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					            Tsar Nicholas II
• Not a good start !



                   Cavalry charge crushes
                   spectators at coronation!


                   Refuses Zemstva requests
A Disliked
Government
                  Problems;
•   Lack of Land reform
•   Lack of Social Reform
•   Lack of Political Reform
•   Disliked Figures in Govt
•   Continued Repression
•   Famine
•   Impact of Industrialisation
AS WELL AS DOMESTIC ISSUES
 AND A TSAR WHO DOES NOT
  APPEAR TO BE LISTENING,
 THERE ARE FOREIGN POLICY
          ISSUES

     IMPACT OF 1890??
       NEW KAISER?
           Foreign Policy - 1894
CHANGE OF GERMAN POLICY IN 1890 – FORCES
RUSSIA TO LOOK ELSEWHERE FOR TRADE
EXPANSION - THE FAR EAST

Situation in the Far east;

•   Russo - Japanese Tension of 1890-94
•   In 1904 Japan invades and defeats China
•   Forces China to give concessions – eg Port Arthur
•   Although all taken away by the European powers – leaving
    Japan eager to reassert it’s influence
       RUSSIAN FACTORS
       LEADING TO WAR

• Decision to extend into Korea
• Strategic and Economic
• Cavalry officers in govt are keen for war
  Witte is not!
• Ex cavalry officer Bezabrazov plans
  ‘business venture’ in Korea!
 Plans to move troops into Korea
  disguised as workers and then
           take control
• Nicholas agrees – feels he is liberating
  Korea from the threat of ‘Yellow Peril!’
                 Minister for the interior – PLEHVE –
                 agrees – hopes it will detract attention
                 from political problems at home
      JAPANESE FACTORS
       LEADING TO WAR
• 1. – Excluded from China which it needs for
  its surplus population – losing Port Arthur

• 2 - Not happy at Russian expansion!

• 3 – Prestige – challenge a great power!
    PROBLEMO----for Russia
• War is a disaster
• Defeated on land
• Feb & May 1905

• Defeated at sea
• Dogger bank - upsets GB
• May 1905 – no boats left
 FINISHES WITH TREATY OF
     PORTSMOUTH 1905
• Japan gains Port Arthur, Southern
  Manchuria and Sakhalain

• Korea recognised as being within Japan’s
  sphere of influence
           SIGNIFICANCE
• Russian Foreign Policy in Far East is in
  tatters
• Illustrates backwardness of Russia
• Political disaster for Tsar
• Re-focuses Russian Foreign Policy on
  Balkans after 1905
• KEY CAUSE OF THE 1905
  REVOLUTION
1905 Revolution!
           Causes – Long Term
•   Industrialisation
•   Pop growth
•   Peasant poverty (land hunger)
•   Repression
•   No political reform
•   Alienated 3rd element / intelligensia
•   Russification
     Causes – Medium Term
• 1899 Economic slump –
• Wittes gamble fails
• Weak Tsar
       Causes – Short Term
• Unsuccessful War
• Food shortages
          Causes – Sparks
• Bloody Sunday
• Oct Strikes
                EVENTS
1904
Feb -     War / Phleve assassinated
Dec -     Loss of Port Arthur

Ongoing throughout year – strikes and unrest
            EVENTS
1905
Jan -   Strikes / Bloody Sunday
Feb -   GD Sergei Assassinated / Mukden
        Consultative Duma granted
May -   Unions become organised (UofU)
        Fleet lost
Jun -   Zemstva proposals refused
        Potemkin Mutiny
               EVENTS
1905
Aug -   Witte sent to Japan / Peace of
        Portsmouth
Oct -   General Strike
        St Petersburg Soviet
        October Manifesto
Nov -   Redemption payments cancelled
Dec -   Moscow Industrial rising crushed by
        troops
                    Role of Govt
Provoked revolution!


-Refused to involve ‘society’ in administration
-Govt too distant from 3rd element / lesser nobility
-Alienates intelligensia
-Unable to organise country for war
-Nicholas makes mistakes -        Absent at Bloody Sunday
                                  Failed to Act / did not realise
                                  how serious it was !
                                  Offered too little too late
                        EFFECTS
Major political concessions - Duma
Redemption payments ended – further Peasant reforms promised
Basic civil liberties promised
Workers gained experience of fighting for rights


BUT
Doubt over whether reforms can be consolidated
Power still lays with Autocracy (fundamental laws)
Wave of Fierce Oppression at end of Revolution (executions / exile)
       REASONS FOR FAILURE
• Troops generally loyal – mutiny’s are isolated
• Troops willing to put down unrest
• Opposition (revolution) was divided – especially after Oct
  Manifesto
• Socialists / Revolutionaries disagreed over violence.
• Middle Class scared of masses – unwilling to go too far!
• Peasant risings not really political general discontent – not a
  major threat
• Protests and revolution unco-ordinated – lacked real leadership
  (nature of soviets?)
• Mass protests are outbreaks of rage – not an attempt to replace
  govt
• Revolutionary forces spent themselves – given everything by
  Oct 1905!
• Government concessions worked
• Right wing groups got scared and fought back (eg black
  hundreds)

				
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posted:8/20/2012
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