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Basic Gate (gtumcappt)

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					                                                     Keval.M.Nagaria
    AIM: - To study about the characteristic of various types of
                                 logic gates.
APPARATUS: - Digital IC trainer,
                   Connecting wires,
AND GATE: - It is a two or more than 2 input gate. When all the
input are high then and only then the o/p is high otherwise the
output is low. The symbol and the truth table of AND gate is shown
in fig. (a)
TRUTH TABLE                     SYMBOL          OBSERVATION TABLE




AND GATE: -
A   B   Y=A.B          Fig. (a)                   A   B    Y= A.B
 0  0     0                                       0   0
 0  1     0                                       0   1
 1  0     0                                       1   0
 1  1     1                                       1   1
OR GATE: - It has two or more than 2             input. The o/p is low
whenever all the input are low otherwise it remains high. The
symbol and truth table of OR gate are shown in fig. (b)




OR GATE: -
A     B       Y=A+B              Fig. (b)        A     B   Y= A+B
0     0         0                                0     0
0     1         1                                0     1
1     0         1                                1     0
1     1         1                                1     1

Fundamentals of Computer Organization                                1
                                                    Keval.M.Nagaria
NOT GATE: - It is the single input gate and its function is to
convert the input. In other words, the output is 0 or 1 for an input
logic of 1 or 0 respectively. The symbol is shown in fig. (c)




NOT GATE: -
A          Y=Ā                   Fig. (c)           A           Y= Ā
0           1                                       0
1           0                                       1

NOR GATE: - The OR plus NOT gate operation is known as NOR
gate operation. Fig. (d) Shows an OR gate followed by a bubble. The
operation of the circuit may be described as, whenever all the
inputs are low the output is high other wise output is low.
                                 Y= (A+ B)'




NOR GATE: -
A     B    Y=(A+ B)'             Fig. (d)       A       B   Y=(A+ B)'
0     0       1                                 0       0
0     1       0                                 0       1
1     0       0                                 1       0
1     1       0                                 1       1

NAND GATE: - It is the combination of AND with NOT gate. In other
words it is inverted AND gate. Whenever all input are high output is
low, other wise it is high. The symbol is shown in Fig. (e)

Fundamentals of Computer Organization                                   2
                                                   Keval.M.Nagaria




NAND GATE: -
A     B     Y=(A.B)'             Fig. (e)      A     B   Y=(A.B)'
0     0        1                               0     0
0     1        1                               0     1
1     0        1                               1     0
1     1        0                               1     1

EX-OR GATE: - It is also known as not coincidence gate. It has two
or more than two input. Whenever the inputs have an odd number
of one’s the output is one. Thus the Exclusive-OR is an odd
function. The symbol is shown in Fig. (f )




EX – OR GATE: -
A     B    Y= A  B               Fig. (f)     A     B   Y= A  B
0     0       0                                0     0
0     1       1                                0     1
1     0       1                                1     0
1     1       0                                1     1

EX-NOR GATE: - It is called exclusive NOR or inverted NOR
(combination of NOT and EX-0R gate). It is also known as
equivalence gate or coincidence gate. This is an even function, i.e. it
is equal to 1 if the inputs have an even number of 0’s. The symbol
is shown in Fig. (g)


Fundamentals of Computer Organization                                 3
                                                    Keval.M.Nagaria




EX – NOR GATE: -
A     B    Y=(AB)'              Fig. (g)       A     B   Y=(AB)'
0     0       1                                 0     0
0     1       0                                 0     1
1     0       0                                 1     0
1     1       1                                 1     1

PROCEDURE: -
     With the help of connecting wires, Connect logic input
      switches to the input terminals of different logic gates. Also
      connect the output of these gates to the logic output indicator.
     Change input with the help of switches.
     Observe output on LEDs and verify the truth table of each
      logic gate.
CONCLUSION: -




Fundamentals of Computer Organization                                4

				
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