Questionnaire by wuyunyi


									Qualitative Research
Case Study 1 IS 2008-9
How to Create an Immersive Environment for
Primary Literacy.
1. Production of a Demonstrator and presented to
   teachers. Discussion. Voice recording made.
2. Production of Prototype 1 and presented to
   teachers. Discussion. Voice recording made.
   Questionnaire administered (Open and Closed).
3. Production of Prototype 2 and presented to
   teachers. Voice recording made. Questionnaire
   administered (Open and Closed).
4. Deployment with Children, Observations made.
5. Data analysis, Hypothesis formation.
 Case Study 2 IS 2009-10

 Visual Semiotics in Games – How does visual
 content influence players’ movement and choices

1. Questionnaire Administered
2. Observations
   1. Player played 2 x 2 minutes of Unreal. Video
      recording. Researcher made notes.
   2. Movie replayed and researcher asked player to
      explain choices and movement. Audio Recording.
   3. Next .. Data analysis …
The Data generated in both Case Studies.

1. Text response to open questionnaire items
2. Text written by researcher during observations
3. Video recordings

The Role of the Researcher.

1. Present in the generation of data
2. Can influence the generation of data
3. Is involved in the subjects’ activities
Aims of Qualitative Research

• Understand the phenomena from the point of view
of the research participants
• Interpret experiences and meanings of people
• Discover themes and relationships and key
words to formulate closed questions.
 Characteristics of Qualitative Research

• Participants selected purposefully not randomly
• Involves behaviour of people, opinions and feelings
• Uses details of individual cases in gaining understanding
• Researcher is a “participant observer”
 When to use Qualitative Methods

• Concepts need to be developed (little previous research)
• Phenomena cannot be reduced to numerical variables
• Need for novel researcher-devised framework
 Data, Sampling and Analysis

• Data Types: Text response to questionnaire, transcripts of
observations, screen-shots video recordings
• Purposive sampling to maximize variation
• Snowball Sampling: Select a sample and ask them to
recommend next sample
• Data processing : summary, simplification, abstraction
• Data display : tables, charts, networks
Qualitative vs. Quantitative.

Meanings derived from       Meanings expressed
numbers.                    through words.
Numerical data.             Rich, interesting, data.

Analysis conducted through Analysis conducted through
the use of diagrams and    categorisation into “themes”
Analysing Qualitative Data: Case Study 1

Example. Researcher’s analysis of her own observation

   1. First reading of transcripts: Look for themes
   2. Second reading: Look for occurrences of each
      theme in each transcript. Identify concepts.
   3. Look for relationships between themes.
Analysing Qualitative Data: Case Study 1
 Themes from the researcher’s Observation Transcripts

    (Item) Theme                              Comments

    (24) “used quit clock”

    (2) “understood how to select a lesson”
    (8) “use of floor target”
    (66) “expressed enjoyment”
    (9) “engaged with spellings”
    (10) “completed spellings”

    (14) “read static instruction”
    (17) “used F2”
Analysing Qualitative Data: Case Study 1
Relationships between “Concepts” abstracted from players.




       Fun               10                   9           3

       Learning                     7         5           6

       Control                                2           4

       Exciting                                           6

Mixed Mode Research
Uses both Quantitative and Qualitative

• Numbers can add precision to words and narrative
• Words and images can add meaning to numbers

E.G. Qualitative research is used to create a theory.
Quantitative research is used to test that theory

E.G. Quantitative research could be used to classify
behaviour, then qualitative research could investigate the
intentions of the people who showed that behaviour.
    The Questionnaire
    • Cost Effective

+   • Familiar to Most People
    • Reduce Bias

    • Low   response rate

-   • Cannot probe responses
    • Respondent is unknown
General Guidance

• Clarify Goals – How will you use the data?
• Justify the purpose of each individual question
• Keep it short (two pages?)
• Begin with light and interesting items
• Place the most important items in the first half
• Try it out on a small sample of the target population
Case Study 1: Justification of Questions
Design of Questionnaire presented to the Teachers.

1.   “I use Computer Software as an aid to delivering literacy in class”

     It is important to understand how many teacher do not use software
     because it would affect the reliability and therefore the validity of the
5    “The proposed ideas for this EIE is relevant to teaching literacy at KS2”

     Are the ideas about content relevant for the target audience?
11   “The EIE theme is gender neutral”

     It is important that neither sex are disadvantaged by the chosen theme
     which would affect the learning outcomes.

• Define Research Aims
• Identify Population and Sample
• How to collect replies?
• Questionnaire Design (including Pilot Survey)
• Main survey
• Analysis
 Questionnaire Design

• Ask Open – Ended Questions to generate key words
• Consider your mind – map
• Consider your analysis approach t-test, chi-squared
• Write your closed questions (types will follow).
Question Types – Open vs. Closed
What do you think are the reasons for football hooliganism?

          Do you think football hooliganism is caused by: (tick if
          Lack of discipline at home
          Players’ behaviour on pitch
          Family breakdown
          Youth unemployment
          Poor schooling
          Violence on T.V.
          Other (please specify)
 Single vs. Multiple Response
Which of the following means do you use to travel to college?




What is your most usual means of travelling to college? (Tick
one box only)
Ranked Response
Place in order of importance to you the following features of a
camping holiday (Indicate by numbering from 1-5 in order where 1 is the
most important)
Open air
Rated Response
(Circle the number under the initials that applies. VI=Very
important; I=Important; N=Neutral; U=Unimportant; VU=Very
Indicate your view of the following aspects of a camping

                                      VI I     N    U     VU

                   Community Life 5       4    3    2     1

                          Low Cost 5      4    3    2     1

                       Outdoor Life 5     4    3    2     1
 Question Wording

Some general rules can be stated on question wording:
• Be concise and unambiguous
• Avoid double questions
• Avoid questions involving negatives
• Ask for precise answers
• Avoid leading questions
Precise Answers

Ask for precise answers if you think the information is
available and there are no other constraints (e.g. too intrusive
on privacy). For example:

Give your age on lst September 2001 …… years

is preferable to:

Are you…

Under 18 ….
18-65 …...
Over 65 ……
Question Wording
- Evokes the truth. Questions must be non-threatening.
- Asks for an answer on only one dimension.
- Can accommodate all possible answers.

What brand of computer do you own?
         A. IBM PC
         B. Apple

- Has mutually exclusive options.

Where did you grow up?
        A. country
        B. farm
        C. city

- Produces variability of responses

Are you against drug abuse? (circle: Yes or No)
Question Wording
- Follows comfortably from the previous question.
- Does not presuppose a certain state of affairs
Are you satisfied with your current auto insurance? (Yes or No)
- Does not imply a desired answer. (Leading Question)
- Does not use emotionally loaded or vaguely defined words. (e.g.,
most, least, majority)
- Does not use unfamiliar words or abbreviations. (CPU, GPU)
- Is not dependent on responses to previous questions. Avoid

1. Do you currently have a life insurance policy ? (Yes or No) If
           no, go to question 3
2. How much is your annual life insurance premium ?
- Does not ask the respondent to order or rank a series of more than
five items

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