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					  The
Just War
Tradition
       Just War Tradition

Jus Ad Bellem
(before the war)

            Jus In Bello
            (during the war)

                        Jus Post Bellum
                        (after the war)
       Just War Tradition
     Jewish contributions
Two types of legitimate warfare


Obligatory war (Milchemet Mitzvah)
      God commanded wars of the Israelites
      Defensive wars of any era


Voluntary war (Milchemet rashut)
      territorial expansion
           Just War Tradition
Contributions of Plato, Aristotle and
               Cicero

Moral ideas discussed in Plato’s Republic
“Just War” (Bellum Justum) - Aristotle in Politics.
Cicero (1st century BCE) “those ware which are unjust
are undertaken without provocation, for only a war
waged for revenge or defense can be just.”
          Just War Tradition
            Christian Teachings


1st century CE – non-violence
St. Ambrose (parallels Cicero) – lacks systematic
argument based on scripture.
St. Augustine – War is a consequence of sin, but could
also be a remedy.
          Just War Tradition

St. Augustine,
Bishop of Hippo

Ordained a priest at age 37
Ordained a Bishop after 5 years
Author of “Confessions” and
“The City of God”
Established Just War Theory in the
letter “The Correction of the Donatists”
          Just War Tradition
Just Cause
Comparative Justice
Right Intention
Competent Authority
Public Declaration
Last Resort
Reasonable Probability of
Success
Proportionality
Peace as the Ultimate
Objective of War
                        Just Cause
Cicero                  Ambrose                 Augustine
To defend the state     To defend the state     To defend the state from
                                                external invasion
from barbarian          from barbarian
                                                To defend the safety or honor
invasion                invasion                of the state, with the
To defend the safety                            realization that their
                                                simultaneous defense might
or honor of the state   To protect those who    be impossible
To gain revenge for     are unable to protect   To avenge injuries; to punish
wrongs                  themselves              a nation for failure to take
                                                corrective action for wrongs
To defend the safety                            (legal or moral) committed by
or honor of one’s                               its citizens
                                                To come to defense of one’s
allies                  To obey a divine        allies
                        command to go to        To obey a divine command to
                                                go to war (which in practice,
To wage war at the      war (which, in          issues from the political head
behest of the gods as   practice, issues from   of state acting as God’s
directed by the         the head of state       lieutenant on earth)
priests of the          acting as God’s         To gain the return of
                                                something that was
collegium fetialium     lieutenant on earth)    wrongfully taken
            Comparative Justice
Cicero                  Ambrose   Augustine
Wars fought for                   The nation which
“glory” are less just             claims to have just
than those fought for             cause to wage war
defensive reasons                 must have a cause
                                  which is at least more
                                  just that the other
                                  nation’s cause
                   Right Intention
Cicero                  Ambrose   Augustine
War must not be                   War must not be
fought merely for                 fought for territorial
territorial expansion             expansion
or as the result of a             Those who wage war
lust for power or                 must not delight in
bloodshed                         the wickedness of
                                  potential adversaries
                                  Those who wage war
                                  must view war as a
                                  stern necessity
                                  Those who wage war
                                  must never act in a
                                  way that will provoke
                                  war
          Competent Authority
Cicero                Ambrose                  Augustine
The Roman Senate       In Old Testament        The sovereign ruler of
has authority to      times, God directed      the state has
declare ware on       wars to be fought        authority to wage war.
behalf of the Roman                            Those subject to the
people after having   The decision to wage     authority of the
obtained the assent   war is an affair of      sovereign are duty-
of the gods via the   state, not the church.   bound to fight in the
fetial priests.                                sovereign’s wars
                                               (perhaps even in
                                               those which are
                                               unjust).
                                               God can, with perfect
                                               justice direct wars to
                                               be fought.
                 Public Declaration
Cicero                 Ambrose   Augustine
War must be
preceded by:

1. A public
declaration or

2. an ultimatum
demanding redress of
grievances.
                    Last Resort
Cicero                Ambrose                Augustine
By definition, a public Disputes should be   Disputes should be
declaration of war or resolved by means      resolved by the
the issuance of an      short of war         means short of war
ultimatum constitutes whenever possible.     whenever possible
the last resort for
peaceful resolution
short of war.
 Reasonable Probability of Success
Cicero      Ambrose     Augustine
                        A war justly entered
                        into still can be held
                        to have been just
                        even if it is lost.
         Proportionality
Cicero     Ambrose    Augustine
                      War must be fought in
                      light of the object of
                      the restoration of
                      peace; and the
                      restoration of peace
                      will mark the
                      attainment of a
                      greater good than
                      would result from the
                      continued absence of
                      peace.
               Peace as the
          Ultimate Object of War
Cicero                   Ambrose                Augustine
Peace without juile is    Peace should be       Peace is the proper
a desirable result of    reestablished at the   object of all wars.
war.                     war’s conclusion.
          Just War Tradition
Just Cause
Comparative Justice
Right Intention
Competent Authority
Public Declaration
Last Resort
Reasonable Probability of
Success
Proportionality
Peace as the Ultimate
Objective of War
Just War in the 21st Century
Warfare in the 21 Century
Is
Just War
Reality
or
Myth?

				
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