Names and Terms to Know
✦ Renaissance Mary Stewart
✦ Martin Luther Puritans
✦ War of the Roses Elizabethan
✦ Henry VIII
✦ Elizabeth I
✦ James I
✦ During the Renaissance, scholars reacted
against the “dark ages” of medieval Europe,
reviving the learning of ancient Greece and
Rome. They thought they were bringing
about a rebirth of civilization.
Age of Exploration
✦ This thirst for knowledge prompted
exploration by sea. (They were helped by the
invention of the compass and telescope.
Thank you, Galileo!) Their high point came
when Columbus reached the Western
Hemisphere in 1492.
During this time, the
people began to
question the authority
of the Roman Catholic
Church. (Some felt
they were corrupt,
others questioned the
✦ Let’s stop here and
look at the last
paragraph on page
228, shall we?
✦ After the War of the Roses (a family feud
that ended the reign of the Plantegenets),
the Tudor dynasty was formed. Monarchs
assured stability by increasing their own
power and undercutting the strength of the
nobles. This may not sound so super, but...
✦ This dramatically changed England’s
religious practices and helped transform the
country from a small island nation to one of
the world’s greatest powers.
✦ Our first Tudor ruler
was Henry VII. He
was succeeded by
his son, Henry VIII.
They were both
Catholic, and Henry
VIII even wrote a
book against Martin
Luther, for which the
Pope granted him
the title, “Defender
of the Faith.”
A Little about our boy Henry...
✦ Relationship with Pope went sour
✦ His first wife, Catherine, didn’t have a son,
so old Henry wanted an annulment in order
to marry Anne Boleyn. The Pope said no, but
Henry did it anyway. This defiance led to a
break with the Catholic Church.
✦ Henry seized the properties of the Church
and dissolved the monasteries!
Henry loses it...
✦ Henry has his friend and leading advisor,
Thomas More, executed because More
refused to renounce his Catholic faith.
✦ Henry ended up marrying a total of six times.
His first two marriages produced two
daughters, Mary and Elizabeth. His third wife
had a son named Edward.
✦ Edward became king at the age of nine.
Although he died at the age of 15, there
were many parliamentary acts that
dramatically changed the nations religious
practices during his reign. For instance:
✦ English replaced Latin in church rituals.
✦ The Book of Common Prayer became
required in public worship
✦ Because of this, the nation was well on its
way to becoming a Protestant nation. Until...
✦ Mary initiated the return of Catholicism
✦ She restored the authority of the Pope over
the English Church
✦ She ordered the execution of about 300
Protestants, which earned her the nickname,
you guessed it, “Bloody Mary”.
✦ This served to only strengthen anti-Catholic
feelings in England
✦ When Mary died after a five-year stint, her
half sister, Elizabeth, took over.
✦ She had received a Renaissance education,
and was a great patron of the arts.
✦ She put an end to religious turmoil by
reestablishing the monarch’s control over the
Church of England.
✦ She encouraged Catholics and Protestants
✦ Her one problem was her Catholic cousin,
Mary, who was Queen of Scotland by birth,
and next in line to the throne of England.
✦ Long story short, after Mary plots against
Elizabeth several times, Parliament
eventually orders her beheaded! Yikes!