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INSTITUTE FOR MACROMOLECULAR STUDIES WOOL KERATIN-BASED NANOFIBRES FOR ACTIVE FILTRATION OF AIR AND WATER A. Aluigi, C.Vineis, A. Varesano, C. Tonetti, C. Tonin, G.Mazzuchetti. 2nd International Conference on Innovative Natural Fibre Composites for Industrial Applications Rome, April 15-18, 2009 Wool Feather KERATINS High Cysteine Content Protein (7-20% of the total aminoacids) Hair Horns, Nails > 5.000.000 tons/year of keratin wastes from By-products of the textile industry Poor quality raw wool not fit for spinning Hairs and feathers from butchery KERATIN WASTES: Renewable Source Intermidiate Filaments Low-Sulphur Content Wool Fibre Keratin (1,5 -2 %wt) (LS) MW: 60, 45 kDa a-Helix Structure Cuticle Matrix High-Sulphur Content High-Sulphur Content Keratin (8%wt) (HS) Keratin (8% wt) (HS) MW: 28-11 kDa MW: 28-11 kDa b Sheet-Disordered Disordered Structure Structures AIM Keratin from Wool Nanofibre Non-Wovens Properties of regenerated wool keratin Nanofibre non-wovens properties Heavy metals absorption  High surface/volume ratio Formaldeyde absorption  High porosity Filtration System Air Cleaning Water depuration: especially removal of ultrafine particles and heavy metals adsorption  P. Kar and M. Misra, J. Chem. Technol Biotechnol, 2004, 79, 1313-1319  X. Huang, Y. J. Wang and Y. H. Di, Textile Research Journal, 2007, 77(12), 946-950 Nanofibre Production by Electrospinning Electrostatic forces Elongational forces able to transform the polymer solution in nanofibres Basic setup for an electrospinning apparatus High voltage supplier [10 30 KV DC] Syringe with a small diameter needle [0.2 1.5 mm] Metal collecting screen Keratin metabisulphite [0.6M]; Extraction + Urea [8M]; from Wool SDS [0.02M]; pH 6.5 Shaking, 65°C, 2h Filtration Solid Fraction Liquid Fraction Dialysis Filtration 5 m LS Casting 50°C overnight Regenerated Keratin Keratin/H2O Film HS Regenerated Keratin Characteristic Poor mechanical properties Polymer Blend Common solvent use Non-Thermoplastic (volatile) PA 6 Keratin 20 kDa Used to produce filters Keratin/Formic Acid Solution Stability Keratin / Formic Acid Extracted Keratin in Formic Acid 5% wt Casting 50°C overnight SDS-PAGE Films of Keratin regenerated from Formic Acid 1 Standard Keratin regenerated from formic acid: 2 2 days 3 After two weeks 4 After 1 month 5 After 3 months Film Regenerated Keratin in Formic Acid Blends 15% wt 0/100 10/90 30/70 + 50/50 70/30 Nanofibre Polyamide 6 90/10 Non-Woven in Formic Acid 100/0 15% wt Solution Properties Blend solution decanted overnight Cryogenically fractured sections of blend films Viscosity Additivity Rule ln T w ln i i i wi weight fraction of the i th component T theoretical vis cos ity i solution viscosity of i th component Immiscibility between keratin and polyamide 6 Electrospinning Conditions Voltage (kV): 15 20 25 30 Flow Rate (ml/min): 0,001 0,005 0,01 Tip-to-Target Distance (cm): 10 Capillary (mm): 0,40 Nanofibre Morfology Beads Diameter Size Distributions of Blend Nanofibres Water Stability 1 day immersion in water Preliminary test of chromium adsorption Stock Solution [Cr+3]0=50 g/L pH=4 Adsorbing Capacity q(g/mg) q0 q1 q(μg/mg) m q0 Cr 3 amount in the stock solution before adsorption q1 Cr 3 amount in the stock solution after adsorption, 2 h Formaldehyde Adsorption Formaldehyde Adosrption Apparatus FormaldemeterTM Formaldehyde releasing silica Multicomponent filter made of nanofibres Chamber deposited in a PP containing 0.6 ppm filter sheet of formaldehyde Physiosorption Physiosorption + Chemisorption Decrease of formaldehyde concentration with an initial concentration of 0.6 ppm (100%) during time in the presence of filters Tests performed at 20°C and 65% r.h. CONCLUSIONS Keratin/Polyamide 6 blend solutions in different proportions were prepared using formic acid as a common solvent Morphological analysis and viscosity measurements suggest immiscibility between the two polymers All the blend solutions were suitable for electrospinning and thin nanofibres with diameter ranging from 70 to 300 nm were obtained The stability in water of keratin/polyamide 6 blend nanofibres decreases with increasing the keratin content Keratin based nanofibres show a good chromium adsorption capacity Keratin based nanofibres are good formaldehyde absorbers, reducing airborne formaldehyde concentration up to 70% …REGIONE PIEMONTE (HI-TEX Project) and CASSA DI RISPARMIO DI BIELLA Foundation for the financial support … ALL of YOU for your attention!!
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