Translation

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					Translation
1. The Problem
1. The Problem
“No such thing as an exact
equivalent of meaning between
words in different languages…”
(C. H. Dodd)
1. The Challenge
Example: paidagogos (Gal 3:24)
 *Tutor
 *Disciplinarian
 *Custodian
 *Lead to…
Example: paidagogos (Gal 3:24)
KJV: “Wherefore the law was our
 schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ…”
Example: paidagogos (Gal 3:24)
KJV: “Wherefore the law was our
 schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ…”
NRSV: “Therefore the law was our
 disciplinarian until Christ came…”
Example: paidagogos (Gal 3:24)
KJV: “Wherefore the law was our
 schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ…”
NRSV: “Therefore the law was our
 disciplinarian until Christ came…”
NASB: “Therefore the Law has become our
 tutor to lead us to Christ…”
Example: paidagogos (Gal 3:24)
KJV: “Wherefore the law was our
 schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ…”
NRSV: “Therefore the law was our
 disciplinarian until Christ came…”
NASB: “Therefore the Law has become our
 tutor to lead us to Christ…”
NIV: “So the law was put in charge to lead us
 to Christ…”
“Every translation is itself an
  interpretation. Therefore, in a certain
  sense, every Bible translation is a kind
  of streamlined exegesis representing
  innumerable interpretive judgments
  and decisions” (M. Gorman, Elements
  of Biblical Exegesis, 41).
2. Two Approaches to Translation
2. Two Approaches to Translation
a. Formal Equivalence Translation
2. Two Approaches to Translation
a. Formal Equivalence Translation
  Translates by keeping the form
  between the source and target
  language as close as possible.
a. Formal Equivalence Translation
Whenever possible:
*Consistently renders any given
 word in original with a
 corresponding English word;
a. Formal Equivalence Translation
Whenever possible:
*Consistently renders any given word in
 original with a corresponding English
 word;
*Retains word order of original
 language as much as possible.
b. Functional Equivalence Translation
b. Functional Equivalence Translation
 Translates by attending the
 functional (rather than formal)
 similarities between the two
 languages.
b. Functional Equivalence Translation
*Does not attempt to consistently render
 each word in original with a
 corresponding English word (e.g.
 “flesh” in Gal)
b. Functional Equivalence Translation
*Does not attempt to consistently render
 each word in original with a corresponding
 English word (e.g. “flesh” in Gal)
*Does not attempt to retain original word
 order in any kind of strict way when this
 obscures the meaning.
3. Some Examples
3. Some Examples
a. Heb 1:3: (the Son) sustains all things…tō
   rēmati tēs dunameōs
 NASB (formal equivalence)
    “by the word of his power”
3. Some Examples
a. Heb 1:3: “(the Son) sustains all things…”
NASB (formal equivalence)
   “by the word of his power.”
NIV (functional equivalence)
   “by his powerful word.”
3. Some Examples
b. II Cor 10:13: metron (ametros, metreō)
Problem for strict formal equivalence: play on words
NASB: “But we will not boast beyond our
 measure, but within the measure of the
 sphere which God apportioned to us as a
 measure, to reach even as far as you.”
3. Some Examples
b. II Cor 10:13: metron (ametros, metreō)
Problem for strict formal equivalence: play on words
NASB: “But we will not boast beyond our measure,
  but within the measure of the sphere which God
  apportioned to us as a measure, to reach even as
  far as you.”
NIV: “We, however, will not boast beyond proper
  limits, but will confine our boasting to the field
  God has assigned to us, a filed that reaches even to
  you.”
3. Some Examples
c. Matthew 1:18
    mnēsteuomai “engaged”
   (but only way to break is through divorce:
   apoluō—1:19)
3. Some Examples
c. Matthew 1:18
    mnēsteuomai “engaged”
   (but only way to break is through divorce:
   apoluō—1:19)
   CEV: “So (Joseph) decided to quietly call
   off the wedding.”
3. Some Examples
c. Matthew 1:18
   mnēsteuomai “engaged”
   (but only way to break is through divorce:
   apoluō—1:19)
   CEV: “So (Joseph) decided to quietly call
   off the wedding.”
   NASB (& most other translations): Keeps
   “engaged” and “divorce.”
3. Some Examples
d. I Peter 1:13 anazōsamenoi tas osfuas (tēs
  dianoias)
  “Girding the loins/waist of your mind…”
3. Some Examples
d. I Peter 1:13 anazōsamenoi tas osfuas (tēs
  dianoias)
  “Girding the loins/waist [of your mind…]”
  Image: Long robes worn in one’s home;
  belted up when going out to allow for
  ease/quickness of movement; IDIOM
3. Some Examples
d. I Peter 1:13 anazōsamenoi tas osfuas (tēs
  dianoias)
  “Girding the loins/waist of your mind…”
NASB: “Therefore, gird your minds for
  action, keep sober in spirit, fix your hope
  completely on the grace to be brought to
  you at the revelation of Jesus Christ.”
3. Some Examples
d. I Peter 1:13 anazōsamenoi tas osfuas (tēs
  dianoias)
  “Girding the loins/waist of your mind…”
NIV: “Therefore, prepare your minds for
  action; be self-controlled; set your hope
  fully on the grace to be given you when
  Jesus Christ is revealed.”
     (NRSV—same initial clause)
Translation is No Easy Task!
“He who translated literally is a liar; and he
  who paraphrases is a blasphemer.”
     --Rabbi ben Judah
“Translators are traitors.”
           --Italian saying

				
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