The American Vision by cuiliqing

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									Chapter Introduction
Section 1: Going to War in
Section 2: Vietnam Divides the
Section 3: The War Winds Down
Visual Summary
Should Citizens Support
the Government During
During the Cold War, the United
States sent troops to Vietnam to
stop the spread of communism.
Winning in Vietnam proved to be
difficult and, as the war dragged on,
many Americans began to protest.
Eventually, the United States pulled
out of Vietnam.
• Why do you think the United
  States sent troops to Vietnam?
• Why do you think Vietnam
  divided Americans?
Going to War in
What created the conflict in
Vietnam and how did
America become involved?
Vietnam Divides the
How did Americans protest
the war in Vietnam?
The War Winds Down
How did the war end and
how did it affect
Big Ideas
Trade, War, and Migration American involvement in
the war in Vietnam was the result of its Cold War
Content Vocabulary
• domino theory   • napalm
• guerrilla       • Agent Orange

Academic Vocabulary
• strategic       • traditional
People and Events to Identify
• Ho Chi Minh
• Dien Bien Phu
• Geneva Accords
• Ngo Dinh Diem
• Vietcong
• Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
• Ho Chi Minh trail
Should the United States have
become involved in Vietnam?
A. Yes
B. No
                                    A. A
                                    B. B
                                0%     0%


American Involvement in Vietnam
        The Cold War policy of containment
        led the United States to become
        increasingly involved in events in
American Involvement in Vietnam (cont.)
• One of the leaders of the nationalist
  movement in Vietnam for almost 30 years
  was Nguyen Tat Thanh—or Ho Chi Minh.
• He helped found the Indochinese
  Communist Party, and worked to overthrow
  French rule.
American Involvement in Vietnam (cont.)
• In 1941, Japan seized control of the country,
  and Ho Chi Minh organized a nationalist
  group called the Vietminh.
• America sent aid to the Vietminh.
American Involvement in Vietnam (cont.)
• When Japan surrendered to the Allies in
  1945, it gave up control of Indochina;
  however, French troops returned to Vietnam
  in 1946.
• The Vietminh fought back against the
  French-dominated regime and slowly gained
  control of large areas of the countryside.
• France asked the United States for help.
American Involvement in Vietnam (cont.)
• Two events convinced President Truman to
  help France:
  – The fall of China to communism
  – The outbreak of the Korean War
American Involvement in Vietnam (cont.)
• President Eisenhower continued Truman’s
  policy and defended his decision with what
  became known as the domino theory—if
  Vietnam fell to communism, the rest of
  Southeast Asia would follow.
• Despite help from the United States,
  guerrilla tactics used by the Vietminh
  consistently frustrated the French.

      Why Did Vietnam Matter to the United States?
American Involvement in Vietnam (cont.)
• The French defeat at Dien Bien Phu
  convinced the French to make peace and
  withdraw from Indochina.
• The Geneva Accords divided Vietnam along
  the 17th parallel, with Ho Chi Minh and the
  Vietminh in control of North Vietnam and a
  pro-Western regime in control of the South.

                              Vietnam, 1959
American Involvement in Vietnam (cont.)
• The U.S. became the principal protector of
  the new government in the South, led by a
  nationalist leader named Ngo Dinh Diem.

                               Vietnam, 1959
Why did Ngo Dinh Diem refuse to
permit the 1956 elections in Vietnam?
A. He wanted to maintain
B. He feared Ho Chi Minh
   would win.                         A. A
                                      B. B
C. He did not want the U.S.
   government interfering.         0%
                                      C. C0%
                                       0%      0%

D. He was anti-government.            D. D



America Becomes Involved in Vietnam
        Political pressures in the United States
        led the nation to become deeply
        involved in the civil war in Vietnam.
America Becomes Involved in Vietnam
• Ho Chi Minh and the Communists began an
  armed struggle to reunify the nation after
  Ngo Dinh Diem refused to hold national
• They organized a new and powerful guerrilla
  army called the Vietcong.
• Eisenhower sent hundreds of military advisers
  to train South Vietnam’s army, but Diem
  looked increasingly to the United States to
  keep South Vietnam from collapsing.
America Becomes Involved in Vietnam
• On taking office in 1961, President Kennedy
  continued the nation’s policy of support for
  South Vietnam.
• The United States urged Diem to create a
  more democratic government and to
  introduce reforms to help Vietnam’s
• Diem introduced some limited reforms, but
  they had little effect.
America Becomes Involved in Vietnam
• Several Vietnamese generals seized control
  of South Vietnam in November 1963, and
  executed Diem shortly thereafter.
• His overthrow made matters worse and the
  United States became even more deeply
America Becomes Involved in Vietnam
• On August 2, 1964, President Johnson
  announced that North Vietnamese torpedo
  boats had fired on two American destroyers
  in the Gulf of Tonkin.
• On August 7, 1964, the Senate and House
  passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution,
  authorizing the president to “take all
  necessary measures … to prevent further
America Becomes Involved in Vietnam
• After the resolution was passed, the
  Vietcong began to attack bases where
  American advisers were stationed in South
• Less than 14 hours after the attack that killed
  8 Americans and wounded more than 100,
  American aircraft bombed North Vietnam.
• Most of the advisers who surrounded
  Johnson firmly believed the nation had a
  duty to halt communism in Vietnam.
America Becomes Involved in Vietnam
• In March 1965, Johnson expanded American
  involvement by beginning a sustained
  bombing campaign against North Vietnam.
• The same month, he ordered the first
  combat troops into Vietnam.
Although Ngo Dinh Diem was already
disliked, which final act made him even
more unpopular?
A. Proclaiming himself Catholic
B. Discriminating
   against Buddhists              A.   A
                                  B.   B
C. Refusing to hold elections     0%   0%   0%   0%
                                  C.   C
D. Assassinating North




   Vietnam’s president            D.   D
A Bloody Stalemate
        The failure of United States forces to
        defeat the Vietcong and the deaths of
        thousands of American soldiers led
        many Americans to question the
        nation’s involvement in Vietnam.
A Bloody Stalemate (cont.)
• To counter the Vietcong’s guerrilla tactics,
  American troops went on “search and
  destroy” missions.
• To take away the Vietcong’s ability to hide,
  American forces literally destroyed the
  landscape by dropping napalm and
  Agent Orange.

                    The Vietnam War, 1965–1973
A Bloody Stalemate (cont.)
• The guerrillas, however, had no intention of
  surrendering, and they were willing to accept
  huge losses to achieve their goals.
• North Vietnam sent arms and supplies south by
  way of a network of jungle paths known as the
  Ho Chi Minh trail.

                           The Ho Chi Minh Trail
A Bloody Stalemate (cont.)
• One of the main reasons President Johnson
  refused to order a full-scale invasion of North
  Vietnam was his fear that such an attack
  would bring China into the war.
• However, placing limits on the war made it
  hard to win.
• American troops were forced to fight a war
  of attrition.
North Vietnam received military
weapons and other support from
which two countries?
A. The Soviet Union and China
B. Korea and Japan
                                       A. A
C. The Soviet Union and Japan          B. B
D. Germany and Japan                0%
                                       C.0%C 0%   0%

                                       D. D



Big Ideas
Group Action Many Americans protested to end their
country’s involvement in the Vietnam War.
Content Vocabulary
• credibility gap   • dove
• teach-in          • hawk

Academic Vocabulary
• media             • disproportionate
People and Events to Identify
• William Westmoreland
• Tet Offensive
Is it acceptable for Americans to
protest wars?
A. Always
B. Sometimes
C. Never                               A. A
                                       B. B
                                  0%    0%
                                       C. C   0%



An Antiwar Movement Emerges
        The Vietnam War produced sharp
        divisions between Americans who
        supported the war and those who did
        not, and the resulting political turmoil
        led President Johnson to decide not to
        run again for president.
An Antiwar Movement Emerges (cont.)
• As the war dragged on, people became
  suspicious of the government’s truthfulness
  about Vietnam.
• American commander in South Vietnam,
  General William Westmoreland, reported
  that the enemy was on the brink of defeat
  throughout the early years of the war.
• However, media reports were
  less optimistic.

                 Opposition to the Vietnam War
An Antiwar Movement Emerges (cont.)
• In the view of many, a credibility gap had
• Congress soon grew uncertain about the war
  as well.

                 Opposition to the Vietnam War
An Antiwar Movement Emerges (cont.)
• In March 1965, a group of faculty members
  and students who opposed the war at the
  University of Michigan abandoned their
  classes and joined together in a teach-in.
• The gathering inspired teach-ins at many
• Young protesters especially focused on what
  they saw as an unfair draft system.

                Opposition to the Vietnam War
An Antiwar Movement Emerges (cont.)
• Young people from working-class families
  were more likely to be drafted and sent to
  Vietnam because they were unable to afford
• The treatment of African Americans also
  came under scrutiny.
• An estimated 500,000 draftees refused to
  go, and more than 3,300 Americans
  were prosecuted for refusing
  to serve.
                Opposition to the Vietnam War
An Antiwar Movement Emerges (cont.)
• By 1968, the nation seemed to be divided
  into two camps:
  – Doves—those who disagreed with the war
  – Hawks—those who supported the war

                Opposition to the Vietnam War
Anger over the draft fueled discussions
about changing the voting age to 18, which
led to which amendment?
A. First
B. Fifth
                                      A.   A
C. Fourteenth                         B.   B
D. Twenty-sixth                  0%
                                           0%   0%

                                      D.   D


1968: The Pivotal Year
         The Tet Offensive increased doubt that
         the United States could win in Vietnam.
1968: The Pivotal Year (cont.)
• On January 30, 1968, during Tet, the
  Vietnamese New Year, the Vietcong and
  North Vietnamese launched a massive
  surprise attack.
• In this Tet Offensive, guerrilla fighters
  attacked most American airbases in South
  Vietnam and most of the South’s major
• The North Vietnamese had scored a major
  political victory.
1968: The Pivotal Year (cont.)
• Eugene McCarthy became the first dove to
  declare that he would challenge Johnson for
  the Democratic presidential nomination.
• Senator Robert Kennedy also entered the
  race for the Democratic nomination.
• Johnson announced he would not run again.

                   Presidential Election of 1968
1968: The Pivotal Year (cont.)
• Violent events of 1968:
  − In April, James Earl Ray was arrested for
    assassinating Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
  − Two months later, Robert Kennedy was
    gunned down.
  − A chaotic and well-publicized clash
    between antiwar protesters and police
    happened at the Democratic National
    Convention in Chicago.
Who won the 1968 presidential election?
A. Republican Richard Nixon
B. Democrat Hubert Humphrey
C. Independent George Wallace
                                    A. A
                                    B. B
                                    C. 0%
                                    0% C    0%



Big Ideas
Trade, War, and Migration The Vietnam War
changed the way Americans viewed the government
and the military, and led them to question how the
armed forces were deployed.
Content Vocabulary
• linkage
• Vietnamization

Academic Vocabulary
• generation
• unresolved
People and Events to Identify
• Henry Kissinger
• Pentagon Papers
• War Powers Act
Do you believe everything the
government tells you?
A. Yes
B. No
                                    A. A
                                    B. B
                                0%     0%


Nixon Moves to End the War
        While unrest and suspicion of the
        government grew, the United States
        finally withdrew its troops from
Nixon Moves to End the War (cont.)
• Nixon appointed Harvard professor Henry
  Kissinger as special assistant for national
  security affairs and gave him wide authority
  to use diplomacy to end the Vietnam War.
  – Kissinger embarked upon a policy he
    called linkage.
  – He also rekindled peace talks with the
    North Vietnamese.
Nixon Moves to End the War (cont.)
• Nixon reduced the number of American
  troops in Vietnam, known as
• In late 1969, Americans learned that, in the
  spring of 1968, an American platoon under
  the command of Lieutenant William Calley
  had massacred unarmed South Vietnamese
  civilians, mostly old men, women, and

              U.S. Troops in Vietnam, 1964–1974
Nixon Moves to End the War (cont.)
• The actions of Calley convinced many that
  the war was brutal and senseless.
• During protests against the invasion of
  Cambodia, Ohio National Guard soldiers
  killed four students at Kent State University
  in Ohio.
• Ten days later, police killed two African
  American students during a demonstration at
  Jackson State College in Mississippi.
Nixon Moves to End the War (cont.)
• In 1971, Daniel Ellsberg leaked what
  became known as the Pentagon Papers to
  the New York Times.
• These papers confirmed that the government
  had not been honest with the public about
  the war in Vietnam.
• Just weeks after Nixon was reelected, peace
  negotiations with North Vietnam and South
  Vietnam broke down.
Nixon Moves to End the War (cont.)
• To force North Vietnam to resume
  negotiations, the Nixon administration began
  the most destructive air raids of the entire
  war, known as the “Christmas bombings.”
• After 8 years of war, the warring sides signed a
  peace agreement on January 27, 1973.
• Two years after the United States pulled its
  troops out of Vietnam, the North Vietnamese
  army launched a full-scale invasion of the
Nixon Moves to End the War (cont.)
• Without American assistance, the North
  Vietnamese united Vietnam under
  Communist rule.
Why did Congress repeal the Gulf of Tonkin
A. Nixon allowed William
   Calley to attack civilians.
B. Nixon invaded Cambodia
                                    A. A
   without their permission.
                                 0% B. B 0%
                                     0%       0%
C. To appease the public
                                    C. C




D. To give the president more powerD. D
The Legacy of Vietnam
        The Vietnam War made a negative
        impact on the way in which Americans
        viewed international conflicts, as well
        as their own government.
The Legacy of Vietnam (cont.)
• Approximately 58,000 young Americans died
  and more than 300,000 were injured in
• Around 1 million North and South
  Vietnamese soldiers died, as did countless
• Many soldiers found it hard to escape the
  war’s psychological impact.
The Legacy of Vietnam (cont.)
• The war also remained unresolved for the
  American families whose relatives and
  friends were classified as prisoners of war
  (POWs) or missing in action (MIA).
• In 1973, Congress passed the War Powers
  Act as a way to reestablish some limits on
  executive power.
• Together with the Watergate scandal,
  Vietnam made Americans more wary
  of their leaders.
                         The War Powers Act
Why were there relatively few welcome-home
parades and celebrations after the war?
A. Lack of money to celebrate
B. Many Americans wanted to
   forget a war the U.S. lost.
                                          A.    A
C. There were too many
   soldiers to recognize.                 B.    B
D. Out of respect for the            0%
                                                C0%   0%

   POWs and MIAs                          D.    D



Causes of the Vietnam War
• During World War II, the United
  States helps the people of Indochina
  fight the Japanese, who had invaded
  the region.
• After World War II, France refuses
  to give independence to the people
  of Indochina and sends troops to
  reestablish control.
• Led by Ho Chi Minh, the Vietminh fight the French. Ho
  Chi Minh wants Vietnam to be independent but also
  wants to build a Communist society in Vietnam.
Causes of the Vietnam War
• Concerned about the spread of
  communism, President Eisenhower
  sends aid to help the French retain
  control in Vietnam.
• After losing the battle of Dien Bien
  Phu, France pulls out of Vietnam.
  The Geneva Accords create North
  and South Vietnam.
• Ho Chi Minh becomes the leader of North Vietnam and
  makes it a Communist nation allied with the USSR and
  China. North Vietnam begins arming guerrillas to fight
  the South Vietnamese government.
Causes of the Vietnam War
• American leaders become worried
  that a “domino effect” might cause all
  of Southeast Asia to fall to
  communism if South Vietnam falls.
• President Kennedy sharply increases
  military aid to South Vietnam.
• President Johnson escalates U.S.
  involvement and gains war powers
  after the Gulf of Tonkin incident.
Effects of the Vietnam War
• Americans applaud President
  Johnson’s response to a Vietcong
  attack with aggressive air strikes.
• United States commits over
  380,000 ground troops to fighting
  in Vietnam by the end of 1966.
• American people question the government’s honesty
  about the war, creating the so-called “credibility gap.”
• The war casualties and the unfair draft system cause
  civil unrest.
Effects of the Vietnam War
• The wartime economy hurts
  domestic spending for programs
  such as the Great Society.
• President Nixon is elected largely
  on promises to end the war and
  unite a divided country.
• Congress passes the War Powers Act
  to limit the power of the president
  during wartime.
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domino theory
the belief that if one nation in Asia fell
to the Communists, neighboring
countries would follow
member of an armed band that
carries out surprise attacks and
sabotage rather than open warfare
a jellied gasoline used for bombs
Agent Orange
a chemical defoliant used to clear
Vietnamese jungles during the
Vietnam War
necessary to or important in the
initiation, conduct, or completion of a
military plan
relating to cultural continuity in social
attitudes, customs, and institutions
credibility gap
lack of trust or believability
an extended meeting or class held to
discuss a social or political issue
a person in favor of the United States
withdrawing from the Vietnam War
someone who believed the United
States should continue its military
efforts in Vietnam
a means of expression or
communication, especially in
reference to the agencies of mass
communication—newspapers, radio,
television, and the Internet
lacking regularity or symmetry in size,
degree, or intensity
policy of improving relations with the
Soviet Union and China in hopes of
persuading them to cut back their aid
to North Vietnam
the process of making South Vietnam
assume more of the war effort by
slowly withdrawing American troops
from Vietnam
a classification of people who share
the same experience throughout
their lives
not cleared up, understandable, or
dealt with successfully
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