World Events 1945 - 1950 by cuiliqing

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									World Events 1945 -1950

The relief and exuberance felt over most of the world after the end of the war was slowly
replaced with new misgivings. The development and detonation of the atomic bomb saw the
beginnings of other conflicts. Europe had been decimated by battles and bombings and the
USSR had taken over Eastern Europe and began installing puppet governments in several
countries. When allied with the west to defeat Hitler, Stalin, the Soviet Union and communism
were grudgingly accepted. But immediately after the partition of Europe the threat of the spread
of communism alarmed many, especially in the US.

The advancements during the war in German science and technology resulted in their scientists
being split between the east and west and the race for improved armaments and delivery systems
continued. The Soviets, behind in both atomic research and rocket science, desperately sought
classified data to enable them to achieve a balance of power. Communism had its supporters in
the west, who had been supplying the Soviets with classified information for many years.

This fact was made starkly evident in 1945 when Igor Gouzenko, a cipher clerk in the Soviet
Embassy in Ottawa, defected to the west with tales of espionage. The 1946 public disclosure of
Soviet spies stealing nuclear secrets caused a great stir and has been credited by some with the
start of the Cold War. As Britain and the US took stock of their security measures, several spies
were detected and arrested while others were able to escape to their Soviet masters. Project
VENONA, a code-breaking operation aimed at the USSR in 1942 continued deciphering
messages and uncovered a raft of activity both during and after the war. Notable among the
many people identified were dozens of employees of several US departments including White
House staff. Soon, other defections to the west revealed how ingrained some of the operatives
were into the fabric of the military-industrial-government complex and how easily they were
able to infiltrate into these organizations.

In Canada, 22 current and former government employees arrested and Gouzenko supplied 1700
names of North American informants. Communist MP Fred Rose was implicated and
convicted, spending time in jail. McCarthyism grew out of the Red Scare of the 40s and 50s and
Herbert Norman, Canadian diplomat, committed suicide in 1957 over allegations he was a
communist sympathizer. The exposure of Klaus Fuchs, physicist and atomic spy who worked
briefly at Canada’s top secret atomic research center in Chalk River displayed the need for great
changes in how Canada privately and jointly guarded its secrets. A new era of Canadian security
intelligence began.

Much has been written about all the hierarchy and duties of the Canadian, British and American
intelligence community and is readily available. A history of Canadian Military Intelligence can
be found in Major SR Elliot’s book SCARLET TO GREEN. Another source of information has
been provided by Maj H Skaarup, who used Elliot’s book as a reference and wrote a 22-page
short history. A copy of this document, made by me on 2001-08-08, was obtained from a now-
defunct website and is available to read from the index page. Please excuse the handwritten
notations.

The timeline now presented here shows the major events around the world that had implications
for national security in the west. The items are in no particular order.

1945:

       Yalta and Potsdam Conferences establish spheres of influence in Europe and Asia
       President Roosevelt dies and is replaced by Truman
       Churchill loses election and replaced by Attlee
       WL Mackenzie King re-elected Prime Minister of Canada
       The British take over Lebanon and Syria
       United Nations Charter is signed
       Tito forms government in Yugoslavia
       Arab League formed
       Wernher von Braun and 120 members of his staff surrender to allies
       Successful Trinity Test validates Manhattan Project
       US drops two atomic bombs on Japan
       Zionist World Congress approaches British government to discuss the founding of Israel
       Ho Chi Minh takes power in Hanoi, declares independence and unity of north and south
       US troops occupy south of 38th parallel Korea and the Soviets occupy north
       US imports 88 German scientists to help with rocket science
       ENIAC operational as first general purpose computer
       Terror strikes made against British in Palestine
       US House of Representatives calls for unlimited Jewish to Palestine to create Israel
       First nuclear reactor outside of US completed at Chalk River, Ontario
       Office of Strategic Services (OSS) disbanded and duties split
1946:

       Soviet-Iranian border dispute one of first events of Cold War
       Project Diana bounces radar waves off the moon, proving possible space communication
       Syria, Lebanon sign secret treaty for military advisors from USSR
       Stalin declares that war with capitalists inevitable and concentrates on national defense
       The Long Telegram and X-article become blueprint of US Cold War foreign policy
       Ho Chi Minh asks for US help in French-Indochina War and is refused
       Ho Chi Minh asks for and receives Soviet aid
       Winston Churchill delivers “Iron Curtain” speech
       Strategic Air Command (SAC) and Tactical Air Command established
       Truman passes law defining quarantine regulations regarding diseases
       Transjordan (Jordan) granted independence by Britain
       Syria’s independence from France recognized
       Unidentified US Congressman says airborne biological weapon can wipe out a city
       Jewish refugees increase terror campaign against Britain in Palestine
       Chinese Civil War intensifies
       Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established
       Greek Civil War starts

1947:

       Truman Doctrine of Soviet containment adopted
       Roswell UFO incident
       National Security Act passed by Truman creating USAF, NSC and CIA
       US Dept. of the Army formed within new Dept. of Defense replacing War Dept.
       COMINFORM (Communist Information Bureau) established
       India gains independence from Britain
       Indo-Pakistani War over Kashmir begins and is first of four wars
       Second Red Scare underway
       UN votes to partition Palestine, paving way for creation of Israel

1948:

       Arab-Israeli war starts day after Israel declares nationhood
       Berlin Blockade by USSR begins
       USSR and Yugoslavia communists split
       The second peacetime military draft initiated by Truman
       Republic of Korea established
       Democratic People’s Republic of Korea established under Kim Il-sung
       Louis St Laurent becomes Prime Minister of Canada
       Peruvian Revolt

1949:

       End of Indo-Pakistani War and Kashmir divided
       NATO created
       East and West Germany created, blockade of Berlin ends
       FBI investigations into communism in second Red Scare
       Soviets test first atomic bomb
       Greek Civil War ends with communist surrender
       Albert Guay blows up Canadian Pacific Airlines DC-, killing 23 in Quebec
       Most fighting in Chinese Civil War over and Nationalists move to Taiwan (Formosa)
       People’s Republic of China proclaimed by communist Chairman Mao Zedong


1950:

       Truman orders development of hydrogen bomb in response to USSR atom bomb
       Einstein warns that nuclear war could lead to mutual destruction
       Mk-4 atomic bomb lost with US aircraft off BC coast in first “Broken Arrow” incident
       Soviets and Chinese communists sign mutual defense treaty
       Jordan annexes West Bank
       Korean War starts
       MacArthur threatens to use nuclear weapons in Korea
       US sends military advisors to Vietnam




World Events 1951 - 1960
1951:

       Ethel and Julius Rosenberg convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage in US
       US, Australia, NZ sign mutual defense agreement - ANZUS Treaty
       Communist Chinese finish takeover of Tibet
       First nuclear war military exercises including infantry at Nevada sites
       MacArthur wants to attack China, is dismissed by Truman


1952:



       CBC television airs
       US detonates first hydrogen bomb
       National Security Agency (NSA) established in US
       Bolivian National Revolution
       World’s first nuclear accident occurs in Chalk River
1953:

       DD Eisenhower elected President
       USSR breaks relations with Israel
       Greece, Turkey (NATO members) sign Balkan Pact with Yugoslavia
       Stalin dies and is eventually replaced by Khruschev
       CIA approves LSD testing in MK ULTRA subproject
       Rosenbergs executed for espionage
       Korean War ceases hostilities with signing of armistice
       Soviets announce they have the hydrogen bomb
       CIA sponsors overthrow of Iranian ruler and install Shah Pahlavi
       Document NSC 162/2 approved, calls for large nuclear arsenal as deterrent

1954:

       First US nuclear submarine launched
       Gamal Nasser becomes head of Egypt
       Eisenhower warns of “Domino Effect” regarding spread of communism
       Soviet spy ring in Australia unveiled
       Paraguayan Revolt
       Hearings held regarding concerns of communist infiltration of US Army
       CIA engineers coup in Guatemala and starts 35-year civil war
       SEATO treaty established to thwart growth of communism in southeast Asia
       USSR detonated nuclear device
       Taiwan – US sign Mutual Defense Treaty
       Communist- backed Pathet Lao begins Laotian Civil war, lasts until 1973
       Communist-backed Huks in Philippines defeated and 1946 uprising finally ends
       Vietnam partitioned into North and South
       KGB forms out of former parts of reorganized NKVD

1955:

       U2 spy plane deployed
       Pentagon announces intent to build ICBM nuclear delivery system
       US President authorized to use force to protect Formosa (Taiwan)
       Baghdad Pact signed to contain communism in the Middle East
       West Germany joins NATO
       Warsaw Pact formed by USSR and eight Communist Bloc countries
       Second revolt in Argentina ousts Peron
       Eisenhower states “A-bombs can be used …as you would use a bullet”
1956:

       Khruschev attacks Stalin’s “Cult of Personality”
       Pakistan becomes first Islamic republic
       Nasser nationalizes Suez Canal and starts Suez Crisis
       Hungarian Revolution and intent to leave Warsaw Pact results in communist takeover
       Arab-Israeli War over Suez, UK and France bomb Egypt
       Fidel Castro enters Cuba and start of Cuban Revolution
       UK, France leave Suez canal area

1957:

       John Diefenbaker elected Prime Minister
       USSR launches Sputnik 1 and 2 , the first artificial satellites to orbit earth
       Gaither Report calls for more US offensive weaponry and fallout shelters to be built
        Avro Arrow unveiled in Canada
       Laser invented
       Experiments conducted in Canada for missile detection capabilities

1958:

       First US satellites launched
       Egypt and Syria form United Arab Republic (UAR)
       US loses Mark 15 hydrogen bomb in plane crash off Georgia and bomb never found
       NORAD founded
       NASA created and launches its first rocket
       China II crises as both China’s fight


1959:

       Cuban government of Castro recognized by US
       Avro Arrow cancelled by Canadian government
       St Lawrence Seaway opened
       US launches first ballistic missile-carrying submarine
       Start of Sino-Indian Border dispute

								
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