WEST NILE ENCEPHALITIS

Document Sample
WEST NILE ENCEPHALITIS Powered By Docstoc
					Anthrax Control
Program

          4-H Veterinary Science
             Extension Veterinary Medicine
            Texas AgriLife Extension Service
 College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Science
                   Texas A&M System
                  http://aevm.tamu.edu
Objectives
 Understand that because anthrax has been a
  reportable disease, it has been controlled
 Understand that surveillance of a disease
  prevents its spread
Reportable
Bacterial disease
Worldwide distribution
Endemic to U.S.
     Triangle of Uvalde, Ozona, Eagle Pass, TX
Affects numerous animal species
Primarily domestic and wild livestock
Zoonotic
Causative Agent


Bacterium - Bacillus anthracis

     Vegetative bacteria in animal

     Spore bacteria in environment
Transmission

 Spores leave dead animal via hemorrhagic
  exudates
    Mouth, nose, anus and vulva
    Contain large numbers of bacteria



 Contaminated soil
      Spores remain viable for decades
Soil-borne – summer drought, following
 rains
Soil-borne – summer rain, following
 drought
Usually ingestion of spores
Incubation period is 1-20 days
Infections apparent after 3-7 days
    Diagnosis


Ruminants
  Sudden death      Respiratory distress
  Staggering        Convulsions
  Trembling         Abortions
  Dyspnea           Bloody discharge
  Fever             FATAL
Horses
    Sudden death      Severe colic
    Fever             Bloody diarrhea
    Chills            Swelling
    Anorexia          FATAL
    Depression
Pigs
    Sudden death
    Mild, chronic infections
    Fever
    Swelling
    Enlarged lymph nodes
    Usually recover
Dead animals
    Sudden death – blood poisoning
    Rigor mortis absent
    Rapid decomposition – extreme bloat
    Dark blood
    Enlarged spleen
    Non-clotting blood

People
    Wound infections – carbuncles
Image Illustrates the Typical Bloated Decomposition with the
              Fore Legs Separated and Raised
                                    Bacterial
                                       Skin                                                                  Bacterial
                                   Infection in                                                             Disease in
                                     Human                                                                 Animals with
                                                                                                          Sudden Death
                                                                                                            and Rapid
                                                                                                               Bloat
                                                                                                          Decomposition




Infected Doe; Blood from Nasal Cavity to Soil     Microscopic Stained Bacteria in Characteristic Chains
                                                                 of Rods like Box Cars
    Prevention


Vaccinate livestock
  Sterne-strain
    Live

  Endemic areas


Burn carcasses
  Do not move


Burn body remains
  Bones, antlers and horns
Regulation and Control

 Texas FEAD Emergency Response Plan
   Identifypositive animals and destroy
   Reduce amount of time to get back test
    results
   Track origin of suspect animals
Burn carcass and bedding
Don’t open carcass
   Spores will not develop without oxygen
   Bacteria will decompose within a few days

Vaccination of herd required
Quarantine of herd required for 10 days
 after vaccination

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:4
posted:8/20/2012
language:Latin
pages:15