Producing berries for the fresh market - _PowerPoint_

Document Sample
Producing berries for the fresh market - _PowerPoint_ Powered By Docstoc
					Producing Berries for the
     Fresh Market
    An Introduction for Kosovo

Richard A. Dale
Small Fruits Specialist
Highland Valley Farm
Bayfield, WI, USA
  North American
Highbush Blueberry

A New Crop for Europe
Blueberry plant types in USA
 • Lowbush (V. Angustifolium)   native
 • Half-Highbush hybrid
 • HIGHBUSH (V. Corymbosum)          native
 • Southern Improved Highbush hybrid
 • Rabbiteye (V. Ashei) native
 Blueberry Cultivars
    for Kosovo
• Half-Highbush hybrid ?
  – Possibly for high altitude cooler sites
  – Patriot is a half-highbush hybrid
• HIGHBUSH (V. Corymbosum)         native
  – Bluecrop is proven
  – Duke, Spartan, Reka and Nui look promising
• Southern Improved Highbush hybrid ?
  – Climate of Serbia in the most promising
    regions may be more similar to Arkansas than
    to Michigan
  – Ozarkblue is being trialed
  Additional Cultivars that should be
                     trialed for Kosovo
• Elliot
    – Late season favorite of Michigan growers
    – To extend season and for domestic
• Chandler
    – Extremely large fancy berry
    – Early-midseason
• Bluetta
    – A proven excellent early season fruit
• Earliblue
    – Another proven early season berry
• O'Neal
    – Considered the earliest fruiting
      southern highbush
• Misty
    – Another excellent early season
      southern highbush                          Earliblue
Site Selection
Appropriate climate
Well drained surface & soil
Humus >3%
Low pH: 4.5 – 5.2
At least 1/2 day full sun
Irrigation available
        Site Preparation
• Begin at least one year before planting
• Control perennial weeds with non-
  residual herbicides and repeated
• Soil test
  – Adjust pH per soil test
  – Add P & K fertilizer as per soil test
• Add organic matter if necessary
• Improve drainage
• Prepare irrigation
                    2-year old container
                           grown plants

Loosen roots

               Remove blossom and
               green fruit at planting
               Planting System
• Spacing
  – Plants: 1 – 1.2 m spacing in the row
  – Rows: 3m between rows
• Raised Beds
  – For improved drainage on heavier soils
• Mulch
• Irrigation
  – Drip irrigation is best
        1.2m between bushes
         x 3m between rows

3m                                   3m


 1.2m   1.2m   1.2m   1.2m    1.2m
• Mulches are desirable for:
  –   Retaining moisture
  –   Keeping soil surface cool
  –   Protecting roots
  –   Reducing weeds
  –   Increasing organic matter
• Sawdust, shavings, bark, or clean straw
• Plant sod between rows
  – Non-creeping grasses
  – Maintain with mowing. Do not allow to seed
• Supplemental irrigation critical
• Drip irrigation recommended
• Water source
   Flow rate and recharge
   pH
   Quality
• Schedule 2.5 - 4 cm / week
When berries are ready to pick…
     Harvest should be
     •   Timely
     •   Dry
     •   Clean
     •   Gentle
Highbush Blueberries
   are usually picked by hand for
   fresh markets

            a pail on a neck-strap
            or belt is often used
    Pre-cool Harvested Berries
• Field heat can activate fruit disease organisms
  within 12 hours
• Harvested fruit respires after being picked
  causing a rise in temperature of as much as
  7C… unless checked by cooling
• Blueberries at 27C respire 20X faster than
  berries at 4C
• Pre-cool within four hours of harvest using a
  convection cold-air tunnel system
Box filler alternative
                                                           Cold storage @ 1C
                             Lazy susan to packing table


Clamshell filler

           Inspection belt             Tilt belt sorter       Air blast cleaner
     Maintain the Cold Chain
• From the time berries are pre-cooled until they
  are purchased by the consumer
• Refrigerated transport is essential
• Refrigerated display is highly recommended
Richard A. Dale
87080 Valley Road
Bayfield, WI 54814 USA

  New Opportunities for

Shared By: