The Spirit of Enlightenment by ewghwehws


									The Enlightenment
  The Enlightenment Ideals
Belief in the supremacy of reason over
pleasure; conviction that humans could
perfect society through the application of
the intellect to human affairs
Science takes its place for the first time
        The Philosophes
Thinkers who advocated reason
Paris was the center of the movement
Search for universal laws in human affairs
Scorned superstition, Christianity
Encyclopedie – a compendium of all
human knowledge edited by Diderot
Deism – God created universe to operate
         The Salons
Social gatherings with dining,
entertainment, conversation
Wealthy women
Mme. Geoffrin: Rousseau, Diderot
Helped finance Encyclopedie
Discussion of ideas and events
Most popular of the Enlightenment
Natural goodness of humans; value of
freedom and equality
Respect for humans in nature – Native
Americans were the exemplars
Concept of “general will”
Flaws in society and institution cause
social injustice
        LOCKE                     HOBBES
Two Treatises of            Leviathan
                            All-powerful sovereign
Government: voluntary       should rule stupid
association of humans
acting in their self-       humans
interest                    Humans are greedy and
Humans are reasonable       violent
and cooperative             Power of the executive:
Power of the legislature:   the government
the people
People could overthrow
government and
replace with better one
           Rococo Style
Softer, more delicate style than Baroque
Name from “rocaille,” a shell-like
decoration used in gardens.
Art was happy, witty, frivolous, playful
Watteau: Pilgrimage to Cythera (fig. 16.3)
Fragonard: The Meeting (fig. 16.5)
The Bourgeois Response
Figaro based on a French play
Condemned aristocratic privilege
Middle class gained influence
Art reflected their moral attitudes
 The Rise of the Novel
Epistolary novels
A leisured class of educated readers
Novels of manners, such as Jane
Austen’s Sense and Sensibility
    The Neoclassical Style
Style of the later eighteenth century that
imitated the art of ancient Greece and
Influenced by scholarship, excavations of
Herculaneum and Pompeii
   Neoclassical Architecture

Influence of Palladio
Chiswick House (fig. 16.17)
Thomas Jefferson: Ambassador to France
Monticello in Virginia (fig. 16.19)
     Neoclassical Painting
Jacques-Louis David: Oath of the Horatii
(fig. 16.13), 1784
This painting embodied leading principles
of neoclassicism: didactic purpose, purity
of form, and deep passion restrained by
good taste.
Revolt against rococo
David involved in French Revolution
   The Classical Symphony
 Order, proportion, harmony
 Haydn – “father” of symphony
1. 4 movements
2. sonata form: three-part structure still used
 Mozart had the ability to create effortless
 transitions between sections and build
 symmetrical structure for his music
     The Age of Satire
Aims to improve society by humorous
Attacks on social ills
Jonathan Swift: Gulliver’s Travels
Voltaire: Candide
Hogarth: Marriage à la Mode: The
Marriage Contract (fig. 16.9)
          Jonathan Swift
A Modest Proposal recommended that
poor Irish children be butchered, roasted
and served for Sunday dinners. It would
reduce population and provide income.
Gulliver’s Travels Horses put humans to
shame. Mocked humans as Yahoos
Not convinced of human decency
Opposed evils of religious bigotry and
political oppression
Candide makes fun of optimists
Cultivate your own garden: reject
philosophical solutions, cultivate self, work
hard and seek a comfortable and
reasonable life.
       Mozart and Opera
Independent musician: no patron
Began at age 6. Composed more than
600 works, including 20 operas and 41
Joseph II of Austria sponsored him
Balance of music and drama in opera
The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni,
The Magic Flute

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