Chapter Introduction Section 1: Going to War in Vietnam Section 2: Vietnam Divides the Nation Section 3: The War Winds Down Visual Summary Should Citizens Support the Government During Wartime? During the Cold War, the United States sent troops to Vietnam to stop the spread of communism. Winning in Vietnam proved to be difficult and, as the war dragged on, many Americans began to protest. Eventually, the United States pulled out of Vietnam. • Why do you think the United States sent troops to Vietnam? • Why do you think Vietnam divided Americans? Going to War in Vietnam What created the conflict in Vietnam and how did America become involved? Vietnam Divides the Nation How did Americans protest the war in Vietnam? The War Winds Down How did the war end and how did it affect Americans? Big Ideas Trade, War, and Migration American involvement in the war in Vietnam was the result of its Cold War strategy. Content Vocabulary • domino theory • napalm • guerrilla • Agent Orange Academic Vocabulary • strategic • traditional People and Events to Identify • Ho Chi Minh • Dien Bien Phu • Geneva Accords • Ngo Dinh Diem • Vietcong • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution • Ho Chi Minh trail Should the United States have become involved in Vietnam? A. Yes B. No A. A B. B 0% 0% A B American Involvement in Vietnam The Cold War policy of containment led the United States to become increasingly involved in events in Vietnam. American Involvement in Vietnam (cont.) • One of the leaders of the nationalist movement in Vietnam for almost 30 years was Nguyen Tat Thanh—or Ho Chi Minh. • He helped found the Indochinese Communist Party, and worked to overthrow French rule. American Involvement in Vietnam (cont.) • In 1941, Japan seized control of the country, and Ho Chi Minh organized a nationalist group called the Vietminh. • America sent aid to the Vietminh. American Involvement in Vietnam (cont.) • When Japan surrendered to the Allies in 1945, it gave up control of Indochina; however, French troops returned to Vietnam in 1946. • The Vietminh fought back against the French-dominated regime and slowly gained control of large areas of the countryside. • France asked the United States for help. American Involvement in Vietnam (cont.) • Two events convinced President Truman to help France: – The fall of China to communism – The outbreak of the Korean War American Involvement in Vietnam (cont.) • President Eisenhower continued Truman’s policy and defended his decision with what became known as the domino theory—if Vietnam fell to communism, the rest of Southeast Asia would follow. • Despite help from the United States, guerrilla tactics used by the Vietminh consistently frustrated the French. Why Did Vietnam Matter to the United States? American Involvement in Vietnam (cont.) • The French defeat at Dien Bien Phu convinced the French to make peace and withdraw from Indochina. • The Geneva Accords divided Vietnam along the 17th parallel, with Ho Chi Minh and the Vietminh in control of North Vietnam and a pro-Western regime in control of the South. Vietnam, 1959 American Involvement in Vietnam (cont.) • The U.S. became the principal protector of the new government in the South, led by a nationalist leader named Ngo Dinh Diem. Vietnam, 1959 Why did Ngo Dinh Diem refuse to permit the 1956 elections in Vietnam? A. He wanted to maintain Communism. B. He feared Ho Chi Minh would win. A. A B. B C. He did not want the U.S. government interfering. 0% C. C0% 0% 0% D. He was anti-government. D. D A B C D America Becomes Involved in Vietnam Political pressures in the United States led the nation to become deeply involved in the civil war in Vietnam. America Becomes Involved in Vietnam (cont.) • Ho Chi Minh and the Communists began an armed struggle to reunify the nation after Ngo Dinh Diem refused to hold national elections. • They organized a new and powerful guerrilla army called the Vietcong. • Eisenhower sent hundreds of military advisers to train South Vietnam’s army, but Diem looked increasingly to the United States to keep South Vietnam from collapsing. America Becomes Involved in Vietnam (cont.) • On taking office in 1961, President Kennedy continued the nation’s policy of support for South Vietnam. • The United States urged Diem to create a more democratic government and to introduce reforms to help Vietnam’s peasants. • Diem introduced some limited reforms, but they had little effect. America Becomes Involved in Vietnam (cont.) • Several Vietnamese generals seized control of South Vietnam in November 1963, and executed Diem shortly thereafter. • His overthrow made matters worse and the United States became even more deeply involved. America Becomes Involved in Vietnam (cont.) • On August 2, 1964, President Johnson announced that North Vietnamese torpedo boats had fired on two American destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin. • On August 7, 1964, the Senate and House passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, authorizing the president to “take all necessary measures … to prevent further aggression.” America Becomes Involved in Vietnam (cont.) • After the resolution was passed, the Vietcong began to attack bases where American advisers were stationed in South Vietnam. • Less than 14 hours after the attack that killed 8 Americans and wounded more than 100, American aircraft bombed North Vietnam. • Most of the advisers who surrounded Johnson firmly believed the nation had a duty to halt communism in Vietnam. America Becomes Involved in Vietnam (cont.) • In March 1965, Johnson expanded American involvement by beginning a sustained bombing campaign against North Vietnam. • The same month, he ordered the first combat troops into Vietnam. Although Ngo Dinh Diem was already disliked, which final act made him even more unpopular? A. Proclaiming himself Catholic B. Discriminating against Buddhists A. A B. B C. Refusing to hold elections 0% 0% 0% 0% C. C D. Assassinating North A B C D Vietnam’s president D. D A Bloody Stalemate The failure of United States forces to defeat the Vietcong and the deaths of thousands of American soldiers led many Americans to question the nation’s involvement in Vietnam. A Bloody Stalemate (cont.) • To counter the Vietcong’s guerrilla tactics, American troops went on “search and destroy” missions. • To take away the Vietcong’s ability to hide, American forces literally destroyed the landscape by dropping napalm and Agent Orange. The Vietnam War, 1965–1973 A Bloody Stalemate (cont.) • The guerrillas, however, had no intention of surrendering, and they were willing to accept huge losses to achieve their goals. • North Vietnam sent arms and supplies south by way of a network of jungle paths known as the Ho Chi Minh trail. The Ho Chi Minh Trail A Bloody Stalemate (cont.) • One of the main reasons President Johnson refused to order a full-scale invasion of North Vietnam was his fear that such an attack would bring China into the war. • However, placing limits on the war made it hard to win. • American troops were forced to fight a war of attrition. North Vietnam received military weapons and other support from which two countries? A. The Soviet Union and China B. Korea and Japan A. A C. The Soviet Union and Japan B. B D. Germany and Japan 0% C.0%C 0% 0% D. D A B C D Big Ideas Group Action Many Americans protested to end their country’s involvement in the Vietnam War. Content Vocabulary • credibility gap • dove • teach-in • hawk Academic Vocabulary • media • disproportionate People and Events to Identify • William Westmoreland • Tet Offensive Is it acceptable for Americans to protest wars? A. Always B. Sometimes C. Never A. A B. B 0% 0% C. C 0% A B C An Antiwar Movement Emerges The Vietnam War produced sharp divisions between Americans who supported the war and those who did not, and the resulting political turmoil led President Johnson to decide not to run again for president. An Antiwar Movement Emerges (cont.) • As the war dragged on, people became suspicious of the government’s truthfulness about Vietnam. • American commander in South Vietnam, General William Westmoreland, reported that the enemy was on the brink of defeat throughout the early years of the war. • However, media reports were less optimistic. Opposition to the Vietnam War An Antiwar Movement Emerges (cont.) • In the view of many, a credibility gap had developed. • Congress soon grew uncertain about the war as well. Opposition to the Vietnam War An Antiwar Movement Emerges (cont.) • In March 1965, a group of faculty members and students who opposed the war at the University of Michigan abandoned their classes and joined together in a teach-in. • The gathering inspired teach-ins at many campuses. • Young protesters especially focused on what they saw as an unfair draft system. Opposition to the Vietnam War An Antiwar Movement Emerges (cont.) • Young people from working-class families were more likely to be drafted and sent to Vietnam because they were unable to afford college. • The treatment of African Americans also came under scrutiny. • An estimated 500,000 draftees refused to go, and more than 3,300 Americans were prosecuted for refusing to serve. Opposition to the Vietnam War An Antiwar Movement Emerges (cont.) • By 1968, the nation seemed to be divided into two camps: – Doves—those who disagreed with the war – Hawks—those who supported the war Opposition to the Vietnam War Anger over the draft fueled discussions about changing the voting age to 18, which led to which amendment? A. First B. Fifth A. A C. Fourteenth B. B D. Twenty-sixth 0% C. 0% C 0% 0% A D. D B C D 1968: The Pivotal Year The Tet Offensive increased doubt that the United States could win in Vietnam. 1968: The Pivotal Year (cont.) • On January 30, 1968, during Tet, the Vietnamese New Year, the Vietcong and North Vietnamese launched a massive surprise attack. • In this Tet Offensive, guerrilla fighters attacked most American airbases in South Vietnam and most of the South’s major cities. • The North Vietnamese had scored a major political victory. 1968: The Pivotal Year (cont.) • Eugene McCarthy became the first dove to declare that he would challenge Johnson for the Democratic presidential nomination. • Senator Robert Kennedy also entered the race for the Democratic nomination. • Johnson announced he would not run again. Presidential Election of 1968 1968: The Pivotal Year (cont.) • Violent events of 1968: − In April, James Earl Ray was arrested for assassinating Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. − Two months later, Robert Kennedy was gunned down. − A chaotic and well-publicized clash between antiwar protesters and police happened at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago. Who won the 1968 presidential election? A. Republican Richard Nixon B. Democrat Hubert Humphrey C. Independent George Wallace A. A B. B C. 0% 0% C 0% A B C Big Ideas Trade, War, and Migration The Vietnam War changed the way Americans viewed the government and the military, and led them to question how the armed forces were deployed. Content Vocabulary • linkage • Vietnamization Academic Vocabulary • generation • unresolved People and Events to Identify • Henry Kissinger • Pentagon Papers • War Powers Act Do you believe everything the government tells you? A. Yes B. No A. A B. B 0% 0% A B Nixon Moves to End the War While unrest and suspicion of the government grew, the United States finally withdrew its troops from Vietnam. Nixon Moves to End the War (cont.) • Nixon appointed Harvard professor Henry Kissinger as special assistant for national security affairs and gave him wide authority to use diplomacy to end the Vietnam War. – Kissinger embarked upon a policy he called linkage. – He also rekindled peace talks with the North Vietnamese. Nixon Moves to End the War (cont.) • Nixon reduced the number of American troops in Vietnam, known as Vietnamization. • In late 1969, Americans learned that, in the spring of 1968, an American platoon under the command of Lieutenant William Calley had massacred unarmed South Vietnamese civilians, mostly old men, women, and children. U.S. Troops in Vietnam, 1964–1974 Nixon Moves to End the War (cont.) • The actions of Calley convinced many that the war was brutal and senseless. • During protests against the invasion of Cambodia, Ohio National Guard soldiers killed four students at Kent State University in Ohio. • Ten days later, police killed two African American students during a demonstration at Jackson State College in Mississippi. Nixon Moves to End the War (cont.) • In 1971, Daniel Ellsberg leaked what became known as the Pentagon Papers to the New York Times. • These papers confirmed that the government had not been honest with the public about the war in Vietnam. • Just weeks after Nixon was reelected, peace negotiations with North Vietnam and South Vietnam broke down. Nixon Moves to End the War (cont.) • To force North Vietnam to resume negotiations, the Nixon administration began the most destructive air raids of the entire war, known as the “Christmas bombings.” • After 8 years of war, the warring sides signed a peace agreement on January 27, 1973. • Two years after the United States pulled its troops out of Vietnam, the North Vietnamese army launched a full-scale invasion of the South. Nixon Moves to End the War (cont.) • Without American assistance, the North Vietnamese united Vietnam under Communist rule. Why did Congress repeal the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution? A. Nixon allowed William Calley to attack civilians. B. Nixon invaded Cambodia A. A without their permission. 0% B. B 0% 0% 0% C. To appease the public C. C A B C D D. To give the president more powerD. D The Legacy of Vietnam The Vietnam War made a negative impact on the way in which Americans viewed international conflicts, as well as their own government. The Legacy of Vietnam (cont.) • Approximately 58,000 young Americans died and more than 300,000 were injured in Vietnam. • Around 1 million North and South Vietnamese soldiers died, as did countless civilians. • Many soldiers found it hard to escape the war’s psychological impact. The Legacy of Vietnam (cont.) • The war also remained unresolved for the American families whose relatives and friends were classified as prisoners of war (POWs) or missing in action (MIA). • In 1973, Congress passed the War Powers Act as a way to reestablish some limits on executive power. • Together with the Watergate scandal, Vietnam made Americans more wary of their leaders. The War Powers Act Why were there relatively few welcome-home parades and celebrations after the war? A. Lack of money to celebrate B. Many Americans wanted to forget a war the U.S. lost. A. A C. There were too many soldiers to recognize. B. B D. Out of respect for the 0% C. 0% C0% 0% POWs and MIAs D. D A B C D Causes of the Vietnam War • During World War II, the United States helps the people of Indochina fight the Japanese, who had invaded the region. • After World War II, France refuses to give independence to the people of Indochina and sends troops to reestablish control. • Led by Ho Chi Minh, the Vietminh fight the French. Ho Chi Minh wants Vietnam to be independent but also wants to build a Communist society in Vietnam. Causes of the Vietnam War • Concerned about the spread of communism, President Eisenhower sends aid to help the French retain control in Vietnam. • After losing the battle of Dien Bien Phu, France pulls out of Vietnam. The Geneva Accords create North and South Vietnam. • Ho Chi Minh becomes the leader of North Vietnam and makes it a Communist nation allied with the USSR and China. North Vietnam begins arming guerrillas to fight the South Vietnamese government. Causes of the Vietnam War • American leaders become worried that a “domino effect” might cause all of Southeast Asia to fall to communism if South Vietnam falls. • President Kennedy sharply increases military aid to South Vietnam. • President Johnson escalates U.S. involvement and gains war powers after the Gulf of Tonkin incident. Effects of the Vietnam War • Americans applaud President Johnson’s response to a Vietcong attack with aggressive air strikes. • United States commits over 380,000 ground troops to fighting in Vietnam by the end of 1966. • American people question the government’s honesty about the war, creating the so-called “credibility gap.” • The war casualties and the unfair draft system cause civil unrest. Effects of the Vietnam War • The wartime economy hurts domestic spending for programs such as the Great Society. • President Nixon is elected largely on promises to end the war and unite a divided country. • Congress passes the War Powers Act to limit the power of the president during wartime. Chapter Transparencies Menu Why It Matters Cause-and-Effect Transparency Unit Time Line Transparency Select a transparency to view. domino theory the belief that if one nation in Asia fell to the Communists, neighboring countries would follow guerrilla member of an armed band that carries out surprise attacks and sabotage rather than open warfare napalm a jellied gasoline used for bombs Agent Orange a chemical defoliant used to clear Vietnamese jungles during the Vietnam War strategic necessary to or important in the initiation, conduct, or completion of a military plan traditional relating to cultural continuity in social attitudes, customs, and institutions credibility gap lack of trust or believability teach-in an extended meeting or class held to discuss a social or political issue dove a person in favor of the United States withdrawing from the Vietnam War hawk someone who believed the United States should continue its military efforts in Vietnam media a means of expression or communication, especially in reference to the agencies of mass communication—newspapers, radio, television, and the Internet disproportionate lacking regularity or symmetry in size, degree, or intensity linkage policy of improving relations with the Soviet Union and China in hopes of persuading them to cut back their aid to North Vietnam Vietnamization the process of making South Vietnam assume more of the war effort by slowly withdrawing American troops from Vietnam generation a classification of people who share the same experience throughout their lives unresolved not cleared up, understandable, or dealt with successfully To use this Presentation Plus! product: Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. 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