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					ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS
     OF WARFARE

 Consumption of resources

      Toxic chemicals

    Munitions dangers

   Nuclear contamination
The world’s armed forces
  are the number-one
   polluters on Earth
          In the Cold War,
the U.S. and Soviet militaries rarely
         battled each other.

 Yet they killed thousands of their
own soldiers and civilians through
  environmental contamination.
          CONSUMPTION
          OF RESOURCES
• Huge amounts of energy (8% in U.S.)

• Large percentage of iron and
  steel, and other metals

• Nearly half of Periphery’s debt
  is from importing of arms
                            Military spending
                     United States

                            Russia

                             Japan

                            Britain

                            France

                         Germany

                     Saudi Arabia

                              Italy

                             China          Military spending
Iraq, Iran, Libya, Syria, N. Korea          (billions of dollars)

                                      0   100   200     300     400
                        Our global priorities

        Military

Energy efficiency

     Soil erosion

Renewable energy
                                    Actual spending
     Clean wate r                   (billions of dollars)
       Acid rain                    Needed spending
                                    (billions of dollars)
Global warming

    Deforestation

 Ozone depletion

     Land mines


                    0        100    200         300         400
             TOXIC CHEMICALS




  Chemical weapons use      Military toxic wastes

Chemical weapons disposal      Agent Orange
          Chemical weapons use




                             Iran, Iraq used gas in 1980-88 war;
Gas attacks in World War I      Iraq gassed Kurdish minority
                Chemical weapons use



                                         Moscow
                                         gas raid kills
                                         121 hostages,
                                         2002

U.S. experiments
on military
personnel and                          Sarin attack in
civilians, 1950s-60s                   Tokyo subway,
                                       1995
Agent Orange defoliant
                  20 million gallons
                of herbicides sprayed
               in Vietnam War to deny
                  Cover to guerrillas

               Also used by So. Africa
       Effects of Agent Orange (dioxin)

                           Limited
                       compensation
                       to veterans for
                          cancers,
                          diabetes,
                        birth defects



                                          U.S.
                                          veterans

Vietnamese civilians
    and veterans
            Chemical releases in Gulf War?




                              Detections of
                             chemicals in air

   Bombing of Iraqi
biochemical sites, 1991
                          Moral responsibilties
                            of both sides?
                               Chemical
                               Bunkers
                                In Iraq




    Detonation of Iraqi
chemical/biological storage
   after end of Gulf War

Possible exposure to troops?
                        Kuwait oil
                      well fires, 1991




Set by withdrawing
 Iraqi forces; also
  spilled oil into
    Persian Gulf
 Draining of
southern Iraq
marshes, 1992




                  Area was haven for
                Marsh Arabs, Shi’a rebels
                                    Bombing civilian
                                     chemical plants



Toxic cloud after NATO bombing of
   Pancevo plant in Serbia, 1999
 Chemical
 weapons
testing and
  disposal




 Alabama protest against       6000 sheep killed in
chemical arms incineration   Utah nerve gas test, 1968
Toxic wastes left on bases


                             U.S. military bases in
                               the Philippines,
                               Panama, Alaska




 Soviet bases in
 Eastern Europe
    Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Wisconsin




   Propellant plant, 1940s-70s.
Groundwater poisoned with nitrates.
          Ironies of abandoned toxic bases




   Many military
bases are Superfund
toxic clean-up sites.

                            Rocky Mountain Arsenal in
                        Colorado was poisoned underground,
                         but the surface is a wildlife haven.
             MUNITIONS


Land mines         Gulf War Syndrome

Cluster bombs      Bombing ranges

Depleted Uranium   Flight ranges
                      Land mines
                   Old land mines explode every
                   22 minutes, claiming about
                   26,000 victims a year.

Cambodia




           Sudan                      Kosovo
De-Mining
Operations
   1998 ban on
plastic land mines


Schoolyard in Laos
Cluster bombs
                  Cluster bombs
                   Bomblets
                    in Laos




Nis, Yugoslavia
market bombing,
     1999
           Depleted Uranium (DU)
Dense munitions to penetrate
tanks, armor. Made from
 low-level reprocessing waste.
                 Depleted Uranium (DU)
                              Releases radioactivity when
                          explodes or burns, leaves behind dust




Huge cancer rates in
southern Iraq (387 tons
of DU left behind)           DU tested on Vieques Island, Puerto Rico.
                             Would cost $4 billion to clean Indiana base.
              Depleted Uranium (DU)




                                        DU also used in Bosnia,
                                        Kosovo, Afghanistan
   82% of U.S combat troops in
Iraq came in contact with DU dust
                                    “Metal of Dishonor” video
                                      www.konscious.com
                                         Gulf War Syndrome

                                   “Agent Orange of the 1990s”

                                      A variety of illnesses
                                  reported by military personnel




Increase in personnel cancers, 1991-97
                                     Gulf War Syndrome

                                              CAUSES?

                                           Depleted Uranium?

                                           Chemical releases?
Children of U.S. troops affected
                                             Oil well fires?

                      Iraqi civilians         Pesticides?
                      also affected:
                      leukemia victim       A combination?
                      in Basra hospital.
      Vieques naval
     bombing range,
       Puerto Rico
Explosions,.noise, affect on fishing,
 use of DU and chemical testing.




          Hidden
      undetonated
       explosives
                            Opposition to
                           Vieques bombing

                                           Rallies in
                                           San Juan and
                                           New York
Fishermen blockade
 Navy ships, 1970s




                     Christian camp after stray bomb
                     kills guard, 1999. Navy agrees
                     to gradual withdrawal.
  Low-level jet flights
Practice for flying under radar.
   Effect on cattle, wildlife,
     horses, human stress




     Driven out of Europe.
   Went to Nevada, Canada, etc.
Low-level flights
  in Canada




Innu Indians
in Labrador protest
disruption of their
hunting culture
 NUCLEAR WEAPONS




Production, Use, Testing, Waste
  Uranium mining
    Began during
Manhattan Project 1940s




Deaths of Navajo, Dene
   uranium miners
       Nuclear weapons production cycle




Spent fuel from civilian energy industry can be used for bombs
Military nuclear waste at Hanford, Washington




                         Leaking tanks contaminated
                              Columbia River
Los Alamos Nuclear Labs, New Mexico




Fires in 2000 endangered
  Los Alamos, Hanford
Atomic bombing of Japan
220,000 died at
Hiroshima and
  Nagasaki

 280,000 more
   exposed to
   Radiation
  (Hibakusha)
                      Nuclear Club




Original:           U.S., Russia, Britain, France, China
Spread since 1970s: Israel, India, Pakistan, possibly North Korea
Disarmed in 1990s: Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakstan, South Africa
Weapons-grade uranium stockpiles
Atomic Veterans
     and
“Downwinders”




  17,000 cancer cases
   in the U.S. alone
Nuclear fallout from
 Nevada Test Site




   Reassuring government leaflet


 Atmospheric nuclear
 tests halted in 1963;
 continued underground
Strontium-90 in milk
U.S. tests in the Pacific




            75% increase in cesium in islanders
Evacuation of Islanders
  Soviet tests
in Kazakhstan

 Genetic defects
 near Semey
 (Semipalatinsk)



 Kazakhs protest
               British nuclear
              tests in Australia




 Effects on
Aborigines
                     French tests in Polynesia
                         Also in Algeria in 1950s




French bombing of
Greenpeace ship in
New Zealand, 1985
        Chinese nuclear tests in Xinjiang
          In Muslim Uigur minority region after 1964




    1996 Comprehensive
  Nuclear Test Ban signed;
but some small tests continue
                          India and
                           Pakistan
                         nuclear tests




                                         Pakistani
                                         crowds
                                         celebrate
                                         first test,
Indian leader in front                   1998
of H-Bomb mural
       Military nuclear accidents

• “Broken arrow”

• Lost nuclear weapons: 43+ Soviet, 7 U.S.
   – Plane crashes, sub sinkings, silo explosions
   – Some scattered radiation


• Lost submarine reactors: 6 Soviet, 2 U.S.
           Nuclear plants as targets of war




                                       U.S. bombs Iraqi
Israel bombs Iraq’s Osirak
                                    operating reactors, 1991
reactor construction, 1981.

Iraq launches missile at
                              Reactors as possible
Israel’s Dimona nuclear
                                 terrorist targets?
laboratory, 1991.
                        Kyshtym waste disaster,
                                1957




                                   Orphans

– Explosion at Soviet weapons factory forces
  evacuation of over 10,000 people in Ural Mts.

– Area size of Rhode Island still uninhabited;
  thousands of cancers reported
            Websites
Military Toxics Project
www.miltoxproj.org
Center for Defense Information
www.cdi.org
Council for a Livable World
www.clw.org
U.S. military environmental agencies
http://aec.army.mil
http://enviro.navy.mil
http://www.af.mil/environment
Gulf War Veterans Resource Links
http://www.spidersmill.com/gwvrl
Chemical Weapons Working Group
www.cwwg.org

				
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posted:8/20/2012
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