Key Points Outline The Manhattan Project by Peter Marcellino Slide 1 Title Slide The Manhattan Project was the United States project with the hopes of creating an atomic bomb to use to end the war before the axis; mainly the Germans could create their own atomic bomb Slide 2 Important Dates In 1941, scientists persuaded the Government to support the research of the possible construction of an atomic bomb. In June 1942, the army took over the nuclear program. This date was important because with the help of the army, facilities to produce uranium 235 and plutonium were created at oak ridge Tennessee and at Hanford Washington. Without these facilities to gather, the necessary amount of the raw materials needed to create the bomb it could never have been constructed. In the fall of 1942 General Leslie R. Groves and J. Robert Oppenheimer were selected to head the Manhattan Project. In the summer of 1942 the site of Los Alamos was chosen. Los Alamos became the main area for scientists to work on the atomic bomb. The government acquired 9000 acres for facilities. By the end of the war, 6500 people were living at Los Alamos. Slide 3 Security The security on the Manhattan project was very intense. The main method of stopping the possible leak of information was compartmentalization. This meant that each person only knew about exactly what they were working on, this worked very well as no information was ever leaked to the Germans. One negative aspect of compartmentalization was that scientist could not openly talk with each other about all of their different ideas and problems as much as they wished to, possibly slowing down the project. The Germans also had very effective security, from 1941 to late 1944 the United States was unable to find out what stage of the creation of an atomic bomb Germans were at. Slide 4 The race against Germany is found to be nonexistent During the D-Day invasion, the Alsos contingent had the mission of discovering the progress of Germany’s atomic research. Much information was gathered and handed over to the war department by December 1944. The conclusion was that the Germans were nowhere close to the construction of the atomic bomb, as Hitler had focused on rockets. Slide 5 The Bomb 2 bombs were created little boy and fat man. Little boy was a gun type uranium bomb. This meant that a bullet of uranium 235 was fired into another piece of uranium 235 reaching the critical mass and starting the chain reaction. The problem was that there was not going to be enough uranium 235 produced fast enough to make two bombs, there fore the second bomb would have to be made with plutonium. Fat man was an implosion type bomb. A ball of plutonium was surrounded with explosives which, when set off, would compress the plutonium setting it off. Slide 6 Little Boy Slide 7 Fat Man Slide 8 Testing the bomb The uranium bomb was not tested as it was thought that it would obviously be successful. Scientists were unsure of the plutonium bomb, as it was a more complicated design. Therefore a plutonium bomb was tested on July 16th 1945. This test was known as the trinity test and was on the Alamogordo air force base in New Mexico. A bomb was placed on top of a steel tower, with various structures and instruments placed around it to test the blasts force, and then detonated. After the test the bomb was deemed to be very successful, with an explosion the size of that of 20000 tons of TNT. Sonja Before the Bombings: Winston Churchill, Harry S Truman, and Soviet Josef Stalin met to end the war at Potsdam conference Decided on Potsdam declaration a) stated that if Japan didn’t surrender, then it would face "prompt and utter destruction" b) July 29, 1945--the Japanese rejected the Potsdam Declaration Controversy: I. Support (pros): It would save lives (approx. hundreds of thousands) Would avoid an invasion into Japan that could last years before a solution or surrender would be made Bombing = quick solution Some believed it was necessary in order to end the war liberate about 200,000 Dutch and 400,000 Indonesians from Japanese concentration camps Japanese atrocities against millions of Chinese, would end II. Opposition towards bombing (Cons): Some historians believe that Japan would’ve surrendered even without its use Also, some think that President Truman’s decision was influenced by the Soviets wanted to intimidate them Wanted to avoid the declaration of war on Japan by the Soviets Jake Hiroshima and Nagasaki • Colonel Paul Tibbets dropped the bomb at approximately 8:15 A.M. - Hiroshima time Nicknamed Little boy- the 9,700 uranium bomb was dropped over the city and lit the morning sky 1,900 feet above the city Aftermath • Potsdam Declaration brought together British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, US President Harry S Truman, and Soviet leader Josef Stalin to end the war • They gave Japan the chance to end the war by surrendering to these terms and conditions: there is a new order of Japan, and a new government to replace these irresponsible leaders • The power of Japan Islands shall be limited to Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, Shikoku and such minor islands as we determine • Lastly there shall be war reparations in which Japan pays back our four countries Victory Japan Day • August 6, 1945 6 am • A B-29 bomber –Hiroshima had a civilian population of 300,000 • An important military center, and 43,000 soldiers • The bomb instantly killed • located on the deltas of southwestern Honshu Island facing the Inland Sea. • Hiroshima had a civilian population of almost 300,000 and was an important military center, containing about 43,000 soldiers Nuclear Proliferation • The U.N. called for an end to Proliferation of atomic weapons for all countries besides Iran and North Korea • President Obama and the rest of the United Nations was unable to come to a decision on how to punish North Korea for sending a rocket over Japan and into the Pacific Ocean • The Non Proliferation Treaties’ (NPT) objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and technology, while to promote the uses of nuclear energy and achieve complete disarmament • The United States, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, France, and China all have signed the NPT and are obligated to not transfer nuclear weapons.
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