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					   Energy and standard of living




Mech 4692/7470 – Chapter : Renewable Energy - 1 -
   Energy and standard of living

                           % Population             % World GDP   % World Consumption
 Country                      (2001)                   (2002)            (2002)
 United States                 4.6%                    32.0%             24.0%
 Japan                         2.0%                    12.0%              5.0%
 France                        0.9%                     4.0%              3.0%
 Germany                       1.4%                     6.0%              4.0%
 UK                            1.0%                     5.0%              2.0%
 China                        20.0%                     4.0%             11.0%
 India                        17.0%                     2.0%              4.0%
 From tester et. Al




Mech 4692/7470 – Chapter : Renewable Energy - 2 -
                                                Fossil Fuels




http://www.shackell.org.uk/rants/waydown.html         http://planetforlife.com/worldHubbert.htm




  Mech 4692/7470 – Chapter : Renewable Energy - 3 -
                       World Peak Oil (Hubbert)
               Our ability to catch fish depend on how much is left in the lake
                                    Hits                                  Hits
                                             Discoveries
                                                                           – new wells
                                                          Production       – peak 1964
               Saudi’s no
               longer have
                                                                          Discoveries
Annual Yield




               excess capacity                            Peak
                                   Total production       Production
                                   2.0 trillion                            – yearly production +
                                   barrels
                                                                             known reserves
                                                                           – peak 1987
                                        100 billion
                                        barrels to find
                                                                          Production
                                                                           – peak 2005
                                 1950                     2000
    Mech 4692/7470 – Chapter : Renewable Energy - 4 -
                             Known non-renewable reserves
                                                                  Reserves
                                         (EJ)
                                                            15 TW/year   45 TW/year
Methane clathrate                           100,000             211          70
Coal                                        39,000               82          27
Oil                                         18,900               40          13
Gas                                         15,700               33          11
LNG                                          2,300               5            2
Shale                                       16,000               34          11
235
    U                                        2,600               5            2
238
    U                                       320,000             676          225
232
    UTh                                     11,000               23           8




Mech 4692/7470 – Chapter : Renewable Energy - 5 -
Fuels                                  Lower Heating Value (LHV) [1]    Higher Heating Value (HHV) [1]                   Density
Gaseous Fuels @ 32 F and 1 atm        Btu/ft3 [2] Btu/lb [3] MJ/kg [4] Btu/ft3 [2] Btu/lb [3] MJ/kg [4]           grams/ft3     kg/m3
Natural gas                              983       20,267     47.141     1089       22,453     52.225                22.0        0.78
Hydrogen                                 290       51,682     120.21      343       61,127     142.18                2.55        0.09
Still gas (in refineries)               1458       20,163     46.898     1,584      21,905     50.951                32.8        1.16
                                                                                                                                    3
Liquid Fuels                          Btu/gal [2]   Btu/lb [3]   MJ/kg [4] Btu/gal [2]   Btu/lb [3]   MJ/kg [4]   grams/gal    kg/m
Crude oil                              129,670       18,352       42.686     138,350      19,580       45.543       3,205      846.67
Conventional gasoline                  116,090       18,679       43.448     124,340      20,007       46.536       2,819      744.70
Reformulated or low-sulfur gasoline    113,602       18,211       42.358     121,848      19,533       45.433       2,830      747.50
CA reformulated gasoline               113,927       18,272       42.500     122,174      19,595       45.577       2,828      747.13
U.S. conventional diesel               128,450       18,397       42.791     137,380      19,676       45.766       3,167      836.63
Low-sulfur diesel                      129,488       18,320       42.612     138,490      19,594       45.575       3,206      846.94
Petroleum naphtha                      116,920       19,320       44.938     125,080      20,669       48.075       2,745      725.15
NG-based FT naphtha                    111,520       19,081       44.383     119,740      20,488       47.654       2,651      700.32
Residual oil                           140,353       16,968       39.466     150,110      18,147       42.210       3,752      991.17
Methanol                               57,250         8,639       20.094     65,200        9,838       22.884       3,006      794.10
Ethanol                                76,330        11,587       26.952     84,530       12,832       29.847       2,988      789.35
E-Diesel Additives                     116,090       18,679       43.448     124,340      20,007       46.536       2,819      744.70
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)          84,950        20,038       46.607     91,410       21,561       50.152       1,923      508.00
Liquefied natural gas (LNG)            74,720        20,908       48.632     84,820       23,734       55.206       1,621      428.22
Dimethyl ether (DME)                   68,930        12,417       28.882     75,610       13,620       31.681       2,518      665.19
Dimethoxy methane (DMM)                72,200        10,061       23.402     79,197       11,036       25.670       3,255      859.88
Methyl ester (biodiesel, BD)           119,550       16,134       37.528     127,960      17,269       40.168       3,361      887.88
Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD)           123,670       18,593       43.247     130,030      19,549       45.471       3,017      797.01
Liquid Hydrogen                        30,500        51,621       120.07     36,020       60,964       141.80        268        70.80
Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE)     93,540        15,094       35.108     101,130      16,319       37.957       2,811      742.59
Ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE)      96,720        15,613       36.315     104,530      16,873       39.247       2,810      742.32
Tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME)      100,480       15,646       36.392     108,570      16,906       39.322       2,913      769.53
Butane                                 94,970        19,466       45.277     103,220      21,157       49.210       2,213      584.61
Isobutane                              90,060        19,287       44.862     98,560       21,108       49.096       2,118      559.52
Isobutylene                            95,720        19,271       44.824     103,010      20,739       48.238       2,253      595.18
Propane                                84,250        19,904       46.296     91,420       21,597       50.235       1,920      507.21
Solid Fuels                           Btu/ton [2]   Btu/lb [5]   MJ/kg [4] Btu/ton [2]   Btu/lb [5]   MJ/kg [4]
Coal (wet basis) [6]                  19,546,300      9,773       22.732   20,608,570     10,304       23.968
Bituminous coal (wet basis) [7]       22,460,600     11,230       26.122   23,445,900     11,723       27.267
Coking coal (wet basis)               24,600,497     12,300       28.610   25,679,670     12,840       29.865                  Adapted from GREET
Farmed trees (dry basis)              16,811,000      8,406       19.551   17,703,170      8,852       20.589
Herbaceous biomass (dry basis)        14,797,555      7,399       17.209   15,582,870      7,791       18.123
Corn stover (dry basis)               14,075,990      7,038       16.370   14,974,460      7,487       17.415
Forest residue (dry basis)            13,243,490      6,622       15.402   14,164,160      7,082       16.473
                           Energy Utilization
                         Worldwide (Million TOE)
                              2001 primary energy consumption (Million TOE)                      TOE/
Country           Oil            Gas        Coal       Nuclear       Hydro    Total   Pop 106   person
UK                 77             87          40         20             2      226       60      3.78
France             96             38          12         96            18      260       60      4.30
Canada            138             55          33          7            28      262       31      8.52
India              97             25         173          4            16      315     1,016     0.31
Germany           132             75          85         39             6      337       82      4.10
Japan             248             71         103         73            20      515      127      4.06
China             232             25         519          4            54      834     1,263     0.66
USA               896            578         546        183            48     2,251     275      8.17
Total            1,916           954        1,511       426           192     5,000    2,914     1.72
                                                                                                #DIV/0!
World            3,517          2,220        2,243       601         585      9,165    6,000     1.53
- Power converted to TOE assuming 38% efficiency plant
- Source BP, 2001
 NPC Global Oil Report (next 25 years)

    Accumulating risks
    Need to exploit all energy sources
    Need 80 toMoney, Time,
               120 MBD (presently 86 MBD)
    WorkforceTalent and
              lacking
                           Resources
    20 trillion dollar issue (IEA)
       – $3,000 per person
       – 50% for electrical power generation/distribution
    CO2 policies will change energy mix,
     increase cost and reduce demand

Mech 4692/7470 – Chapter : Renewable Energy - 8 -
Energy Drivers
 Energy demand growth
 Peak fossil fuels
 GHG leading to climate change
   Environmental emissions
   Sustainability
   Energy security
   Costs
Mech 4692/7470 – Chapter : Renewable Energy - 9 -
                      World energy mix


                                                        8.4%
                                                     Renewables

                                                     Leading RE
                                                     -Biomass
                                                     -Hydro
Mech 4692/7470 – Chapter : Renewable Energy - 10 -
                  Non-Fossil




                                                        Gravitational
                                       Nuclear
   Nuclear




                                       Solar
                   Energy
                   Sources




Fission                                          PV        Tidal
        Geothermal    Wind      Biomass
Fusion          Hydro WavesOTEC        Steam       Collectors



   Mech/Turbo
   Generator                    Processing



   Electricity       Gas & Liquid Fuels              Heat
 (highest form)                                  (lowest form)
Energy Sources
                                 Photosynthesis    Fusion                       Planet
                  Biomass                                                                                  Fission
                                                    Sun                         Motion
 Non-Renewable          Renewable                  Renewable                                   Renewable




                                                                                                                  Non-Renewable
                                     Ocean                  Wind Hydro
 Fossil Fuels                                                                      Tidal        Geothermal
                                    Thermal                   Waves




                 Chemical                            Heat                        Electricity               Nuclear



                                                  End            Mechanical
Energy Forms                                      User             work


Energy               Fuels                           Latent
                                                                  Mechanical
                                                                                   Electro
                                                                                                           Solid Fuel
                 liq/gas/solid                      sensible                      chemical
Storage

Renewable Energy Vectors                           Electricity                 Hot water
    Renewable Sources to Increase RER
               World demand = 15.0 TW

   Solar
    – 78,000 TW radiation
    – 39,000 TW water
     evaporation
    – 3,600 TW wind & waves
    – 90 TW Photosynthesis
    Renewable Sources to Increase RER
                       World demand = 15.0 TW

   Tides
    – 3 TW Tides caused by moon
          Tidal energy using kinetic turbines (power)

   Nuclear energy from earth
    – 32 TW rock conduction
    – 0.3 TW volcanoes and hot springs
            Practical potential of RE
     Hydro Power                                    0.9 TW
       – can find additional forms
     Wind                                           2 TW
       – 4% utilization of ≥ class 3 land area)
     Geothermal
       – needs drilling technology breakthrough
     Waves and tides                                1 - 5 TW
       – Technology in development

Mech 4692/7470 – Chapter : Renewable Energy - 15 -
            Practical potential of RE
     Solar heat                                     all low T heat
       – marginal economics
     Solar PV                                              all power
       – cost issue & development
     Biomass                                               3 TW
       – 5% surface area and 0.3% conversion eff.


         There is no limit of RE except by economics and preferences

    We need to focus on a portfolio of RE options and let go of favorites
Mech 4692/7470 – Chapter : Renewable Energy - 16 -
          Renewable Energy on Earth




                                                                    
                                                   PW                            %Overall %World Use




                                                       
                  Direct reflection                 52                Short wave    30.1%    346667%
Sun Nuclear       Direct conversion to heat         78                radiation     45.2%    520000%
Solar radiation   Evaporation of water              39        173                   22.6%    260000%
Hitting Earth     Wind/waves (circulation)         3.6                             2.084%      24000%
                  Photosynthesis                  0.09                             0.052%         600%
                                                                       Long wave
Planets           Tides                                      0.003    radiation    0.002%       20.00%


                                                         
Earth Nuclear     Springs                      0.0003                              0.000%        2.00%
                                                             0.0323
                  Hot rock                      0.032                              0.019%      213.33%
Total steady-state planetary energy balance                   173                 100%      1151482%

 Adapted from Rosa




  Mech 4692/7470 – Chapter : Renewable Energy - 17 -
Renewable
                                                     100% Incoming radiation

Energy on Earth                                         6% Reflected by atmosphere
                                                       20% Reflected by clouds
                                                                                              30% Reflected
                                                        4% Reflected from earths surface

                                                                                           
                                                       16% Absorbed by atmosphere
                                                        3% Absorbed by clouds                  70% Absorbed
                                                       51% Absorbed by land and oceans

                                                     100% Exiting radiation
                                                       64% Radiation to space clouds/atm
                                                        6% Radiation to space from land       70% Radiated


                                                                                           
                                                        6% Reflected by atmosphere
                                                       20% Reflected by clouds                 30% Reflected
                                                        4% Reflected from earths surface
                                                     64% Energy absorbed/radiated by clouds/atmosphere




                                                                                           
                                                       16% Absorbed by atmosphere
                                                        3% Absorbed by clouds
                                                        7% Condusction/convection from land  64% Radiated
                                                       23% Latent heat
                                                       15% Direct radiation from land
                                                     51% Energy loss from land/oceans


                                                                                           
                                                        7% Condusction/convection from land
                                                       23% Latent heat                         51% Mixed
                                                       21% Radiated out


Mech 4692/7470 – Chapter : Renewable Energy - 18 -
            World Commercial RE (W/cap)
Wind power                           0.92
Biomass animal food                  22.2
Biomass vegtable                    113.7
Wood fuel                           221.9
Biomass waste                         3.7
Biofuel                               2.3
Biomass power                         2.8
Hydro                                 50
Tidal power                          0.01
Solar heat                           0.11
Solar power                         0.007
Geothermal power                      9.3
Geothermal heat                       0.5
Total                                427
Total commercial                      69
                       2001 Renewable Energy Use (W/cap)
            Pop                Geo     Geo              Solar                     Bio
Country      106   Hydro       Pow     Heat      PV     Heat     Tidal   Wind     Res
UK           59.8   9.76         0       0      0.02    0.003     0.24     0      2.13
France       60.4  126.6       0.27      0      0.02     0.55     1.08    0.3    39.82
Canada       30.8  1331          0       0      0.02       0      0.13   1.36      0
India      1,015.9 8.37          0       0        0      0.17      0      0.4      0
Germany      82.2  30.22         0     0.16     0.14     1.47      0     22.3    28.47
Japan       126.9  78.55       3.01    2.33     0.25     8.41    92.55   0.34    10.56
China      1,262.5 20.13       0.02      0        0        0       0      0.8      0
USA         275.4   103        6.09     2.5     0.05     7.32      0     2.84    34.29
             Pop        Bio     Bio     Bio    Animal     Veg    Total   Com      Non-
Country       106      Solid    Liq    Gas      Food    Food      RE      RE     Renew     RER
UK            59.8      6.23   18.65   17.88    48.52   112.93    216      55     6,042    0.9%
France        60.4      202     5.78    3.83    65.18   108.72    554     380     6,455    5.6%
Canada        30.8     484.3      0      0      45.42   108.28   1,971   1,817   13,892   11.6%
India       1,015.9     300       0      0       5.67   134.87    449     309      474    39.4%
Germany       82.2     79.49    2.64    9.01    50.12   116.95    341     174     6,494    2.6%
Japan        126.9     47.64      0      0      27.55    106.2    377     244     6,287    3.7%
China       1,262.5    225.7      0      5      28.23   118.45    398     252      996    20.2%
USA          275.4     290.7   15.55   15.91    50.51   132.16    275     268    12,894    2.0%
- Sorensen Table 1.1
                             Cost of power
    kWhr                  kWhr/day                   kWhr/yr   Cost/year @ 6 c/kWhr
     1                      24                        8,760             $526
     2                      48                        17,520           $1,051
     3                      72                        26,280           $1,577
     4                      96                        35,040           $2,102
     5                      120                       43,800           $2,628


                         1 kWhr = 3.6 MJ
   kWhr is energy/work (J), not power (J/s)
   kWhr is often written as kW omitting hr
    – You need to understand the context
Mech 4692/7470 – Chapter : Renewable Energy - 21 -
Historical energy use
  From Sorensen
         World energy distribution




From Sorensen
Mech 4692/7470 – Chapter : Renewable Energy - 23 -
   0.180

   0.160

   0.140

   0.120

   0.100

   0.080                    RER Canada
   0.060

   0.040

   0.020

   0.000




Flat RER means part of new demand is non-renewable
                                                           Propane 0.0701%
                                                        Aviation Fuel 2.91%
                                     Natural Gas (Pipelines) 4.15%
                                                                                                                      Manitoba SE
                                                                                                                           Natural Gas 27.7%
                            Diesel Fuel Oil 13.2%




                                                            Transportation
                                                                                                          Heat
                                                                                                                                        285 PJ
                                                                              Non-Renewables



                                                                                                                                     Propane 1.32%
                                                                                                                                    Heavy Fuel Oil 1.13%
                                                                                   Renewables
                                                                                                                                    Diesel 1.08%
                  Motor Gasoline 17.2%
                                                                                                                                    Coal 0.389%

                                                                Elec.
                                                                          Heat              Electricity
     Non-Renew. Electricity 0.338%
Light Fuel Oil 0.0000558%
 Heavy Fuel Oil 0.00279%                                                          Trans.
                                                                                                                                      Other Non-Renew. Heat 0.395%
         Diesel 0.00848%
                                     Geothermal 0.0824%
                                                                                                                 Hydro 22.1%   Non-Renew. Sec. Elec. 0.0727%
                                             Biomass 2.91%
   Natural Gas 0.00876%
                                                                                                                                   Kerosene/Stove Oil 0.103%
                                          Renew. Sec. Electricity 4.80%

             Coal 0.297%                                                             Wind 0.0324%
                                                                                                                                        Light Fuel Oil 0.184%
                                                     Biofuels 0.0745%
                                                                                     Biomass 0.0201%
www.koshland-science-museum.org
Green House
Gases
   Human activity
    – 35 Billion tonnes
        new CO2 per year

    – 5 tonnes/person                            www.realclimate.org

    – What is effect of human activity
   CO2 levels in atmosphere
    – 1850: 250 ppm
    – Now: approaching 400 ppm
    – Danger: 400 to 600 ppm;
    – Real danger: above 600 ppm
Mech 4692/7470 – Chapter : Renewable Energy - 30 -
Green House Gases
 Nature: 770 Billion tonnes/yr
 Humans: 30 Billion tonnes/yr


     Add new ball every 2 years                      Time




Mech 4692/7470 – Chapter : Renewable Energy - 31 -
                                 Planets

                                            Planets
                                            Earth Equilbrium   Earth Actual
                         Venus     Mars       (with no life)    (with life)
                 CO2     98.0%     95.0%         98.0%            0.03%
   Gas             N2    1.9%      0.3%          1.9%              78%
                   O2    trace     0.1%           trace            21%
                T (oC)    477        -53          290               13
Conditions
             P (Bars)     90       0.0064         60                1
      CO2 Emissions Factors



Gas                    GWP



CO2                     1



CH4                     21



N2O                    310
Canadian Power Emission Factor (tonnes/MWhr)
                       Average    Marginal
Newfoundland/Lab        0.02        0.00
Prince Edward Island    0.50        0.81
Nova Scotia             0.74        0.54
New Brunswick           0.50        0.81
Québec                  0.01        0.00
Ontario                 0.24        0.54
Manitoba                0.03        0.00
Saskatchewan            0.83        0.54
Alberta                 0.91        0.54
British-Columbia        0.03        0.00
Territories             0.36        0.91
Total Canada            0.22        0.43
Natural Gas
                                          CO2 Factors                   N20      CH4
                            (tonnes/ML)                 (tonnes/TJ)   (kg/TJ)   (kg/TJ)
        Commercial Boiler       1.88                       49.68        0.52      1.1
        Industrial Boiler       1.88                       49.68        0.52      1.3

  Oil
                               CO2                         N2O         CH4
                               (g/L)                       (g/L)       (g/L)

        Light Oil
        Commercial Boiler      2830                       0.013       0.026
        Industrial Boiler      2830                       0.013       0.006

        Heavy Oil
        Commercial Boiler      3090                       0.013        0.06
        Industrial Boiler      3090                       0.013        0.12

Propane (LPGs)
                               CO2                         N2O         CH4
                               (g/L)                       (g/L)       (g/L)
        LPG                    1530                        0.23        0.03
Country          Carbon Dioxide 2003
                 (tonnes per capita)

Luxembourg       24.3
United States    20.0
Canada           19.05
United Kingdom   9.5
Bangladesh       0.24
Ethiopia         0.06
Energy             BTU       quads     calories     kWhr       MWy       bbls oil   TOE     kg coal tonnes coal   MCF gas     joules         EJ   Cord wood Kg wood l gasoline Energy
BTU                  1       1.0E-15      252     2.93E-04   3.35E-11   1.82E-07 2.48E-08 3.60E-05    3.60E-08    1.00E-05     1055     1.055E-15 3.00E-08  6.59E-05  3.26E-05 BTU
quads            1.0E+15        1      2.52E+17   2.93E+11   3.35E+04   1.82E+08 2.48E+07 3.60E+10 3.60E+07       1.00E+09   1.06E+18       1.06   3.00E+07 6.59E+10 3.26E+10 quads
calories         3.97E-03   3.97E-18       1      1.16E-06   1.33E-13   7.21E-10 9.82E-11 1.43E-07    1.43E-10    3.97E-09      4.19     4.19E-18 1.19E-10  2.62E-07  1.29E-07 calories
kWhr               3,413    3.41E+12   8.60E+05       1      1.14E-07   6.20E-04 8.45E-05    0.123    1.23E-04    3.41E-03   3.60E+06    3.60E-12 1.02E-04 0.22504266   0.111  kWhr
MWy              2.99E+10   2.99E-05   7.53E+12   8.76E+06       1        3,435      740   1.08E+06     1076      2.99E+04   3.15E+13    3.15E-05   894.674 1.97E+06 9.73E+05 MWy
bbls oil         5.50E+06   5.50E-09   1.38E+09     1,612    1.84E-04       1       0.136   198.000     0.198       5.500    5.80E+09    5.80E-09    0.165   362.294  1.79E+02 bbls oil
TOE              4.04E+07   4.04E-08   1.02E+10   1.18E+04   1.35E-03      7.35       1      1455       1.45         40.4    4.26E+10    4.26E-08 1.2085319 2.66E+03 1.31E+03 TOE
kg coal          2.78E+04   2.78E-11   7.00E+06     8.140    9.29E-07   5.05E-03 6.88E-04       1       0.001      0.0278    2.93E+07    2.93E-11 8.33E-04    1.832   9.06E-01 kg coal
tonnes coal      2.78E+07   2.78E-08   7.00E+09     8,139    9.29E-04       1       0.688    1000         1          27.8    2.93E+10    2.93E-08    0.833  1.83E+03 9.06E+02 tonnes coal
MCF gas          1.00E+06   1.00E-09   2.52E+08      293     3.35E-05     0.182    0.0248      36       0.036          1     1.06E+09    1.06E-09 3.00E-03    6.594     3.261  MCF gas
joules           9.48E-04   9.48E-19     0.239    2.78E-07   3.17E-14   1.72E-10 9.48E-19 3.41E-08    3.41E-11    9.48E-10       1         1E-18   2.84E-11 6.25E-08  3.09E-08 joules
EJ               9.48E+14     0.948    2.39E+17   2.78E+11   3.17E+04   1.72E+08 2.35E+07 3.41E+10 3.41E+07       9.48E+08   1.00E+18         1    2.84E+07 6.25E+10 3.09E+10 EJ
Cord wood        3.34E+07   3.34E-08   8.41E+09   9.78E+03   1.12E-03     6.072     0.827  1.20E+03     1.201      333.65    3.52E+10    3.52E-08      1    2.20E+03 1.09E+03 Cord wood
Kg wood          1.52E+04   1.52E-11   3.82E+06     4.444    5.08E-07   2.76E-03 3.76E-04    0.546    5.46E-04      0.152    1.60E+07    1.60E-11 4.55E-04      1       0.495  Kg wood
l gasoline       3.07E+04   3.07E-11   7.73E+06     8.986    1.03E-06   5.58E-03 7.61E-04 1.10E+00 1.10E-03       3.07E-01   3.24E+07    3.24E-11 9.19E-04    2.022       1    l gasoline
Avg Person/Day   2.05E+05   2.05E-10   5.16E+07      60.0    6.86E-06     0.037   5.08E-03    7.37    7.37E-03       2.05    2.16E+08    2.16E-10 6.14E-03   13.500      6.68  Avg Person/Day
US Person/Day    9.01E+05   9.01E-10   2.27E+08     263.9    3.02E-05     0.164   2.23E-02   32.43      0.032        9.01    9.50E+08    9.50E-10 2.70E-02   59.400     29.37  US Person/Day



Energy                           BTU                 quads              calories          kWhr             MWy                bbls oil   TOE     kg coal tonnes coal
BTU                                1                 1.0E-15               252          2.93E-04         3.35E-11            1.82E-07 2.48E-08 3.60E-05    3.60E-08
quads                          1.0E+15                  1               2.52E+17        2.93E+11         3.35E+04            1.82E+08 2.48E+07 3.60E+10 3.60E+07
calories                       3.97E-03             3.97E-18                1           1.16E-06         1.33E-13            7.21E-10 9.82E-11 1.43E-07    1.43E-10
kWhr                             3,413              3.41E+12            8.60E+05            1            1.14E-07            6.20E-04 8.45E-05    0.123    1.23E-04
MWy                            2.99E+10             2.99E-05            7.53E+12        8.76E+06             1                 3,435      740   1.08E+06     1076
bbls oil                       5.50E+06             5.50E-09            1.38E+09          1,612          1.84E-04                1       0.136   198.000     0.198
TOE                            4.04E+07             4.04E-08            1.02E+10        1.18E+04         1.35E-03               7.35       1      1455       1.45
kg coal                        2.78E+04             2.78E-11            7.00E+06          8.140          9.29E-07            5.05E-03 6.88E-04       1       0.001
tonnes coal                    2.78E+07             2.78E-08            7.00E+09          8,139          9.29E-04                1       0.688    1000         1
MCF gas                        1.00E+06             1.00E-09            2.52E+08           293           3.35E-05              0.182    0.0248      36       0.036
joules                         9.48E-04             9.48E-19              0.239         2.78E-07         3.17E-14            1.72E-10 9.48E-19 3.41E-08    3.41E-11
EJ                             9.48E+14               0.948             2.39E+17        2.78E+11         3.17E+04            1.72E+08 2.35E+07 3.41E+10 3.41E+07
Cord wood                      3.34E+07             3.34E-08            8.41E+09        9.78E+03         1.12E-03              6.072     0.827  1.20E+03     1.201
Kg wood                        1.52E+04             1.52E-11            3.82E+06          4.444          5.08E-07            2.76E-03 3.76E-04    0.546    5.46E-04
l gasoline                     3.07E+04             3.07E-11            7.73E+06          8.986          1.03E-06            5.58E-03 7.61E-04 1.10E+00 1.10E-03
Avg Person/Day                 2.05E+05             2.05E-10            5.16E+07           60.0          6.86E-06              0.037   5.08E-03    7.37    7.37E-03
US Person/Day                  9.01E+05             9.01E-10            2.27E+08          263.9          3.02E-05              0.164   2.23E-02   32.43      0.032
Energy             BTU       quads     calories     kWhr       MWy       bbls oil   TOE     kg coal tonnes coal   MCF gas     joules         EJ   Cord wood Kg wood l gasoline Energy
BTU                  1       1.0E-15      252     2.93E-04   3.35E-11   1.82E-07 2.48E-08 3.60E-05    3.60E-08    1.00E-05     1055     1.055E-15 3.00E-08  6.59E-05  3.26E-05 BTU
quads            1.0E+15        1      2.52E+17   2.93E+11   3.35E+04   1.82E+08 2.48E+07 3.60E+10 3.60E+07       1.00E+09   1.06E+18       1.06   3.00E+07 6.59E+10 3.26E+10 quads
calories         3.97E-03   3.97E-18       1      1.16E-06   1.33E-13   7.21E-10 9.82E-11 1.43E-07    1.43E-10    3.97E-09      4.19     4.19E-18 1.19E-10  2.62E-07  1.29E-07 calories
kWhr               3,413    3.41E+12   8.60E+05       1      1.14E-07   6.20E-04 8.45E-05    0.123    1.23E-04    3.41E-03   3.60E+06    3.60E-12 1.02E-04 0.22504266   0.111  kWhr
MWy              2.99E+10   2.99E-05   7.53E+12   8.76E+06       1        3,435      740   1.08E+06     1076      2.99E+04   3.15E+13    3.15E-05   894.674 1.97E+06 9.73E+05 MWy
bbls oil         5.50E+06   5.50E-09   1.38E+09     1,612    1.84E-04       1       0.136   198.000     0.198       5.500    5.80E+09    5.80E-09    0.165   362.294  1.79E+02 bbls oil
TOE              4.04E+07   4.04E-08   1.02E+10   1.18E+04   1.35E-03      7.35       1      1455       1.45         40.4    4.26E+10    4.26E-08 1.2085319 2.66E+03 1.31E+03 TOE
kg coal          2.78E+04   2.78E-11   7.00E+06     8.140    9.29E-07   5.05E-03 6.88E-04       1       0.001      0.0278    2.93E+07    2.93E-11 8.33E-04    1.832   9.06E-01 kg coal
tonnes coal      2.78E+07   2.78E-08   7.00E+09     8,139    9.29E-04       1       0.688    1000         1          27.8    2.93E+10    2.93E-08    0.833  1.83E+03 9.06E+02 tonnes coal
MCF gas          1.00E+06   1.00E-09   2.52E+08      293     3.35E-05     0.182    0.0248      36       0.036          1     1.06E+09    1.06E-09 3.00E-03    6.594     3.261  MCF gas
joules           9.48E-04   9.48E-19     0.239    2.78E-07   3.17E-14   1.72E-10 9.48E-19 3.41E-08    3.41E-11    9.48E-10       1         1E-18   2.84E-11 6.25E-08  3.09E-08 joules
EJ               9.48E+14     0.948    2.39E+17   2.78E+11   3.17E+04   1.72E+08 2.35E+07 3.41E+10 3.41E+07       9.48E+08   1.00E+18         1    2.84E+07 6.25E+10 3.09E+10 EJ
Cord wood        3.34E+07   3.34E-08   8.41E+09   9.78E+03   1.12E-03     6.072     0.827  1.20E+03     1.201      333.65    3.52E+10    3.52E-08      1    2.20E+03 1.09E+03 Cord wood
Kg wood          1.52E+04   1.52E-11   3.82E+06     4.444    5.08E-07   2.76E-03 3.76E-04    0.546    5.46E-04      0.152    1.60E+07    1.60E-11 4.55E-04      1       0.495  Kg wood
l gasoline       3.07E+04   3.07E-11   7.73E+06     8.986    1.03E-06   5.58E-03 7.61E-04 1.10E+00 1.10E-03       3.07E-01   3.24E+07    3.24E-11 9.19E-04    2.022       1    l gasoline
Avg Person/Day   2.05E+05   2.05E-10   5.16E+07      60.0    6.86E-06     0.037   5.08E-03    7.37    7.37E-03       2.05    2.16E+08    2.16E-10 6.14E-03   13.500      6.68  Avg Person/Day
US Person/Day    9.01E+05   9.01E-10   2.27E+08     263.9    3.02E-05     0.164   2.23E-02   32.43      0.032        9.01    9.50E+08    9.50E-10 2.70E-02   59.400     29.37  US Person/Day


     MCF gas                  joules                     EJ    Cord wood Kg wood l gasoline Energy
     1.00E-05                  1055                  1.055E-15 3.00E-08  6.59E-05  3.26E-05 BTU
     1.00E+09                1.06E+18                   1.06    3.00E+07 6.59E+10 3.26E+10 quads
     3.97E-09                   4.19                  4.19E-18 1.19E-10  2.62E-07  1.29E-07 calories
     3.41E-03                3.60E+06                 3.60E-12 1.02E-04 0.22504266   0.111  kWhr
     2.99E+04                3.15E+13                 3.15E-05   894.674 1.97E+06 9.73E+05 MWy
       5.500                 5.80E+09                 5.80E-09    0.165   362.294  1.79E+02 bbls oil
        40.4                 4.26E+10                 4.26E-08 1.2085319 2.66E+03 1.31E+03 TOE
      0.0278                 2.93E+07                 2.93E-11 8.33E-04    1.832   9.06E-01 kg coal
        27.8                 2.93E+10                 2.93E-08    0.833  1.83E+03 9.06E+02 tonnes coal
          1                  1.06E+09                 1.06E-09 3.00E-03    6.594     3.261  MCF gas
     9.48E-10                    1                     1E-18    2.84E-11 6.25E-08  3.09E-08 joules
     9.48E+08                1.00E+18                     1     2.84E+07 6.25E+10 3.09E+10 EJ
      333.65                 3.52E+10                 3.52E-08      1    2.20E+03 1.09E+03 Cord wood
       0.152                 1.60E+07                 1.60E-11 4.55E-04      1       0.495  Kg wood
     3.07E-01                3.24E+07                 3.24E-11 9.19E-04    2.022       1    l gasoline
        2.05                 2.16E+08                 2.16E-10 6.14E-03   13.500      6.68  Avg Person/Day
        9.01                 9.50E+08                 9.50E-10 2.70E-02   59.400     29.37  US Person/Day
 Wind Power   $2,200          $/kW         exclude interconnection costs as hard to predict
               25%            C.F.
              $8,800    $/effective kW     but intermittent: effect low to large
Biomass CHP   $3,000          $/kW         with interconnection costs
               90%            C.F.
              3 kWth        free heat
              $833.33   per effective kW   assume kWth = kWe; can follow peak; fuel costs not included
                   Total Energy Balance
                                              Energy Planets
Speed of earth around Sun                            3000 m/s             2.7E+33    J
Earth rotation                                   7.30E-05 rad/s           2.2E+29    J
Earth/sun gravitational force                                             5.3E+33    J
Earth/moon gravitational force                                            8.0E+28    J
KE atmosphere and ocean circulation                                       1.0E+21    J
Potential energy wrt ocean                                                2.0E+25    J
Fossil chemical energy stored and recoverable                             1.0E+23    J
Standing biomass                                                          1.5E+22    J
Spontaneous fission in earth crust                                        1.0E+20    J/yr
Nuclear energy from fission recoverable fuels                             1.0E+24    J
                                                                  Total   8.0E+33    J
Humans energy use per year                          15 TW                 4.7E+20    J
Years to consume this energy                                                  16.9   Trillion years
Years to consume chemical, biomass, fossil and nuclear recoverable           2,357   Years
Fossil fuel reserves                                                           211   Years

 Adapted from Sorensen


   Mech 4692/7470 – Chapter : Renewable Energy - 41 -
                   Enery Scale
Fly pushup                            10-7 W
Cricket chirp                         10-3 W
Pumping human heart                   1.5 W
Burning match                         10 W
1 m2 solar cell at 10% eff            100 W
Bright light bulb                     100 W
Human hard at work                    100 W
Draft horse                           1 kW
Portable heater                       1.5 kW
Car                                   100 kW
SUV                                   160 kW
Giant ocean liner                     200 MW
Boeing 747                            250 MW
Coal plant                            1000 MW
Nigra Falls Hydro Plant               2000 MW
Space Shuttle take off                14 GW
All electric power plants worldwide   2000 GW
All US car if used at once            15,000 GW
World use                             15 TW
Adapted from Levenspiel

				
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