magnitude,
                    with mostly women at the more disadvantaged end. The GAD approach seeks not only to fully integrate
                    women into the development process but works to transform social and gender relations into creative
                    opportunities that would equally benefit both women and men.

                    GRDP or what is also known as gender-responsive planning is simply the operationalization and
                    integration of the GAD framework into the entire development planning cycle. It rests on the premise that
                    introducing gender considerations makes development planning / programming more 'people-oriented or
                    people-focused'. Gender is one factor of heterogeneity along with ethnicity , class and other socio-
                    demographic variables, all of which determine to a large extent the manner by which development plans
                    and programs impact on different groups of peoples.

                    The LGSP project teams underwent gender sensitivity training and gender responsive planning. Part-time
                    WID/GE advisors were specially hired since September 1995 to spearhead the advocacy of the same to LGUs
                    and other partners. Since 1994, LGSP supported both gender-specific and gender-mainstreamed strategies
                    with various LGU capability building programs. Gender and development (GAD) focal teams were trained
                    and organized in provinces and municipalities. GAD actions plans were generated from them.

                    However, there has been uneven response and commitment to follow through action plans required of
                    those initially trained. LGSP itself initially had been less systematic and consistent in monitoring
                    ensuring the integration of gender in capability building programs. There is also cultural resistance from
                    some LGU leaders and personnel who have not yet undergone gender training and who continue to
                    trivialize gender issues. There is also limited knowledge on appropriate gender tools in gender responsive
                    planning, monitoring and evaluation.

                    Case Study and Gender Analysis in Qualitative Monitoring
                    It is important to analyze and document the processes of project implementation, identify strengths and

gaps specially with regards to project impact on
men and women, to social classes, to the ways
they perceive and relate to each other .

Monitoring and progress reports have dwelt
mainly on the quantitative or physical indicators.
While quantitative data are also important,
these do not tell much about the process, the
impact, the problems and issues in project
implementation. A balanced presentation of
both output , process and lessons will be achieved
through the case study approach. This will be
most useful for program management and
development, for evaluation and for learning

Gender Analysis will be a major tool in the case
study approach. Gender analysis requires a good
grasp of gender issues and of the tools for analyses.
A basic step is recording sex-disaggregated data, i.e. noting down how many men and women of what
sectors ( socio-economic or job position) participated in every step of the project development cycle -
problem definition, statement of objectives, planning, implementing structures, strategies and
evaluation. A second step is analyzing the quality of participation , what roles / contributions did men
and women have , what assumptions about men and women's roles account for the types of roles and
activities they performed, and what effects on men and women did the project/s have,

Rodriguez, Luz L., Local Government Support Program (LGSP). July 2000

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LGUs in Disaster Management

          isaster management pushes local government units (LGUs) into action. Lives could be lost
          and damage to property will be immense if LGUs fail to respond efficiently and effectively to
          local emergencies. The key, however, to effective disaster management is to tap the spirit of
volunteerism in the community and to encourage the involvement and commitment of its constituents
towards disaster mitigation.

A comprehensive disaster management can strengthen the skills, awareness, strategies and systems of LGUs
for community disaster preparedness and mitigation. It must include:

! an analysis of municipal profiles in relation to disaster management;
! a briefing about the creation and/or strengthening of their barangay and municipal disaster
  management coordinating councils;
! the installation of warning systems for mobilizing people during disasters; and
! an overview on managing the municipal calamity fund.

The disaster management cycle has three phases: (1) pre-disaster, (2) during disaster and (3) post-disaster.
In the Philippines, disaster management is at its weakest in the pre-disaster stage. This weakness spills
over to the other subsequent stages of the disaster preparedeness process.

    Natural disasters and other calamities that usually affect the Philippines

    !   Typhoons and storms
    !   Massive flooding and landslides
    !   Eruption of “dormant” volcanoes
    !   Earthquakes
    !   Flashfloods
    !   Fire hazards aggravated by the lack of access roads

Issues and problems in disaster
! Lack of enforcement of ordinances
! Lack of modular preparedness
! Weakness (organizational, financial and
   technical) in the disaster management
! Lack of disaster equipment and facilities
! Politics in disaster management

                Strategies / activities undertaken (based on the Victorias and
                Manapla experiences)

!   Reorganization of Municipal Disaster Coordinating Councils (MDCCs) to assess the
    present resources of the municipality for disaster management and evaluate the
    efficiency and effectivity of the set-up. The municipal administration office served as the
                                                                       operation center. The
                                                                       municipal administrator
                                                                       was part of the Resource
                                                                       Management Committee
                                                                       responsible for the
                                                                       disbursement of funds and
                                                                       the procurement of goods
                                                                       before, during and after the

!   Conduct of a 5-day disaster management training for key people (of Victorias and
    Manapla) who came from various municipal line agencies and non-government
    organizations (NGOs). It was on the last day of the training that Task Forces were formally
    organized. Both fell under the umbrella organization of the MDCC with the Mayor as honorary
    chairperson. These became a formal NGO and served as the Disaster Emergency Response Team
    (Victorias - DISERT-V).

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                    !    Rescue teams went through several
                         training programs: 1) Disaster Rescue and
                         Emergency Medical Responses; 2) Basic First
                         Aid; 3) Basic Recon and Intel Operation; 4)
                         Radio Land/ Mobile Operator’s Seminar; and
                         5) Refresher Course on Disaster Rescue,
                         Emergency Medical Response and Firefighting.

                    !    Resources for operation/management were provided by the municipality. When the rescue
                         team was first organized, the municipality (Victorias) provided them with raincoats, boots,
                         flashlights, batteries and lifesavers. During disaster operations, they were also provided with supplies
                         (food, rope and fuel).

                         As part of its disaster operations, the resource management committee of the Victorias MDCC makes
                         prior arrangements with storeowners for possible emergency purchase.

                         Pre-disaster expenses are sourced out from different sources: Social Welfare Program under 20%
                         Development Fund, Human Resource Development Fund, Bantay Dagat Fund and grants-in-aid
                         through the office of the Mayor.

                                                                  !   Rehabilitation measures. All barangays were equipped
                                                                      with a radio communication set. The Mayor stressed that
                                                                      the chairperson of the Signal and Warning Committee
                                                                      should stay in the radio room at all times to receive
                                                                      communication from the provincial government and
                                                                      disseminate this to all barangay captains. The barangay
                                                                      captains were likewise advised to install their radio
                                                                      communication sets in the barangay hall and assign one
                                                                      barangay tanod to man the radio.

                                                                     The resource committee was in charge of providing relief
                                                                     goods. In Manapla, for example, the Municipal Social
                                                                     Welfare and Development Officer (MSWDO) head, which
                                                                     actually received assistance from the provincial
                         government and prepared the goods for distribution, was made co-chairperson. On the other hand,
                         the relief committee was headed by the Parish Priest. Assistance from NGOs were channeled through
                         the MSWDO. Local residents, like other private organizations gave their own contributions directly to
                         the victims.

    Cash assistance was provided to families whose houses were totally damaged. Aside from that, the
    evacuees were also provided with food and clothing good for at least one month.

    During summer, the rescue teams stay alert for any possible outbreak of fire. Some measures done
    # Inspection of buildings for any violation of the building code and giving the appropriate penalty
         for any violations; and
    # Installation of fire hydrants especially in congested urban poor areas in the poblacion.

!   Clearing of waterways. In Manapla
    and Victorias, heavy siltation, obstruction
    of exit points of natural waterways by
    prawn farms and fishponds, and the
    illegal structures along the riverbanks
    contribute to the overflow of rivers and
    creeks. To address these problems, both
    municipalities undertook dredging and
    clearing of waterways with the assistance
    of the Provincial Government. Other
    rehabilitation works included relocation
    of houses, reconnection to the shore and
    the construction of breakwater.

                                                                              !   Tree planting and
                                                                                  reforestation. In Manapla,
                                                                                  government employees were
                                                                                  required to participate in tree-
                                                                                  planting projects.

                                                                                  On the other hand, the SB
                                                                                  Committee on environment
                                                                                  planned to implement the
                                                                                  “Adopt a Reforestation Area”
                                                                                  scheme with NGOs. Past tree
                                                                                  planting projects had reportedly
                                                                                  come to naught because there
                                                                                  was no follow-up.

Nacionales, Grace and Letty Tumbaga. “Disaster Management in Two Negros Towns” in A Breath of Fresh Air:
     Exploring the Possibilities of Local Government Management. ed. by. Letty Tumbaga. CIDA-LGSP Region VI and
     Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs (ACSPPA) Philippines, 1998. pp. 46-65.

                                                                           ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE: 175
                                                                                                  EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
LGUs in Integrated Solid
Waste Management

S         everal local governments stood out as models in the arena of managing municipal wastes.
          Now, more local governments are leading the way towards the efficient implementation and
          maintenance of integrated solid waste management (ISWM) programs. Citizens have a crucial
role to play in this arena. In fact, their participation is a pre-condition to the effective implementation of
such programs.

As an entity entrusted with the task of managing wastes, local governments need to look beyond the
traditional “collect-and-dispose” method. They should seek approaches that would treat wastes as
resources and the solid waste problem as an integrated system itself.

 A look at our waste profile nationwide produces an interesting picture: 30% of total waste
 generated is recyclable and around 45% is readily compostable. If these tasks are accomplished,
 only 25% will remain for local governments to worry about.

A local government adopting the management approach will realize not only efficiency in terms of time,
money and disposal space but also other benefits such as:
! a sense of community responsibility for managing waste;
! the value of waste as a resource; and
! an entrepreneurial attitude in waste management.

    Process Flow for Developing a City/Municipal ISWM Program


                                                                  WASTE APPRAISAL
                                                                  WASTE APPRAISAL

                                                                Local Government and volunteers
                                                                conduct surveys and appraisals to
                                                                 determine the waste profile and
                                                                existing solid waste management
                                                                       operations (1-2 days)

           IMPLEMENTING THE DOABLES*                                                                 2
                                                                                                         LOCAL GOVERNMENT-
         The Local Government and citizens implement                                                          CITIZENS
         designated roles to promote:                                                                    CONSENSUS BUILDING
                     # segregation in markets and
                         volunteer neighborhoods;                                                           With the help of a workshop
                     # better housekeeping in                                                               facilitator, local leaders and
                         collection and dumpsite                                                              citizens agree on vision,
                         management;                                                                        strategies and first steps to
                     # enact ordinance for integrated                                                          address the problem.
                         approach; and                                                                                 (2-3 days)
                     # study long-term measures
                         (e.g. landfill).                   3
                              6-12 months                         MULTISECTORAL PLANNING
                                                                      AND ORGANIZING
 *Broken arrow between steps
                                                                A multisectoral Task Force of leaders and
 4 and 1 connotes that the                                         volunteers further reviews technical
 cycle may end up with Step 4                                     options, and develop action plans and
                                                                 budgets for “Doable” actions. The Local
 or may be repeated.                                            Government also designates an officer in
                                                                               (3-6 weeks)

Existing local government practice

Designing a waste appraisal system
The local government can mobilize citizen volunteers to determine the kind and quantity of wastes
generated and the existing solid waste management operations in a locality. This is done through surveys.

Local Government – citizens consensus building
The local government calls on various sectors of the
community to discuss the waste problem and identify
practical solutions involving the community.
Workshops involving different stakeholders, usually
utilizing Technology on Participation (ToP) methods,
generate consensus on the community’s common
vision, objectives and priority doables actions related
to solid waste management.

                                                                                         ENHANCING PARTICIPATION           IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE: 177
                                                                                                                       EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                    Multisectoral planning and organizing
                    The local government engages the stakeholders in action planning workshop focusing on immediate
                    doable actions and the corresponding budgetary requirements. These include:

                    ! better housekeeping in the dumpsite;
                    ! improvement of garbage collection routing systems;
                    ! assessment of public information/communication needs; and
                    ! launching promotion campaign for waste segregation in the market and interested neighborhoods.

                    The local government organizes a multi-sectoral task force to further review technical options and oversee
                    planning, budgeting and mobilization work. The task force consists of leaders from different sectors
                    (government, business, church and NGOs/Pos) and is led by an officer-in-charge, designated by the local

                    Implementing the doables

                    Based on the action plan, the local government proceeds to put together instruments required for plan
                    implementation. These instruments include ordinances, required budgetary support and the deployment
                    of support personnel. Corollary efforts to galvanize public support and networking with other
                    stakeholders, counterparts and partners, both locally and at the provincial and national levels are likewise

                    Utilizing financing schemes for the program

                    Local governments have the option to undertake financing schemes to meet the required investments for
                    long-term improvement of existing solid waste management systems. Some of these are:

                    !     income generated from imposing garbage collection/disposal fees;
                    !     joint ventures with the private sector;
                    !     build-Operate-Transfer, Build-Operate-Own schemes and other variants;
                    !     credit financing instruments, such as credit lines, term loans, bonds or long-term securities, lease
                          financing and foreign-funded loans; and
                    !     privatization.

                      Key factors for an effective ISWM Program

                      !   Presence of a prime mover
                      !   Citizen cooperation
                      !   Appropriate office or department for coordination and implementation
                      !   Action on “doables”

5 Es of an ISWM Program

Environmental organization building. It involves the formation of a multi-sectoral group tasked to
plan, implement and monitor programs of a municipal ISWM.

Education. It involves awareness raising, information dissemination and promotion of proper ISWM

Enforcement. It covers the formulation, promulgation, monitoring and review of support ordinances by
the Sanggunian.

Engineering. This refers to the provision of facilities and equipment to support the effective and
efficient implementation of the program.

Equity investment. It covers resource making between private and public sectors in the various aspects
of ISWM program implementation. Solid waste management must be income generating to make it

                   Case studies on exemplary practices of LGUs in solid waste management

                    In Lipa City, the Sipaglakas Program evolved from
                    mere street sweeping and maintaining the
                    cleanliness of the public market to household-level
                    waste segregation, barangay-level waste collection,
                    and improving dumpsite management. The city
 established an inter-agency Working Committee on Sanitation and
 Environmental Protection System to be responsible for program
 management. Surprise visits to participating barangays and monthly
 meetings by the Recycling Management Groups ensured
 compliance with the program.

 The program increased collection efficiency of both waste and
 collection charges. Waste collection fees and fines from littering
                                     doubled. Revenue from garbage fee collection in 1998 from business
                                     establishments alone stood at P2.5 million.

                                      In Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, the Oplan Linis Program was set up to promote
                                      among its citizens a sense of urgency, concern and responsibility for the cleanliness
                                      of the community. The program involved volunteers in its various components and
                                      all its citizens in program monitoring and evaluation. Anti-littering ordinances
                                      were enacted imposing sanctions to violators. Enforcement efforts are truly
                                      serious (e.g. a Mayor was fined P200 for throwing a cigarette pack into the street).
                                      The city has repeatedly been adjudged the Cleanest and Greenest Component
                                      City in the Philippines.

                                                                          ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE: 179
                                                                                              EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
 In the mid-1980s the Metro Manila Council of Women
 Balikatan Movement, Inc. launched an educational
 campaign on waste segregation at the household level.
 Subdivisions and commercial establishments were
 informed of the schedule of waste collection as well as
 the location and contact numbers of participating junk
 shops. The movement also organized existing junk shop
 dealers and disseminated information on waste materials
 that can be recycled. It organized junk collectors into
 groups and were assigned to specific aspects of the
 operations and helped facilitate business loans for
 recycles or users of waste materials.

 In 1992, the municipal government of Marilao, Bulacan closed its
 temporary dumpsite used by neighboring towns. Faced with this situation, the municipal government of Sta. Maria
                                                     joined forces with the Sta. Maria Economic Foundation, the
                                                     Associated Waste Administration and Recycling Enterprise, Inc.,
                                                     and the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) to devise
                                                     a workable scheme to address the management of its municipal

                                                         Two years later, the resulting Sta. Maria Waste Processing and
                                                         Recycling Plant started operations. The plant processed
                                                         biodegradable materials separated from public market wastes and
                                                         produced organic fertilizers that they sell to farmers’
                                                         organizations. The plant is self-financing. Proceeds from the sale
                                                         of organic fertilizer and recyclable wastes provided funds for plant
                                                         operations. Production went as high as three to four tons daily.

                                                          The greatest value of this initiative lay in shifting people’s
                                                          attitudes towards viewing waste as resource that can generate
                                                          profit. The case of Sta. Maria provided inspiration to other
                                                          local governments to replicate its composting effort.

                    Governance and Local Democracy Project (GOLD). “Waste Matters: Towards Local Government Excellence in Solid
                         Waste Management.” Technical Notes No. 98-01 Makati City, 1998.

                    Governance and Local Democracy Project (GOLD) “Local Governments and Citizens in Integrated Solid Waste
                         Management.” Occasional Paper No. 98-06. Makati City, 1998.

The Leagues of LGUs as Active
Shareholders in Governance

             ne major development in the field of governance is the emergence of the various leagues of
             local government units (LGUs) (i.e. Leagues of Provinces, Leagues of Cities, Leagues of
             Municipalities and Liga ng mga Barangay as provided for in the Code), which have played a
key role in advocating the cause of local autonomy.

 Since its inception in 1997, the leadership of the 1.2 million-member Union of Local Authorities of the Philippines
 (ULAP) have been at the forefront of various raging issues affecting LGUs nationwide.

 Perennially faced with issues ranging from the apparent inequities plaguing the Internal Revenue Allotments (IRAs) and
 other funds shared to several unfunded mandates of LGUs - ULAP has stood its ground, guided primarily by its battle
 cry: to pursue, protect and enhance the privilege of local autonomy as envisioned in the 1987 Philippine Constitution
 and its 1991 Local Government Code.

Local officials at various levels have likewise organized themselves into their own leagues. Among these
are the League of the Vice-Governors, Vice Mayors League, Philippine Councilors League and National
Movement of Young Legislators. Presently, they have combined forces into the League of Leagues (LOL).

                                                                       ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE: 181
                                                                                             EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
                      The Union of Local Authorities of the Philippines

                      ULAP envisions a just, equitable and progressive society enhanced on participatory democracy and pro-
                      poor framework of effective governance vital to national development and progress.

                      Unite all its members’ leagues and enhance its partnership with all shareholders to ensure a genuine
                      local autonomy for all LGUs, thereby ensuring the smooth and efficient delivery of basic services to the
                      people throughout the country.

                      1. Formulate and promote agreed strategies for the future development of the leagues and LGUs.
                      2. Actively participate in local, national and international forums, meetings, congressional hearings
                         and other activities affecting LGUs.
                      3. Initiate and conduct regular forums, dialogues and prior consultation with leagues and LGUs to
                         reach general policy agreements to help guide national policies and laws.
                      4. Provide advance and information on the operation and development of leagues and LGUs to all
                         interested shareholders and funding institutions.
                      5. Develop a “learning organization” working environment.

                      CLOUD 9

                    The proposed priority amendments to the 1991
                    Local Government Code

                    1. Rationalize the IRA share of LGUs to make it
                       more equitable (i.e. automatic appropriation).

                    2. Rationalize the share of LGUs in the National
                       Taxes and National Wealth, ensure
                       transparency in its collection and equitable
                       distribution scheme to all levels of LGUs.

                    3. Broaden the devolved powers of LGUs and redefine “devolution.”

                    4. Enhance local autonomy to include the right and duty of LGUs to set and define its own
                       organizational structure, standards and limiting the “mandatory” positions imposed on LGUs.

5. Give more powers to LGUs over local police forces while adhering to the “one civilian national police”

6. Clarify the issue on “control” and “supervision” based on existing jurisprudence and NO to unfunded

7. Simplify “real property taxation” and fiscal administration to ensure fiscal autonomy for LGUs.

8. Enhance and simplify the “structures and systems” to enable LGUs to meet the demands of local
   governance and devolution of basic services to the people.

9. Ensure “popular participation” of non-government and people’s organizations for transparency.

                     Major accomplishments of the league

                     !   Amendments to the Local Government Code (LGC), including widening of the
                         resource base of local governments and reforming IRA allocation to address the
                         inequitable distribution and allocation of financial resources.

                     !   Resistance to unfunded mandates that tend to distant development efforts,
                         including local planning and budgeting processes.

                     !   Strategic alliances with like-minded sectors of society, including the NGO/PO

It must be noted, though, that as early as the late eighties, even before the enactment of the LGC, the LGUs
have begun to organize themselves into a strong advocacy group actively pushing for the enactment of a
code as mandated in the 1987 Constitution.

The league have indeed gone a long way since then, with some of them able to support and sustain
secretariats that provide professional support and assistance to the league members.

Brilliantes, Alex B. Jr. Decentralization, Devolution and Development in the Philippines. VMP - Asia Occasional
      Paper No. 44. June 1999.

Union of Local Authorities of the Philippines. 1st Year Anniversary Report. 1998 -1999.

                                                                                 ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE: 183
                                                                                                     EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
A   N   N   E   X   E   S
                            Foreign-funded Programs/ Projects Related to
                     Local Development and Municipal Development Fund Projects

          evelopment efforts in the Philippines have benefited from the Support of many international institutions. Support
          may come in many forms: loans, technical assistance or grants. These external international institutions have
          played roles in their initiating or supporting general governance programs and specific local governance programs.
The challenge is of course to sustain the programs once donors have puuled out.

                                                                                              Alex B. Brillantes, Jr. 1998
                                       MUNICIPAL DEVELOPMENT FUND PROJECTS

Name of Project       Funding      Loan Amount    Project       Lead/          Beneficiaries                Description
                     Institution                 Duration    Implementing
Municipal            World Bank       $68 M      1993-2000   DPWH, LGU                           Designed to extend direct access
Development                                                                                      to LGUs long-term loans to
Project (MDP 3)                                                                                  finance           urban-municipal
                                                                                                 infrastructure and services
Agrarian Reform      World Bank       $50 M      1996-2003       DAR         ACR provinces ---   Grant to LGUs to develop rural
Communities                                                                    Ilocos Norte,     infrastructure and provision of
Development                                                                  Isabela, Quezon,    community support and technical
Project                                                                       Albay, Leyte, S.   support
(ARCDP)                                                                       Leyte, Misamis
                                                                              Or., Davao Or.,
                                                                             Davao N, Surigao
Metro Cebu             OECF         Y30.597 B    1991-2004   Cebu Province    Cebu Province      Construction/improvement       of
Development                                                                                      arterial roads, bridges in Cebu
Project - Phase                                                                                  City,    Cebu    South    Coastal
III                                                                                              Expressway      &    Engineering
19th, 20th, 21st &                                                                               Services
22nd (MCDP 3)
Bukidnon               ADB          US$20 M or   1997-2004     Provincial       Bukidnon         Address the needs of the
Integrated Area                    SDR13.835 M               government of      Province         beneficiaries      and       equip
Development                                                    Bukidnon                          government agencies with the
Project                                                                                          skills and resources to sustain
(BIADPI)                                                                                         economic development during and
                                                                                                 after project implementation
Third            World Bank   US$113.4 M     1996-2004       DECS          26 STA provinces     Improvement      of   elementary
Elementary                    School Bldg.                                  - Abra, Benguet,    education in poor provinces
Education                       Program                                        Ifugao, Mt.      through strengthening of DECS to
Project (TEEP)                 $46.500 M                                  Province, Kalinga-    deliver     public    elementary
                                                                           Apayao, Batanes,     education.
                                                                           Aurora, Masbate,
                                                                            Antique, Capiz,
                                                                          Guimaras, Negros
                                                                              Or., Leyte, S.,
                                                                           Leyte, E., Samar,
                                                                            Biliran, Basilan,
                                                                           Sulu, Tawi-Tawi,
                                                                           Zamboanga Sur,
                                                                              Agusan Sur,
                                                                            Surigao del Sur,
                                                                               Cotabato &
Philippine         ADB         US$30 M       1997-2003     DILG (lead),       Gen. Santos,      Encourages self-reliance among
Regional                        sub-loan                  DPWH, LGUs      Iligan City, Puerto   local     governments       through
Development                      comp.                   (implementing)        Princesa &       institutional        strengthening;
Project                        $15.250 M                                    Tagbiliran City     stimulate economic development
(PRMDP)                                                                                         of selected regional growth
                                                                                                centers; address the persistent and
                                                                                                pernicious problems of poverty &
Urban Health &   IDA/World    SDR50.5 M      1994-2000    DOH (lead)        NCR, Cebu &         To     support    the     borrower's
Nutrition          Bank                                  DOF, DILG &       Cagayan de Oro       priorities to centralize, expand &
Program                                                     DBM                 City            improve the delivery of public &
(UHNP)                                                                                          primary health care services
                                                                                                within specified areas of priority.
Community         World Bank    US$50 M     1998-2003    DOF (lead)       Region 5, 6, 7, 8 &   Aims to help alleviate & improve
Based Resource                                           DENR, DA,               13             the living conditions of rural
Management                                                 LGUs                                 communities by increasing farm
Project                                                                                         productivity & creating non-farm
(CBRMP)                                                                                         income sources & help halt
                                                                                                decline in natural resources
                                                                                                facility by installing systems of
                                                                                                utilization to enhance & sustain
Subic Bay Area                 US$17.620M     2002       DILG (lead)         1 city & 6         To improve urban infrastructure
Municipal                                                                 municipalities of     such as roads & bridges, drainage,
Development                                                                Zambales and         public markets & solid waste
Project (SBMA                                                                 Bataan            management
Early Childhood     World        US$19M     1998-2004    DSWD (lead)        Capiz, Iloilo,      To develop, provide & promote an
Development       Bank/ADB         (WB)                 DOH, DECS, &           Antique,         integrated set of ECD service
Project (ECDP)                  SDR6.487                   LGUs           Guimaras, Negros      delivery packages to address
                                  (ADB)                                   Occ., Aklan, Cebu,    health, nutrition, cognitive &
                                                                          Bohol, Negros Or.,    psychological development needs
                                                                           Siquijor, Lanao      of children under 6 at various
                                                                              del Norte,        stages of growth & development.
                                                                          Cotabato & Sultan
Metro Iligan        OECF       Y5771.5 M    1998-2005     Province of      Lanao del Norte      Involves the establishment of off-
Regional                                                Lanao del Norte                         site     infrastructure  facilities
Infrastructure                                                                                  critical to the operationalization
Development                                                                                     of the MIRAIC in Linamon,
Project                                                                                         Lanao del Norte
Local            World Bank   US$100 M   2006   DOF    LGUs nationwide   To assist participating LGUs in
Government                                                               expanding & upgrading their
Financing                                                                basic infrastructure, services &
Development                                                              facilities & in strengthening their
(LOGOFIND)                                                               capacities       on      municipal
                                                                         governance, investment planning,
                                                                         revenue generation and project
                                                                         development and implementation.
Clark Area         ADB        US$24.30   2006   DILG    Pampanga and     Geared towards the improvement
Municipal                                                  Tarlac        of basic urban infrastructure in
Development                                                              the 9 municipalities & 1 city
Project (CAMP)                                                           surrounding       Clark     Special
                                                                         Economic Zone.

 FUND         PROJECT                                OBJECTIVES /                           INTERVENTIONS          EXECUTING
SOURCE          TITLE                               DESCRIPTIONS                                                    AGENCY
 AusAID     DENR/ Human        It aims to improve the capacity of DENR to develop its       Technical assistance     DENR
            Resource Dev't.    human resource, particularly in the regional offices. The       and advisory
               Program         project is not meant to directly deliver HRD services, but
                               to strengthen service delivery from responsible sections,
                               particularly the human resource development services.
AusAID        Technical        This project is an institutional strengthening and CB        Technical Assistance     NEDA
             Assistance to     project with six inter-related components aimed at
           Physical Planning   improving economic and social development of the
            Project (TAPP)     country through improved physical planning in order to
                               enhance consistency of investments, projection,
                               settlement, resource use and environmental decisions.
                               Target Areas (for Phase I and II): all provinces
 ADB          Integrated       The proposed plan consists of two parts: Part I will         Technical Assistance     DOH
             Community         comprise the national and regional components to be             and Advisory
            Health Services    managed directly by DOH and Part II will comprise the
                               provincial components to be managed by LGUs in
                               coordination with DOH. Part I, strengthening DOH
                               provincial support program will consist of four
                               components: 1) Human resource dev't.; 2) Support for
                               LGU health program; 3)            Community and NGO
                               mobilization; 4) Project management and institutional
                               strengthening. Part II will consist of four components: 1)
                               institutional strengthening; 2) strengthening referral
                               system; 3) community and NGO mobilization; 4) support
                               for priority health program
UNDP      Civil Service    To develop a supervisory training program by pilot               Training and            CSC
                           testing several training methodologies and approaches         Technical Assistance
                           with participation of pilot groups constituted by
                           supervisors of different government agencies and with
                           view for its eventual institutionalization and application,
                           government-wide after project-completion.
                           Beneficiaries : division chiefs in national and local
                           governments and public enterprises
CIDA      Local Gov't.     The goal of LGSP is to assist in the effective                Training Technical        LGUs
        Support Program    decentralization of the government of the Philippines in          Assistance
            (LGSP)         Region VI, XI and ARMM. The purpose of the program
                           is to enhance the capability of LGs in selected regions to
                           carry out planning, programming and project
USAID       GOLD           The project will catalyze and reinforce the democratic           Training and           HUCs,
                           decentralization process through the strengthening of         Technical Assistance   independent
                           pluralistic community participation in local governance                               component
                           and more effective government performance in local                                   cities (ICCs)
                           dev't., supporting Leagues of LGs and institutionalizing a
                           communication and feedback system which infuses and
                           support local governance.
 WB        Municipal       The meeting is the training component of the Third                 Training          DILG-LGA
        Training Program   Municipal Development Program. This is a part of the
            (MTP III)      WB Group-assisted project under the International Bank
                           for Reconstruction and Development loan assistance. It is
                           designed to extend direct access to LGUs for long-term
                           loans to finance urban-municipal infrastructure and
                           services. This is done through the Program for Essential
                           Municipal Infrastructure, Utilities, Maintenance and
                           Engineering Development (PREMIUMED) under the
ILO     Integrated Rural   IRAP is funded by Royal Dutch Government to bring           Training Technical     DILG-LGA
          Accessibility    local planning closer to reality while developing the           Assistance
        Planning (IRAP)    planning capacity of LGUs. Its consists of the following
                           elements: assessment of the access problems in the area
                           concerned, identification of the interventions either in
                           transport system or sitting of services, selection and
                           prioritization of locations for the needed interventions.
                           Areas of coverage: Region VI, X, XI and special concerns.
                           Trainees are mostly PPDCs, MPDCs, draftsmen,
                           engineers, PLGOOs, LGOOs and NGOs.
UNDP   CB for Sustainable To establish a growing, capable and committed base                                     Local
          Dev't. in the    within the legislative system and local government                                  executives
            context of     executives on issues involving population management by                           and legislators
        Decentralization increasing their awareness, knowledge and understanding
           (Support to     on the interrelationships of population, child survival,
             PLCPD)        role and status of women and protection of the
            Integrated     In support of the national development goal of                 Training and       LGU planners
         Population and    maintaining population growth at a level conducive to            Research
         Dev't. Planning   national welfare, the project aims to promote the
                           conscious consideration of the two-way relationships
                           between population and development in the formulation
                           of plans, policies and programs.
        Ascertaining the   To establish a DB of local authorities with existing        Operations Research       LGUs
       Capability of Local population offices identify population and family
       Population Offices planning issues and problems and determine viable
       for the Revitalized models for partnership network.
        Phil. FP Program
             FP/Safe       The project aims to improve the health of mothers and            Training             LGUs
        Motherhood and children in urban poor families by providing family
             Women         planning and maternal and child health services,
              Enhancement in      adolescent counseling and livelihood opportunities to FP
              Selected Urban      acceptors in the pilot areas.
                 Poor Areas
               Increasing the     The project aims to strengthen the institutional                  Training         DOH/LGUs
                Quality and       capabilities of the DOH in FP service delivery in the four
              Coverage of FP      Advanced Implementation Regions (AIRs), namely,
              Service Delivery    Regions 3,7,10 and 11
             through the DOH
                 Technical        The project intends to strengthen the institutional            Advisory and           LGUs
              Assistance to the   mechanism, based on the decentralized structure, for the        Training            involved in
                Employment        implementation of identified, Food-for-Work (FFW) sub-                             appraisal and
              Creating Special    projects/activities in the four major development sectors                          monitoring of
               Public Works       of agriculture, infrastructure, reforestation and                                  FFW project
                Programme         microenterprise development.
 Swedish          DIET-M          This is a Technical Cooperation Project for the                   Training         DILG-LGA
Government                        Implementation of Decentralization Implementors
                                  Enhancement Training and Modeling (DIET-M). It
                                  involves the following phases: Country specific Training
                                  on Local self-governance; modeling of LGUs and
                                  enhancement of LGA capability. Phase I of the project
                                  has been completed already.
   DSE       Project with UP-     The UP-LGC-DSE bilateral and technical cooperation                Training           UP-LGC
                   LGC            and assistance programme mainly addresses and responds       observational tours
                                  to the problem, issues, developments and other concerns
                                  relevant to the promotion and development of local
 UNICEF         Integrated        IALDM is a capability-building component of the Fourth            Training         DILG-LGA
             Approach to Local    Country Program for Children. Its objective is to equip
               Development        the LCEs and implementors with appropriate
               Management         management skills to achieve the goals of the PPAC and
                (IALDM)           its MDGs with the LCEs assuming the role of area
          Capability-     development managers of their respective localities. It
           Building       covers 45 provinces, 7 cities and 10 municipalities in MM
                          as well as 10 selected cities in the regions.
EEC        Phil. Rural    The programme intends to increase the capabilities of       Training Technical     DA
          Institutional   both the national and local government agencies to              Assistance
         Strengthening    improve the delivery of basic services.
USAID        Local        The LDAP is designed to establish a foundation for             Policy Study      PBSP/ARD/
          Development     sustained economic and social development by                   Publications         EDF/
           Assistance     encouraging policy reforms that will lead to increased                             NEDA/
        Program (LDAP)    autonomy of LGUs.           Essentially, LDAP plays a                               DOF
           1991-1993      supporting role for the whole decentralization movement
                          by performing monitoring, policy and operational
                          research and other actions in coordination with GOP.
                          Strategy areas include: support improved levels of
                          discretionary resources for LGUs; support greater
                          administrative authority for LGUs; support increased
                          capacity-building for LGUs and support increased private
                          sector role in local development.
Steering Committee

Dr. ROGELIO SERRANO                                        Dr. PROSERPINA D. TAPALES
SANREM - CRSP / Southeast Asia                             Director
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural   Center for Local and Regional Governance
Resources Research and Development (PCARRD)                (former Local Government Center)
Los Baños 4030, Laguna                                     National College of Public Administration and Governance
                                                           University of the Philippines
                                                           P.O. Box 198, UP Campus
Dr. ALEX B. BRILLIANTES, JR.                               Diliman 1101, Quezon City
College of Public Administration and Governance
University of the Philippines                              Dr. JULIAN F. GONSALVES
P.O. Box 198, UP Campus                                    Vice President for Program
Diliman 1101, Quezon City                                  International Institute of Rural Reconstruction
                                                           Y.C. James Yen Center, Silang, Cavite

National Social Development & Gender Equity Advisor        Mr. ENRIQUE G. MERCAIDA
Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program        Associate Senior Specialist
National Program Management Office                         International Institute of Rural Reconstruction
Unit 402 Manila Luxury Condominium, Pearl Drive            Y.C. James Yen Center, Silang, Cavite
Ortigas Center, Pasig City

                                                           Ms. JOY R. RIVACA - CAMINADE
Atty. EVELYN CAMPOSANO JIZ                                 Head
Regional Project Manager VI                                Publications and Communication Program
Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program        International Institute of Rural Reconstruction
No. 2-A Washinton Street, Jaro                             Y.C. James Yen Center, Silang, Cavite
Iloilo City

                                                                 ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE: 195
                                                                                       EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES
Publication Development

                    Documentation and Editing
                    Enrique G. Mercaida
                    Julian F. Gonsalves

                    Joy Rivaca-Caminade
                    Celso Amutan

                    Editing and Desktop Publishing
                    Ma. Stella Salvador-Oliver
                    Hannah K. Castañeda

                    Ariel E. Lucerna

                    Cover Design
                    Celso C. Amutan

The Publication Production Staff

Mr. ENRIQUE G. MERCAIDA                           Ms. MA. STELLA SALVADOR - OLIVER
Project Technical Coordinator                     Editor &Desktop Publisher
Associate Senior Specialist                       9597 Diamond Street, Umali Subd.,
International Institute of Rural Reconstruction   Los Baños, Laguna
Y.C. James Yen Center, Silang, Cavite

                                                  Mr. ARIEL E. LUCERNA
Dr. JULIAN F. GONSALVES                           Artist
Vice President for Program &                      #259 2nd St., Salinas
Production Advisor                                Bacoor, Cavite
International Institute of Rural Reconstruction
Y.C. James Yen Center, Silang, Cavite
                                                  Ms. LILIBETH T. SULIT
                                                  Administrative Assistant
Ms. JOY RIVACA - CAMINADE                         International Institute of Rural Reconstruction
Head                                              Y.C. James Yen Center, Silang, Cavite
Publications and Communication Program
Production Coordinator
International Institute of Rural Reconstruction
Y.C. James Yen Center, Silang, Cavite

Publication Development Associate
Publications and Communication Program
International Institute of Rural Reconstruction
Y.C. James Yen Center, Silang, Cavite

                                                         ENHANCING PARTICIPATION   IN   LOCAL GOVERNANCE: 197
                                                                              EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES

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