‘‘ANALYZE THE PROGRESS
TOWARDS ACHIEVING MDGs
A Term Paper Presentation to fulfill the
partial requirement of BPH second
semester [Public Health PBH TPP 111.3]
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 1
Prepared by: Presented with:
Samjhana Gurung ‘A’
Health Assistant Samjhana Gurung ‘B’
Student of BPH @ LA GRANDEE Sabita Timilsina &
Simalchour Pokhara, Nepal Sarala Kumal
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 2
The UN global conferences of the 1990s drew up a
number of different key global Development goals and
targets to focus equalize and harmonize the needs and
status of the people all over the world.
These goals and targets were known as the International
Development targets. Again in 2000, the representatives
of 189 nations, including 147 heads of state and
Government adopted the Millennium Declaration during
the Millennium Development Summit (September 6-8,
2000) of the United Nations.
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 3
The Millennium Declaration focused on peace, security
and development concerns comprising environment,
human rights and good governance. In this connection,
the Declaration tried to mainstream a set of
interconnected and mutually reinforcing development
goals into a global agenda.
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 4
The international development targets and the
development goals were merged together and renamed as
the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
2. Achieve universal primary education
3. Promote gender equality and empower women
4. Reduce child mortality
5. Improve maternal health
6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
7. Ensure environmental sustainability
8. Develop a global partnership for development.
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 5
These goals had been decided and fixed earlier in many
international forums and conventions. What is new about
the MDGs is setting of targets under each goal, a joint
meeting of UN Secretariat, and specialized UN agencies,
the World Bank, IMF and OECD.
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 6
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
• Target 1:
Halve between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people
whose income is less than $1 per day.
• Proportion of population below $1 (1993 PPP) per day
• Poverty gap ratio (incidence * depth of poverty)
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 7
• Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people
who suffer from hunger.
• Prevalence of underweight children under five years of
• Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 8
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
• Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and
girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of
• Net enrollment ratio in primary education
• Proportion of population starting grade 1 who reach
• Literacy rate of 15-24 years old
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 9
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
• Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary
education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015.
• Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary
• Ratio of literate women to men, 15-24 years old
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 10
• Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Rate
• Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the
Under five mortality rate.
• Under-five mortality rate (UNICEF-WHO)
• Infant mortality rate (UNICEF-WHO)
• Proportion of eye year children immunized against
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 11
Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health
• Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the
maternal mortality ratio.
• Maternal mortality ratio (UNICEF-WHO)
• Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 12
• Goal 6: Combat HIV/ AIDS, malaria, and other
• Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of
HIV / AIDS.
• HIV prevalence among pregnant women aged 15-24
• Condom use rate of contraceptive prevalence rate
• Condom use at last high- risk sex
• Percentage of population aged 15-24 years with
comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV / AIDS
• Contraceptive prevalence rate
• Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school
attendance of non orphans aged 10-14 years
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 13
• Have halted by 2015 and began to reverse the
incidence of malaria and other major diseases.
• Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria
• Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using
effective malaria prevention and treatment measures
• Prevalence and death rate associated with
• Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured
under DOTS (internationally recommended TB
control strategy) Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal
Monday, August 20, 2012 14
Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability
• Integrate the principles of sustainable development into
country policies and programme; reverse loss of
• Proportion of land area covered by forest
• Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to
• Energy use (kg oil equivalent) per $1 GDP (PPP)
• Carbon dioxide emission per capita and consumption of
ozone-depleting CFCs (ODP tons)
• Monday, August 20, 2012 of populationprogress of MDGs in Nepal fuels
Proportion Analyze the using solid 15
• Halve, by 2015,the proportion of people without
sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic
sanitation( for more information see the entry on water
• Proportion of population with sustainable access to an
improved water source, urban and rural
• Proportion of population with access to improved
sanitation, urban and rural
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 16
• By 2020, to have achieved a significance improvement
in the lives of at least 100 million slum-dwellers.
• Proportion of households with access to secure tenure
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 17
• Develop further an open, rule –based, predictable, non-
discriminatory trading and financial system. Address the
Special Needs of the Least Developed Countries (LDC).
Address the special needs of landlocked developing
countries and Small Island developing States.
• Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of
developing countries through national and international
measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long
term. In co-operation with pharmaceutical companies,
provide access to affordable, drugs in developing
• In co-operation with the private sector, make available
the benefits of new technologies, especially information
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 18
• Net ODA as percentage of Development Assistance
Committee (DAC) donor’s Gross National Income
• Unemployment rate of young people aged 15-24
years, each sex and total
• Proportion of population with access to affordable
essential drugs on a sustainable basis
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 19
• To analyze the progress towards achieving MDGS in Nepal.
• To compare the various indicators in different years such as;
• % of population below $1 per day (PPP value)
• % of the population below the minimum level of dietary energy consumption
• % of underweight children under 5
• Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), Under-5 mortality rate, Maternal
• Proportion of births attended by skilled birth attendant
• Contraceptive prevalence rate (%)
• HIV prevalence among people 15–49 years old
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 20
The MDGs and Nepal
• Nepal has set up its long-term development targets in line
with the MDGs. The MDG programs are linked with the
programs of the ongoing 10th Plan (2002-2007).
• The achievements attained by the end of the final year of
the 12th Plan (2016/17) will be assessed with the
achievements of the MDGs.
• If the objectives and targets of the 12th Plan are not
fulfilled, the targets of MDGs will also become futile and
• Nepal faces problems pertaining to project design,
implementation and attainment of the targeted results. At
times, policy ambiguity becomes an acute barrier. Still, the
implementing pitfalls and rampant corruption have been
primarily responsible for the failure of the projects.
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 21
Key Strategies of Nepal
While the Nepal Government is committed to achieving
the MDGs by putting the right policies in place,
improving efficiency and effectiveness of the
interventions that contribute to reaching the goals, and
pursuing the required policy and institutional reforms,
Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) should
serve as a medium-term roadmap to get to the longer-
term goals set out by the MDGs
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 22
• All development activities must be strategically geared
towards attainment of the Goals, which calls for enhanced
coordination and harmonization among development
actors. This, in turn, requires a comprehensive
development framework which
1. prioritizes MDG based programs, and sufficient resources
allocated to such programs and
2. Addresses the gender, caste, ethnicity, and spatial
dimensions of poverty.
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 23
• The current MDG Needs Assessment (MDG NA)
covers only agriculture, education, gender, health and
rural infrastructure sector. In order to achieve all the
Goals, the needs assessment needs to incorporate
other remaining MDGs related sectors such as energy,
forestry, slum and global partnership.
• The government has introduced MTEF since 2002/03
for linking annual budget with PRSP
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 24
• Business Plans for major sectors like education,
health, drinking water, agriculture and irrigation, and
rural infrastructure (road and electricity) have been
• District Periodic Plans (DPPs) are instrumental in
linking MDGs to annual development programs of
the districts. Currently, 52 districts have periodic
plans prepared under the guideline provided by NPC.
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 25
• For localization of MDGs, there is huge area for mobilizing
the local bodies including the VDCs and Municipalities. The
current MDG Project has started to prepare the District
MDG Progress report in some districts.
The importance of this program would be:
o awareness generation to general public at the district level;
o getting commitment and ownership on the MDGs by local
government bodies – particularly from the district level
policy makers, planners and bureaucrats, external
development partners, non-governmental sectors including
the private sectors; and
o Mobilization of all these stakeholders for preparing their
MDG based time bound action plan.
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 26
Findings Progress toward the Millennium Development Goals and Targets
Goals and Targets Current Status, against 2015 Target
Eradicate Extreme Poverty
Item 1990 Latest 2015
and % of population below $1 per day 33.5 24.1 (2005) 17
Hunger (PPP value)
Poverty gap ratio at $1.25 a day - 6.1 (2008) -
Target 1.A: (PPP) (%)
Halve, between 1990 and
2015, the proportion of Item 1990 Latest 2015
people whose income is
Employment-to-population ratio - 81.7 (2008) -
less than $1 a day.
Proportion of own-account and - 81.9 (2010) -
contributing family workers in total
Achieve full and productive Item 1990 Latest 2015
Employment and decent
work for all, including % of the population below the 49 22.5 (2006) 25
women and young people. minimum level of dietary energy
% of underweight children under 5 57 38.6 (2006) 29
Halve, between 1990 and
2015, the proportion of
people who suffer from
Achieve Universal Primary
Item 1990 Latest 2015
Education Net enrollment rate in primary 64 93.7 (2009) 100
Target 2.A: Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 38 77.9 (2009) 100
Ensure that, by 2015, and reaching grade 5 (%)
children everywhere, boys
Literacy rate of people 15–24 years 49.6 86.5 (2008) 100
and girls alike, will be able
to complete a full course of
Promote Gender Equality
Item 1990 Latest 2015
and Empower Women Ratio of girls to boys at primary level 0.56 1.0 (2009) 1.0
Ratio of girls to boys at secondary 0.43 0.93 (2009) 1.0
Target 3.A: Ratio of women to men at tertiary 0.32 0.63 (2007) 1.0
Eliminate gender disparity level
in primary and secondary Share of women in wage 18.9 19.9 (2009) -
education, preferably by employment in the Non agricultural
2005, and in all levels of sector (%)
education no later than
2015. Proportion of seats held by women in 3.4 32.8 (2010) -
Item 1990 Latest 2015
Goal 4: Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live 108 41 (2010) 34
Reduce Child Mortality births)
Under-5 mortality rate (per 1,000 live 162 50 (2010) 54
Target 4.A: births)
Reduce by two thirds, % of 1 year-old children immunized 42 85.6 (2009) >90
Monday, August 20, 2012
between 1990 and 2015, the
under-5 mortality rate.
Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 27
Nepal’s Progress in Attaining MDGs:
Nepal is among many least developed countries with
high risk of not attaining many of the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs). When the first MDG
progress report was published in 2002, only two goals
(child mortality and drinking water) were seen to be
potentially achievable. The recent set of information,
however, indicates that Nepal would be able to meet
some more of the goals if necessary interventions could
be made with adequate institutions and resources at
place. The supportive environment for some other
goals is also improving despite conflict intensifying in
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 28
• Nepal improves the percentage of population below
$1 per day in 2005 [24.1%] from [33.5] which is
nearer to the target i.e. 17%.
• The percentage of population below the minimum
level of dietary energy consumption in 1990 is 49
this is reduced in 2006 by ½ and more percentage i.e.
22.5 which is nearer to the target i.e. 25.
• Percentage of underweight children under 5 yrs was
also decreased from 57% to 38.5  where
target is 29%.
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 29
• In education percentage of net enrollment of primary
education is 93.7 in  this shows that nepal can
achieve this target easily.
• Similarly the literacy rate of people among 15-25 years
old is 86.5% .
• Data shows that nepal can successfully achieve the
target of gender equity i.e in primary, secondary &
tertiary education the ratio of boys & girls is 1[target],
which is achieved in 2009.
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 30
• Similarly the proportion of seats held by women is
increased by 3.4 %  to 32.8 .
• Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) is decrease by
½ and more: from 108  to 41.
• Similarly,Under-5 mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) is
also decrease from 162  to 50  which is
nearer to the target i.e. 54.
• % of 1 year-old children immunized against measles in
1990 is 42 which is increase by the year 2009 [85.6].
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 31
• Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births) in
1990 is 850 which is reduced in year 2009  from
this indicator nepal was awarded.
• Contraceptive prevalence rate (%) is 24 in 1990 and
45 in 2010. this shows that just nearer to double %
CPR is increased.
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 32
• Prevalence rate associated with malaria(number of
cases per 1000 of the population) is 1.96 in 1990 and
decrease in the year 2009 [0.16].
• Prevalence associated with tuberculosis is 460 in
1990 and decrease in year 2005 .
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 33
• Proportion of the population with sustainable access
to improved water sources (%) is 46 in 1990 which is
improved in year2010 i.e.80 where the target is just
• Proportion of the population with sustainable access
to improved sanitation in 1990 is only 6% whereas it
is increased in the year 2010  which is nearer to
the target .
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 34
Nepal has made marked progress in some social indicators
leading to the attainment of some MDGs by 2015. But
the progress has halted in the recent years. The country
faces added difficulty in achieving MDGs in the current
political scenario- weak resource base, violence, conflict
and weak governance.
The conflict affect towards achieving MDGs for a number
of reasons including the risk of domestic resource crowd
out, ineffectiveness of service delivery, prolonged
absence of elected representatives at the local bodies,
and setbacks in social mobilization and community
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 35
MDGs are reinforcing to each other and the attainment
of one goal would help the attainment of others.
MDGs can be achieved only through a strategic
partnership among government, local bodies, NGOs,
CBOs, and donors, strategic partnership in project
formulation, execution, coordination of development
activities, donor harmonization, and participatory
monitoring and evaluation system are highly
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 36
• A report on ‘‘Achieving the Health Millennium
Development Goals in Asia and the Pacific Policies and
Actions within Health Systems and Beyond’’ by Asia-
Pacific MDG Study Series.
• A statistical data published by ‘‘The World Bank Group’’
• ‘‘Achieving Millennium Development Goals: Challenges
For Nepal’’ by Research Department, International Finance
Division, Nepal Rastra Bank
• Nepal MDGs Progress Reports 2010.
• ‘‘Nepal’s progress towards Millennium Development
Goals’’ by Asian Development Bank.
Monday, August 20, 2012 Analyze the progress of MDGs in Nepal 37