Practice Test 2 by cuiliqing


									Practice Test 2


    1.   Tunica interna         C       a. most outer layer that protects the vessel
    2.   Elastic Arteries E             b. delivers blood to the body
    3.   Tunica media D                 c. lines the lumen made of epithelial vessels
    4.   Tunica externa         A       d. smooth muscle layer
    5.   Muscular Arteries B            e. known as conducting arteries

    6. Arterioles       B               a. desires low pressure to protect the capillary bed
    7. Capillaries      A               b. site of peripheral resistance
    8. Veins            C               c. have two aiding returns (muscular and respiratory)

Multiple Choice

    9. This structure stabilizes the walls of the capillaries B
            a. Interferon
            b. Pericytes
            c. Fenestrations
            d. Sinusoids
    10. Capillaries of the brain are A
            a. Continuous with intracellular clefts
            b. Fenestrated with no intracellular clefts
            c. Continuous with no intracellular clefts
            d. Fenestrated with intracellular clefts
    11. The path of blood through the capillary bed is A
            a. Terminal arterioles, metarteriole, true capillaries, thoroughfare channels, post capillary
            b. Post capillary venules, thoroughfare channels, true capillaries, metarteriole, terminal
            c. Arteries, terminal arteries, true capillaries
            d. None of the above
    12. Low pressure, valves, and large reservoir describes D
            a. Veins
            b. Arteries
            c. Capillaries
            d. Lymphatic vessels
      13. Blood pressure D
              a. Is expressed in ml Hg
              b. Is consistent throughout the body
              c. Is the amount of pressure at the capillary bed
              d. Is the force per unit exerted on the wall of a blood vessel by it’s contained blood
      14. Resistance D
              a. depends on blood viscosity
              b. is the amount of friction blood encounters
              c. decreases as radius of the blood vessel increases
              d. All of the above
      15. The difference between systolic and diastolic pressure reflects C
              a. Pulse pressure
              b. Blood pressure
              c. Stroke Volume
              d. Cardiac Output


      16. The only long term regulation of blood flow is indirect and involves the kidneys. TRUE
      17. The metabolic control of blood flow does not include gas regulation, only nutrient regulation.
      18. The blood flow through the organs is normally controlled by the nervous system. TRUE
      19. Once blood vessels are formed, they exist in this state and do not decrease or increase in
          number. FALSE

Multiple Choice

      20. Too much carbon dioxide in the systemic tissues C
               a. Causes the vessels to constrict to prevent any more carbon dioxide from pooling in the
               b. Causes the vessels to dilate to wash out the carbon dioxide
               c. Does A and B, depending on the situation
               d. None of the above
      21. Which reason would cause the vessels to constrict during exercise A
               a. To prevent the muscle demands from exceeding cardiac pump ability
               b. To protect the capillary bed
               c. To deliver oxygen at a steady rate
               d. To keep your core temperature warm
      22. If there is high C02 in the lungs alveoli B
               a. The vessels constrict
               b. The vessels dilate
               c. The vessels arteries constrict and the capillaries dilate
               d. None of the above
   23. Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure A
          a. Is created by non-diffusible plasma proteins, which draw water towards themselves
          b. Dominates the arteriole end of the bed
          c. Is always negative
          d. All of the above


   24. Hypovolemic Shock        C       a. results from poor circulation
   25. Vascular Shock           A       b. the heart cant sustain enough blood needed by the body
   26. Cardiogenic Shock        B       c. results from large scale blood loss


   27. The right side of the body drains into the thoracic duct and the left side of the body drains into
       the left subclavian. FALSE
   28. The lymphatic system is a one way vessel that flows toward the heart. TRUE
   29. Lymph vessels are just like that of veins except they do not have valves. FALSE
   30. Lymphatic vessels use a muscular pump because they both use skeletal muscles to aid in
       pumping. FALSE

Multiple Choice

   31. ______are specialized lymph capillaries present in the intestinal mucosa of the stomach D
           a. Chyle
           b. Peyer’s patch
           c. Ducts
           d. Lacteals
   32. An antigen is D
           a. Anything big enough to create an immune response
           b. Can be detected as non-self
           c. Can be eaten by phagocytes
           d. All of the above
   33. Dendritic and reticular cells are examples of B
           a. antigens
           b. Macrophages
           c. Lymph nodes
           d. Peyer’s Patch
    34. Two main functions of lymph nodes are A
           a. Filtration and immune system activation
           b. Decreases the likelihood of coming in contact with the antigen the second time, and
              mount an attack
           c. Release B cells that secrete antibodies
           d. Tell macrophages what to destroy and secretes antibodies

Art Labeling

    35. Afferent vessels
            a. A
            b. B
            c. C
            d. D

    36. Efferent vessels
            a. A
            b. B
            c. C
            d. D
   37. Germinal Center
          a. A
          b. B
          c. C
          d. D

Multiple choice

   38. The spleen can D
           a. Make fetal RBC
           b. Cleanse the blood
           c. Store blood platelets
           d. All of the above
   39. White pulp and red pulp are two structures in the C
           a. Thymus
           b. Lymph nodes
           c. Spleen
           d. All of the above
   40. How is the thymus indirectly involved with the immune system
           a. Because it is the hardware and not the software
           b. Because it doesn’t fight antigens
           c. Because it increases with age
           d. All of the above
   41. An immune surface barrier would include D
           a. Keratin
           b. Hair
           c. Fingernails
           d. All of the above
   42. The main mechanism used in first line defense is B
           a. Antigen recognition
           b. Surface barriers
           c. Mounting an attack
           d. Inflammation
   43. The main mechanism used in second line defense is
           a. Antigen recognition
           b. Surface barriers
           c. Phagocytic mobilization
           d. Inflammation
44. The main mechanism used in third line defense is
        a. Antigen recognition
        b. Surface barriers
        c. Mounting an attack
        d. Inflammation
45. Natural killers are in the
        a. Innate immune response
        b. Adaptive immune response
        c. Both a and b
        d. None of the above
46. Two fixed phagocytes are
        a. Kupffer cells and microglia cells
        b. Dendritic and reticular cells
        c. Phagolysosomes and kupffer cells
        d. Neutrophils and basophils
47. In order, name the 4 stages of phagocytic mobilization C
        a. Margination, diapedesis, leukocytosis, chemotaxis
        b. Leukocytosis, marginatoin, diapedesis, chemotaxis
        c. Leukocytosis, diapedesis, margination, chemotaxis
        d. Diapedesis, chemotaxis, margination, leukocytosis
48. C-reactive Proteins are used D
        a. When a thermometer is not available
        b. To assess an infection
        c. Effects the weight of RBC
        d. Both B and C
49. How is having a fever beneficial to your body? B
        a. Deactivates foreign enzymes
        b. Denatures harmful proteins
        c. Causes the liver and spleen to sequester iron and zinc
        d. Decreases the rate at which tissues need nutrients
50. Which of the following is not an qualification of a complete antigen D
        a. Must be bound to a protein
        b. Must create an immune response
        c. Can stimulate proliferation of white blood cells
        d. All of the above are qualifications of a complete antigen

    51.   Can bind to MHC                                    a. antibodies
    52.   Create immune response                             b. complete antigens
    53.   Change into plasma cells that secrete antibodies   c. haptens
    54.   The ability to react immune response               d. spleen
    55.   These are useless to T cells                       e. B cells
    56.   Where lymphocytes meet an antigen                  f. reactivity

Art Labeling

    57. Light chain
            a. A
            b. B
            c. C
            d. D
    58. Heavy Chain
            a. A
            b. B
            c. C
            d. D
    59. Constant
            a. A
            b. B
            c. C
            d. D

   60. One difference between B cells and T cells is where the mature TRUE
   61. Heat is a sign of inflammation. TRUE
   62. The humoral and cell mediated are two separate responses that do not interact with one
       another. TRUE
   63. T wo main APC’s are macrophages and dendritic cells.

Multiple Choice

   64. Naive immunocompetent B cells are B
           a. B cells who have left the bone marrow already but have not made contact with an
           b. B cells that have not left the bone marrow and are halfway through becoming
           c. B cells that are attached to an antigen
           d. B cells that have already secreted antibodies against an antigen
   65. Clonal selection
           a. is much more intense after the second exposure with the same antigen
           b. creates 2 memory cells
           c. are slightly different than the parent cells
           d. are only in the primary response.
   66. The secondary immune response has
           a. A higher peak
           b. Takes longer to activate
           c. Has less antibodies working against it because they are stronger
           d. All of the above
   67. An example of an artificial, active immune response would be
           a. Giving a patient immunoglobulins
           b. Getting the flu shot
           c. A mother’s antibodies protecting her baby
           d. Having a viral infection

   68.   Helps prevent attachment of pathogens                               E          a. IgM
   69.   Released by plasma cells during primary immune response             A          b. IgE
   70.   Attaches to the surface of B cells                                  C          c. IgD
   71.   Binds to mast cells and basophils causing histamine to be released  B          e. IgA
   72.   Most abundant and diverse antibody in primary and secondary responses F        f. IgG

Multiple Choice

   73. Antibodies A
           a. Do not destroy antigens directly
           b. Consists of B cells and T cells
           c. Fight against intracellular fluids
           d. Are the most complex immune response
   74. Neutralization is D
           a. Basophils secreting antibodies to lower the pH of some antigens
           b. Determined by the innate immune response
           c. Helping T cells fight antigens
           d. When antibodies bind to and block specific sites on viruses preventing antigens from
               binding to tissues
   75. What cell lowers the effect of the immune response B
           a. Cytotoxins
           b. Suppressor T cells
           c. Helper T cells
           d. Depressor T cells


   76.   Allografts     C              a. graft transplanted from one site of the body to the other
   77.   Xenografts     D              b. grafts between identical twins
   78.   Isografts      B              c. transplant between individuals that are not identical twins
   79.   Autografts     A              d. grafts taken from another animal species.

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