INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI

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					  INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI
Version with MOVIES on NMWW DVD

            December 26, 2004
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 Krabit, Indonesia
TSUNAMI WAVES

• Caused by Earthquakes under Ocean, or
 other events – landslides, volcanic
 eruptions, asteroid impacts, etc.

• In Deep Ocean the Tsunami Wave is
 only about 3 feet high but 100 miles wide
 and moving at speed of a jet airplane.
 Alfred Wegner observed that South America and
 Africa continents fit like a gig saw puzzle




Proposed Continental Drift of Plates (Plate Tectonics) and that 200 million
Years ago a super continent of Pangaea existed.
SEA FLOOR SPREADING
Occurs along the Mid-
Atlantic Ridge pushing the
African and European
Plates away from the North
and South American
Plates at about 1 inch/year
This then pushes the
Pacific Ocean floor under
the Plates on the opposite
side of America Plates and
Euroasian and Africa
Plates
Earthquakes result from Sea Floor Spreading along the
Mid-Atlantic Ridge that pushes the Continents over the
Pacific Ocean Floor.
Earthquakes since 1990
Mag 9, 0.58 GMT, 10 km Deep, 250 km SSW
of Banda Ache, Indonesia, ~1 m high Tsunami,
20-40 min period, ~350 km wavelength, 200 m/sec
FACTS Model – PMEL - Titov
Depth Gauge Record of Mercator anchored 1 mile from
coast of Phuket, Thailand. Time in hours, Depth in Meters.




                                                  Reflected
                                                  Off Coast
 -2.7, +3.9, -0.5, +1.7, -0.6, +4.9 meters in 41 minutes
Jason 1 Altimetry Satellite Tracks


             TSUNAMI
30 Minute Period, 350 km Wave Length, 200 m/s or 750 km/hr
having traveled 1500 km in 2 hours since earthquake –
1 meter max wave height.


                  TSUNAMI
             Before
Banda
Aceh City,
Sumarta


Digital
Globe        After

Satellite
Photos
Damage map of Banda Aceh showing the impact of tsunamis wave fronts from two
directions. The numerals indicate the tsunami elevation in meters near the beach (white)
and flow depth inland (black). (Damage map source: UNOSAT, Tsunami data: Borrero et
al. 2006, Jaffe et al., 2006, Matsutomi et al., 2006).
Tug Boat and Barge
Cement Plant and Survivor
              ___

                    15 meters


Men holding   ___
5 meter
staff
Phuket, Thailand
            Phi Phi, Thailand




Before Tsunami        Initial Withdrawal
Phi Phi After Tsunami
Phi Phi After Tsunami
Phi Phi Don Island – Pictures taken from Aragon
Yacht ¾ mile from land of other Yachts and Boats

Withdrawal –
Rocks
normally
underwater




First Wave
Run-up – 3
minutes later
4 minutes later   5 minutes later
Trinkat, Nicobar-Andaman Islands
             Khao Lak, Thailand – Pictures taken by
             Canadians – John and Jackie Knill –
             before they died




Withdrawal
South India After Tsunami
             Kalutara, Sri Lanka
             Digital Globe Satellite Photos




Before




                    Recession




  Flooding
Sri Lanka After Tsunami
Sri Lanka After Tsunami
Sri Lanka After Tsunami
Train traveling from
Colombo to Galle hit
by >30 ft high
Tsunami at Telwatta
about 15 miles from
Galle.
Telwatta, Sri Lanka Train
Over 800 were Killed- Train 200 yards from shore.
People from town climbed on top of train after first
wave then killed by second wave.
Sri
Lanka
10
meter
Regions
in Red
MALDIVES Islands – B. Keating Study




         Maldive Islands
Location Map




               From Coleman (2000)
 Maldives After Tsunami

Metal Roofing Cut People
 Maldives After Tsunami

Walls carried by flood
injured people
                Maldives After Tsunami




Water Catchment Tank
Krabit, Phuket, Indonesia – THEY ALL SURVIVED!
      PACIFIC TSUNAMI WARNING
      CENTER
      Ewa Beach, Hawaii




US Department of Commerce / National Weather Service
WC/ATWC - Palmer, Alaska
WC/ATWC
    Earthquake Data
    Processing
• WC/ATWC EarlyBird
    Seismic Processing
    System
•   Developed for Fast
    evaluation of Big quakes
•   Graphical interaction to
    refine automatic results
•   Redundant backup
    operates concurrently
    (communications and
    hardware).
    Sea Level Data Display and
    Analysis
• Data acquired at
    WC/ATWC from NOS,
    PTWC, and other
    centers’ sites
•   200+ tide gage
    signals
•   6 DART stations
•   Data displayed with
    predicted tide and
    residuals
•   Data real-time,
    triggered, or satellite
    delayed (hourly).
    Far-Field Prediction
    Approach
• Determine likely fault
    parameters for large quakes
    in main tsunami generating
    zones of the Pacific
•   Model quakes of different
    magnitudes for each zone
    (> 200 total models)
•   Save maximum amplitudes
    at tide gages, DARTs, and
    other places of interest
    (100+ saved/model)
  TYPES OF TSUNAMI MESSAGES
• INFORMATION BULLETIN: Large earthquake
  but no tsunami threat (6.5 <= Mw < 7.5)
• Watch/Warning: Large, Shallow, under water,
  Earthquake (Mw >= 7.5)
   WATCH: First wave is 3-6 hours away
   WARNING: First wave is < 3 hours away
• Pacific-Warning: Confirmed destructive
  waves moving across the Pacific
Sumatra Earthquake
                           Mw = 9.3
                     Rupture Length ~ 1200km

                     Source Duration ~ 600s

                     Rupture propagated South
                     To North

                     => Generated Basin wide
                     Destructive tsunami that
                     killed > 300,000 people
Sumatra Earthquake
                     PTWC TIMELINE (GMT)
                     00:59 Sumatra EQ Starts
                     01:07 Watchstanders paged
                     by digital alarm
                     01:09 PTWC has location
                     01:09 Sumatra EQ Stops
                     01:14 PTWC issues TIB
                     with Mw=8.0
                     02:04 TIB issued with
                     Revised magnitude 8.5
                     No Tide Gauges in Region
                     05:00 Wire reports of deaths
                     In Thailand and Sri Lanka
                             Travel Time Back Source
                             Wave Tracing Back to Track


                SLIP
                 and
Regional and Tele-Surface           PB
Waves.
                RAKE
                Model
               Mw = 9.1

            Where was the
            Missing Moment                         P
            Released?
                                                          S
  4hr
After having learned that
there was a destructive
tsunami, PTWC set about
reaching Nations ahead of
the wave.
March 28, 2005
Mw=8.2 Upgraded
To 8.5 then to 8.7!!

No reports of Tsunami
Damage.
One Degree South of
Where Dec 26 event
Started.
Aftershock?
Faulting continuing
Southwards?
           Conclusions
• The Tsunami caused by the Sumatra EQ
    killed >300,000 people because there
    was no Warning System.
•   Source region for Sumatra Tsunami
    extends from Banda Aceh through the
    Nicobar Islands.
•   We need a method for estimating size of
    great earthquakes within a time frame
    useful to the Tsunami Warning System.
Tsunami Warnings
• If you are at the beach and feel an earthquake –
    GO TO HIGH GROUND (>100 feet above MSL)
•   If the water level drops below low tide level –
    GO TO HIGH GROUND
•   If you hear a siren near the beach – GO TO
    HIGH GROUND
•   If in or near multi-storied concrete building – GO
    UP IN BUILDING ABOVE THIRD FLOOR
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