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Understanding Function Words

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									  Introduction to Writing

    Sentence Elements
Understanding Function Words
Look at the following:
   Carol works in Guayama.
   She drives car work morning.
   She parks it in front of her job.
   At five o’clock, she leaves.
   She takes keys, gets car, drives home.
   Carol drives quickly she is tired
Which of the above are sentences?
What is wrong with these phrases ?

   She drives car work morning.
   She drives her car to work in the
    morning.
   She takes keys, gets car, drives home.
   She takes the keys, gets in the car, and
    drives home.
   Carol drives quickly she is tired.
   Carol drives quickly because she is
    tired.
   In addition to the content words in a
    sentence, there can also be other
    words.
   These other words are function words.
   Function words show a kind of
    connecting relationship between the
    different content words.
Function words can be:
 Determiners
 Prepositions

 Conjunctions
Determiners
These are words that modify a noun.
  They come before a noun or noun
  phrase.
  Examples:
 The university is an important
  educational institution.
 My four brothers enjoy playing many
  sports.
Determiners can be:
   articles: the, a, an
   quantifiers: some, any, much, most,
        each, every, neither……
   demonstratives: this, that, these, those
   possessives: my, its, his, John’s, the
        dog’s
   cardinal and ordinal numbers: one,
        two, first, second…..
 Prepositions
These are words that indicate relationships such
  as time, place, direction, or movement.
A preposition signals that a noun or noun
  structure follows it.
Examples:
 I’m going to the Student Center.

 The store is near the restaurant.

 The English class is on Tuesday in the morning.
Conjunctions
These are words that connect a word with a
  word, a phrase with a phrase, or a clause
  with a clause.
Examples:
 Zuleika is tall and beautiful.

 I can buy the green silk blouse or the orange
  cotton sweater.
 She is tall, but I am short.

 I can’t go because I’m sick.
There are two types of
conjunctions:
Coordinating – join equal
 grammatical units (two or more
 nouns, verbs, or independent
 clauses)
The coordinating conjunctions are:
  and, but, for, so, or, yet, and nor.
Conjunctions
Subordinating- used to introduce a
 clause that depends on another
 clause for its meaning.
Some subordinating conjunctions are
 because, if, then, after, and while.
     Practice: Write On! page 195
   Underline and identify the function words in the following sentences. The
    number in parenthesis indicates the number of function words in the
    sentence.
    EXAMPLE:      (3) I put the books on that desk.
                           det      prep det
    (4)   1.      Clara came to the university with her newborn daughter.

    (4)   2.      Many people find their soul mates on the Internet.

    (3)   3.      He bought a dog at the pet shop.

    (2)   4.      Three people left because they were upset.

    (4)   5.      Manuel lives near an airport and a highway.

    (4)   6.      Since Sheila works during the day, she takes classes at night.
         Homework: Write On! page 196
  Fill in the blanks with appropriate function words as indicated by the
   abbreviated word in parenthesis.
(Det)     1.           karate instructor explains techniques to   students.

(Prep)    2.      The doctor will see you     9 o’clock __         the morning
                  ______Thursday ______ his office.

(Conj)    3.      Let’s go to the hardware store     the supermarket      ____ I have
                  to get some wood        groceries.

(Det)     4.      There is    mouse under _____ table and there are        ants in the
                  sink.

(Prep)    5.      Wilson is going     a show         Bayamón           Saturday.

(Det)     6.             girl standing near _____ window is     cousin.

								
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