SURREALISM Art I - Photoshop Project SURREALISM – A style of art and literature developed principally in the 20th century, in which fantastic visual imagery from the subconscious mind is used with no intention of making the artwork logically comprehensible. Surrealist Art: * Involves fantasy & dreams * Is illogical * Stresses the subconscious * Automatism * Demented sense of humor When: 1924 – 1950s (between World Wars I and II) Where: Europe What: Developed the technique of automatism- allow your subconscious mind to take over in your art. Who: Founded in 1924 by poet and critic Andre Breton: - who published The Surrealist Manifesto: join the world of fantasy to the everyday rational world in “an absolute reality, a surreality.” - Breton adapted the theories of Sigmund Freud- dream analysis the unconscious is the wellspring of the imagination. The Artists: Georgio de Chirico Greek/Italian/Painter/Sculptor Salvador Dali Spanish Painter Max Ernst German/French Painter Rene Magritte Belgium Painter Joan Miro Spanish Painter/Sculptor Man Ray American Photographer/Painter Georgio de Chirico 1888 – 1978 Greek/Italian Painter/Sculptor - produced a series of cityscapes which are clean, crisp and strange - the buildings are lit from the side so that the shadows are cast - small figures produce a feeling of loneliness and despair - often an unexplained shadow creeps in from the side - vast spaces create a sensation of impending doom The Nostalgia of the Infinite 1911 Georgio de Chirico 1888 – 1978 Greek/Italian Painter/Sculptor "Try the veal. It's the best in the city." “All you touch and all you see, is all your life will ever be..." Las musas disturbadoras 1925 Salvador Dali 1904 - 1989 Spanish Painter • Uses bizarre and grotesque images. • Some call him a “Madman” • Created own theory of automatism called ‘critical paranoia’- to paint or draw using critical paranoia, you might stare at the patterns in a rock until you imagine a figure or scene emerge from the designs. Then draw or paint that scene while you consciously set aside your understanding that the scene is really a rock. The art of automatism and critical paranoia often depict hallucinations of the subconscious mind. Salvador Dali 1904 – 1989 Spanish Painter - Dali painted eerie worlds with everyday objects The Persistence of Memory, 1931 - decay and death are symbolized by a dead tree and a strange sea monster decomposing - the limp watch indicates that someone has the power to twist time as he or she sees fit. Meditative Rose, 1958 - meaning: in time, everything will die and decay except time itself - the meaning in his other works are not always clear Salvador Dali 1904 – 1989 Spanish Painter Dali’s Bust of Voltaire shows the double image – -created using his ‘critical paranoia’ method. The figures in the slave market form the features of the bust of Voltaire while the negative space of an arch in the background creates Voltaire’s head. \ The Dream Max Ernst 1891 – 1976 German/French Painter Barbarians - as a child, Ernst was intrigued by pictures painted by mental patients - one of Ernst’s investigations was frottage – a technique based on randomness, similar to automatism. - Ernst, whose name had been blacklisted by the Nazis in 1933, and interned in a number of French concentration camps - In 1941, a police inspector at the French-Spanish border post, admiring many of the paintings found in the artist’s luggage, allowed him to escape the German army. - Ernst eventually found his way to the United States Max Ernst 1891 – 1976 German/French Painter Opedipus Rex, 1922 Ubu Imperator, 1924 Rene Magritte 1898 – 1967 Belgian Painter - painted absurd combinations of realistically painted objects - his work raises more questions than answers - witty artwork Time Transfixed, 1939 Rene Magritte 1898 – 1967 Belgian Painter Man in the Gray Overcoat -this painting is the closest Magritte was willing to come to answer a request of a self portrait. The Therapist, 1937 - the viewer is left with a sense of mystery. Joan Miro 1893 – 1983 Spanish Painter/Sculptor His work is characterized as psychic automatism - an expression of the subconscious in free form. By 1930 he had developed a lyrical style distinguished by the use of brilliant color and the playful juxtaposition of delicate lines with abstract, often amoebic shapes. Miro drew on many different aspects of his psyche to create, those being fantasy, memory, and the irrational to create works that are now world renowned. His works sometimes have a humorous or even whimsical quality about them. Joan Miro 1893 – 1983 Spanish Painter/Sculptor - among the first “Surrealist” paintings - painted misty world of dreams and half forgotten memories Carnival of Harlequin - The shapes are suggestive of people and animals - His biomorphic shapes seem to float on a soft background and overlap to creates new shapes. Man Ray 1890 – 1976 American Photographer/Painter - the only American artist in the Surrealist movement - In 1921, he invented Rayographs - of objects exposed on light-sensitive paper. VOCABULARY SURREALISM – A style of art and literature developed principally in the 20th century, in which fantastic visual imagery from the subconscious mind is used with no intention of making the artwork logically comprehensible. ‘critical paranoia’ - Dali’s own theory of automatism frottage – a technique, invented by Ernst, based on randomness and similar to automatism. Automatism – an expression of the subconscious in free form utilized by many Surrealist artists. Rayographs – Man Ray’s technique of exposing objects onto light-sensitive paper. The End Any questions?
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