Development Needs of Nuclear Data Needs for Fusion Technology

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					                     Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe        Association
                     in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft      FZK-Euratom




   Development Needs of Nuclear Data for Fusion
                  Technology

  U. Fischera), P. Batistonib), R. A. Forrestc), Ch. Konnod),
          R. L. Perele), K. Seidelf), S. P. Simakova)

     a)Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany; b)ENEA Frascati, Italy;
       c)UKAEA Fusion, Culham, UK; d)JAEA, Tokai-mura, Japan, e)HU
                Jerusalem, Israel, f)TU Dresden, Germany


International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology, Nice,
                        France, April 22 - 27, 2007
                                        Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe     Association
                                        in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft   FZK-Euratom



                                                 Outline

      •       Fusion Technology Strategy

      •       Nuclear Data Needs for Fusion Technology

      •       Current Status of Fusion Nuclear Data

      •       Benchmarking and Validation

      •       Further Development Needs




U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                             ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
                                        Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe     Association
                                        in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft   FZK-Euratom

                          Fusion Technology Strategy

      The long-term aim of the Fusion Programme is to make available,
      as early as possible, fusion power as a source of electric energy

       • Long-term: Commercial Fusion Power Plant (FPP)
       • Short-term: “Next Step” devices
                – ITER (“International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor”)
                – IFMIF (“International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility”)
       • Demonstration Power Plant (DEMO)
       • Prototype Power Plant (PROTO)
       • “Fast Track” approach: DEMO & PROTO combined in one
         single step

U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                             ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
                                        Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe              Association
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                         Strategy to commercial fusion energy
 Plasma physics




                  Tokamak physics (ASDEX-UP, JET)
                                                                                           Fast Track
                                                                                           to commercial
                  Concept improvements, Stellarator                                        fusion power


                                                                    DEMO and PROTO combined
 Facilities




                               ITER

                                                                                      DEMO
                             14 MeV neutron source

                                                            Decision point
 Technology




                                                                                                        PROTO
                      ITER-relevant technology
                                                                       Experimental electrical        commercial
                                                                       power production
                  Fusion power technology – DEMO-                                                     fusion power
                              relevant


          2005        2010       2015         2020   2025    2030      2035        2040         2045          2050
U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                                      ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
            ITER




                             blanket modules
TF-magnet
                                   test blanket port


                              plasma chamber
cryostat


                                    divertor


                   vacuum vessel
                                        Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe     Association
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                        IFMIF Intense Neutron Source
                               PIE Facilities

      Access cell




        Test Cell




                                                0   20   40m



U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                             ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
                                        Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe     Association
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        Implications for Fusion Neutronics and Nuclear Data


     • Focus on development and qualification of computational tools
       and nuclear data required for reliable design analyses of ITER,
       in particular for the layout and optimization of the Test
       Blanket Modules (TBM), and the IFMIF neutron source facility
     • Dedicated efforts on
             – Computational Tools
             – Data evaluation, processing and validation
             – Differential and integral experiments

     EU Fusion Technology Programme: Fusion Nuclear Data related
     R&D work implemented as part of integrated fusion materials and
     technology programme
U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                             ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
                                        Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe     Association
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                          Nuclear Data Needs for ITER




U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                             ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
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                      ITER Test Blanket Modules
   • Objectives for TBM testing in ITER
      – Demonstrate tritium breeding performance and on-line
        tritium recovery
      – Demonstrate high-grade heat extraction & integral
        performance of blanket system
      – Validate computational tools and data for complex
        geometrical configuration  C  C vs. EE
   • TBM design and fabrication of mock-ups
   • Mock-up testing prior to TBM installation in ITER
   • EU blanket concepts:
            – Helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) blanket
            – Helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL) blanket
U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                             ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
                                         Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe            Association
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         Testing of HCPB TBM in ITER
                                                      Objectives:
MCNP model                                            •   Demonstration of Tritium breeding performance
                                                      •   Validation of capability of codes & data to predict
                                                          nuclear responses (TPR, flux spectra, heating) with
                                                          sufficiently high accuracy




 U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                                    ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
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      Materials/Elements for ITER Nuclear Analyses

      • Test Blanket Modules (TBM)
              –    Be (multiplier, first wall armour)
              –    Li4SiO4 (Li2TiO3), Pb-Li
              –    Eurofer (Fe, Cr, W, Ta, V, Mn, C, ….)
              –    He (coolant)
      • Plasma facing components
              – Be, W
              – Cu/Cu alloy (CuCrZr, CuAl25)
      • Shield modules, vacuum vessel
              – SS-316L (N): Fe, Cr, Ni, Mo, Mn, C, N, ..
              – SS 30467 (2w% B): Fe, Cr, Ni, Mo, Mn, B, C, N, P, S, ..
              – H2 O
U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                             ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
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       Element Priority List for TBM Nuclear Analyses

      Required elements for TBM design:
      • Be, Pb, Li, Si, O, Fe, Cr, W, Ta, Cu, Ti, …

      Requirements for data evaluations:
      • DDX data for multiple particle emission reactions
               – Secondary particle & recoil spectra ( kerma, dpa)
      • Co-variance data for uncertainty analyses
                high priority for TBM design assessment
      •       g- production data for heating calculations
      • Isotope evaluations
      • Qualified by benchmark analyses

U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                             ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
                                        Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe     Association
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                      Fusion Nuclear Data Libraries

• European Fusion/Activation File (EFF/EAF)
        – Developed as part of EU fusion technology programme in co-
          operation with JEFF (Joint Evaluated Fusion and Fission File)
• JENDL-FF (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library - Fusion File)
   – Fusion data library based on JENDL-3.1
• FENDL: Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library
   – Developed under co-ordination of IAEA/NDS
   – FENDL-2.0/2.1 reference library for ITER neutronics


General purpose data libraries suitable for fusion applications:
• ENDF/B-VI, -VII (US), JENDL-3.3 (Japan),BROND (RF)

U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                             ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
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   Recent Neutron Transport Benchmark Experiments

  • Fusion Neutron Source (FNS) of JAEA
          – Measurements of g-ray leakage spectra from slabs of C, V, Fe,
            Cu, W, Pb, SS-316, LiAlO2, Li2TiO3, Li2ZrO3
          – Benchmark experiments on SiC, W
          – Breeding blanket mock-up experiments Be/ Li2TiO3/F82H/W

  • EU Fusion Technology Programme
          – Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG), TU Dresden
          – Benchmark experiments on SiC, W
          – Breeder blanket mock-up experiments
               HCPB blanket: Be, Li4SiO4 SS-316
               HCLL blanket: Pb-Li, SS-316 (under preparation)
U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                             ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
                                        Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe        Association
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        Recent Neutron Transport Benchmark Analyses
 • EU Fusion Technology Programme (EFF Project)
          – Benchmark analyses on Be, Ti, V, Pb, W and Ta to check and
            validate recent data evaluations for neutron transport
            calculations
 • FENDL-2.1 Benchmark Analyses
          – EU: ITER bulk shield & streaming experiments, SiC, W
            transmission experiments, HCPB TBM mock-up experiment
                                                               L. Petrizzi et al, this conference
          – JAEA (Ch. Konno et al): Re-analysis of TOF experiments on Li2O,
            Be, C, Pb, N, O, Fe + slab experiments Li2O, LiAlO2, Li2ZrO3,
            Li2TiO3, Be, C, SiC, Fe, SS-316, Cu, W + shielding/streaming
            experiments
           General trend: FENDL-2.1 & -2.0 results agree to large extent,
               only some improvements, e. g. for W.
U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                                ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
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         FENDL-2.1 Benchmarking (Ch. Konno, JAEA)




U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                             ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
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                                                                Ta Benchmarking (EU)
                                                         Using LLNL Pulsed Sphere Experiments
                                                                              -1
                                                                                                        10
                                 10 Ta shell: R = 3.4 cm (1mfp)                                                        Ta shell: R = 10.2 cm (3mfp)
                                       -1
        Leakage Spectrum, 1/sr/MeV




                                                                               Leakage Spectrum, 1/sr/MeV
                                                                                                              -2
                                 10
                                       -2                                                               10

                                                      LLNL' Experiment                                                          LLNL' Experiment
                                       -3                                                                     -3
                                 10                                                                     10
                                                              FZK'06                                                                    FZK'06


                                       -4
                                 10            ENDF-B6                                                        -4
                                                                                                        10            ENDF-B6
                                                          JENDL-3.3                                                                JENDL-3.3
                                     1.5                                                                1.5
                                                              FZK'06                                                                      FZK'06
        C/E




                                     1.0                                       C/E
                                                                                                            1.0

                                     0.5                                                                    0.5
                                               ENDF-B6                                                                ENDF-B6
                                                         JENDL-3.3                                                                 JENDL-3.3
                                     0.0                                                                    0.0
                                           0    2    4 6 8 10 12 14 16                                            0    2    4 6 8 10 12 14 16
                                                    Neutron Energy, MeV                                                    Neutron Energy, MeV
U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                                                                                           ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
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                                              Ta Benchmarking (EU)
Secondary Neutron Energy Spectra at 14 MeV incident neutron energy
                                       3
                     4x10
                                                    181
                                                          Ta(n,xn), E = 14.1 MeV
                                       3
                                   10            Experiment:        - IRK
                    d(E)/dE, mb/MeV




                                                                    - Osaka
                                                                    - Tohoku

                                                        JENDL-3.3
                                       2
                                   10                                     FZK'06



                                              ENDF-B6
                                       1
                                   10
                                                   (n,2n)             (n,n')
                                       0
                     3x10
                                        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
                                              Secondary Neutron Energy, MeV

U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                                        ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
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    HCPB Mock-up Experiment (ENEA/FZK/TUD)




                                                                                            Pellet position
                                                                                                              n

neutron
 source

                                                                                                              a


                                                                                 1.10
                                                                                                                                             TUD
                                                                                                                                             ENEA
                                                                                                                                                        Stack 1/2
                                                                                 1.05                                                                   EFF
                                                                                                     C/E-results with EFF-3 data
                                                                                 1.00




                                                        Calculation/Experiment
  Measurement and analysis of Tritium
  Production Rates in HCPB-TBM
                                                                                 0.95


  mock-up using MCNP Monte Carlo                                                 0.90
  code and data from European Fusion
  File (EFF-3).                                                                  0.85


  The Calculation/Experimental (C/E)                                             0.80

  ratios obtained indicate that the
  predictions are conservative.                                                  0.75
                                                                                        n          m              l   i   h    g    f    e     d    c     b   a
                                                                                                                              Pellet #
U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                                                                               ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
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                                       HCPB Mock-up Experiment at FNG
                                   - Uncertainty Assessment for Tritium Production -
         Reaction                                                 Stack 1   Stack 3    Stack 5          Stack 7
         6
          Li(n,α   )   t




                                          MC calculations          3.3%      2.9%        3.3%            4.2%
                                          Data uncertainty         5.0%      4.8%        4.3%            3.8%
                                         Calculation + data        6.0%      5.6%        5.4%            5.6%
                                            uncertainty
        7
         Li(n,n’α          )   t




                                          MC calculations          0.9%      1.8%        2.9%            4.5%
                                          Data uncertainty         2.3%      3.9%        5.3%            6.2%
                                         Calculation + data        2.5%      4.3%        6.0%            7.7%
                                            uncertainty
        Total TPR
                                          MC calculations          2.6%      2.8%        3.3%            4.2%
                                          Data uncertainty         3.5%      4.3%        4.0%            3.5%
                                         Calculation + data        4.4%      5.2%        5.2%            5.5%
                                            uncertainty
                                     Neutron source uncertainty    6.0%      6.0%        6.0%            6.0%
                                      Experimental uncertainty     3.2%      5.1%        4.8%            5.2%
                                          Total uncertainty        8.1%      9.4%        9.3%            9.6%
                                        (Exp. + calc. + data)

U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                                           ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
                                           Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe                   Association
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                JAEA Breeder Blanket Mock-up Experiment at FNG
        F82H/Li2TiO3/Be assembly with and without source neutron reflector
  Neutron reflector, SS316                            (Unit: mm)
                    800                                                         S. Sato et al, this conference
                                                   600

                               Void(9)           Li2TiO3(12)
    Beam                                                                  T production: Calc./Exp
    guide                  600                       Beryllium                          Without
                                                                                                              With reflector
                                                     (203.2)                            reflector




                                                                       f1200
                                                                 660
                                    450
                                                                 FENDL-2.1                   1.035                  1.102
                   f800




                                                     Li2CO3
                                                     pellet      JENDL-3.3                   1.055                  1.120

Hole for beam guide                   F82H(16)                   ENDF/B-VII                  1.004                  1.097

    DT neutron source                                            JEFF-3.1                    1.052                  1.102
                     Mockup enclosure,
                     SS316
   U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                                           ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
                                        Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe     Association
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           IFMIF Neutronics and Nuclear Data




U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                             ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
                                           Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe         Association
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                             IFMIF Intense Neutron Source
                                                                             Medium
                                                                             Flux
 •     Deuteron beams:                              Deuteron
                                                                                                      Low Flux

        – 2 x 125 mA                                Beam
        – Ed = 40 MeV
 •     Neutron production:
         –  1.1  1017 s             -1




                                                        Liquid
                                                        Li Jet
                                                                                High Flux

• Test volumes:                                                              Beam Spot
                                                                             (20x5cm2)
      – high flux:   0.5 L > 20 dpa/fpy(*)
      – medium flux: 6 L > 1 dpa/fpy,
      – low flux:                  7.5 L 0.1-1 dpa/fpy
                                                                           (*)fpy   = full power year
 U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                                   ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
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                                                       IFMIF neutron flux spectrum
                                                   6                                                                     6
                                              10                                                                    10

                                                   5                                                                     5
                                              10                                                                    10
       Neutron flux density [10 /cm /MeV/s]




                                                   4                                                                     4
                                              10                                                                    10
      2




                                                   3                                                                     3
                                              10                                                                    10
      10




                                                   2                                                                     2
                                              10                                                                    10
                                                         ITER first wall
                                                         HFTM (McDeLi)
                                              10
                                                   1     HFTM (McDeLicious)                                         10
                                                                                                                         1




                                                   0                                                                     0
                                              10                                                                    10

                                                -1                                                                       -1
                                              10                                                                  10
                                                0,01      0,1                 1         10                      100
                                                                 Neutron energy [MeV]
U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                                                  ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
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                                   IFMIF Neutronics Issues

   Key role of neutronics and nuclear data in establishing
    IFMIF as neutron source for fusion material testing
    Prove IFMIF’s suitability as neutron source for fusion-specific
     simulation irradiations
    Provide reliable data for the technical layout of facility

   • Computational tools and data required
            – D-Li neutron source term simulation
            – Neutron transport (En> 20 MeV)
            – Activation and transmutation (En> 20 MeV)


      Need for experimental data, need for validation
U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                             ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
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                                   D-Li Neutron Source Term

• Monte Carlo Code McDeLicious
      Developed to enable a proper representation of the d-Li neutron
      source term in Monte Carlo transport calculations for IFMIF


• Enhancement to MCNP with ability to sample the generation of d-
  Li source neutrons on the basis of tabulated double-differential
  d + 6,7Li cross-sections
        - Modelling of deuteron beam configuration, orientation and profile
        - Use of evaluated d+ 6,7Li data to sample source neutrons
        - d + 6,7Li cross-sections for deuteron energies up to 50 MeV ( A.
          Konobeyev et al, NSE 139 (2001))
        - Updated evaluation (new methodology, P. Pereslavtsev, 2005)


U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                             ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
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                                                                   New d +            6,7Li                Data Evaluation
                                                                                                                                          P. Pereslavtsev et al, 2005

                                                            Neutron emission spectra in forward direction
                             2                                      7                                                                 2
                        10                                          Li(d,xn), Ed=16.6 MeV                                        10                                                  Li(d,xn), Ed=40 MeV
                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                       




                                                                                                         d2/d/dE [mb/sr MeV]
                             1                                                                                                        1
d /d/dE [mb/sr MeV]




                        10                                                                                                       10


                             0                                                                                                        0
                        10                                                                                                       10


                         -1          Bem, 03
                        10                                                                                                        -1
                                     Bem, 03                                                                                     10           Baba, 03
                                     evaporation                                                                                              evaporation
                                     prequilibrium                                                                                            preequilibrium
                                     stripping                                                                                                stripping
                                     1 level                                                                                                  1 level
2




                         -2          2 level                                                                                                  2 level
                        10           3 level
                                                                                                                                  -2
                                                                                                                                 10           3 level
                                     4 level
                                                                                                                                              4 level
                                     5 level
                                                                                                                                              5 level
                                     total
                                                                                                                                              total
                         -3
                        10                                                                                                        -3
                                                                                                                                 10
                                 0          5          10     15        20      25   30             35
                                                                                                                                          0           10             20         30          40            50
                                                     Emitted neutron energy [MeV]                                                                              Emitted neutron energy [MeV]




                             U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                                                                                              ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
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         McDeLicious validation analyses: Thick Li-target neutron forward
                 yields as function of deuteron incidence energy

                                                                             o
                                                      Forward Yield ( = 0 )
             Neutron Yield, 10 /sr/C




                                             1                                                     MCNPX
                                        10                          McDeLi
            10




                                                                                                - Daruga 68
                                                                                                - Weaver 72
                                                                                                - Goland 75
                                                     McDeLicious                                - Amols 76
                                                                                                - Nelson 77
                                        10
                                             0
                                                                                                - Lone 77
                                                                                                - Salmarsh 77
                                                                 2001
                                                       2005                                     - Johnson 79
                                                                                                - Sugimoto 95
                                                                                                - Bem 02
                                                                                                - Baba 01/02
                                         -1
                                        10
                                                 0             10             20           30          40
                                                                        Deuteron Energy [MeV]
U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                                                        ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
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                          IFMIF Material Irradiation Tests

  • IFMIF’ s primary mission is to generate a materials
    irradiation database for the design, construction,
    licensing and operation of DEMO


  • Major neutronics task in this context:
          – Provide the data required for the design and optimisation of
            the irradiation test modules and the lay-out of the test cell

           Neutron/photon transport calculations (McDeLicious) for flux
            distributions and nuclear responses such as nuclear heating,
            radiation damage accumulation and gas production.


U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                             ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
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                                              Materials for IFMIF

  • Highest priority: structural materials of the reduced
    activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) type (Eurofer,
    F82H).
            A variety of Eurofer specimens will be irradiated in the high flux
             test module (HFTM) up to the target fluence of 150 dpa.
  • Other materials of (possibly) lower priority:
           – SiC, V/V-alloy, divertor materials (e. g. W)
           – Breeder materials, neutron multiplier
           – Ceramic insulators and others



U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                             ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
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                   Chemical Composition of RAFM Steel Eurofer

                       Element Specification Element Specification
                                  [w%]                   [w%]
                          C    0.090-0120       W       1.0-1.2
                         Mn     0.20-0.60       Ti       <0.01
                          P      <0.005         Cu      <0.005
                          S      <0.005         Nb      <0.001
                          Si      <0.05         Al       <0.01
                          Ni     <0.005         N    0.015-0.045
                          Cr    8.50-9.50       B       <0.001
                         Mo      <0.005         Co      <0.005
                          V     0.15-0.25       O        <0.01
                          Ta    0.05-0.09       Fe     balance
U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                             ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
                                        Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe                 Association
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                       Neutron Cross-Sections E  20 MeV
                    - General purpose data ENDF evaluations -
  •     IFMIF project
         – 1H, 56Fe, 23Na, 39K, 28Si, 12C, 52Cr, 51V, 6,7Li, 9Be (INPE/FZK)
         - 180,182-184,186W, 181Ta, 55Mn (EFF/JEFF)

  •     LANL 150 MeV data files (ENDF/B-VI/-VII)
         - 1,2H, 12C, 16O, 14N, 27Al, 28,29,30Si, 31P, 40Ca, 50,52,53,54Cr, 54,56,57,58Fe,
            58,60,61,62,64Ni, 63,65Cu, 93Nb, 182,183,184,186 W, 196,198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 204 Hg,        206,
            20, 208 Pb, 209Bi

  •     NRG evaluations
          –    40,42-44,46,48Ca, 45Sc, 46-50Ti, 54,56-,58Fe, 70,72-74,76Ge, 204,206-208Pb, 209Bi

  •     JENDL-HE data file (to be extended in 2007)
          –    1H, 12,13C, 14N, 16O, 24-26Mg, 27Al, 28-30Si, 39,41K, 40,42- 46,48Ca,
               46-50Ti,51V, 50,52-54Cr, 55Mn, 54,56-58Fe, 59Co, 58,60-62,64Ni, 63,65Cu,                    64,66-
               68,70Zn,90- 92,94,96Zr, 93Nb, 180,182-184,186W, 196,198-202,204Hg

  •     Few other evaluations
         – KAERI (12C, 27Al, 56Fe, 208Pb), BNL (12C,           56Fe,208Pb, 209Bi),                         IPPE
            (232-238U, 237,239Np, 236-244Pu)
U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                                         ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
                                        Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe       Association
                                        in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft     FZK-Euratom


                         Activation Data Libraries for IFMIF
• Intermediate Energy Activation File IEAF-2001 (FZK/INPE)
      – Complete cross-section data library for activation and transmutation
        analyses up to En  150 MeV (1  Z  84)
      – Uses lumped MT=5 reaction cross-sections with production yield
        vectors (LAW=0) on MF=6 file
              • Updated neutron data library underway       P. Pereslavstev, this conference
              • Complementary proton data library available  A. Konobeev, this conference

• European Activation File EAF-2007 (UKAEA)
      – Neutron data up to 60 MeV for 65,565 reactions on 816 targets
              • EAF data format using non-standard MT-numbers
      – Supplementary data libraries for d- and p-induced reactions
              • Developed for IFMIF accelerator activation calculations
              • Largely based on TALYS model calculations
                                                                     R. Forrest, this conference
U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                               ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
                                                      NPI Rez Activation Experiments
                                                              Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe                                                                                        Association
                                                              in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft
                                                                                 FZK-Euratom
                                                                                                                                                 0
                                                                                                                                                         p-D2O neutron spectrum
                                                                                                                                            10
                                      P. Bem, this conference




                                                                                                           Spectral Yield, 10 n/sr/MeV/ C
                                                                                                                                                                                  D2O(p,xn), Ep = 37 MeV  = 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      o




                                                                                                                                      
                                                                            Neutron                                                                                                                             Rez Experiment
                                                       Activation Foils
                                                                            Detector




                                                                                                                            10
                                                                                                                                             -1
                                                                                                                                            10
                                                                                                                                                                     Spectrum used
 37 MeV protons                                                                                                                                                    Activation Caclution

                                                                                                                                                                                                  MCNPX/LA-150
                                                                                                                                             -2
                                                                                                                                            10
                                                                                                                                                     1                                                     10                         40
                                                                                            3                                                                             Neutron Energy, MeV
                                                                                       10
                                                 1.7 mm        47 mm         ≈ 700 cm                                                                                            C/E ratios of g–radio-
                                                                                                                                                                                 W Activation Products
                                                                                                                                                                                 activities induced in W
                            D2O Target (Ø30×26 mm2)                                    10
                                                                                            2                                                                            IEAF-2001
                                                                2
                                    Ep = 36.5 MeV, p-Flux [1/cm ]
                            5                                                    C/E
                            4                                                                                                                                                 EAF-2005
 Horizontal directon, mm




                                                                                            1
                            3                                                          10
                            2
                            1
                            0                    12                                         0
                                              10                                       10
                           -1
                                               6
                           -2             4
                                      2
                           -3
                                                                                            -1
                           -4                                                          10
                                                                                                                   Hf-180m



                                                                                                                                                         Hf-182m
                                                                                                 Hf-179n



                                                                                                                                             Hf-181



                                                                                                                                                                     Hf-183

                                                                                                                                                                                Ta-182

                                                                                                                                                                                         Ta-183

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ta-184

                                                                                                                                                                                                           Ta-185

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    W-181

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            W-185

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    W-187
                           -5
                                0    5       10      15        20      25
                                    D2O -depth/p-beam direction, mm

U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                                                                                                                                      ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
                                                 NPI Rez Activation Experiments
                                                                Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe                                             Association
                                                                in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft
                                                                            FZK-Euratom
                                                                                                                        1
                                                                                                            4x10
                                                                                                                                                     181            180m

                                      Irradiation of Ta
                                                                                                                                                           Ta(n,d+)     Hf




                                                                                                          , mb
                                                                                                                        1
                                                                                                                  10
                          C/E ratios of induced g–radio-activities                                                                              EAF-2005
      3.5
                Ta Activation Products
      3.0                                                                                                               0
                                                            EAF-2005                                              10                                           IEAF-2001
      2.5
C/E




      2.0                                                                                                                                                  p-D2O spectrum
                                                                       IEAF-2001                                       -1
      1.5                                                                                                         10
                                                                                    EAF-2005(EF-97)                      5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
                                                                                                                            0
      1.0
                                                                                                                    2
                                                                                                                  10 181             Neutron Energy, MeV
                                                                                                                                 179n
                                                                                                                         Ta(n,t+) Hf




                                                                                                          , mb
      0.5
                                                                                                                       1
                                                                                                                  10                             EAF-2005
      0.0
                            Lu-177m




                                                  Hf-180m




                                                                          Ta-178m
                                       Hf-179n
                Lu-177




                                                                                        Ta-180


                                                                                                 Ta-182
                                                              Hf-181




                                                                                                                       0                                   IEAF-2001
                                                                                                                  10

            •            Significant discrepancies of measured and
                         calculated g-radio-activities
                                                                                                                       -1
                                                                                                                  10                                        p-D2O spectrum
            •            Large deviations between available
                         activation cross-section evaluations                                                     10
                                                                                                                       -2
                                                                                                                            0   5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
            •            No measured cross-section data                                                                                Neutron Energy, MeV
        U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                                                                                     ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
                                                         Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe                            Association
                                                         in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft                          FZK-Euratom

                                  Dosimetry Reaction Cross-Sections for Neutron
                                            Spectrum Determination
             -1
        10                                                                               0
                      59              59                                       5x10
                           Co(n,p) Fe                                                              197          195
                                                                                                         Au(n,3n) Au        197           194
                                                                                                                                  Au(n,4n) Au
b




                                                                                                    ENDF-B6
                                                                                                                                   TOH'92
                                                             JAERI'99                    0
                                                                                    10                                              EAF-2005
                                                                                                 LANL'75                             IEAF-2001




                                                                             b
                                                                                                 LANL'77


             -2                   q   q    - IEAF-2001
        10                        q   q    - ENDF/B6
                                                                                     -1
                                  q   q    - IRDF-90                                10
                                  q   q    - EAF-2005
             -3
 5x10                                                                                -2
                  0          10             20      30     40    50     60     4x10
                                                                                             0    10         20      30     40            50        60
                                           Neutron Energy, MeV
                                                                                                            Neutron Energy, MeV

              •            Both measurements and evaluations required for dosimetry reactions
                           cross sections above 20 MeV
              •            Uncertainties need to be estimated

        U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                                                             ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
                                                                        Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe                                                                Association
                                                                        in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft                                                              FZK-Euratom

                              1200
                                                                        Gas production cross-sections                  1200
                                             Fe(n,xp)                                                                                                                                Ta(n,xp)
                              1000                                                                                     1000

                                                                                                                                                 LANSCE, 05
    Cross section [mb]




                                                                                                  Cross section [mb]
                                   800                                                                                  800                      EAF-2005
                                                                                                                                                 IEAF-2001
                                                                                                                                                 GNASH
                                   600                                                                                  600



                                   400                                                                                  400
                                                                               LANSCE, 05
                                                                               EAF-2005
                                                                               IEAF-2001
                                   200                                                                                  200
                                                                               GNASH
                                                                               JEFF-3.1
                                    0                                                                                        0
                                         0      20      40       60    80    100    120     140                                  0          20       40        60       80     100    120       140

                                                             Neutron energy [MeV]                                                                         Neutron energy [MeV]

                                                                                                                                                             B. Haight, this conference
                                   200                                                                                 120

                                   180
                                             Fe(n,x)                                                                                181
                                                                                                                                       Ta(n,x)
                                                                                                                       100
                                   160

                                   140                                                                                                      LANSCE, 05
              Cross section [mb]




                                                                                                  Cross section [mb]
                                                                                                                       80
                                                                                                                                            EAF-2005
                                   120                                                                                                      IEAF-2001
                                                                                                                                            Konobeyev
                                   100                                                                                 60
                                                                                                                                            GNASH
                                    80
                                                                                                                       40
                                    60                                      LANSCE, 05
                                                                            EAF-2005
                                    40                                      IEAF-2001
                                                                            GNASH                                      20
                                    20                                      JEFF-3.1

                                     0                                                                                  0
                                         0      20      40       60    80    100    120     140                              0             20       40        60       80     100    120    140

                                                             Neutron energy [MeV]                                                                        Neutron energy [MeV]
U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                                                                                                                        ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
                                        Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe     Association
                                        in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft   FZK-Euratom




            Further Data Developments Needs
                    - ITER and IFMIF -




U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                             ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
                                        Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe     Association
                                        in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft   FZK-Euratom


                                          IFMIF Data Needs
 • General purpose neutron data library
    – Urgent need for qualified IFMIF reference data library
 • Activation/transmutation data
    – IEAF/EAF (n, p, d), to be further developed, improved and
       validated
    – Cross section measurements required for
                  • neutrons (E >20 MeV): Cr, Co, V, W, Ta, Pb, Bi, Au, Mn
                  • deuterons (E < 40 MeV): Cu, Al, Nb,
                  • protons (E < 12 MeV): Cu, Al, Nb, Ta, W, Au, Pb
    – Validation experiments, to be extended/continued
 • Reliable gas production cross-section data (H, He)
 • Dosimetry data file to be developed for E > 20 MeV (IRDF)

U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                             ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007
                                        Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe     Association
                                        in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft   FZK-Euratom



                              Major ITER Data Needs

  Well qualified data available for neutronics and activation
        calculations of fusion reactors
 • Improvements mainly required for neutronics analyses of ITER TBM
   including e. g. Li, Be, Pb and O
 • Major challenge: Co-variance data for uncertainty assessments of
   nuclear responses in TBM

 To conclude:
 Continuous effort required for adapting computational tools and nuclear
 data to changing user needs, thereby improving and maintaining their
 quality.

U. Fischer et al, Fusion Nuclear Data Needs                             ND2007, Nice, April 22 - 27, 2007

				
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