200911160924_2009959nb1ubj_archivo_presentacion by cuiliqing

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									Maps, Climate Change, and
Mediated Knowledge: Mass
Media and Uncertain Science
            Stephanie Deitrick
     School of Geographical Sciences
         Arizona State University

         Presenter: Rob Edsall
         University of Minnesota

             November 2009
          Media and Science
• Understanding of science increasingly important as
  public policy is increasingly effected by science

• Public knowledge often comes through media, not
  scientific publications or direct involvement in
  research activities

• Complex, uncertain results are distilled into
  seemingly certain facts through combination of
  language, images, graphics and maps
   – Often avoid explicit inclusion of uncertainty or
     contextual information

                                                        2
     Media and Climate Change
• Media has played role in climate change dialogue
  between science, policy and the public
   – Emotional images, bleak futures, certain futures

• Influences public action and opinion in mitigation and
  adaptation

• Public risk perceptions, and awareness, are shaped (to
  some extent) by this mediated knowledge


                                                           3
            Media and Science
• Most recent, compelling or dramatic discoveries and
  futures

• New results presented as the new “facts”

• Visual representations create certainty from uncertain
  science

• Constant conflicting views often results in mistrust of
  science or scientific findings

                                                            4
 Graphic Communication of Science

• Mediate assessment, validation, and
  dissemination

• Powerful because they are persuasive:
  – Absolute (abstract to fixed patterns)
  – Quickly convey overall impressions
  – Scalable (view what may be otherwise
    unknowable)
  – Can be combined
                                            5
                               Visual Science
     • Graphs




http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/2006/11/20/global_warming_and_climate_change.htm   6
                      Visual Science
• Diagrams




                                                                                                7
  http://www.global-greenhouse-warming.com/graphs-diagrams-of-global-warming-and-climate.html
             Visual Science
• Pictures




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         Visual Science
• Maps




                          9
                                  Visual Science
        • Montage




                                                                                                 10
http://www.nytimes.com/2006/06/20/science/earth/20sea.html?scp=7&sq=climate+change+maps&st=nyt
          Media and Science
• Human drama and “stories of interest” catch media
  attention

• News focus on science if there is a story to tell

• Visual representations provide easy, clear,
  persuasive methods to communicate complex
  science




                                                      11
         Media and Maps
• Looking to the Future




                          12
FINGERPRINTS: Direct manifestations of a widespread and long-term
trend toward warmer global temperatures
            Heat waves and periods of unusually warm weather
            Ocean warming, sea-level rise and coastal flooding
            Glaciers melting
            Arctic and Antarctic warming

HARBINGERS: Events that foreshadow the types of impacts likely to
become more frequent and widespread with continued warming.
          Spreading disease
          Earlier spring arrival
          Plant and animal range shifts and population changes
          Coral reef bleaching
          Downpours, heavy snowfalls, and flooding
          Droughts and fires


                                                                    13
        Media and Maps
• Close to home




                         14
      Maps and the Media
• Conflicting View and Contradictions




                                        15
     Maps, Visuals and Media
• Maps in media evocative and persuasive

• Impression that science is certain and exact

• Constant conflicting views often results in mistrust of
  science or scientific findings

• Increased presence of science in public policy,
  encourages for effective methods of communicating
  context, risk and uncertainty


                                                        16
       Thank you.




stephanie.deitrick@asu.edu




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