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Introduction to Writing Sentence Elements Understanding Function Words Look at the following: Carol works in Guayama. She drives car work morning. She parks it in front of her job. At five o’clock, she leaves. She takes keys, gets car, drives home. Carol drives quickly she is tired Which of the above are sentences? What is wrong with these phrases ? She drives car work morning. She drives her car to work in the morning. She takes keys, gets car, drives home. She takes the keys, gets in the car, and drives home. Carol drives quickly she is tired. Carol drives quickly because she is tired. In addition to the content words in a sentence, there can also be other words. These other words are function words. Function words show a kind of connecting relationship between the different content words. Function words can be: Determiners Prepositions Conjunctions Determiners These are words that modify a noun. They come before a noun or noun phrase. Examples: The university is an important educational institution. My four brothers enjoy playing many sports. Determiners can be: articles: the, a, an quantifiers: some, any, much, most, each, every, neither…… demonstratives: this, that, these, those possessives: my, its, his, John’s, the dog’s cardinal and ordinal numbers: one, two, first, second….. Prepositions These are words that indicate relationships such as time, place, direction, or movement. A preposition signals that a noun or noun structure follows it. Examples: I’m going to the Student Center. The store is near the restaurant. The English class is on Tuesday in the morning. Conjunctions These are words that connect a word with a word, a phrase with a phrase, or a clause with a clause. Examples: Zuleika is tall and beautiful. I can buy the green silk blouse or the orange cotton sweater. She is tall, but I am short. I can’t go because I’m sick. There are two types of conjunctions: Coordinating – join equal grammatical units (two or more nouns, verbs, or independent clauses) The coordinating conjunctions are: and, but, for, so, or, yet, and nor. Conjunctions Subordinating- used to introduce a clause that depends on another clause for its meaning. Some subordinating conjunctions are because, if, then, after, and while. Practice: Write On! page 195 Underline and identify the function words in the following sentences. The number in parenthesis indicates the number of function words in the sentence. EXAMPLE: (3) I put the books on that desk. det prep det (4) 1. Clara came to the university with her newborn daughter. (4) 2. Many people find their soul mates on the Internet. (3) 3. He bought a dog at the pet shop. (2) 4. Three people left because they were upset. (4) 5. Manuel lives near an airport and a highway. (4) 6. Since Sheila works during the day, she takes classes at night. Homework: Write On! page 196 Fill in the blanks with appropriate function words as indicated by the abbreviated word in parenthesis. (Det) 1. karate instructor explains techniques to students. (Prep) 2. The doctor will see you 9 o’clock __ the morning ______Thursday ______ his office. (Conj) 3. Let’s go to the hardware store the supermarket ____ I have to get some wood groceries. (Det) 4. There is mouse under _____ table and there are ants in the sink. (Prep) 5. Wilson is going a show Bayamón Saturday. (Det) 6. girl standing near _____ window is cousin.
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