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Millinium development goals in NEpal

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Millinium development goals in NEpal Powered By Docstoc
					      ‘‘ANALYZE THE PROGRESS
        TOWARDS ACHIEVING MDGs
        IN NEPAL’’
          A Term Paper Presentation to fulfill the
          partial requirement of BPH second
          semester [Public Health PBH TPP 111.3]


Monday, August 20, 2012   Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal   1
        Prepared by:                                Presented with:
                                                    Samjhana Gurung ‘A’
       SAgun PAudel
          Health Assistant                          Samjhana Gurung ‘B’
  Student of BPH @ LA GRANDEE                       Sabita Timilsina &
       International college,
    Simalchour Pokhara, Nepal                       Sarala Kumal




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                          Introduction
The UN global conferences of the 1990s drew up a
number of different key global Development goals and
targets to focus equalize and harmonize the needs and
status of the people all over the world.
These goals and targets were known as the International
Development targets. Again in 2000, the representatives
of 189 nations, including 147 heads of state and
Government adopted the Millennium Declaration during
the Millennium Development Summit (September 6-8,
2000) of the United Nations.


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The Millennium Declaration focused on peace, security
  and development concerns comprising environment,
human rights and good governance. In this connection,
       the Declaration tried to mainstream a set of
 interconnected and mutually reinforcing development
               goals into a global agenda.




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The international development targets and the
development goals were merged together and renamed as
the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
2. Achieve universal primary education
3. Promote gender equality and empower women
4. Reduce child mortality
5. Improve maternal health
6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
7. Ensure environmental sustainability
8. Develop a global partnership for development.
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 These goals had been decided and fixed earlier in many
international forums and conventions. What is new about
  the MDGs is setting of targets under each goal, a joint
meeting of UN Secretariat, and specialized UN agencies,
            the World Bank, IMF and OECD.




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Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

• Target 1:
Halve between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people
  whose income is less than $1 per day.

 Indicator:
• Proportion of population below $1 (1993 PPP) per day
• Poverty gap ratio (incidence * depth of poverty)


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Target 2:
• Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people
   who suffer from hunger.
 Indicator:
• Prevalence of underweight children under five years of
   age (UNICEF-WHO)
• Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary
   energy consumption




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 Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
Target 3:
• Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and
  girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of
  primary schooling.
Indicator:
• Net enrollment ratio in primary education
• Proportion of population starting grade 1 who reach
  grade 5
• Literacy rate of 15-24 years old


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Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
Target 4:

• Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary
  education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015.
 Indicator:

• Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary
  education
• Ratio of literate women to men, 15-24 years old

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• Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate
Target 5:
• Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the
  Under five mortality rate.

Indicator:
• Under-five mortality rate (UNICEF-WHO)
• Infant mortality rate (UNICEF-WHO)
• Proportion of eye year children immunized against
  measles.

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Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health

Target 6:

• Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the
  maternal mortality ratio.

Indicator:
• Maternal mortality ratio (UNICEF-WHO)
• Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel
  (UNICEF-WHO)

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• Goal 6: Combat HIV/ AIDS, malaria, and other
   diseases
Target 7:
• Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of
   HIV / AIDS.
Indicator:
• HIV prevalence among pregnant women aged 15-24
   years
• Condom use rate of contraceptive prevalence rate
• Condom use at last high- risk sex
• Percentage of population aged 15-24 years with
   comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV / AIDS
• Contraceptive prevalence rate
• Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school
   attendance of non orphans aged 10-14 years
  Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 13
Target 8:
• Have halted by 2015 and began to reverse the
    incidence of malaria and other major diseases.
Indicator:
• Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria
• Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using
    effective malaria prevention and treatment measures
• Prevalence and death rate associated with
    tuberculosis
• Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured
    under DOTS (internationally recommended TB
    control strategy) Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal
Monday, August 20, 2012                                       14
Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability
Target 9:
• Integrate the principles of sustainable development into
   country policies and programme; reverse loss of
   environmental resources
 Indicator:
• Proportion of land area covered by forest
• Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to
   surface area
• Energy use (kg oil equivalent) per $1 GDP (PPP)
• Carbon dioxide emission per capita and consumption of
   ozone-depleting CFCs (ODP tons)
• Monday, August 20, 2012 of populationprogress of MDGs in Nepal fuels
   Proportion                    Analyze the using solid               15
Target 10:
• Halve, by 2015,the proportion of people without
   sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic
   sanitation( for more information see the entry on water
   supply)
 Indicator:
• Proportion of population with sustainable access to an
   improved water source, urban and rural
• Proportion of population with access to improved
   sanitation, urban and rural


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Target 11:
• By 2020, to have achieved a significance improvement
  in the lives of at least 100 million slum-dwellers.
Indicator:
• Proportion of households with access to secure tenure
  (UN-HABITAT)




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Target 12-18:
• Develop further an open, rule –based, predictable, non-
  discriminatory trading and financial system. Address the
  Special Needs of the Least Developed Countries (LDC).
  Address the special needs of landlocked developing
  countries and Small Island developing States.
• Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of
  developing countries through national and international
  measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long
  term. In co-operation with pharmaceutical companies,
  provide access to affordable, drugs in developing
  countries.
• In co-operation with the private sector, make available
  the benefits of new technologies, especially information
  and communications.
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Indicator:
• Net ODA as percentage of Development Assistance
  Committee (DAC) donor’s Gross National Income
• Unemployment rate of young people aged 15-24
  years, each sex and total
• Proportion of population with access to affordable
  essential drugs on a sustainable basis




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Objective:
 General Objectives:
• To analyze the progress towards achieving MDGS in Nepal.
Specific Objectives:
• To compare the various indicators in different years such as;
• % of population below $1 per day (PPP value)
• % of the population below the minimum level of dietary energy consumption
• % of underweight children under 5
• Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), Under-5 mortality rate, Maternal
   mortality ratio
• Proportion of births attended by skilled birth attendant
• Contraceptive prevalence rate (%)
• HIV prevalence among people 15–49 years old



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                 The MDGs and Nepal
• Nepal has set up its long-term development targets in line
  with the MDGs. The MDG programs are linked with the
  programs of the ongoing 10th Plan (2002-2007).
• The achievements attained by the end of the final year of
  the 12th Plan (2016/17) will be assessed with the
  achievements of the MDGs.
• If the objectives and targets of the 12th Plan are not
  fulfilled, the targets of MDGs will also become futile and
  incomplete.
• Nepal faces problems pertaining to project design,
  implementation and attainment of the targeted results. At
  times, policy ambiguity becomes an acute barrier. Still, the
  implementing pitfalls and rampant corruption have been
  primarily responsible for the failure of the projects.
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                          Key Strategies of Nepal
While the Nepal Government is committed to achieving
the MDGs by putting the right policies in place,
improving efficiency and effectiveness of the
interventions that contribute to reaching the goals, and
pursuing the required policy and institutional reforms,
Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) should
serve as a medium-term roadmap to get to the longer-
term goals set out by the MDGs




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• All development activities must be strategically geared
  towards attainment of the Goals, which calls for enhanced
  coordination and harmonization among development
  actors. This, in turn, requires a comprehensive
  development framework which
1. prioritizes MDG based programs, and sufficient resources
   allocated to such programs and
2. Addresses the gender, caste, ethnicity, and spatial
   dimensions of poverty.



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• The current MDG Needs Assessment (MDG NA)
  covers only agriculture, education, gender, health and
  rural infrastructure sector. In order to achieve all the
  Goals, the needs assessment needs to incorporate
  other remaining MDGs related sectors such as energy,
  forestry, slum and global partnership.
• The government has introduced MTEF since 2002/03
  for linking annual budget with PRSP



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• Business Plans for major sectors like education,
  health, drinking water, agriculture and irrigation, and
  rural infrastructure (road and electricity) have been
  prepared.
• District Periodic Plans (DPPs) are instrumental in
  linking MDGs to annual development programs of
  the districts. Currently, 52 districts have periodic
  plans prepared under the guideline provided by NPC.



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• For localization of MDGs, there is huge area for mobilizing
  the local bodies including the VDCs and Municipalities. The
  current MDG Project has started to prepare the District
  MDG Progress report in some districts.
The importance of this program would be:
o awareness generation to general public at the district level;
o getting commitment and ownership on the MDGs by local
  government bodies – particularly from the district level
  policy makers, planners and bureaucrats, external
  development partners, non-governmental sectors including
  the private sectors; and
o Mobilization of all these stakeholders for preparing their
  MDG based time bound action plan.


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   Findings                      Progress toward the Millennium Development Goals and Targets
      Goals and Targets                   Current Status, against 2015 Target

Goal 1:
Eradicate Extreme Poverty
                                Item                                           1990   Latest        2015
and                             % of population below $1 per day               33.5   24.1 (2005)   17
Hunger                          (PPP value)
                                Poverty gap ratio at $1.25 a day               -      6.1 (2008)    -
Target 1.A:                     (PPP) (%)
 Halve, between 1990 and
2015, the proportion of         Item                                           1990   Latest        2015
people whose income is
                                Employment-to-population ratio                 -      81.7 (2008)   -
less than $1 a day.
                                Proportion of own-account and                  -      81.9 (2010)   -
                                contributing family workers in total
                                employment
Target 1.B:
Achieve full and productive     Item                                           1990   Latest        2015
Employment and decent
work for all, including         % of the population below the                  49     22.5 (2006)   25
women and young people.         minimum level of dietary energy
                                consumption
                                % of underweight children under 5              57     38.6 (2006)   29

Target 1.C:
 Halve, between 1990 and
2015, the proportion of
people who suffer from
hunger.

Goal 2:
Achieve Universal Primary
                                Item                                           1990   Latest        2015
Education                       Net enrollment rate in primary                 64     93.7 (2009)   100
                                education (%)
Target 2.A:                     Proportion of pupils starting grade 1          38     77.9 (2009)   100
 Ensure that, by 2015,          and reaching grade 5 (%)
children everywhere, boys
                                Literacy rate of people 15–24 years            49.6   86.5 (2008)   100
and girls alike, will be able
                                old (%)
to complete a full course of
primary schooling.

Goal 3:
Promote Gender Equality
                                Item                                           1990   Latest        2015
and Empower Women               Ratio of girls to boys at primary level        0.56   1.0 (2009)    1.0
                                Ratio of girls to boys at secondary            0.43   0.93 (2009)   1.0
                                level
Target 3.A:                     Ratio of women to men at tertiary              0.32   0.63 (2007)   1.0
Eliminate gender disparity      level
in primary and secondary        Share of women in wage                         18.9   19.9 (2009)   -
education, preferably by        employment in the Non agricultural
2005, and in all levels of      sector (%)
education no later than
2015.                           Proportion of seats held by women in           3.4    32.8 (2010)   -
                                Parliament
                                (%)



                                Item                                           1990   Latest        2015
Goal 4:                         Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live          108    41 (2010)     34
Reduce Child Mortality          births)
                                Under-5 mortality rate (per 1,000 live         162    50 (2010)     54
Target 4.A:                     births)
Reduce by two thirds,           % of 1 year-old children immunized             42     85.6 (2009)   >90
                                against measles
Monday, August 20, 2012
between 1990 and 2015, the
under-5 mortality rate.
                                       Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal                               27
         Nepal’s Progress in Attaining MDGs:
     Nepal is among many least developed countries with
     high risk of not attaining many of the Millennium
     Development Goals (MDGs). When the first MDG
     progress report was published in 2002, only two goals
     (child mortality and drinking water) were seen to be
     potentially achievable. The recent set of information,
     however, indicates that Nepal would be able to meet
     some more of the goals if necessary interventions could
     be made with adequate institutions and resources at
     place. The supportive environment for some other
     goals is also improving despite conflict intensifying in
     the country.
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                          Discussion:
• Nepal improves the percentage of population below
  $1 per day in 2005 [24.1%] from [33.5] which is
  nearer to the target i.e. 17%.
• The percentage of population below the minimum
  level of dietary energy consumption in 1990 is 49
  this is reduced in 2006 by ½ and more percentage i.e.
  22.5 which is nearer to the target i.e. 25.
• Percentage of underweight children under 5 yrs was
  also decreased from 57%[1990] to 38.5 [2006] where
  target is 29%.



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• In education percentage of net enrollment of primary
  education is 93.7 in [2009] this shows that nepal can
  achieve this target easily.
• Similarly the literacy rate of people among 15-25 years
  old is 86.5%[2008] .
• Data shows that nepal can successfully achieve the
  target of gender equity i.e in primary, secondary &
  tertiary education the ratio of boys & girls is 1[target],
  which is achieved in 2009.



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• Similarly the proportion of seats held by women is
  increased by 3.4 % [1990] to 32.8 [2010].
• Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) is decrease by
  ½ and more: from 108 [1990] to 41[2010].
• Similarly,Under-5 mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) is
  also decrease from 162 [1990] to 50 [2010] which is
  nearer to the target i.e. 54.
• % of 1 year-old children immunized against measles in
  1990 is 42 which is increase by the year 2009 [85.6].




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• Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births) in
  1990 is 850 which is reduced in year 2009 [229] from
  this indicator nepal was awarded.
• Contraceptive prevalence rate (%) is 24 in 1990 and
  45 in 2010. this shows that just nearer to double %
  CPR is increased.




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• Prevalence rate associated with malaria(number of
  cases per 1000 of the population) is 1.96 in 1990 and
  decrease in the year 2009 [0.16].

• Prevalence associated with tuberculosis is 460 in
  1990 and decrease in year 2005 [280].




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• Proportion of the population with sustainable access
  to improved water sources (%) is 46 in 1990 which is
  improved in year2010 i.e.80 where the target is just
  73.
• Proportion of the population with sustainable access
  to improved sanitation in 1990 is only 6% whereas it
  is increased in the year 2010 [43] which is nearer to
  the target [53].



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                            Conclusion
Nepal has made marked progress in some social indicators
  leading to the attainment of some MDGs by 2015. But
  the progress has halted in the recent years. The country
  faces added difficulty in achieving MDGs in the current
  political scenario- weak resource base, violence, conflict
  and weak governance.
The conflict affect towards achieving MDGs for a number
  of reasons including the risk of domestic resource crowd
  out, ineffectiveness of service delivery, prolonged
  absence of elected representatives at the local bodies,
  and setbacks in social mobilization and community
  participation.

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MDGs are reinforcing to each other and the attainment
 of one goal would help the attainment of others.
MDGs can be achieved only through a strategic
 partnership among government, local bodies, NGOs,
 CBOs, and donors, strategic partnership in project
 formulation, execution, coordination of development
 activities, donor harmonization, and participatory
 monitoring and evaluation system are highly
 essential.


Monday, August 20, 2012   Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal   36
                          References

• A report on ‘‘Achieving the Health Millennium
  Development Goals in Asia and the Pacific Policies and
  Actions within Health Systems and Beyond’’ by Asia-
  Pacific MDG Study Series.
• A statistical data published by ‘‘The World Bank Group’’
• ‘‘Achieving Millennium Development Goals: Challenges
  For Nepal’’ by Research Department, International Finance
  Division, Nepal Rastra Bank
• http://www.undp.org
• Nepal MDGs Progress Reports 2010.
• ‘‘Nepal’s progress towards Millennium Development
  Goals’’ by Asian Development Bank.


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