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					Pregnancy and Childbirth

         It’s a…
• Conception occurs when a sperm and egg
• The fertilized egg is called a zygote
• The zygote implants into the uterine lining.
• The placenta and umbilical cord begin to form
• The endometrium becomes thicker and the
  cervix is sealed by a mucus plug
How Pregnancy is Determined
• 1. Absence of menstruation
• 2. hCG – Human Chorionic
  Gonadotrophin is released into the
  blood stream (What is detected by
  pregnancy tests)
• 3. Morning sickness
• The developing
  baby is called an
  Embryo until the 2nd
• After the 2nd month
  the baby is called a
 Tests done during pregnancy
• Amniocentesis – a diagnostic procedure in
  which a needle is inserted through the uterus
  to extract fluid from the amniotic sac.
• Amniotic sac – pouch of fluid that surrounds a
• Ultrasound – another diagnostic procedure
  used to monitor the fetus
  • High-frequency sound waves are used to provide
    an image of the developing baby
            Going into Labor
• The process of childbirth is called Labor
• Signs of Labor
  •   Lightening
  •   Bloody Show
  •   Contractions
  •   Water Breaking
  •   Cervix Dilation
          Going into Labor
• Lightening
  • When the baby lowers into the lower pelvis area
  • Can occur weeks, days, or hours prior to labor
• Bloody Show
  • The mucus plug covering the cervix is expelled
  • Happens when the cervix begins to dilate
  • Can be clear, pink or bloody
                      Going into Labor
Contraction Characteristics   False Labor                        True Labor

How often do the              Contractions are often             Contractions come at regular
contractions occur?           irregular and do not get closer    intervals and last about 30-70
                              together.                          seconds. As time goes on,
                                                                 they get closer together.
Do they change with           Contractions may stop when         Contractions continue despite
movement?                     you walk or rest, or may even      movement or changing
                              stop if you change positions.      positions.

How strong are they?          Contractions are usually weak      Contractions steadily increase
                              and do not get much stronger.      in strength.
                              Or they may be strong at first
                              and then get weaker.
Where do you feel the pain?   Contractions are usually only      Contractions usually start in
                              felt in the front of the abdomen   the lower back and move to
                              or pelvic region.                  the front of the abdomen.
          Going into Labor
• Water Breaking
  • This is the rupturing of the amniotic sac
  • This should occur within 24 hours of
  • The doctor sometimes has to rupture the
    amniotic sac
  • Can feel like a sudden gush of fluid or a
    constant trickle
          Going into Labor
• Cervix Dilation
  • The stretching and opening of the cervix
  • During pregnancy the cervix will dilate up
    to about 10 centimeters
  • Labor occurs when the cervix is dilated
          Stages of Labor
• 1. Dilation of the Cervix
• 2. Delivery of the Baby
• 3. Delivery of the afterbirth (placenta)
       Dilation of the Cervix
• The first stage of labor can last for
           Birth of the Baby
• The 2nd stage the baby moves head first
  through the birth canal and out the vaginal
  opening. This can last for a few hours or
• Crowning – The appearance of the baby’s
  head during delivery
• Once the baby is outside the birth canal and
  begins to breath on its own, the umbilical cord
  is cut
    Delivery of the Afterbirth
• The 3rd stage – the delivery of the
  placenta (afterbirth)
Multiple Births
Multiple Births
• Cesarean Section – a procedure in
  which the baby is removed from the
  mother by making an incision in the
• Often needed when a child is breech
• Ectopic Pregnancy – when a pregnancy
  occurs outside the uterus in the
  fallopian tube
• Rh incompatibility – a mismatch
  between the blood of the mother and
  the developing baby.

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